Proteins – Proteins are chains of amino acids. In general, proteins may be structural proteins used to build tissues, they may be enzymes that mediate chemical reactions, or they may be hormones. Examples of proteins would be channel proteins in cell membranes, collagen protein in the skin, actin and myosin in the muscles, and hemoglobin in red blood cells. Types of dietary sources would be, meat, milk, (both of which are not pure proteins, but are good sources of protein), eggs, grains and beans.
Carbohydrates – Complex carbohydrates are chains of simple sugars. Their primary role in animals is to provide energy. Plants use starch as an energy storage molecule, and use complex carbohydrates such as cellulose for support. Examples of carbohydrates are sucrose, glucose, fructose, starch, cellulose, and glycogen. A good dietary source for carbohydrates would be bread and grains.
Fats – Fats are a complex of fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol backbone. Fats are a type of lipid, and are used for energy, energy storage, structure, hormones, waterproofing, and insulation. Types of food would depend on the fats, saturated or unsaturated. Butter, oils, certain meats, and certain foods all contain a certain amount of lipid source.
2. The brain is a major consumer of glucose. Around 30% of glucose consumed is used by the brain, which does rely primarily on glucose for energy. If the brain is not getting enough glucose, a person can feel tired and cranky because their brains are receiving too little energy.
3. If the amine group is broken off and discarded, this creates nitrogenous waste in the blood that the kidneys must remove and discard in the urine. The remaining carbon chain can be metabolized, or used to build fatty acid chains for energy storage. While most low-carb diets will not dangerously strain the kidneys, it is true that strict reliance on protein for energy or excessive protein consumption can produce high amounts of nitrogen in the blood, creating dangerous physiological problems and taxing the kidneys. People with kidney problems may go on low-protein diets for this reason.
4. Calorie – a unit that is used to measure energy.
Energy – a phenomenon, and is that which allows change to happen. 5. Carbohydrates are our bodies’ main energy source, along with certain fats. Glucose is a preferred source of energy for the cells, but not the only source. Fats are more calorie-dense and are an excellent means of storing energy in a compact form.
1. Obesity is an excessive amount of body fat. Overweight is defined by the percentage of body fat: over 25% in men and over 30% in women. 3. Metabolism is the sum of all processes that break down organic molecules and convert them into usable energy within the cells. A person with a low metabolic rate tends to use fewer calories, and may therefore gain weight more easily if they eat as much as someone with an average metabolism. A person with a very high metabolic rate uses many more calories, and may consume much more than someone with an average metabolism yet be unable to gain weight. 5. ADH is produced in the pituitary gland when the pituitary detects low water content in the body. ADH causes the nephrons of the kidneys to recover more water and produce more concentrated urine. Diuretics work by either inhibiting ADH release or by interfering with its activity.
6. When these chemicals accumulated in fat tissue, the body tended to resist breaking down fats in that tissue. However, the idea of “toxins” has been expanded by the dieting industry to include all environmental toxins, metabolic wastes, and “chemicals” found in processed foods. The kidneys and liver are responsible for removing metabolic wastes and environmental toxins from the system. Metabolic wastes do not accumulate in the body tissues of healthy humans, and if they do, it’s a sign of a serious medical problem that requires hospitalization, not a diet. 7. The case itself does hint that Mitchell is not overweight, and with his needing/wanting to diet this could certainly mean that Mitchell does have a body image issue. This could lead to other disorders such a bulimia, anorexia and other weight related
illnesses. Part 6 –