Activated Carbon from Cassava Peel Waste

Effectiveness of Activated Carbon from Cassava Peel Waste to Reduce TSS


The results of the first trials show that the TSS content material in Batik Bakaran liquid waste in Pati is quite excessive at 540.75 mg/L. The function of this examine was to find out the effect of creating adsorbent from cassava peel waste which is influenced by the activation means of adsorbents on TSS absorption in the batik liquid waste trade. This research method contains the steps of : making activated carbon from cassava peel waste, the process of activation of chemical carbon with HCl and NaOH, and the adsorption take a look at of batik liquid waste.

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Varied variables are for HCl, NaOH activator types and with out using activators. The results confirmed a lower in TSS for activator HCl 282.a hundred thirty five mg/L, NaOH activator 352.375 mg/L and with out activator 386.245 mg/L.

Based on the results of research that activated carbon from cassava peel is an effective adsorbent in absorbing TSS on batik liquid waste. Carbon activation with activator HCl is the best in absorbing TSS content material in Batik liquid waste.

Keywords: activated carbon, TSS, batik liquid waste


One of the most important centers of cassava manufacturing in Central Java Province is produced in Pati Regency. The space of the plant is 15, 200 hectares and the manufacturing level is 661. 975 tons in 2015 [1]. Large cassava manufacturing in Pati Regency just isn’t balanced with optimum utilization. The use of cassava is only for the usage of the inside, whereas the utilization of cassava peel waste is restricted to animal feed, the remainder is disposed of as waste that can’t be used anymore.

The batik industry is probably one of the producers of liquid waste containing very high ranges of pollutants of natural matter [2]. Based on knowledge from the Pati Regency Central Statistics Agency (BPS) in 2017, 37 Bakaran batik industries are centrally situated in Juwana District. Colorant waste in textiles can cause environmental air pollution (soil and water) if amassed in the lengthy run [3].

Most of the liquid waste produced directly discharged into sewers with out processing in order that it could possibly trigger environmental pollution. The liquid waste of the batik trade is based on the very best bodily traits containing Total Solid Suspended (TSS) [4]. Excess TSS content material will cause turbidity in the water, and then dumped directly into the environment will scale back the light coming into the water in order that it disturbs the sustainability of the water ecosystem. TSS is a strong or suspended particle in water which could be a biotic and abiotic part [5]. Based on the preliminary laboratory test on May 12, 2019, TSS ranges of Bakaran batik wastewater were 540.75 mg/L. The results exceeded the edge based on the Regulation of the Minister of Environment in 2010 No. 1 concerning the administration of water pollution, specifically for the TSS content material in wastewater of 400 mg/L. So, that the excess TSS content in liquid batik waste can disrupt the sustainability of the water ecosystemThe resolution offered to reduce TSS from the Batik Bakaran industry is to process cassava peel waste into carbon. Carbon has excellent adsorption and thermal stability, so the adsorption properties make carbon broadly used as a filter medium for numerous types of pollution [6].

The function of this study was to find out the effect of constructing adsorbent from the cassava peel waste which is influenced by the activation means of adsorbents on TSS absorption in the batik liquid waste business. Adsorbents from carbon supplies can make the most of cassava peel waste as a medium for batik liquid waste adsorption. Making carbon from cassava peel waste can cut back the stable pollutant of a cassava peel waste, liquid waste to batik adsorbed by carbon in order that the waste does not pollute the environment when disposed of into sewers. The outcomes of the research are anticipated to be useful because the utilization of solid waste of cassava peel waste and overcoming problems in batik liquid waste processing.


The methodology on this examine is an experimental quantitative experiment that’s the utilization of cassava peel waste as an adsorbent of TSS content material within the liquid waste of the batik trade. The research used variations of acid activator (HCl zero.1 M), base activator (NaOH 0.1 M), and with out activator as a management variable. The determination of TSS content was measured using laboratory checks at the Agricultural Research Agency.

Research Tools and Materials

The tools used on this study are furnaces, ovens, scorching plates, digital scales, blenders, 250 ml measuring cups. The supplies wanted in this study are batik liquid waste, cassava peel waste (adsorbent), aquades, 0.1 M HCl solution, and 1 M NaOH solution.

Making Carbon from

The Cassava Peel WasteCassava peel waste is cleaned and washed to remove clay and different inorganic impurities, then the cassava peel waste used was only the white part and then dried within the sun to dry. The drying course of goals to reduce the water content. After drying, cassava peel waste was burned within the furnace for 2 hours with a constant temperature of 400oC. Furthermore, cassava peel waste which has become activated charcoal undergoes a blending process to scale back its measurement.

Chemical Carbon Activation Process

The refined cassava peel waste is then activated by soaking it using 250 ml activator acid (HCl) 0.1 M for 1 hour. After that, the carbon was filtered using filter paper after which rinsed with distilled water to neutral pH. Charcoal that has turn into activated carbon is then dried utilizing an oven for 3 hours at 110 oC. using the same steps the experiment was repeated by replacing activator (NaOH) 1 M. 2.4Adsorption Test The liquid wastewater of Bakaran batik was examined for its adsorption by inserting it into the media, which maintained the composition of activated carbon from cassava peel waste, zeolite, and silica. Next the filtration, wastewater was taken 1 liter for each completely different kind of activator and then the adsorbent results were tested on the TSS content material.

Result and Discussion


The adsorbent on this research used cassava peel waste which had been dried, baked and refined as an incineration process and at last blended to minimize back the size. Physically activated evaporation in unstable materials and impurities in cassava peel waste, so that vacant cavity or pores may be formed which can operate as adsorbents [7]. Activated carbon, activated by utilizing activator HCl zero.1 M and NaOH 1 M. Then the adsorbent is washed using distilled water, which aims to remove non-cellulose elements hooked up to the adsorbent in order that the pH content material in activated carbon is close to regular. Adsorption of cassava peel waste adsorbent on TSS content material of Bakaran Batik liquid waste can show that on desk 1.

Table 1. Adsorption of Cassava Peel Waste Adsorbent on TSS Content of Bakaran Batik Liquid WasteType of Activator TSS0 TSS1 % AdsorptionHCl 540.75 282.135 forty seven.83NaOH 540.seventy five 352.375 34.84Without using Activator 540.seventy five 386.245 28.57Information : TSS0 The initial TSS content in Bakaran Batik liquid waste; TSS1 The final TSS content material in Bakaran Batik liquid waste. Based on table 1 the use of adsorbents can scale back TSS content in batik liquid waste. The results of adsorption on HCl activators have been forty seven.83%, 34.84% NaOH and without utilizing activator was 28.57%. the results of the adsorption test for activator HCl zero.1 M, the absorption effectivity was greater than that of using NaOH 1 M activator and without activator which reached forty seven.83%. The use of cassava peel waste as pollutant removers in liquid waste Batik can be helpful to reduce back cassava peel waste within the surroundings. The outcomes confirmed that carbon derived from cassava peel waste confirmed a reasonably good adsorbent but had a weak point in its absorbent. Increased carbon absorption is completed through the activation process. Activation carried out in this experiment is chemical.

This method serves to degrade natural molecules in the course of the carbonization process, limiting tar formation, serving to decomposition of natural compounds, dehydrating water trapped in carbon cavities, serving to to remove the ensuing hydrocarbon deposits and defending carbon [8].

The impact of the activator’s kind on cassava peel waste adsorbent for TSS absorption in the batik liquid waste may be shown in determine 1. Fig. 1. The Effect of Cassava Peel Waste Adsorbent Activator Type on TSS Absorption of Batik Liquid WasteThe outcomes of the research shown in Figure 1 present that the adsorbent activated using zero.1 M activator HCl had the highest proportion of TSS absorption when compared to activators using NaOH 1 M and adsorbents without activator.

The use of activator on the adsorbent obtained a percentage of adsorbent absorption with out activator of 28.57%, absorption utilizing activator NaOH was 34.84%, while the adsorbent using activator HCl was 47.83%. Adsorbents with using activators have larger absorption in comparison with out utilizing an activator. This is because the carbon activation process from cassava peel waste with zero.1 M HCl and 1 M HCl can dissolve tar and inorganic minerals. The lack of the substance from the activated charcoal surface causes the pores of the activated carbon to open to be bigger so that it could increase the active charcoal surface area and the ability to absorb the activated carbon [9].

The activation process on carbon could cause the absorption capability to extend when in comparability with carbon without using activation. This activation course of causes the clogging impurities in the carbon pores to disappear so that the amount within the active pores will get larger. The greater the surface space of activated carbon, the greater the absorption energy. Activation of carbon using acids will produce carbon with larger activity, higher the carbon floor acidity, and good porosity. A chemical exercise using HCl aims to make the floor of carbon acidic, in order that the adsorption capacity of carbon turns into larger [10].

Activation utilizing HCl can dissolve impurities more than activator NaOH, so that carbon, activated with HCl has extra pores fashioned and the absorption course of shall be extra maximal [11].

After the activation course of using HCl is completed, the carbon is washed utilizing distilled water to neutralize the pH close to regular. This is completed to get rid of the surplus acid content material from H + ions in the immersion course of in HCl.Carbon activation utilizing NaOH 1 M goals to form delegations on the adsorbent. Determination perform delegates so that dissolved compounds corresponding to lignin can inhibit the adsorption process. Lignin as a barrier to the transfer of ions to the active side of the adsorbent. The NaOH resolution breaks down between cellulose and lignin bonds. The OH- ion from NaOH breaks the bonds of lignin structure in order that lignin will simply dissolve [12].

Based on the results of the experiments, using carbon activation with HCl is the simplest in the absorption of TSS ranges in Batik Bakaran liquid waste because it has the highest absorption share when compared with the use of NaOH activator and with out activator on activated carbon from cassava peel waste. Making carbon from cassava peel waste can scale back the solid pollutant of cassava peel waste, liquid waste of batik adsorbed by carbon so that the waste does not pollute the surroundings when disposed of into sewers. The outcomes of the experiments are expected to be useful because the utilization of strong waste of cassava peel waste and overcoming issues in batik liquid waste processing.


Cassava peel waste adsorbents can reduce the TSS content in the Batik wastewater business which is influenced by the activation course of, carbon activation with activator HCl is the simplest in absorbing TSS waste in Batik liquid waste. The results confirmed a decrease within the TSS for activator HCl hundred thirty five mg / L with an adsorption proportion of 47.83%, activator NaOH 352.375 mg / L with a percentage of adsorption 34.84% after which with out activator 386.245 mg/L for the percentage of adsorption 28.57%.


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