American Colonial Period

THE AMERICAN COLONIAL AND CONTEMPORARY TRADITIONS The American tradition in Philippine architecture covers the interval from 1898 to the present, and encompasses all architectural types, such as the European styles, which got here into the Philippines during the American colonial period. This custom is represented by church buildings, schoolhouses, hospitals, authorities office buildings, business office buildings, department stores, resorts, movie homes, theaters, clubhouses, supermarkets, sports services, bridges, malls, and high-rise buildings. New types of residential architecture emerged within the tsalet, the two-story house, and the Spanish-style house.

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The contemporary tradition refers to the architecture created by Filipinos from 1946 to the current, which covers public buildings and private business buildings, non secular structures, and domestic structure like the bungalow, the one-and-a-half story house, the split-level home, the middle-class housing and the low-cost housing project models, the townhouse and condominium, and least in size but largest in quantity, the shanty. History The flip of the century introduced, in the Philippines, a turn in historical past. Over three centuries of Spanish rule came to an finish, and five many years of American rule started.

The independence gained by the Philippine Revolution of 1896 was not acknowledged by Spain, nor by the United States, whose naval and navy forces had taken Manila on the pretext of aiding the revolution. In 1898 Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States, and after three years of navy rule the Americans established a civil government. With a new regime got here a model new tradition. The English language was introduced and propagated via the newly established public school system.

A new consciousness developed among the native population as American colonial coverage focused on schooling, public well being, free enterprise, and preparation for selfgovernment. The panorama was reworked as highways, bridges, ports, markets, colleges, hospitals, and authorities office buildings had been rapidly constructed. The monuments of the Spanish era continued to face proudly, while the longer term began to rise around them with triumphant vigor. In the course of the Spanish colonial period, native design and European styles got here collectively in an evolving synthesis that culminated in the stately architecture of church buildings and aristocratic houses in provincial cities.

As Spanish words have been absorbed by the native languages, so had been baroque, rococo, neoclassic, and gothic revival motifs absorbed by the Filipino’s architectural vocabulary. That language continued to find utterance in upper-class residential architecture in the early decades of the American regime. The starting of the model new age was especially evident in Manila, where, as John Foreman (1906) reported, “…works of basic public utility were undertaken … the Luneta Esplanade …was reformed, the sector of Bagumbayan … was drained; breaches had been made in the metropolis wall to facilitate the entry of American vehicles; new thoroughfares had been opened; an iron bridge, commenced by the Spaniards, was completed; a new Town Hall, a wonderfully equipped Government Laboratory, a Government Civil Hospital, and a Government Printing Office have been built; an immense ice manufacturing unit was erected on the south aspect of the river to satisfy the American demand for that luxury…”

The ice factory was the Insular Ice Plant and Cold Storage built circa 1902 by the Philippine Commission. It was a large brick building with excessive and slim blind arches on its facade that recalled the 19th-century neoromanesque style in the United States. The ice plant survived until the Nineteen Eighties when it was demolished to offer approach to the elevated monitor of the sunshine rail transit. In the early years of the American Regime building projects were undertaken by the engineers of the US Army. In 1901 Architect Edgar K. Bourne of New York was appointed chief of the Bureau of Architecture and Construction of Public Buildings, which was underneath the Department of Public Instruction. Holding the rank of Insular Architect, Bourne was in control of the construction and restore of public buildings belonging to the Insular Government. Bourne served until the latter part of 1905. Other sources state that in 1901, a Filipino, Arcadio Arellano, was appointed architectural marketing consultant by Governor William Howard Taft (Dakudao 19?). Arellano, a locally educated maestro de obras (master builder), had served as an officer within the Engineer Corps of the Revolutionary Army.

In later years he would design numerous notable homes and buildings in varied revivalist kinds, together with the neogothic, neorenaissance, and neobaroque. One of the priorities of the American authorities was the event of a summer time capital in a cool area. Thus in 1904 the American architect and metropolis planner Daniel H. Burnham came to the Philippines upon the invitation of Commissioner William Cameron Forbes primarily to survey Baguio, and, to use Forbes’ own words, “try to lay out a new metropolis and, in addition, to make some plans for the event of Manila.” In the early years of his profession Burnham belonged to the Chicago School that pioneered in modern architecture. He was the chief designer of the World’s Columbian Exposition held in Chicago in 1893, and from then on was a zealous advocate of neoclassicism. As a city planner, he promoted the “City Beautiful” motion, and ready plans for Cleveland, Chicago, San Francisco, Baltimore, and Washington DC.

For Baguio, Burnham proposed a general scheme for the street system, the situation of buildings, and recreation areas. Although his plan was adopted in precept, it was adapted by later architects who were entrusted with its implementation. For Manila, Burnham prepared a extra comprehensive and detailed proposal that aimedto develop the waterfront, parks, and parkways; the road system; constructing sites; waterways for transportation; and summer resorts. “The bay entrance,” he proposed, “from the present Luneta southward should have a continuous parkway extending, in course of time, all the way to Cavite . . . The banks of the Pasig ought to be shaded drives beginning as close to town as potential and continuing up the river, the south bank drive going to Fort McKinley, and past this to the lake.”

Since what was the Luneta then could be occupied by a government heart, a brand new Luneta can be built farther out on reclaimed land, and would “give an unobstructed view of the sea.” Nine parks were to be “evenly distributed over the city” and have been to be linked by parkway boulevards. The street system in the districts would, for the most part, stay unchanged; the road system in areas to be developed would observe a radial pattern, whereas diagonal thoroughfares would hyperlink the city districts. Burnham recommended that constructing sites should keep away from a rigid north-south or east-west orientation, in order that houses would  get pleasure from daylight on all sides all through the day. The government heart, comprising the capitol and division buildings, can be erected south of the Walled City and close to the bay. The courthouse, the submit office, and cultural amenities would be on separate sites. Beside the bay, on a web site north of the Luneta, a resort could be built. The estero or estuaries had been to be developed and maintained as waterways. Summer resorts have been to be established on larger elevations round Manila.

Charmed by the old houses with tile roofs and overhanging second stories, Burnham proposed that these be preserved, and really helpful that new, easy, well-proportioned buildings of bolstered concrete observe the arcaded style of the old Spanish edifices. Manila, Burnham remarked, “possessed the bay of Naples, the winding river of Paris, and the canals of Venice.” With his plan he proposed to “make Manila what the Spaniards used to call it—the Pearl of the Orient.” For the implementation of his plans for Manila and Baguio, Burnham beneficial William E. Parsons, a product of Yale, Columbia, and the Paris Ecole des Beaux Arts. Parsons served as consulting architect of the Bureau of Public Works from 1905 to 1914. In that quick span he supervised the implementation of the Burnham plans for Manila and Baguio; prepared city plans for Cebu and Zamboanga; directed the development of parks, plazas, and shoreline areas in lots of provinces; and designed a variety of excellent buildings.

Heeding Burnham’s counsel on the design of buildings for Manila, Parsons evolved a mode that was refreshingly modern but unmistakeably evocative of the local tradition. With pitched roofs, plain walls, extensive arches, deep galleries, and capiz home windows, the new buildings that Parsons created echoed the ambiance of Spanish colonial Manila, and at the same time enunciated the principle that type ought to observe function. An excellent instance of Parsons’ strategy to design is the Philippine General Hospital (PGH), constructed in 1910, a constructing neoclassic in its disciplined magnificence and extremely practical in its loose and airy association of pavilions. Parsons’ other main works embody the Manila Hotel, the Army-Navy Club, the Elks Club, the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) Building, the Normal School and the adjacent dormitory, later known as Normal Hall. His works outside Manila include provincial capitols and their plazas, schoolhouses, and markets.

Towards the end of his service within the Philippines, Parsons designed the preliminary buildings of the University of the Philippines (UP), then on Taft Avenue and Padre Faura. The first building, the University Hall, was in the neoclassic type, surrounded by porticoes with Ionic columns. In this and in works produced after his Philippine project, Parsons succumbed to the revivalism of the Ecole de Beaux Arts from which he had been successfully freed in his earlier work. It was ironic that the architect who had introduced a new course for Filipino structure would reverse it by implanting the neoclassic style that would be the official structure of the government for the subsequent quarter of a century. The first Filipino to obtain the academic title of architect in the course of the American regime was Carlos Barretto, who in 1903 was despatched as a authorities pensionado or scholar to the Drexel Institute in Philadelphia. After graduating in 1907 he returned to the Philippines, and from 1908 to 1913 worked in the Division of Building Construction of the Bureau of Public Works.

In 1911 Antonio Toledo, a product of Ohio State University and Cornell University, joined the Bureau of Public Works, and in 1928 became consulting architect of its Architectural Division, a submit which he held until his retirement in 1954. Toledo assisted Parsons within the design of several buildings. In the Twenties Toledo designed the College of Medicine Annex and University Library of the UP, the Leyte Capitol, and, in the late Thirties, the City Hall of Manila, the Agriculture and Commerce (now the Tourism) Building and the Finance Building. Toledo’s works have been all in the neoclassic vein. Tomas Mapua graduated from Cornell University in 1911, and worked as draftsman at the Bureau of Public Works from that 12 months till 1915, when he went into private practice. Returning to the Bureau in 1918, he was named supervising architect and served in that position till 1927. Mapua designed the Nurses’ Home of the PGH, one of many finest examples of the neorenaissance type in the country. In 1925 he based the Mapua Institute of Technology. An acknowledged grasp in his time was Juan Arellano, a youthful brother of Arcadio.

Juan Arellano studied on the Drexel Institute in Philadelphia, and after graduation travelled by way of several European international locations. He returned to the United States for further studies on the University of Pennsylvania and the Beaux Arts School in New York. On returning to the Philippines he worked briefly along with his brother Arcadio. One of their joint initiatives was the Cota de Leche Building on Lepanto (now Loyola Street). One of its distinguished options was a neorenaissance arcade consisting of semicircular arches springing from columns, and embellished with medallions on the spandrels. In 1917 Juan Arellano joined the Bureau of Public Works. As supervising then consulting architect, he turned a dominant figure in Philippine architecture. His first major work was the Legislative Building. Originally intended to house the public library, the constructing had been designed by Ralph H. Doane, a successor of Parsons on the Bureau of Public Works.

Construction began in 1918. When it was determined that the constructing ought to be for the legislature, the revision of the plans was entrusted to Juan Arellano. The Legislative Building was completed in 1926 and was described by A.V. H. Hartendorp, editor of the Philippine Education Magazine, as “the most luxurious and spectacular structure ever erected within the Philippines . . . dominantly Roman in architecture, but Greek in its grace, Renaissance in its wealth of decoration, fashionable in its freedom from educational restraint, and Oriental in its richness and shade.” In 1931 Juan Arellano completed two of his greatest works: the Post Office Building, a masterpiece of neoclassicism, and the Metropolitan Theater, a magnificently profitable experiment in the romantic style, which Hartendorp described as “modern expressionistic.”

The Post Office portico, with its 14 huge Ionic columns, is an overpowering presence that each welcomes and astonishes the customer. Departing from the conventional rectangularity of neoclassic buildings, Juan Arellano flanked the primary rectangular mass with semicircular blocks, thereby including grace to strength. Exuberance characterizes the exterior of the Metropolitan Theater. Its festive spirit arises from the wealthy mixture of color, sculpture, gentle from built-in lamps and the large illuminated window over its entrance, the lively play of receding and protruding  flat and curved surfaces, and the insistent verticality of pinnacles. Two movements in architectural design are here noted: an obeisance to the West in the art deco ornament, and homage to the tropics within the batik patterns and varied fruit and plant forms. A few years after the completion of the Metropolitan Theater, Juan Arellano designed authorities buildings for Banaue, Ifugao, and Glan, Cotabato, and adopted regional architectural forms, corresponding to posts with rat guards from Ifugao, protruding beam ends from Cotabato, and steep roofs from both.

As Juan Arellano introduced neoclassicism in the Philippines to its summit, so did he masterfully open new avenues for architectural design, significantly romanticism and the recovery of native types. From Parsons’ final years at the Bureau of Public Works to the 12 months before World War II, i.e., from 1913 to 1941, government buildings had been designed in the neoclassic type. Among the last of these were the Agriculture and Commerce Building, the Finance Building, and the City Hall of Manila. Neoclassic structure enjoyed nationwide visibility, for provincial capitols from north to south of the archipelago have been inbuilt that fashion, notably those of Pangasinan, Negros Occidental, and Leyte. Following the guidelines set by Parsons in 1913, the provincial capitols and related buildings were located in parks, away from population facilities, “in a position of dignity and retirement.” The orderly association of provincial government buildings was alleged to reflect the order in authorities itself.

The implantation of 20th-century neoclassicism within the Philippines was inevitable. Parsons had been trained within the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, which actively promoted revivalist design, particularly neoclassicism. Barretto, Toledo, Mapua, and Juan Arellano were products of American faculties that have been under the lordly influence of the Ecole de Beaux Arts, which then loved secure dominance even while trendy structure started to emerge as a revolutionary drive that might ultimately prevail. The neoclassic type was applicable throughout a colonial regime when the nation was being ready for independence. Since authorities buildings in the nice capitals of the world have been in that type, it appeared logical that a individuals who aspired for equality with free nations and highly effective states ought to adopt the same fashion in all its grandeur for the seats of civil authority. The genesis of modern structure in the Philippines covers a period of about 30 years, and involves an interrupted infancy and a shift from early loyalties.

It begins with Parsons whose earlier works signified a departure from historic kinds and embodied a brand new approach based on the primacy of perform. But in his final works in Manila, Parsons turned to the Greek revival and established the native neoclassic regime in structure, thereby nipping in the bud a development that he had auspiciously initiated. A departure towards a different direction appeared in the Uy-Chaco (now Philtrust Bank) Building on Plaza Cervantes. Built in 1914, it was thought of Manila’s first skyscraper, and might be Manila’s first and final building within the artwork nouveau type. Juan Arellano was a master of neoclassicism, however in the Metropolitan Theater and in his designs for government buildings in Ifugao and Cotabato, he signaled the break  from historicist kinds. In his later work, nevertheless, he returned to revivalist design. Andres Luna de San Pedro, who returned from Paris in 1920, and Fernando Ocampo Sr., who returned from Rome and Philadelphia in 1923, began working in revivalist types, but by 1930 had produced some of the first trendy buildings of Manila.

Juan Nakpil, who returned from the United States and Paris in 1926, and Pablo Antonio, who returned from London in 1932, were committed to modernism in structure from the very begin of their follow. As the Ecole des Beaux Arts of Paris was the source of the neoclassic fashion within the Philippines through the early American regime, so was the artwork deco exposition held in Paris in 1925 the supply of early artwork deco architecture within the Philippines. Art deco was not a serious influence on the development of recent architecture in Europe or the United States. It did not advocate any revolutionary ideas of space or structure, or contribute to the emergence of latest architectural forms. It was largely a decorative fashion, limited to surface ornaments that consisted of stylized motifs ranging from the curvilinear to the angular. Art deco structure in the Philippines was vital as a result of it marked the rejection of the prevailing neoclassicism.

While it rejected such Graeco-Roman staples as columns, capitals, entablatures, arches, and pediments, it did not reject decoration as such however actually adopted its personal decorative style. What differentiated trendy or artwork deco structure from the neoclassic was the simplified construction defined by posts, beams, walls, and windows. The structural scheme of a building was revealed to some extent on the exterior, and was emphasized with the discreet use of decoration. While the neoclassic building was huge, formal, faithful to the canons of traditional design, and endowed with solemn grandeur, the early trendy building was visually light, less formal, liberated from academic historicism, and relatively cheerful. As the neoclassic buildings were symbols of national dignity, the early trendy buildings have been symbols of economic progress. In type, neoclassic buildings seemed back to the past, but the early trendy buildings seemed to the longer term. Neoclassic structure was identified with the federal government, early trendy structure with non-public enterprise.

With progress attained through widespread education, expanded public services, improved transportation and communication, elevated manufacturing and trade, and greater exposure to the West, new buildings needed to be designed and constructed to fulfill rising wants. Commercial buildings, college buildings, hospitals, resorts, condo buildings, film homes, and clubhouses required a brand new method to design that solely trendy structure, with its freedom and freshness, might present. Experiments with type could probably be efficiently undertaken with the help of strengthened concrete, the surprise material of the time.

Luna de San Pedro, chief architect of fhe City of Manila from 1920 to 1924, designed the Legarda Elementary School on Lealtad Street, in the French renaissance fashion. Within the Twenties he moved on to modernism and produced the Perez-Samanillo Building and, subsequently, the Crystal Arcade. The Perez-Samanillo is a simple, no-nonsense workplace constructing, with a somewhat elaborate exterior that reflects its structural frame. Columns, beams, and exterior partitions seem to have been saved down to minimal dimensions to maximize the expanse of home windows and the natural illumination inside.

Before World War II, the Crystal Arcade was celebrated as Manila’s most modern constructing. Its floor floor could presumably be thought-about the forerunner of present-day buying malls, i.e., an extended gallery with mezzanines on each side and skylights at the entrance and rear sections. The striking features of the exterior were the continual bands of glass windows and plain concrete partitions that gave the constructing both purity of line and daring simplicity. In both the Perez-Samanillo Building and the Crystal Arcade, Luna de San Pedro employed art deco types in numerous ornaments. By 1930 Ocampo Sr. had designed a quantity of buildings that have been highly regarded for being trendy. The Paterno Building (now a constructing of the Far Eastern Air Transport Inc or FEATI University), located at the foot of Santa Cruz (now MacArthur) Bridge and completed in 1929, was notable for its unembarrassed simplicity and functional design.

The Oriental Club was fashionable and had a correct contact of oriental character. The seven-story Cu Unjieng Building, that once stood on Escolta and T. Pinpin, was a “skyscraper” so nicely designed that the structure was its own adornment. One of Ocampo Sr.’s most spectacular works is the Central Seminary Building of the University of Santo Tomas (UST). E-shaped in plan with courtyards between the wings, the constructing has an extended entrance with steady balconies and enormous windows on the second and third floors. The horizontal movement of the balconies is broken by uncovered columns, and extra decisively, by the marginally projected central section over the entrance and two equally projected finish sections. Art deco ornaments accent the vertical thrust of those sections and dramatize the doorway. In 1925, after his studies within the United States, Nakpil went to Paris for additional coaching and, whereas there, visited the artwork deco exposition, the place he picked up new ideas on architectural remedy, indirect lighting, and furniture design. Upon returning to Manila in 1926 he was employed on the Bureau of Public Works, then from 1928 to 1930 labored with Luna de San Pedro.

In 1930 he established his own practice. One of his earliest works, the Geronimo de los Reyes Building, changed by the Soriano Building, at Plaza Cervantes in Manila, was within the art deco type. At about the same time he designed the neobaroque Quiapo Church. Nakpil’s other works earlier than World War II embrace the Avenue Theater and Hotel Building and the Capitan Pepe Building on Rizal Avenue, and the Quezon Institute Administration Building and Pavilions on España extension (now E. Rodriguez Avenue). With spherical columns, rounded corners, plain surfaces, continuous horizontal bands of walls and home windows, and the minimum of decoration, these buildings belong to the streamlined style of artwork deco. While his predecessors within the local trendy motion strove for correctness and elegance, Antonio aimed for boldness and vigor.

His first work, the Ideal Theater (now changed by one other building) on Rizal Avenue, Manila, in-built 1933, was notable for its sturdy, rectangular lots and minimum ornament. Antonio might afford to be daring. He was one architect who from early experience was conversant in the wealthy prospects of materials and the practical facet of development. The main building of the Far Eastern University (FEU) on Quezon Boulevard was another exercise in architectural virility. Boldly projecting piers at each finish of the front support the dominant horizontal block that defines and shelters the wide expanse of the constructing.

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