10 Major Agricultural Problems Of India
Some of the major problems and their attainable solutions have been discussed as follows. Indian agriculture is plagued by several problems; a few of them are natural and a few others are artifical.
1. Small and fragmented land-holdings:
The seemingly abundance of web sown area of 141.2 million hectares and complete cropped space of 189.7 million hectares (1999-2000) pales into insignificance after we see that it is divided into economically unviable small and scattered holdings.
The common dimension of holdings was 2.28 hectares in 1970-71 which was lowered to 1.
82 hectares in 1980-81 and 1.50 hectares in 1995-96. The dimension of the holdings will further lower with the infinite Sub-division of the land holdings.
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The drawback of small and fragmented holdings is extra severe in densely populated and intensively cultivated states like Kerala, West Bengal, Bihar and jap part of Uttar Pradesh the place the typical size of land holdings is lower than one hectare and in sure parts it’s lower than even 0.
Rajasthan with vast sandy stretches and Nagaland with the prevailing ‘Jhoom’ (shifting agriculture) have larger average sized holdings of four and seven.15 hectares respectively. States having high percentage of net sown space like Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh have holding dimension above the national average.
Further it is shocking to notice that a large proportion of 59 per cent holdings in 1990- 91 had been marginal (below 1 hectare) accounting for 14.9 per cent of the total operated area.
Another 19 per cent had been small holdings (1-2 hectare) taking up 17.three per cent of the total operated area. Large holdings (above 10 hectare) accounted for just one.6 per cent of whole holdings but lined 17.4 per cent of the operated area (Table 22.1). Hence, there is a broad gap between small farmers, medium farmers (peasant group) and large farmers (landlords).
The primary cause for this sad state of affairs is our inheritance legal guidelines. The land belonging to the father is equally distributed among his sons. This distribution of land does not entail a set or consolidated one, however its nature is fragmented.
Different tracts have completely different levels of fertility and are to be distributed accordingly. If there are 4 tracts that are to be distributed between two sons, both the sons will get smaller plots of every land tract. In this way the holdings become smaller and extra fragmented with each passing era.
Sub-division and fragmentation of the holdings is considered one of the primary causes of our low agricultural productivity and backward state of our agriculture.
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10 Major Agricultural Problems of India and their Possible Solutions
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A lot of time and labour is wasted in moving seeds, manure, implements and cattle from one piece of land to another. Irrigation becomes difficult on such small and fragmented fields. Further, a lot of fertile agricultural land is wasted in offering boundaries. Under such circumstances, the farmer can’t think about improvement. The only reply to this ticklish drawback is the consolidation of holdings which implies the reallocation of holdings that are fragmented, the creation of farms which comprise just one or a couple of parcels instead of multitude of patches formerly within the possession of each peasant. But unfortunately, this plan has not succeeded much. Although laws for consolidation of holdings has been enacted by nearly all of the states, it has been applied only in Punjab, Haryana and in some parts of Uttar Pradesh.
Consolidation of about forty five million holdings has been done till 1990-91 in Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh. The different answer to this problem is cooperative farming by which the farmers pool their assets and share the revenue.
Seed is a important and basic input for attaining larger crop yields and sustained development in agricultural production. Distribution of assured quality seed is as important because the manufacturing of such seeds. Unfortunately, good high quality seeds are out of reach of the vast majority of farmers, especially small and marginal farmers mainly due to exorbitant costs of higher seeds.
In order to solve this problem, the Government of India established the National Seeds Corporation (NSC) in 1963 and the State Farmers
Corporation of India (SFCI) in 1969. Thirteen State Seed Corporations (SSCs) had been also established to augment the availability of improved seeds to the farmers. High Yielding Variety Programme (HYVP) was launched in 1966-67 as a serious thrust plan to increase the manufacturing of food grains in the nation. The Indian seed trade had exhibited spectacular development up to now and is anticipated to provide further potential for development in agricultural manufacturing: The role of seed business isn’t solely to provide sufficient quantity of high quality seeds but also to achieve varietal variety to suit various agro-climatic zones of the nation.
The coverage statements are designed in course of making out there to the Indian farmer, enough portions of seed of superior quality on the applicable time and place and at an affordable price in order to satisfy the country’s meals and nutritional security objectives.
Indian seeds programme largely adheres to limited era system for seed multiplication. The system recognises three sorts of era, namely breeder, foundation and licensed seeds. Breeder seed is the basic seed and first stage in seed manufacturing. Foundation seed is the second stage in seed manufacturing chain and is the progeny of breeder seed. Certified seed is the ultimate word stage in seed manufacturing chain and is the progeny of basis seed. Production of breeder and basis seeds and authorized seeds distribution have gone up at an annual common fee of three.four per cent, 7.5 per cent and 9.5 per cent respectively, between 2001-02 and 2005-06).
3. Manures, Fertilizers and Biocides:
Indian soils have been used for growing crops over 1000’s of years with out caring much for replenishing. This has led to depletion and exhaustion of soils ensuing of their low productiveness. The common yields of almost all the crops are among t e lowest in the world. This is a major problem which could be solved through the use of more manures and fertilizers. Manures and fertilizers play the identical role in relation to soils as good food in relation to physique. Just as a well-nourished body is capable of doing any good job, a well nourished soil is able to giving good yields. It has been estimated that about 70 per cent of progress in agricultural production may be attributed to elevated fertilizer utility.
Thus increase within the consumption of fertilizers is a barometer of agricultural prosperity. However, there are practical difficulties in providing adequate manures and fertilizers in all components of a country of India’s dimensions inhabited by poor peasants. Cow dung supplies the best manure to the soils.
But its use as such is proscribed as a end result of much of cow dung is used as kitchen gas in the form of dung cakes. Reduction in the supply of fireside wood and increasing demand for fuel in the rural areas because of increase in inhabitants has additional difficult the issue. Chemical fertilizers are expensive and are sometimes past the attain of the poor farmers. The fertilizer drawback is, due to this fact, both acute and complicated.
It has been felt that organic manures are essential for preserving the soil in good health. The nation has a potential of 650 million tonnes of rural and a hundred and sixty lakh tonnes of urban compost which isn’t fully utilized at current. The utilization of this potential will clear up the dual drawback of disposal of waste and offering manure to the soil.
The authorities has given excessive incentive particularly in the form of heavy subsidy for utilizing chemical fertilizers. There was virtually no use of chemical fertilizers at the time of Independence As a results of initiative by the government and as a end result of change within the attitude of some progressive farmers, the consumption of fertilizers elevated tremendously. In order to take care of the quality of the fertilizers, 52 fertilizer high quality control laboratories have been set up in several elements of the nation. In addition, there may be one Central Fertilizer Quality Control and Training Institute at Faridabad with its three regional centres at Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai.
Pests, germs and weeds trigger heavy loss to crops which amounted to about one third of the total subject produce on the time of Independence. Biocides (pesticides, herbicides and weedicides) are used to save the crops and to keep away from losses. The increased use of those inputs has saved lots of crops, especially the meals crops from unnecessary wastage. But indiscriminate use of biocides has resulted in broad unfold environmental air pollution which takes its personal toll.
Although India is the second largest irrigated country of the world after China, solely one-third of the cropped area is beneath irrigation. Irrigation is crucial agricultural input in a tropical monsoon nation like India the place rainfall is unsure, unreliable and erratic India cannot achieve sustained progress in agriculture until and till greater than half of the cropped area is brought beneath assured irrigation.
This is testified by the success story of agricultural progress in Punjab Haryana and western a half of Uttar Pradesh the place over half of the cropped space is beneath irrigation! Large tracts nonetheless await irrigation to boost the agricultural output.
However, care have to be taken to safeguard in opposition to unwell results of over irrigation particularly in areas irrigated by canals. Large tracts in Punjab and Haryana have been rendered ineffective (areas affected by salinity, alkalinity and water-logging), because of faulty irrigation. In the Indira Gandhi Canal command area additionally intensive irrigation has led to sharp rise in sub-soil water level, resulting in water-logging, soil salinity and alkalinity.
5. Lack of mechanisation:
In spite of the large scale mechanisation of agriculture in some elements of the nation, a lot of the agricultural operations in bigger parts are carried on by human hand using simple and traditional instruments and implements like wooden plough, sickle, and so on.
Little or no use of machines is made in ploughing, sowing, irrigating, thinning and pruning, weeding, harvesting threshing and transporting the crops. This is specifically the case with small and marginal farmers. It leads to huge wastage of human labour and in low yields per capita labour drive. There is urgent have to mechanise the agricultural operations so that wastage of labour pressure is avoided and farming is made convenient and environment friendly. Agricultural implements and equipment are a vital enter for environment friendly and timely agricultural operations, facilitating multiple cropping and thereby increasing production.
Some progress has been made for mechanising agriculture in India after Independence. Need for mechanisation was specially felt with the appearance of Green Revolution in Nineteen Sixties. Strategies and programmes have been directed in course of substitute of conventional and inefficient implements by improved ones, enabling the farmer to own tractors, energy tillers, harvesters and other machines.
A large industrial base for manufacturing of the agricultural machines has also been developed. Power availability for carrying out various agricultural operations has been increased to succeed in a level of 14 kW per hectare in 2003-04 from solely zero.three kW per hectare in 1971-72.
This increase was the results of increasing use of tractor, power tiller and mix harvesters, irrigation pumps and different power operated machines. The share of mechanical and electrical power has increased from 40 per cent in 1971 to 84 per cent in 2003-04.
Uttar Pradesh recorded the very best average gross sales of tractors in the course of the five year interval ending 2003-04 and/West Bengal recorded the highest average sales of energy tillers throughout the identical interval. Strenuous efforts are being made to encourage the farmers to undertake technically advanced agricultural equipments in order to carry farm operations well timed and exactly and to economise the agricultural manufacturing course of.
6. Soil erosion:
Large tracts of fertile land undergo from soil erosion by wind and water. This area have to be correctly handled and restored to its original fertility.
7. Agricultural Marketing:
Agricultural marketing nonetheless continues to be in a foul form in rural India. In the absence of sound advertising services, the farmers have to depend upon native merchants and middlemen for the disposal of their farm produce which is bought at throw-away value.
In most cases, these farmers are forced, under socio-economic circumstances, to carry on misery sale of their produce. In most of small villages, the farmers sell their produce to the money lender from whom they normally borrow cash. According to an estimate eighty five per cent of wheat and seventy five per cent of oil seeds in Uttar Pradesh, 90 per cent of Jute in West Bengal, 70 per cent of oilseeds and 35 per cent of cotton in Punjab is bought by farmers within the village itself. Such a scenario arises because of the inability of the poor farmers to wait for lengthy after harvesting their crops.
In order to meet his commitments and pay his debt, the poor farmer is forced to sell the produce at whatever worth is offered to him. The Rural Credit Survey Report rightly remarked that the producers in general promote their produce at an unfavourable place and at an unfavourable time and normally they get unfavourable terms.
In the absence of an organised advertising structure, non-public merchants and middlemen dominate the advertising and trading of agricultural produce. The remuneration of the services supplied by the middlemen will increase the load on the buyer, though the producer does not derive related benefit.
Many market surveys have revealed that middlemen take away about forty eight per cent of the price of rice, fifty two per cent of the value of grounduts and 60 per cent of the price of potatoes offered by customers.
In order to save the farmer from the clutches of the money lenders and the center men, the federal government has come out with regulated markets. These markets generally introduce a system of aggressive shopping for, assist in eradicating malpractices, ensure the use of standardised weights and measures and evolve appropriate machinery for settlement of disputes thereby ensuring that the producers aren’t subjected to exploitation and receive remunerative costs.