Abu ‘Ali al-Husayn ibn Sina

Abu ‘Ali al-Husayn ibn Sina is best identified in Europe by the Latinized name “Avicenna. ” He might be the most important thinker within the Islamic tradition and arguably probably the most influential thinker of the pre-modern era. Born in Afshana close to Bukhara in Central Asia in about 980, he’s greatest often identified as a polymath, as a doctor whose main work the Canon (al-Qanun fi’l-Tibb) continued to be taught as a medical textbook in Europe and in the Islamic world until the early fashionable period, and as a thinker whose main summa the Cure (al-Shifa’) had a decisive impression upon European scholasticism and particularly upon Thomas Aquinas (d.

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Primarily a metaphysical thinker of being who was involved with understanding the self’s existence on this world in relation to its contingency, Ibn Sina’s philosophy is an try and assemble a coherent and complete system that accords with the non secular exigencies of Muslim tradition. As such, he may be considered to be the first main Islamic philosopher.

The philosophical house that he articulates for God because the Necessary Existence lays the muse for his theories of the soul, intellect and cosmos.

Furthermore, he articulated a growth in the philosophical enterprise in classical Islam away from the apologetic considerations for establishing the relationship between faith and philosophy in the direction of an try to make philosophical sense of key non secular doctrines and even analyse and interpret the Qur’an. Recent studies have attempted to locate him throughout the Aristotelian and Neoplatonic traditions. His relationship with the latter is ambivalent: though accepting some keys elements similar to an emanationist cosmology, he rejected Neoplatonic epistemology and the theory of the pre-existent soul.

However, his metaphysics owes much to the “Amonnian” synthesis of the later commentators on Aristotle and discussions in authorized theory and kalamon meaning, signification and being. Apart from philosophy, Avicenna’s different contributions lie within the fields of drugs, the natural sciences, musical concept, and arithmetic. In the Islamic sciences (‘ulum), he wrote a sequence of short commentaries on chosen Qur’anic verses and chapters that reveal a skilled philosopher’s hermeneutical methodology and attempt to come back to terms with revelation. He also wrote some literary allegories about whose philosophical value current cholarship is vehemently at odds.

His affect in medieval Europe unfold via the translations of his works first undertaken in Spain. In the Islamic world, his influence was immediate and led to what Michot has known as “la pandemie avicennienne. ” When al-Ghazali led the theological attack upon the heresies of the philosophers, he singled out Avicenna, and a era later when the Shahrastani gave an account of the doctrines of the philosophers of Islam, he relied upon the work of Avicenna, whose metaphysics he later attempted to refute in his Struggling in opposition to the Philosophers (Musari‘at al-falasifa).

Avicennan metaphysics grew to become the foundation for discussions of Islamic philosophy and philosophical theology. In the early modern period in Iran, his metaphysical positions began to be displayed by a creative modification that they underwent because of the thinkers of the varsity of Isfahan, particularly Mulla Sadra (d. 1641).