Use your PowerPoint notes, lab book, text book, your data, and the Internet to answer the following questions. All reports must be typed and stapled. All reports must be in your own words. One student from each group should include the LabTutor-generated data tables and/or graphs.
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Exercise 1: Pulmonary function tests
Respiratory parameterUnitsExperimental ValuePredicted Value* BPM14
1. What is the residual volume and why is it important to normal respiratory function? – Residual volume is the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of forced expiration – It is important to normal respiratory function because it helps to keep the alveoli patent (open) and prevent lung collapse. It decreases the efficiency of gas exchange by diluting the oxygen of the inspired air.
2. Briefly describe Spirometry.
– Spirometry is the most common of the pulmonary function tests, measuring lung function, specifically the volume and the flow of air that can be inhaled and exhaled. – Spirometry is the most useful for evaluating losses in respiration function and for following the course of certain respiratory disease.
3. Explain why the residual volume cannot be determined by Spirometry. -Because pirometry can only measure how much air is moving out of or into the lungs, not how much is contained at a particular time.
4. You are a Nurse working a 19:00 to 07:00 shift. There are no attending physicians on your service and all the residents are sleeping. One of your patients is demonstrating signs of dyspnea. You call the respiratory service and an RT responds and conducts a PFT (Spirometry) series on your patient. There is a “malfunction” with the equipment and the RT tells you that you can only have “one value”!! Which value do you choose and why? (3 pt).
-I choose value the TV “Tidal volume”, because I would like to know the amount of air inhaled and exhaled with breath under resting conditions of the patients. Exercises 2 & 3: Pulmonary Function Tests: Compare the respiratory parameters between normal and simulated obstruction. Recall, we simulated an obstructive pulmonary disorder by covering the tube with duct tape and cutting an opening in it about the size of a pen’s diameter. Using the Horizontal Compression controls and the scroll bar, display the data for both normal pulmonary function tests (Exercise 2) and the simulated restricted airway (Exercise 3) for inclusion in your report. Normal:
Simulated Airway Restiction:
5.There are two major categories that lung diseases fall into: Obstructive and Restrictive. Construct a small table for each lung condition (obstructive or restrictive) and predict what spirometry parameters that we measured in lab would most likely be decreased, which parameters would most likely be unchanged, and which parameters (if any) might be increased. (3 pt).
FVCnormal or minimally decreased decrease
FEV1decreasenormal or minimally decreased
FEV1/FVCdecreaseNormal or increase
TLCNormal or increasedecrease
6. Explain the pathologies of Obstructive and Restrictive pulmonary diseases. Include in your discussion why these pathologies result in the signs and symptoms of each disease class. Also name at least two conditions associated with each major pulmonary disease class (i.e. Chronic Bronchitis-Obstructive) (3 pt). – Obstructive pulmonary diseases have shortness of breath due to difficulty exhaling all the air from the lungs. Because of damage to the lungs or narrowing of the airways inside the lungs, exhaled air comes out more slowly than normal. At the end of a full exhalation, an abnormally high amount of air may still linger in the lungs. * Two conditions associated with obstructive pulmonary diseases are:
b) COPD which include the emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
– Restrictive pulmonary diseases cannot fully fill their lungs with air. The lungs are restricted from fully expanding. * Two conditions associated with restrictive pulmonary diseases are: a) Pneumonia:
7. Describe the physiology of the FEV1/FVC ratio and what is the clinical significance of an abnormal ratio? DO NOT provide the definition of the ratio (3 pt).
– The significance is that it describes the effectiveness of how well an individuals lungs can turn over its total volume in 1 second.
– The clinical significance of an abnormal ratio is
8. What values have been affected by simulated airway restriction? FVC
9. Are these values the ones you would expect to be altered in “real” restrictive pulmonary disease? Why or why not? (2 pt). Yes. Because we would expect to know the value of the airflow is constantly decreasing, if it was restrictive the volumes and capacities would have been affected more than what it was.
10. Based on how the subject felt during this lab exercise, what “coaching” would you give to a patient having an asthma attack in an attempt to get them to move more air. Refer to your Physiology of Breathing lecture notes. This is one of the few times I want to see a direct reference (3 pt). – Using the quick relief inhaler (like the albuterol) as prescribed using a spacer, if it is available.
* Shake inhaler, exhale, release one puff, inhale, hold breath for 10 seconds, exhale and wait 1 minute. Repeat till at directed dose.
* Inhale slowly and deeply when using a spacer.
– If the patients have no inhaler, keep the patients calm and encourage breath slowly. Let the patients sit up and breath in slowly through the nose and out through purse slip.