AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION: A SUSTAINABILITY TOOL FOR NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY Ola Rauf and Lateef, I A Mechanical Engineering Department, Osun State College Of Technology P. M. B 1011,, Esa- Oke, Nigeria [email protected] com ABSTRACT Poverty is a state of inadequate of everything. The rate of poverty in developing nation is very alarming and subsequently required correct investigation. A nation during which 80% of her inhabitants consists of peasant famer that can’t present enough meals for his or her household, is not going to able to feeding her inhabitants and therefore lack meals security.
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This paper discus the problem going through developing country food safety as regards to agricultural manufacturing in relationship with peasant farmers that produces 90% of meals. Application of Agricultural mechanization is examined as a way of sustaining developing nations as regards to meals safety issues. Key words-Poverty, Peasant farmer, food security and Infrastructural facilities. INTRODUCTION Poverty could be very extreme in some of the growing nation, most particularly in rural areas where social services and infrastructure are restricted or non-existence.
Majority of those rural dwellers are classified as poor as a end result of they stay in thatched residence or rented one room condo. They stroll about bare footed, use wood to cook dinner their food and have neither good supply of water nor electrical energy. These folks can hardly afford to send their children to school, hence referred to as peasant farmers.
Farmers practicing subsistence farming, producing what can hardly feed their quick family all the year round and cannot meet other requirements of life are also identified as peasant farmers. These peasant farmers are common in Africa nation, most especially, Nigeria.
They are the classes of folks that domesticate less than 1 hectare of land in all and follow shifting cultivation. Their farm plots which are scattered about and in most cases their inheritance or got on lease, depend on rainfall quite than irrigation system. According to World Bank information of 1996, 44% of male farmers and 72% of female’s farmers cultivate less than 1 hectare of land per household in Nigeria. They have restricted business orientation and the crop yields are usually below agronomic potentials due to climatic, cultural, social and economic factors (IFAD, 2007).
As a matter of reality the country can’t produce sufficient food to feed her populace. Importance of Peasant Farming To National Food Security Peasant farmer are making substantial contribution in the course of the attainment of meals self-sufficiency at different occasions. Odigboh (2004) confirmed that peasant farmers are producing over 90% of the country’s meals but they suffered essentially the most extreme deprivation socially and economically. Despite the peasant strife to make both ends meet, their efforts and helps from policy makers over the years have not yielded the desired end result in time period of wealth creation.
Olomola (2005), when contributing to why peasant farmers stay poor, noticed that agriculture has witnessed appreciable adjustments over the years particularly on account of adjusting know-how, level of funding, marketing outlet s and policy path. Still, there isn’t any meals safety. FOOD SECURITY Food safety is severally defined in time period of entry by all folks at all times to adequate meals for energetic healthy lives (World Bank, 2002). As such meals safety depends not solely on how much meals is available but additionally on the entry that people should food whether or not by buying it or by producing it.
This entry however, is dependent upon some economics variables such as meals prices, household’s revenue, agricultural productiveness, expertise availability in path of mechanization and quality of pure sources. Limitations of Peasant Farmers. The peasant farmers make the most of solely easy tools such as hoes and cutlasses. Farmers utilizing only hand instruments technology can only domesticate an average of 1 hectare of land to provide what can barely feed their household. This limitation is because of the reality that human beings can solely work at a fee of solely 0. 75 Kw on the typical and their work rate is about 50% in temperate climates and less than 10% in humid tropical circumstances (FAO, 1988). The tillage and drudgery, in addition to the ability constrain on well timed tillage operations which limit manufacturing and incomes capability are a variety of the inherent problem of the peasant farmer utilizing hand instruments expertise. Mrema and Mrema, (1993) posted that out of the three ranges of technology-hand tools, draught – animal and engine power know-how, hand tools technology predominates 86 % of tillage and land preparation operation in Nigeria are performed using simple hand tools.
Presently, only 10% of out of food relies on machine power know-how (Ogunlowo,2003). This interprets to the truth that we cannot obtain food safety till there might be enough mechanization of our food production. Adequate and adequate mechanization can only come through availability of suitable and affordable farm machines and implements. This feat can only be achieved through native manufacture of farm machinery. AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION This is a field of engineering that utilizes physical and biological sciences with arithmetic to assist manufacturing, dealing with and processing of agricultural merchandise.
Agricultural mechanization includes the utilization of machine power from totally different sources and output to power agricultural machine and implements to work giant hectare rage of land at a shortest potential time and to a excessive degree of accuracy. Agricultural mechanization practice will enable farmers to flee from drudgery and low output associated with utilizing only hoes and cutlass. Lack of infrastructure has in no small measure contributed to rural poverty because it reduces profitability of production for the markets.
The rural road network which is least developed has separated the villages and even rendered these village nearly inaccessible through the raining seasons. Whenever there might be post- harvest marketable surplus, it is not always simple to reach the markets. Sources of input, gear and new know-how are blocked due to lack or limited accessibility. 30% of the food produced in Nigeria is misplaced as a outcome of poor preservation. ( Ogunlowo, 2003). Preservation requires adjusting the moisture content material of meals and storing under staple condition.
Since moisture degree adjustment and storage particularly giant capacity handling can’t be effective via mechanization. It requires enough processing equipment to mechanize processing of our meals into objects able to creating demand and guarantee the farmer of a good return for his efforts. Faborode (2005) reported that poverty fee has elevated from 27% in 1980 to 70% in 1999. Most of the investments that have been dedicated to rural improvement failed to yield the specified impact because of inappropriate design and implementation of project, ineffective assist companies and widespread corruption.
Ige (1994), when controlling to the problem of farming as a business stated that fashionable farming could presumably be a viable and lucrative enterprise if the youths are engaged in it, but he contented that when younger farmers are skilled and purchased the required talent, they normally depart the farm for salaried job that aren’t in anyway associated to agriculture, using their information as a stepping stone to different professions. There are just about no storage facility located in rural areas and readily available to farmers at affordable price to allow the peasant farmers store their merchandise.
Storage ought to therefore be mechanized so that an excellent share of farm merchandise are available for use. The use of pesticides and weed control process should be mechanized to enhance timelines in operation and a sort of insurance coverage to farm merchandise. WAY FORWARD Poverty reduction amongst peasant farmers could be minimized if the right agricultural mechanization and funding is pursued with some stage of dedication, the family entry to land is improved upon, accumulation of non-land assets is encouraged and number of earning members of the household is elevated.
Small-medium energy machinery together with different mechanization tools appropriate for the completely different ecological zones in our rural environment must be developed. Acceptable alternative easy know-how for farm power and tillage operations ought to be made reasonably priced to farmers via gentle mortgage credit on acceptable terms. Implements must be fabricated in such a means that native repair and provision of spare elements throughout the rural group is feasible.
These are important to the sustenance of efforts on introduction of mechanization know-how to farm operation and sustainable meals safety. Government should also help the farmer via registered cooperative unions with a view to offering agricultural loans to forestall diversion of money to uneconomic ventures. Local stations must be established the place money need for land preparation, improved seeds, herbicides are offered on mortgage, payable solely when the farmer delivers the harvested crop to such station.
Government should give priority to rural highway growth through maintenance of exiting roads and open new ones. The existing farm transportation system must be improved upon and expanded inside the financial and technical limitations of the top users. CONCLUSION With Agricultural Mechanization a large hectares of land can be cultivated, resulting in bigger output and increase in product for market. Mechanization will improve the standard of farm produce that may command greater value.
Harvesting shall be easier, timely and price efficient whereas submit harvest processes will be effectively accomplished, thereby remaining publish hammer losses leading to greater high quality produces that will entice good costs and therefore more income to the farmer. Produce handling and storage facilities may even be made attainable via mechanization, therefore encouraging the producer to carry his produce in stock for better worth later in the season. REFERENCES Adigun, Y. J. and Oni, K,C. 1993.
Evaluation of problems repair And Maintenance of Agricultural Machinery in Kwara State of Nigeria, proc, of the 17th Annual conf, of the Nig,Soc,Of Agriculture Engineers. Akande, A. 2003. Farming System, Research and Extension Faborode, M. O. 2005. Life and living, inaugural lecture series 183 O. A. U. Ife, Nigeria. Hazell, peter and Michael Johnson 2000. Ending Hunger in Africa, solely the Small Farmer Can Do it IFPRi Policy Brief, International Food Policy Research Institute, Washing, D. C. IFAD, 2007. Rural Poverty in Nigeria File;/E/index%20Poverty. Htm Ige, M. T. 1994.
Energy for Agriculture, The Mechanization Options. Inaugural Lecture sequence a hundred and five O. A. U Ife. Mrema, G. C. and Mrema, M. Y. 1991. Draught Technology and Agriculture Mechanization in in Africa: Its Potential and Constrains. Network for Agricultural Mechanization in Africa (NAMA) Newsletter 1(2 peasant farmer): 12-23. Odigboh, E. U 1991. Continuing Controversies On Tillage Mechanization In Nigeria. Journal of . Agricultural Science and Technology 1 (1): 41-49. Odigboh, Initials 2006: Agriculture mechanization: the place Nigeria is now and where it ought to be in the next century.