The bridges over water our bodies are subjected to fixed deterioration because of excessive temperatures, heavy vehicular masses, earthquakes and floods. This has lead to devastating disasters corresponding to lack of property, state economy and most importantly life. Recently Majehat bridge in Kolkata and Siliguri bridge in Darjeeling had collapsed as a outcome of heavy hundreds and dilapidated conditions. So fixed real time monitoring of bridge structural well being is required to maintain the already developed bridges to keep away from any upcoming mishaps sooner or later.
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In a rustic like India traditional methods such as human inspection and guide instruments are used to watch bridges. But this can be avoided by using the Internet Of Things and Wireless Sensing Networks. The goal of this research was to develop a system that constantly screens bridge well being after which updates the involved authorities relating to any defects as a end result of environmental circumstances through a mobile app. The system consists of ARM microprocessors, temperature, vibration and ultrasonic sensors together with RF modules.
As a result, extreme temperatures, shocks, and vibrations along with rising water levels are sensed and transmitted by way of the RF module to a Control Unit. This is all processed in real-time with out human intervention. The required data can be despatched to the app and corrective actions can be taken by the executive officials.
Bridges are critical in lots of regions, getting used over the centuries for transportation of products, humans and for viewing scenic beauty. Hence this makes it essential to have a system which constantly monitors the structural well being of the bridge and provides needed updates concerning any issues to the concerned authorities and that too in actual time.
Current advancements in sensing applied sciences and the rise of IOT have led to the event of automated bridge-monitoring techniques. Many lengthy span bridges worldwide have already applied such methods but excessive initial value and maintenance along with wired structures have created serious points as a outcome of which the desire to utilize traditional strategies still persists. In this project the idea of IOT primarily based bridge health monitoring is proposed. Different types of sensors hooked up to the bridge input various parameters similar to vibration, shocks, extreme temperatures and flood level, course of them utilizing microcontrollers according to the set threshold and eventually send the readings wirelessly utilizing RF transmitters. For the prototype bridge mannequin we are making ready we’re solely designing 2 nodes which might be hooked up on the ends of the model. To avoid collision within the networks we’re using an Anti-collision protocol known as as Request and Response. In this the slaves will evaluate their own slave ID after receiving the request and after a match takes place, then the slave will send knowledge to grasp. For the communication objective we are utilizing Message Queuing Telemetry Transport protocol. It is used for networks with distant places the place a small footprint or the community bandwidth is restricted. The required info will be displayed on an app interface designed using VBScript. The interface might be opened on any digital system with lively internet connection.
On 18th September, 2011 in Darjeeling, West Bengal a bridge collapsed due to weakening in its structure brought on a 6.9 magnitude earthquake that shook north-eastern India. 32 individuals had been killed and 132 had been injured as a result.
On 4th August, 2016 an old bridge connected to the Mumbai ‘Goa highway collapsed down due to over flooding as a result of heavy rains and rise of water degree of Savitri river .29 folks were lacking and 10 vehicles were submerged in the river.
On 18th August, 2017 in Bihar’s Araria district a bridge collapsed because of the raging river waters. 3 folks were dead and it affected nearly 98 lakh folks in sixteen districts which resulted within the postpostment of the upcoming examinations and cancellations of practice reservations.
We researched totally different papers from various sources such as
- Bridge Monitoring System’ revealed in IJISSET 2016 by the creator Anand Kumar Jha.
- Development of an IOT primarily based bridge safety monitoring system’ revealed in IEEE 2017 by the writer Taipei, Taiwan
- Bridge Monitoring and Alert Generation System utilizing IOT’ published in IJARIIT 2017 by creator Varsha Kusal and Amrita Argade
- To design and develop a sensor interface to detect and inform the base station of bridge structural health monitoring.
- To develop a Graphical person interface (GUI) for Monitoring and analysis of bridge safety.
- To develop a IOT primarily based APP to access information on internet.
At least 23 people have been killed after a bit of an under-construction overpass collapsed in a crowded space of the jap Indian city of Kolkata . Ponte Morandi motorway bridge collapse in Italy as a result of structural defect -43 dead. Not just these two but there are numerous mishaps as a end result of structural defects. To avoid these accidents a system is required which will detect the structural defects and ship the details about the defect to the central control system.
Many long-span bridges worldwide have already applied such techniques however excessive preliminary price and maintenance along with wired constructions have created severe issues as a outcome of which the desire to utilize traditional methods nonetheless persists.
If there would be a system which will indicate defects in the bridge, the lot of number of mishaps could possibly be avoided
Block Diagram description:-
We are designing a wireless sensor network based mostly bridge monitoring system. We have connected 2 nodes to bridge mannequin. Both the embedded nodes will acquire knowledge and ship it to PC based mostly Master. For avoiding collision between nodes we are using Request and response kind protocol. In request and response protocol the grasp will send the information request. The slaves will receive the request and examine their very own slave ID. If slave ID matches, then the slave will ship the data to the Master. We are additionally designing a Local PC primarily based server. The server will display the info on the GUI.
Here we’re using completely different sensors to measure the totally different parameters effecting the bridge stability:
Measure the temperature on the concrete.
Here we are interfacing ultrasonic sensor primarily based water degree sensor.
Vibration sensor (Accelerometer):
Vibration sensor node the adjustments that would point out injury to the bridge .
IOT based mostly APP:
We are designing an IOT primarily based APP to display the info of the bridge . The consumer shall be updates with the sensor data periodically on web. The person can entry the info from wherever on APP.
Power Supply Design
The proposed system contains designing a system for measuring bridge parameters and send the info to the app. The system mainly consists of measuring the temperature, vibration within the bridge and in addition measure water degree. The collected data is distributed to cellular so that parameter monitoring will be simple and required repairing of the bridge might be carried out.
The project consists of two nodes on the bridge. The PC acts as server and nodes will act as slaves. When PC sends the request for data after which only nodes will send the data. This is done to avoid the collision of data.
Hardware and Software Requirement
- Operating Voltage
- 10 bit ADC(16 analog inputs)
- LM 35
- Operating voltage:4-30V
- Current drain:60uA
- Operating range:-550 to +1500 C
- Accuracy:zero.50 C
- Operating voltage:5V
- operating current:15mA
- Maximum range:4m
- Minimum range:2cm
- RF Trans receiver
- Worldwide 2.four GHz ISM band operation
- Ultra low energy operation
- Operating voltage:1.9V to 3.6V
- Operating temperature:-400 to +850C
- ADXL 335
- Operating voltage:1.8V to three.6V
- Low energy:350uA
- Excellent temperature stability
- Software Requirements:
- Compiler: KEIL3
- Programming Language: Embedded C
- Programming Platform: Flash Magic
- Visual Basic server 6.
Simulation and Testing
Fig.5 initial stage of simulation
Fig.6 sensors output on LCD
Testing of Individual Sensors
Fig.7 LCD Testing
ADXL 335 Testing
Fig.8. ADXL 335 Testing
LM 35 Testing
Fig.9 LM 35 Testing
Result evaluation and discussion
We performed testing of the individual sensor module. After profitable testing of sensors we applied the whole system in general setting and observed following results.
Sr.No Parameter Value Observed
Salve 1 Slave 2
- Temperature 29.60C 270C
- X-axis 490 494
- Y-axis 606 389
- Water level 204.5cm –
I – SEMESTER Sr.No Project element Month
- Selection of Project August
- Data sheet study September (1-15)
- sensor selection September (15-30)
- Circuit diagram (Proteus) October (1-15)
- Seminar report October (15-30)
- II SEMESTER 6 Layout Diagram,PCB making January (1-15)
- Soldering and Hardware testing January (15-30)
- Coding and testing February (1-30)
- Final Demonstration March (1-15)
- Final Project report April (15-30)
Wireless sensor networks are becoming popular daily. With the newest rise in IoT and wi-fi sensing actual time bridge health monitoring has become fairly advance and futuristic. This has additionally made monitoring correct and simply accessible by everybody. Problems accruing due to co-axial cables and optical fiber cables as well as the cost are additionally reduced. Reliability and ease of this technique is one other profit. This know-how can provide early defect detection which shall be useful in avoiding loss of nation economy and most significantly human life.
Scope of Future work
In proposed system,RF module is used for communication between nodes and PC server. But we can use ZigBee for long range communication. Also Zigbee modules wants less energy which is necessary parameter whereas implementing system on precise bridge.
In proposed system we are utilizing solely two nodes, however in actual time surroundings we want extra node. We can implement star topology in these nodes.
This system can be enhanced with extra options like adding extra sensors to node.
We can even set up auto limitations on bridge. When there’s a critical situation on bridge the obstacles will come down and save additional disasters.
1] Bridge Monitoring System published in IJISSET 2016 by the writer Anand Kumar Jha.
2] Development of an IOT primarily based bridge security monitoring system’ printed in IEEE 2017 by the author Taipei, Taiwan
3] Bridge Monitoring and Alert Generation System utilizing IOT published in IJARIIT 2017 by creator Varsha Kusal and Amrita Argade
4] Feasibility of Vibration-Based Long-Term Bridge Monitoring Using the I-35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge Lauren Linderman, Principal Investigator Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo- Engineering University of Minnesota