Advantages and Disadvantages of the First and Second Industrial Revolutions

The First and Second Industrial Revolutions helped pave the way for vital scientific and technological advances. This was not without drawbacks, such as poor working situations, the exploitation of labor, and the use of child labor. As a result, the British Parliament initiated several investigations that changed the method in which industries operated. This in the end formed the means in which other growing nations would accomplish their own industrial revolutions, and assist create the situations for major science and know-how breakthroughs to happen in modern instances.

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According to Thatcher (2009), “The demand for manufactured items during the English Industrial Revolution had grown to such a degree that there was a shortage of workers who had been keen to be taught the new technologies of the textile mills. ” The demand for workers drove the industrialists to seek new populations to fill the gaps attributable to this scarcity. This started the hiring of orphaned and impoverished children. Children appeared to be perfect staff for industries as a end result of they had been young and could easily be taught the talents wanted to perform their jobs.

The industrial homeowners would offer the kid labor workforce with the naked necessities to outlive in return for their work. This eradicated the necessity to compensate the employees financially, which elevated the profits to the manufacturers. It was not unusual for kids to start working as early as 5 – 6 years old, and work as much as sixteen hours per day. Tuttle (2001) described their working situations by stating that: Children labored underneath deplorable circumstances and were being exploited by the industrialists.

A image was painted of the “dark satanic mill” the place youngsters as younger as 5 and 6 years old worked for twelve to sixteen hours a day, six days per week without recess for meals in sizzling, stuffy, poorly lit, overcrowded factories to earn as little as 4 shillings per week. As such, the British Parliament initiated varied Royal Commission investigations that resulted in three laws that might revolutionize the kid labor workforce.

The Cotton Factories Regulation Act of 1819 regulated the minimum working age at nine years old and so they have been solely allowed to work a maximum of twelve hours per day. In 1833, the parliament handed the Regulation of Child Labor Law which created authorities inspectors to supervise factories to ensure they have been following child work tips. “One of the final rules that the British parliament handed to control working conditions was the Ten Hour Bill of 1847, which limited the working day of girls and youngsters to 10 hours per day” (Tuttle, 2001).

These legal guidelines set the platform for reform as other countries, including the United States, would undergo their Industrial Revolutions. They turned the foundations by which different legal guidelines would be enacted to enhance the protection, working circumstances, and ultimately get rid of youngster labor in the office. The Second Industrial Revolution created the conditions for scientific and technological advances in modern occasions by way of harvesting steam power and the creation of the meeting line.

Steam powered engines and hydroelectricity from the Alps allowed for the industrialization of coal deprived northern Italy and different countries all through Europe. Henry Ford’s assembly line in the United States offered the means necessary to mass produce cars while simultaneously creating jobs for many Americans. These meeting traces of personnel would ultimately be replaced by machines during fashionable occasions, growing production to fulfill the rising demand for automobiles the world over.

Advances such as these continued from early industrialization into the modern methods and factories we have at present, the place a single firm can quickly present their products to prospects around the world. Throughout the First and Second British Industrial Revolutions manufacturers looked for ways to maximise manufacturing to fulfill an increasing demand in manufactured items, whereas minimizing the fee associated with supplying their clients. Unfortunately, their cost-effective way of thinking and greed for revenue resulted in a baby labor workforce, poor working situations, and no advantages for his or her employees.

Through the legal guidelines and rules that were established to forestall the identical conditions occurring right now as have been seen during the revolutions, workers now enjoy a mess of advantages, together with the minimum wage wage, forty hour work weeks, healthcare benefits, and a office give attention to security. The elimination of kid labor within the United States ensures that the youngsters of this nation can give attention to their education as an alternative of working to offer for their households, which can enable for an educated workforce in the future and continue the prosperity of our nation.