The Impact of Science and Technology

Advancements in science and technology have facilitated lifestyles much more comfortably with many substantial achievements in these decades. The launch of satellites into the earth orbit for communication purpose have brought people closer together regardless of the regions where they live in. The birth of electricity was the important milestone in the history of research and development in science and technology which led to the creation of many useful electronic devices and equipment to facilitate human activities. Hence, it is no doubt that the impact of science and technology regarding satellite communication and electricity generation has been good for everyone. This positive impact will be evaluated in the aspects of the development of friendly environmental forms of transportation, the growth of rural electrification in Third World countries and the enhancement of quality of life through medicine. The useful invention of electricity generation affects positively to the health of communities in terms of the development of friendly environmental forms of transportation.

Carbon dioxide emissions affect negatively the health of communities and are the main cause of greenhouse gas which leads to global climate change. Half of global carbon dioxide is emitted by the burning of fossil fuel used by transportation (cited in Järvinen, Orton and Nelson 2012). The creations of electric vehicles such as electric cars and electric trains are essential to contribute to downsizing the harmful carbon dioxide emissions. Järvinen, Orton and Nelson (2012) argued that globally, there is a long term transportation policy which shifts gradually away from using liquid fossil fuels towards using electricity.

‘Electricity as a transportation fuel is a win-win for the economy and for the environment’ (Close-Up Media 2012, p.1), electricity is cheaper about 75 percent regarding fuel expense than gas or diesel and ‘electric transportation is much cleaner than gas or diesel fueled transportation, in terms of carbon and other pollutants’ (ibid, p.1), were concluded. It is argued that electricity which is used in electric vehicles is generated by burning coal, thus it also releases a large amount of carbon dioxide. Rigden (2002) stated that the carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuel to energy technology which links to global warming is undeniable. Although this carbon dioxide may be emitted from electricity generation, it is not significant compared with the carbon dioxide emissions from internal combustion engine vehicles. The face is that electric vehicles will be able to mitigate per-kilometre ‘CO2 emissions by 33% in 2010, and 43–56% by 2030’ (Wu et al. 2012, p. 549), so this compares favourably with the high emissions of internal combustion engine vehicles.

It is no doubt that the generation of electricity provides beneficial to evolutions of various forms of transport which are friendly with the environment and therefore they benefit the people’s health. The generation of electricity also benefits strongly to the growth of rural electrification in Third World countries. The electrification brings the convenient life to people; especially the inhabitants in the remote regions of the developing nations who have the slow chance to approach electricity. There was the significant increase in the rate of rural electrification about fifteen times within 25 years from 1976 to 2000 which has been paralleled with the remarkable decrease in the incidence of poverty about 6 times in the same period in Tunisia (Chaieb and Ounalli 2001). The electrification which presented its advantages in the education with more electric lights instead of candle and kerosene lamps for school-age children to avoid eyes problems, in the health care with more electric medical equipment for patients to be cured and prevent diseases has been indicated in Tunisia (Chaieb and Ounalli 2001).

The conclusion is that ‘national household electrification programme’ in South Africa has the good implication on the health and the quality of life of women in the remote areas in mitigation air pollution, enhancement health and saving time (Mathee and Wet 2001, p. 20). It is asserted that the natural resources such as oil, gas and coal which are used to generate electricity are limited; they are unable endless to meet the increasing demand of electricity in the rural areas. Whilst it may be true that these natural resources are limited, there are several alternative renewable resources to generate adequate electricity for the remote communities. It is implied that in rural regions, there is no proper infrastructure to generate enough powder for their demands, the renewable sources such as solar energy, wind energy ‘may be the most commercially competitive form of energy’ (Rigden 2002, p. 28). It is advocated that the cost of electricity generation from the onshore wind energy is the cheapest among other renewable sources (Rigden 2002).

Hence, it is evident that the commencement of electricity generation with the renewables resources is really beneficial to rural electrification in the developing countries. The other helpful implications of science and technology regarding satellite communication on people presented through the enhancement of quality of life through medicine. The useful roles of satellite communications to people’s health care is shown by the birth of telemedicine. Telemedicine applies telecommunication technologies to consult, monitor and diagnose patients in public hospitals and remote areas, to supply tele-education for medical personnel, medical interactive videoconference and provide telemedicine for emergency scenes. Foote (1977, p. 173) has reported that there was the remarkable increase in ‘health aide-physcian contact’ and ‘new cases handled by teleconsultation’ in first year of ‘introduction of the satellite link’ for rural health services in Alaska.

It has been inferred that not only the public health care, especially for people in the rural places has been improved but also the performance, proficiency and competence of medical doctors has been upgraded since the Venesat-1 satellite was launched in Venezuela (Acevedo, Varela, and Orihuela 2010). Therefore, people’s health care is well facilitated with the wide coverage of satellites services. Counterpoints, of course, be considered is that it is fairly hard for the Third World countries to apply satellite communication in medicine due to the costly implement of satellites equipment. Technology review (1990) stated that there was a slow approach of the satellite services to isolated places where needed the most. Even though the developing countries cannot launch satellite themselves, they can still receive the sponsor from the developed nations for free satellite educational and medical communications (Technology review 1990).

Thus, the innovation of satellite communication supports positively the quality of life of people through medical field regardless of the public or remote areas they live in. In conclusion, it is obvious that the advancements in science and technology regarding satellite communication and electricity generation creates the strongly positive impact on everyone from every region in the world. Despite of few negative effects of science and technology, it is undeniable that the advantages of satellite communication and electricity generation outweigh their disadvantages in terms of the friendly environmental forms of transportation are increasingly invented, the rural electrification in Third World
countries is strongly developed and the quality of life through medicine is supportively intensified. Therefore, scientists should make more efforts in research and development in science and technology to generate more useful, outstanding innovations to facility and upgrade quality of life of human being in future. .

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