Adjectives as Notional Part

Adjectives are the third major class of words in English, after nouns and verbs, that’s why I suppose that this a part of speech is merited detailed consideration. Thus the aim of my coursework is to examine the adjectives as the notional a half of speech. An adjective is a word which expresses the attributes of substances (good, younger, simple, soft, loud, onerous, wood, and flaxen). As a category of lexical words adjectives are identified by their capacity to fill the place between noun-determiner and noun and the position after a copula-verb and a qualifier.

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It implies that each adjective used within the textual content presupposes relation to some noun the property of whose referent it denotes, similar to its material, color, dimensions, place, state, and other traits both permanent and momentary. It follows from this that, in contrast to nouns, adjectives don’t possess a full nominative worth. Indeed, phrases like lengthy, hospitable, aromatic can not effect any self-dependent nominations; as models of informative sequences they exist solely in collocations exhibiting what’s lengthy, who is hospitable, what is aromatic.

The semantically certain character of the adjective is emphasised in English by means of the prop-substitute one in the absence of the notional head-noun of the phrase. E. g. : I don’t desire a yellow balloon, let me have the green one over there. On the opposite hand, if the adjective is positioned in a nominatively self-dependent place, this results in its substantivisation. E. g. : Outside it was a beautiful day, and the solar tinged the snow with purple.

Cf. : The solar tinged the snow with the red color.

Morphological properties

As is well known, it has neither quantity, nor case, nor gender distinctions. Some adjectives have, nonetheless, levels of comparability, which make part of the morphological system of a language. Thus, the English adjective differs materially not only from such highly inflected languages as Russian, Latin, and German, the place the adjectives have a quite complicated system of forms, however even from Modern French, which has preserved number and gender distinctions to the current day. English adjectives have three morphological types: base (or simple), derivative and compound.

Base adjectives

Base adjectives exhibit the next formal qualities: they might take inflections -er and -est or have some morphophonemic adjustments in instances of the suppletion, such as, as an example, in good —better —the finest; bad — worse — the worst. Base adjectives are additionally distinguished formally by the fact that they function stems from which nouns and adverbs are formed by the derivational suffixes -ness and -ly. Base adjectives are mostly of one syllable, and none have greater than two syllables besides a couple of that start with a derivational prefix un-or in-, e. g. : uncommon, inhuman, and so forth.

They have no derivational suffixes and normally type their comparative and superlative levels by the use of the inflectional suffixes -er and -est. Quite a number of primarily based adjectives kind verbs by adding the derivational suffix -en, the prefix en- or each: blacken, brighten, cheapen, sweeten, widen, enrich, enlarge, embitter, enlighten, enliven, and so on.

Derived adjectives

Derived adjectives are fashioned by the addition of derivational suffixes to free or certain stems. They normally kind analytical comparatives and superlatives by the use of the qualifiers extra and most.

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