This 2012 research explores the community management of girls within the locale of Sitio Galilee in Antipolo City. Even although the standards of leadership persist to be male-oriented, more women are taking on management positions in our society. The prevalent goal of this study is to establish the challenges that these girls leaders face towards development of their neighborhood; more importantly, how these can be addressed. The research mainly sought to (1) establish and perceive the leadership challenges that girls leaders face in initiating growth of their group, and (2) facilitate or help potential action programs that can handle these challenges.
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To resolve this concern, the processes of the Participatory Action Research (PAR) have been followed, specifically:
(1) diagnosing the status of women’s involvement and leadership locally, (2) planning of action programs that can handle the identified management challenges, (3) its implementation and monitoring, and (4) the evaluation. The accounts of women leaders and the perceptions of the members had been collected via one-on-one interviews. In addition, focus group discussions were performed to encourage people’s participation.
Guided by the Social Role Theory, the position of the women as community leaders is further analyzed. This research is a contributory issue to theoreticians and group development practitioners in analyzing the unaddressed issues of community management.
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Keywords: Women and management, group management, community development, Participatory Action Research
Background of the Study Traditionally, group affairs and administration have been the sphere of affect of males. Hassan (2008) explains that “this is obvious from the imbalance of leaders and workplace bearers throughout community, native councils and associations.
” Silong (2008) also pointed out that “women haven’t been active in local politics and are comparatively inactive in public processes because of institutional, socio-economic and cultural constraints.”
In the historical past of the Philippines, girls portrayed essential roles, not solely in the facet of taking care of the family but in addition in the development of the lifetime of the tribe in the course of the pre-colonial occasions (Shah, 2007). With the start of colonization, it caused a patriarchal society whereby girls were made inferior to males and are not licensed to sure rights (Clamonte, 2007). However, instances are altering. There is now acceptance that women can do and play a significant function in community affairs, notably in contributing to the achievement of community growth and progress.
Nowadays, stories of girls occupying management positions are becoming strange. Although regarded by Zaharah and Silong (2008) as “the unsung heroes of group action”, women’s position in group management has become increasingly necessary. In certain communities, they already discovered the information and ability which have produced optimistic transformation to their group (Bond, Holmes, Byrne, Babchuck, & Kirton-Robbins, 2008). More importantly, they’ve established themselves as group leaders. However, many aren’t conscious of the challenges that these women leaders face.
In view of this, the researcher learned, through the ocular go to that all the group leaders of Sitio Galilee, Antipolo are girls. Their husbands work in the city and only come residence for the weekend. Hence, their weekdays are spent at caring for the household, doing household chores, daily chatting in the neighborhood and taking part in card games. Above all this, they also manage to plan and work concerning community affairs. The researcher sought to additional investigate on the women’s management in the neighborhood, specifically on the challenges they encounter.
The women leaders locally of Sitio Galilee, Antipolo face several management challenges that must be addressed. How can the group of Sitio Galilee, Antipolo tackle these? Specifically, this research sought to:
1. Diagnose the standing of women’s involvement and leadership locally; 2. Identify the leadership challenges confronted by girls leaders in direction of group improvement; 3. Initiate the planning of action applications that can tackle the recognized management challenges; four. Implement the motion program and facilitate its monitoring; and 5. Evaluate the effectiveness of the action packages.
Significance of the Study
This examine serves its significance for two aspects: theoretical and practical. Firstly, this study is guided by the Social Role concept. This concept emphasizes on the processes of role-taking and role-making as part of an individual’s life. Accompanied by these processes is the role conflict which can develop as one battle completely different simultaneous roles. This study improves the readability and applicability of the idea as it is used by a researcher.
This research is a contributory issue to the residents of Sitio Galilee, Antipolo in broadening their understanding of the leadership obstacles that their ladies leaders are encountering. This Participatory Action Research assists them within the means of most participation of the neighborhood, via initiating action packages, in addressing the recognized challenges. Hence, this study promotes and encourages community improvement within the locale.
This research is affiliated with the University of Santo Tomas and its Simbahayan Office. This is a helpful doc in analyzing and addressing the problems of community leadership within their partner communities.
Scope and Delimitation
The scope of this research is the women leaders in Sitio Galilee, Antipolo. This examine centered on the position of girls in leadership and community development, the identification of the experienced management limitations in the direction of development in their community, and most importantly the method wherein these challenges have been addressed.
This research didn’t cover different components, aside from leadership per se, that impede the process of growth and progress in the community of Sitio Galilee. A constructivist worldview was utilized. This implies that the researcher seeks to determine the meaning of a phenomenon from the views of the individuals. In this endeavor, the journeys of ladies leaders had been described and decided by the members. Furthermore, the action packages applied got here from the propositions of the members. The researcher only served as facilitator and participant observer of the mentioned strategy.
Theoretical Framework Individuals have a number of roles that they play across time and place within the interval of life. According to Burr (1972), “throughout life, individuals switch into and out of various roles, preserving some, leaving others behind, and beginning new roles.”
This study is guided by the Social Role Theory. This is not only a single concept; somewhat this was established through interrelating and interconnecting perspectives. One of the pioneers of this theory is George Herbert Mead’s “role-taking”. It explains that the flexibility to put oneself in another’s place is a vital development of the ‘self’ (Ritzer, 2000).
According to this principle, “social function is a set of rights, duties, expectations, norms and habits an individual has to face and to meet.” Linton (1936) defined that, as cited within the examine of Harrison and Lynch (2005), “the role represents the sum total of all various roles of a person, and determines what one does for the society and one could expect from it.”
In this sense, “roles do not stay static, however change and evolve over time”, as stated by Turner (1990). There is the concept of “role-taking” where an individual acquires or takes on the position of different people; and “role-making” whereby one is ready to create and recreate these roles (Turner, 1990).
In undergoing these processes, one may experience “role overload” and “role conflict”. Turner (1990) defines position overload as, “the experience of missing the resources, including time and energy, needed to satisfy the demands of all roles.” On the other hand, role conflict is defined by Turner (1990) as, “an incongruity between the expectations of 1 position and people of one other.” However, there’s the so referred to as “role balance”. Role balance is a state whereby a person is ready to perform his or her roles properly and meet its expectations (Marks & MacDermid, 1996).
To present how the social role principle is utilized on this study of the management challenges of ladies leaders, the researcher conceptualized a paradigm that illustrate how the multiple roles (with its linked rights, duties and expectations to it) of a lady contribute to the challenges they face.
Gender role encapsulates the traits and behaviors which would possibly be distinguished as either masculine or female (Bem, 1974; Clamonte, 2007). Carli and Eagly (2001) have enumerated:
The set of traits and behaviors labeled as masculine includes the next: is self-reliant, unbiased, and assertive, has management talents, is prepared to take dangers, makes decisions simply, is dominant, is prepared to take a stand, acts like a leader, and is athletic, ambitious, and self-sufficient. The set of traits and behaviors labeled as feminine embody these: is affectionate, compassionate, and cheerful, does not use harsh language, is loyal, sensitive to the wants of others, sympathetic, light, and understanding, loves youngsters, and is tender and heat.
Tannen (1990) identified that, “the conventional gender function is a social orientation that emphasizes closeness and solidarity, whereas the traditional masculine gender role is a social orientation that emphasized energy and status.” In sociology, gender roles are thought of ‘artifactual’ or socially constructed beliefs in the society. Eagly (2002) has characterized this as a “male-advantaged gender hierarchy.” The roles associated to males benefited them more than the women’s. They gained extra entry to assets, authority in determination makings and more slots in the administration (Kolb, 1999).
In the Philippines, girls loved distinguished equality within the society during the pre-colonial instances (Santos-Maranan, Parreno, & Fabros, 2006). Shah (2007) explicated that, “Filipinos have tracked kinship bilaterally.” Some of the rights they experienced are: (1) they had been entitled to the properties of their family, (2) instigate divorce of their husbands, (3) interact in trading and much more privileges (Clamonte, 2007).
However, the coming of the Spaniards that introduced about the indoctrination of Catholicism has downgraded the role of Filipino girls (Shah, 2007). The spirit of the native Filipina was changed. Shah (2007) expounded that, “the image of the Filipino ladies became tied to the house whose only responsibility was to take care of the husband and the children.” Alesina, Nunn and Giuliano (2011) also added, “It also became a father’s good woman, a husband’s topic, and a long-suffering girl with sealed lips and silent sobs and has not proper to participate political undertakings.”
In the agricultural space, the Filipino lady belongs in the house. Flavier (2007) described in his guide, Doctor to the Barrios, that “rural ladies in the Philippines wield considerable authority, the housewife particularly.” According to him, the housewife is often called because the “Reyna ng Tahanan”.
A latest writing by Vartii (2011) revealed that, “there is a re-emergence of the empowerment of Filipino girls although the political course of.” In the current times, girls within the Philippines are reviving the strengths they lost. Women now are seen working outdoors the house and occupying the outstanding positions in their own subject. Many even handle to become leaders. Fabros (2005) affirmed, “No matter what kinds of points they (women) are involved in at present, one thing is clear – they’re the very testimony of a greater Philippines.”
The second-wave feminism and radical feminism have remedied the normal issues on gender (Cornell, 1998 in Pflanz, 2011). Even though there was a significant development of the status of ladies in the 20th century, there’s nonetheless much to be carried out to totally change the social beliefs regarding this matter. Carly and Eagly (2001) argues that, “women proceed to lack access to power and management in contrast with men.” There is that this phenomenon referred to as “glass ceiling”. Coleman (2003) defines this as “a barrier that is impenetrable to girls.” Pflanz (2011) talked about in his study that, “Studies involving women in leadership roles point out the vast majority of women believe their biggest impediment to advancement is a mindset favoring candidates that slot in a male-dominated surroundings.”
Even though the requirements of management persist to be male-oriented, extra women are taking on management positions in our society (Pflanz, 2011). Pflanz (2011) additional defined that, “many girls assume leadership positions in order to have an affect inside their communities.”
The Department of Communities of the Queensland Government (2006) stated that, “Community management is management in, for and by the neighborhood.” Ferrer (2010) affirms, “it reflects the concept of people and teams working together to attain widespread imaginative and prescient and targets.” Community leadership just isn’t profit-oriented and therefore includes non-paid leaders (Baconguis, 2010). In the examine of Garina (1957), he revealed that, “non-paid local leaders are vital in neighborhood action; cooperation with them by exterior agencies is imperative within the means of group growth.”
Women’s participation in the communities and nationwide scene was not solely via public management. In many cases, women form the backbone of formations as members or volunteers, significantly at the group level. There are quite a few examples of this point: barangay well being employees, churchwomen, group mobilizers, members of people’s organizations and civic organizations – over and above their traditional roles as domestic managers/housekeepers, caregivers, and whilst they engage in productive labor exterior the domestic sphere (Bond, Holmes, Byrne, Babchuck, & Kirton-Robbins, 2008).
The report on the Forum on Women NGO Managers in 1987 entitled, “Women NGO Managers: Issues and Dilemmas” revealed that ladies NGO managers play multiple roles and have triple duty of caring for the house and children, earning a living/working exterior the house and contributing to the national improvement. It confirmed that these women experience a serious dilemma on the method to stability and integrate the considerations of family life and the demands of work/career commitment. These pressures on family-work commitments are further magnified by management roles that girls play of their group (PHILDHRRA, 1987).