A Critique of Jean Watson’s Theory of Transpersonal Caring

Different views of nursing gave rise to the formulation of assorted nursing theories that contribute greatly to the advancement and evolution of the nursing career as an entire. Some concentrate on the healing nature of nursing, whereas others revolve around the social and moral facet of the profession that enhances conventional medication. Among the latter is Dr. Jean Watson’s Theory of Transpersonal Caring, which this paper attempts to research and evaluate utilizing J. Fawcett’s Framework of Analysis and Evaluation of Conceptual Models of Nursing.

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Dr. Watson’s private views of nursing brought in regards to the conception of the theory in 1979, on the time when she was a professor of nursing at the University of Colorado. Her background in educational-clinical and social psychology influenced these views, along together with her involvement in a nursing curriculum that sought to establish a regular to nursing that transcends settings, populations, specialty, subspecialty areas and so forth. It was an try to deliver that means and focus to nursing as an rising self-discipline and distinct well being career with its personal unique values, data and practices, with its personal ethic and mission to society (Watson, 2006).

Originally, Watson’s concept revolved around three major parts, namely the carative factors, the transpersonal caring relationship, and the caring moment. She said ten carative factors that served as tips for the nursing practice and mainly centered on the ideas of caring.

The transpersonal caring relationship describes how the nurse goes beyond an objective evaluation, displaying concerns toward the person’s subjective and deeper meaning relating to their very own health care scenario, whereas the caring moment is outlined as the moment (focal point in space and time) when the nurse and one other individual come together in such a method that an occasion for human caring is created (Cara, 2003).

In this context, the 4 important ideas of nursing – individual, environment, well being, and nursing – are encompassed in the theory. Being holistic in nature, the speculation presents its framework as a congregation of all these ideas, centering on the individual.

Watson regards an individual as a person with distinctive qualities and unique needs. The person is acknowledged as a being capable of speaking with one other beyond physical interplay. The person is viewed as complete and full, no matter illness of illness (Watson, 2006).

The setting is regarded as a healing area, the place the person’s awareness and consciousness can broaden and promote mindbodyspirit wholeness and therapeutic (Watson, 1999). Inevitably, the state of a patient’s setting can affect an individual’s state of health. The physical surroundings can affect how the individual can connect and exist in the non secular setting created by transpersonal caring relationships, and will have an effect on the effectiveness of the science of caring.

Health is referred to as the unity and concord throughout the thoughts, body and soul. It is a state of full bodily, mental, and social well-being and functioning (Hagopian, 2007). The theory establishes that caring can promote a person’s health better than the healing technique of conventional medicine. Through caring, the care giver recognizes the situation of the recipient at a deeper level, enabling him/her to sympathize as wanted, and supply the suitable care needed by the affected person. With this implies of understanding the affected person better, there is higher chance of addressing the patient’s wants, creating the wanted stability in his/her bodily, mental, and social well-being.

Watson defines nursing “as a human science of persons and human health – sickness experiences that are mediated by skilled, personal, scientific, esthetic, and moral human care transactions” (Watson, 1988). The concept also emphasizes caring as central to nursing, and is basically what the idea wishes to achieve. Nursing isn’t just about curing an sickness or disease – it’s beyond that.

It is in regards to the nurse being ready to middle consciousness on the complete being of the other in order to detect his/her internal condition, and impart real concern via caring moments communicated through “movements, gestures, facial expressions, procedures, info, touch, sound, verbal expressions and different scientific, technical, aesthetic, and human technique of communication.” The role of consciousness is deemed greatly essential, as a end result of then the nurse reveals commitment and sincere intention to attach with the patient at a deeper degree, thus turning into an efficient assist in nursing the patient back to well being, physically, emotionally, and spiritually (Watson, 2006).

As can be derived from what has been mentioned, the theory is concerned with establishing nursing as a occupation distinct from the healing nature of standard medicine, to which it has been initially strongly related to – the original position of the nurse being to primarily take care of the patient as dictated and required by illness or illness. The principle places emphasis on the transcendent and therapeutic high quality of a caring relationship shared by nurse and affected person. It describes how transpersonal caring goes beyond physical reality and ventures into the religious, opening larger possibilities of healing and well-being, versus disease-based medication and regard to patient.

Watson’s theory has guided nursing practices in numerous areas, including rehabilitation facilities, hospices, hospitals, and long-term care services. Watson’s model proved to be socially significant, as nicely. It has served as a conceptual framework for guiding group well being nursing follow, and has been described as “philosophically congruent with contemporary international approaches to group well being and well being promotion” (Rafael, 2000). However, this model can each lead to nursing activities that meet social expectations, and create expectations that require societal change.

In this time when individuals think twice earlier than trusting, nursing professionals might should exert more conscious effort in making the connection and creating transpersonal caring relationships as a outcome of past the hesitation, society expects the nursing neighborhood to be sympathetic, involved, and genuinely caring of their affected person. On the opposite hand, as transpersonal caring becomes increasingly profitable within the enchancment of the patient’s well-being, greater expectations of nurses are created. This may lead to society being increasingly dependent on nurses, and less on medical expertise.

The effectiveness of Watson’s principle has been validated with its use as a information in a number of studies centering on caring science. It has been “recommended as a guide to nursing sufferers with hypertension, as one means of decreasing blood stress and improve in quality of life,” in a examine made on its effectiveness on the standard of life and blood strain of sufferers with hypertension in Turkey (Erci, Sayan, Tortumluoglu, Kilic, Sahin, & Gungormus, 2003). In another research on caring for old adults, it was established that the speculation was efficient in bettering the standard of life and peace of thoughts, body, and soul of the older folks, simply by caring and listening attentively to what they have to say (Bernick, 2004).

Through the years for the rationale that conception of the idea, Watson’s work continues to evolve. In recent updates, she had supplied the idea of clinical caritas processes over the original carative components. It principally injects more spirituality and love into the framework. Such a perspective sarcastically locations nursing inside its most mature framework, consistent with the Nightingale model of nursing, but to be actualized, however awaiting its evolution inside a caring-healing principle. This direction, ironically while embedded in principle, goes past concept and turns into a converging paradigm for nursing’s future (Watson, 2006).

Bernick, L. (2004). Caring for older adults: apply guided by Watson’s caring-healing mannequin. Nursing Science Quarterly, 17(2):128-34.

Cara, C. (2003). A pragmatic view of Jean Watson’s caring principle. International Journal of Human Caring, 7(3), 51-61.

Erci, B., Sayan, A.,Tortumluoglu, G., Kilic, D., Sahin, O., & Gungormus Z. (2003). The effectiveness of Watson’s Caring Model on the quality of life and blood strain of sufferers with hypertension. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41(2), 130–139.

Hagopian, G. (2007). Nursing theorists. Retrieved February 8, 2007 from

Rafael, AR. (2000). Watson’s philosophy, science, and concept of human caring as a conceptual framework for guiding group well being nursing apply. ANS. Advances in Nursing Science, 23(2):34-49.

Watson, J. (1988). Nursing: Human science and human care. A concept of nursing (2nd printing). New York: National League for Nursing.

Watson, J. (1999). Postmodern nursing and beyond. Toronto, Canada: Churchill Livingstone.

Watson, J. (2006). Dr. Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring. Retrieved February eight, 2007 from

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