Dantes Inferno represents a microcosm of society; that is, laymen, clergy, lovers, wagers of struggle, politicians, and scholars are all collected into one place and punished for his or her worst and most human attributes. Hell, despite its otherworldly appearance and brutal, ugly nature, is somewhat humanized by the fact that those who are punished come from each nation (Dante three.123) and each stroll of life, no matter age, race, intercourse, or creed. While Dante Alighieri didn’t invent the concept of Hell as a place of punishment for the wayward and sinful souls within the afterlife, he did create the most powerful and enduring (Raffa 1) imagining of a concept which has acquired important consideration in biblical, classical, and medieval works.
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Dante’s Divine Comedy was written sometime between 1308 and 1321 and is considered “the supreme work of Italian literature” (Norwich 27). It is an epic poem divided into three separate sections: Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven, respectively. The private element of the journey by way of Hell in Dante’s Inferno literally explores the descent of 1 man into sin; through using poetic justice, each up to date and historical figures, and mythological figures, Dante crafts an immediate and enthralling work coping with the nature of sin and its place in society.
The idea of poetic justice is famously explored in Inferno, where it’s put to dramatic effect… devising appropriate torments for each specific sin (Raffa 3). From Limbo to Treachery, Dante catalogues and documents the punishment of sinners both notorious and beloved, well-known and unknown.
In every case, the punishment fits the crime in a twisted and malignant trend in any case, the poem does focus on the realm of Satan, the Christian embodiment of evil. The 9 circles of Hell described in Inferno are as follows: Limbo, Lust, Gluttony, Avarice and Prodigality, Wrath and Sullenness, Heresy, Violence, Fraud, and Treachery. These 9 circles are based mostly off of the idea of the Seven Deadly Sins, with some additions similar to Limbo created by Dante.
The poem begins with Dante misplaced in a dark wood, assailed by three beasts he can not evade, and unable to maneuver straight along (Dante 1.18) the street to salvation, represented by a mountain. A lion, a leopard, and a she-wolf symbolizing satisfaction, envy, and avarice, respectively block Dante’s path to the top of the mountain, forcing him to descend into the depths of Hell with Virgil. The complete journey documented in the Divine Comedy is an allegory for man’s fall into sin before achieving redemption (represented by Purgatorio) and eventually salvation (represented by Paradiso).
Before Dante even enters the gates of Hell, he’s introduced to his information for the primary two realms of the afterlife, Inferno and Paradiso. For this position, Dante chose Virgil (70-19 BCE), who lived beneath the rule of Julius Caesar and later Augustus throughout Rome’s transition from a republic into an empire, and is most famous for the Aeneid. Two episodes in Virgil’s work have been of specific interest to Dante. Book IV tells the tale of Aeneas and Dido, the queen of Carthage, who kills herself when Aeneas abandons her to continue his journey and… [found] a brand new civilization in Italy (Raffa 8). Book VI recounts Aeneas’ journey into Hades to satisfy the shade of his father and study of future events in his journey. Many parts within the Aeneid are present in closely modified type in Dante’s Inferno. Many of Dante’s mythological components are based on Book VI of Virgil’s Aeneid, which recounts Aeneas’ go to to the underworld. Virgil imbued his version of the underworld with a fluid, dreamlike ambiance (5), whereas Dante instead strives for higher realism, offering sharply drawn and tangible figures.
After passing via the gateway to hell, marked ominously with the words ABANDON EVERY HOPE, WHO ENTER HERE (Dante 3.9), Dante and Virgil witness a realm of depressing people… who lived without shame and without praise (3.17-35) on the periphery of the Inferno. In this realm, the two poets encounter the souls of those that lived such undistinguished and cowardly lives that they have been cast out by Heaven and refused entry by Hell. These souls are pressured to race after a banner which never comes to a cease, and are stung repeatedly by flies and wasps, their blood and tears nourishing the sickening worms (3.69) at their feet. The punishment for these cowardly souls is clear; simply as in life they refused to be decisive and act, they now are barred from each eternal paradise and eternal damnation, and chase down a waving banner which they may by no means have the power to reach.
Next, Dante and Virgil meet Charon, Hell’s boatman. In the Aeneid, Charon is the pilot of the vessel that transports shades of the lifeless across the waters into the underworld. In each works, he’s an irritable old man with hair white with years (3.83) who objects to taking a dwelling man (Aeneas, Dante) into the realm of the useless. In every case, the protagonist’s information (the Sybil, Virgil) provides Charon the correct credentials, and their journey continues.
In Limbo, the guiltless damned, noble non-Christian souls, and these who lived earlier than the time of Christianity are punished. The thought of a spot for souls who didn’t sin; and yet… lacked baptism (4.34-35) existed in Christian theology previous to Dante, but his imaginative and prescient is extra beneficiant than most. Dante contains unbaptized infants, in addition to notable non-Christian adults in his version of Limbo, which bears a resemblance to the Asphodel Meadows, a section of the Greek underworld where indifferent and ordinary souls had been despatched to reside after demise. Dante means that those in Limbo are being punished for his or her ignorance of God by being pressured to spend the afterlife in a poor form of Heaven; whereas definitely not as hellish as the other circles, Limbo is by no means a paradise.
Dante encounters the classical poets Homer (eighth or ninth century BCE), Horace (65-8 BCE), Ovid (43 BCE -17 CE), and Lucan (39-65 CE), who welcome again their comrade Virgil and honour Dante and considered one of their own (Dante four.79-102). Philosophers Socrates and Aristotle additionally make appearances in Limbo as the shades of men renowned for his or her excellent mental achievements. Socrates (born ca. 470 BCE in Athens) was a legendary instructor identified for the rigorous technique of questioning that characterizes the dialogues of Plato (ca. 428-ca. 347 BCE), who also appears. In addition, one notable non-Christian soul finds himself in Limbo, separated from the remainder: Saladin, the distinguished army leader and Egyptian sultan who fought towards the crusading armies of Europe yet was admired even by his enemies for his chivalry and magnanimity. Dante’s implication is that every one virtuous non-Christians discover themselves in Limbo.
The Lustful are punished within the second circle by being blown about by a hellish hurricane, which never rests… wheeling and pounding (5.31-33). Lust, for most of the inhabitants of this circle, led to the sin of adultery and in the cases of Dido, Cleopatra, Helen of Troy, and others a violent dying. The violent winds are symbolic of lust, and represent the facility it holds in affairs of blind passion and physical love.
Lust incorporates the shades of many well-known lovers: Semiramis, Dido, Paris, Achilles, and Tristan, among others. Semiramis was a robust Assyrian queen alleged to ave been so perverse that she even made incest a authorized apply (Raffa 27); Dido, queen of Carthage and widow of Sychaeus, committed suicide after her lover Aeneas abandoned her (Virgil IV); Paris later died in the course of the Trojan warfare; Achilles was the most formidable (Raffa 27) Greek hero in the warfare towards the Trojans, who was killed by Paris (according to medieval accounts); lastly, Tristan was the nephew of king Mark of Cornwall who fell in love in Iseult (Mark’s fiancee) and was killed by Mark’s poisoned arrow.
Minos, the one who judges and assigns (Dante 5.6) the souls during their descent into Hell, is an amalgam of figures from classical sources, accomplished with a quantity of private touches from Dante. He is a mix of two figures of the identical name, one the grandfather of the other, each rulers of Crete. The elder Minos was admired for his knowledge and the laws of his kingdom. The second Minos imposed a harsh penalty on the Athenians (who had killed his son Androgeos), demanding an annual tribute of fourteen youths (seven boys and 7 girls), who have been sacrificed to the Minotaur, which seems later in Inferno. Minos’ long tail which he wraps… around himself, that marks the sinner’s stage (Dante 5.11-12) is Dante’s invention.
Gluttony is punished in the third circle. The souls of the damned lie in a vile, grimy slush brought about by cold, endless, heavy, and accursed rain (6.7-8). These former gluttons lie sightless and heedless of their neighbours, symbolizing their cold, egocentric, and empty pursuit of hedonism and empty sensuality. The slush, consultant of overindulgence and sensuality, serves to cut one off from both the outside world and from God’s deliverance.
Gluttonous people of notice include a Florentine modern of Dante’s, identified as Ciacco ( pig in Italian). Ciacco speaks to Dante relating to the political conflict in the metropolis of Florence between two rival events, the “White” and “Black” Guelphs, and predicts the defeat of the White Guelphs, Dante’s celebration. This event did certainly happen, and would result in Dante’s own exile in 1302. As the poem is set within the yr 1300, before Dante’s exile, he uses the occasions of his personal life for example the distinctive ability of shades in Inferno to foretell the future, a theme which is returned to later within the poem.
Cerberus, guardian of Gluttony, is much like the beast of Greek mythology. In the Aeneid, Virgil describes Cerberus the three-headed canine which guards the entrance to the classical underworld as loud, huge, and terrifying. Dante’s Cerberus shows similar canine qualities: his three throats produce a deafening bark, and he eagerly devours the fistful of dirt Virgil throws into his mouths like a canine intent on its meal. Cerberus’ bloodred (6.16) eyes, greasy, black (6.16) beard, and huge gut link him to the gluttonous spirits whom he tears, flays, and rends (6.18) with his clawed arms.
The Avaricious and the Prodigal are punished collectively within the fourth circle. Avarice, or greed, is one of the inequities that most incurs Dante’s scorn and wrath (Raffa 37). Prodigality is defined as the other of Avarice; that is, the trait of extreme spending. Both teams are compelled to eternally joust with one another, using cumbersome stone weights as weapons. They name out to one another: ‘Why do you hoard?’ ‘Why do you squander?’ (Dante 7.30). Here Dante describes the punishment of both extremes, criticizing extreme desire for and in opposition to the possession of fabric goods utilizing the classical principle of moderation.
In the fifth circle, the Wrathful and the Sullen are punished. The wrathful fight each other eternally on the floor of the river Styx, which runs darker than deep purple (7.103), while the sullen lie gurgling beneath the water. Dante describes how the Wrathful fight one another: [They] struck one another not with arms alone, however with their heads and chests and with their feet, and tore one another piecemeal with their enamel (7.112-114). The wrathful are damned to eternally wrestle and battle with out path or purpose, while the sullen have withdrawn into a black sulkiness from which they will discover joy in neither God nor life.
In the fifth circle, Filippo Argenti, a outstanding Florentine and a Black Guelph, calls to Dante. A hotheaded character (Raffa 40), little is known regarding Filippo except what transpires in Inferno. He quarrels with Dante, lays his palms upon the boat the poets travel on, and is ultimately torn aside by his wrathful cohorts. The two men have been political opponents, but Dante’s behaviour towards Filippo signifies a more personal grievance. Perhaps he had humiliated Dante in life, or had taken some a half of Dante’s property after his exile from the city.
Phlegyas is the solitary boatman (Dante eight.17) who transports Dante and Virgil in his boat throughout the Styx, the circle of the wrathful and sullen. He was recognized in Greek mythology for his impetuous behaviour; in a match of rage, Phlegyas set fire to the temple of Apollo as a result of the god had raped his daughter Apollo promptly slew him in response. Phlegyas seems in Virgil’s underworld as an admonition towards exhibiting contempt for the gods (Virgil 6.618-620), a task which he reprises in Inferno.
Between the fifth and sixth circles lie the partitions of Dis, the fortressed metropolis of Lower Hell (Raffa 39). The fallen angels who guard the gates of Dis refuse entry to the two poets, requiring the arrival of a messenger from Heaven to open the gate for them. Dante designates all of Lower Hell circles six by way of nine, the place essentially the most severe of sins are punished because the walled city of Dis, with its grave citizens, its great battalions (Dante 8.69). The first 5 circles, which exist exterior of Dis, are collectively generally recognized as Upper Hell, as they are the place the lesser sins are punished.
With the looks of the three infernal (9.38) Furies, who threaten to call on Medusa, Virgil’s credibility and Dante’s survival look like in danger. Furies have been typically invoked in Virgil’s classical world to precise revenge on behalf of offended mortal and gods. Medusa’s hair was turned into snakes by an angry Minerva after Medusa made love with Neptune in the goddess’s temple, and have become too horrifying to take a glance at without being turned to stone. Dante describes Medusa as the Queen of endless lamentation (9.44). The Furies’ names evil thought (Allecto), evil phrases (Tisiphone), and evil deeds (Magaera) (9.45-48) describe the three manifestations of sin, which may flip people to stone by making them obstinate cultivators of earthly issues (Raffa 41).
Heretics are punished contained in the walls of Dis, in a spreading plain of lamentation and atrocious pain (Dante 9.110-111) resembling a cemetery. The sixth circle incorporates souls trapped and enclosed in fiery tombs for failing to consider in God and the afterlife. Since they didn’t consider in Hell, the Heretics are punished by being sealed away from it in essentially the most disagreeable attainable means inside a flaming sepulchre.
Among the tombstones of the sixth circle, Dante encounters more Italian contemporaries. A pair of Epicurian Florentines are disocvered sharing a tomb: Farinata degli Uberti, a Ghibelline; and Cavalcante de’ Cavalcanti, a fellow Guelph and the daddy of Guido Cavalcanti, Dante’s fellow poet and closest good friend. Farinata is an imposing figure, rising out of his infected sepulchre from the waist up and seeming to have great contempt for Hell (10.31-36). As the leader of the Ghibellines, Farinata was an enemy to the Guelphs, the celebration of Dante’s ancestors. Farinata declares that his colleagues would have annihilated Florence (10.92), had he not interceded forcefully, an act which has earned him Dante’s respect. Cavalcante was an enemy to the Ghibellines, like Dante, and married his son Guido to Farinata’s daughter so as to foster peace between the two events. Dante’s greatest good friend, Guido Cavalcanti, was a poet who held the philosophical perception that love is a darkish drive which leads only to distress and dying. Therefore, Cavalcante’s look in Hell may be extra a matter of guilt by affiliation to his son’s worldview than any sort of reflection on himself.
The Minotaur is the guardian and mythological symbol for the seventh circle, Violence. At the sight of Dante and Virgil, the minotaur reacts like one whom fury devastates within (12.15), and his frenzied bucking permits the travellers to proceed unhurt. The Minotaur is a bodily manifestation of violence in Inferno: virtually every part of the Minotaur’s story, from its creation to its demise, accommodates some type of violence (Raffa 55).
The sinners within the seventh circle are divided into three groups: the violent in opposition to people and property, the violent in opposition to themselves, and the violent towards God and nature (Dante eleven.28-33). The first group comprised of assassins and murderers, among others are immersed in Phlegethon, a bloodred, boiling (12.101) river of blood and hearth, up to a level commensurate with their sins (12.73-75). Because they committed such acts of bloodshed and destruction of their lives, they are punished by being immersed in a river of that which they have spilt. The second group the suicides are transformed into knotted, gnarled (13.5) thorny bushes and timber, which are fed upon by Harpies. These souls have given away their bodily our bodies by way of suicide, and are pressured to take care of treelike varieties. These suffering bushes cannot speak until Dante by chance injures one and causes it to bleed. Dante makes use of the soul-trees as a metaphor for the state of mind which results in self-harm and suicide. Finally, the third group blasphemers and sodomites reside in a desert of sand, fire and brimstone falling from the sky. The blasphemers lie down upon the sand, the usurers recline, and the sodomites wander seemingly aimlessly in huddling teams, all while being burned by distended flakes of fireside (14.28-29). This symbolizes how those who act violently towards God and that which God has offered are perpetually unable to find peace and luxury in their lives.
Among these immersed in Phlegethon is Alexander the Great, submerged up to his eyebrows in blood. He suffers for his status as a merciless, bloodthirsty man who inflicted nice harm upon the world and its peoples. In the forest of suicides, Dante hears the tale of Pier delle Vigne, who killed himself after falling out of favour with Emperor Frederick II (Dante 13.64-69). Dante encounters his mentor, Brunetto Latini, among the many sodomites. Surprised and touched by this encounter, Dante exhibits Brunetto great respect and admiration, thus refuting recommendations that the poet Dante placed solely his enemies in Hell (15.43-45).
The Centaurs are men from the waist up with the decrease bodies of horses (Raffa 55) who guard the river Phlegethon. Thousands of centaurs patrol the financial institution of the river, utilizing bows and arrows to maintain damned souls submerged. In classical mythology, Centaurs are best known for his or her uncouth, violent behaviour. Chiron, leader of the Centaurs, enjoyed a beneficial reputation because the sage tutor of each Hercules and Achilles. Pholus and Nessus the Centaurs assigned to escort Dante and Virgil have absolutely earned their negative reputations, however: Pholus who Virgil describes as filled with rage (Dante 12.72) had been killed when a fight broke out during a wedding after he and his fellow centaurs tried to hold off the bride and a variety of other other girls, and Nessus was killed by Hercules with a poison arrow for making an attempt to rape the hero’s spouse, Deinira, after Hercules entrusted him with carrying her throughout a river (12.67-69).
The penultimate circle in addition to the most detailed is Fraud, which Dante describes as a place in Hell… made all of stone the color of crude iron (18.1-2). This circle is divided up into ten smaller pockets: panderers and seducers, flatterers, simonists, sorcerers, barrators, hypocrites, thieves, fraudulent advisers and evil councillors, sowers of discord, and falsifiers. Panderers (pimps) and seducers march eternally in opposite instructions, lashed… cruelly (18.36) by demons. Just as they used passion and seduction to bend others to their will, they’re now themselves pushed by hellish demons. Flatterers exploited different folks using language, due to this fact, they’re plunged in excrement (18.113), representing the false words they produced. Simonists payed for positions of energy throughout the Catholic Church, and are placed upside-down into holes in the floor, with each soles [of their feet]… on fire (9.25). The holes into which their heads are planted resemble baptismal fonts, utilized in a quantity of spiritual rituals a relentless reminder of the corrupt nature of their former positions within the church. Sorcerers, astrologers, and false prophets have had their heads twisted towards their haunches (20.13) in order that they cannot see what’s ahead of them. This symbolizes the twisted nature of magic in general particularly, it refers to using forbidden means to see into the future. Dante felt particularly unforgiving in path of politicians after his exile from Florence, thus, corrupt politicians (barrators) are immersed in a stew of sticky pitch (21.8). Their punishment represents the sticky fingers, corrupt deals, and darkish secrets inherent in positions of political energy. The hypocrites listlessly walk with lagging steps, in circles, with features tired and defeated (23.59-60), wearing leaden cloaks, representing the falsity behind the appearance of their actions. This falsity actually weighs these souls down and renders any kind of progress impossible. The thieves are pursued and attacked by lizards and snakes, their bites causing them to bear various transformations (24-25). Just as they stole in life, their very human identity turns into topic to theft in Hell. Fraudulent advisers and evil councillors are encased within particular person pyres. These people didn’t give false advice out of ignorance; rather, Dante refers to rhetoric [used]… by proficient individuals for insidious ends (Raffa 99). In life, they triggered those whom they advised to do unwell without dirtying their very own arms now they are punished alone in their fires. The sowers of discord are hacked apart, their our bodies dividing as in life they caused division among others. Their wounds are shortly healed, only to have themselves hacked apart once more (Dante 28.139-142). Dante considers falsifiers (alchemists, counterfeiters, perjurers, and impersonators) a illness upon society, and their corrupting affect is reflected in their diseased bodies and minds (Raffa 99) in the tenth pouch.
In the eighth circle, Dante meets a selection of notably fraudulent people. Venedico Caccianemico, who sold his personal sister to the Marchese d’Este, is acknowledged among the many pimps in the first pouch, regardless of his attempts to avoid detection (Dante 18.40-60). In the fifth ditch, the thief Vanni Fucci is burnt to ashes earlier than being reincarnated; Agnel blends together with a reptilian Cianfa; and Buoso exchanges types with Francesco. Vanni Fucci was a black Guelph from Pistoia, a town not far from rival Florence; Dante says he knew Vanni as a man of blood and anger (Dante 24.129). Agnel is thought to be Agnello Dei Brunelleschi, a man who joined the white Guelphs Dante s party however then switched to the black faction once they came to energy. Both he and Cianfa are renowned for their thievery. Buoso stole while serving in public office, then arranged for Francesco de’ Cavalcanti to take over and steal on his behalf. In the eighth pit, Ulysses and Diomedes are condemned for the deception of the Trojan Horse, luring Achilles into the struggle effort, and stealing a statue of Athena from Troy (26.58-63). Dante encounters the schismatic prophet Muhammad; the poet views Islam as an off-shoot from Christianity, and equally condemns Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law, for the schism between Sunni and Shiite Muslims (28.22-33).
The Malebranche ( Evil claws in Italian) are the devils of the fifth pocket of circle eight who bring to Hell the shades of corrupt political officials and staff. They are agile, smart, and fierce (Raffa 77), they are armed with long hooks, which they use to keep the shades beneath the surface of the black pitch (Dante 21.55-57). It is likely that the names Dante coined for individual demons ( Bad Dog, Sneering Dragon, Curly Beard, and so forth.) are based on actual household names of civic leaders in Florence and the encompassing towns.
The Giants bodily connect circles eight and nine: standing on the floor of circle 9, they tower over the inside ledge of circle eight with the higher halve of their immense bodies. They are archetypal examples of defiant rebels: Nimrod, who tried to build the Tower of Babel earlier than it was knocked down by God and his individuals have been scattered; Ephialtes, who fought towards Jove and the opposite Olympian gods; and Antaeus, whose relationship with the titans who stormed Mt. Olympus damned him, even though he was born after his brothers had waged war towards the gods. Nimrod has been punished by being compelled to talk an incomprehensible language; that’s, his language is as strange to others as theirs is to him. Ephialtes, like the relaxation of the titans who challenged the gods, is immobilized with heavy chains. Antaeus is not given any distinctive punishment, for he’s only guilty by affiliation. It is Antaeus who assists Virgil and Dante by decreasing them down to the ninth circle, after being enticed by Virgil with the prospect of eternal fame upon Dante’s return to the world (31.115-129).
The last circle is Treachery, a frozen lake at the centre of Hell, which is split into 4 Rounds: Ca?na, Antenora, Ptolomaea, and Judecca. In Ca?na, traitors to their kindred are immersed in ice as a lot as their faces. In Antenora, traitors to political entities are positioned similarly within the ice. In Ptolomaea, traitors to their friends are punished, mendacity on their backs within the ice, with solely their faces uncovered. In Judecca, the traitors to their lords and benefactors are utterly encapsulated in ice, distorted in pain.
In the first round of Treachery, Dante encounters Mordred, who attacked his uncle King Arthur and was pierced mortally by Arthur’s lance (Dante 32.61-62). In the second round, Count Ugolino pauses from his ceaseless assault upon the top of his rival, Archbishop Ruggieri, to tell Dante how Ruggieri imprisoned and killed him together with his children. This story, the longest single episode associated by a damned soul in Inferno, serves as Dante’s final dramatic illustration of mankind’s capability for evil and cruelty. Fra Alberigo, who had his brother killed at a banquet, explains a key conceit of Dante’s Inferno: typically, a soul falls into Hell earlier than they have truly died. Their earthly bodies are possessed by demons, so what appears to be a walking, residing man is definitely past the point of repentance (33.134-147).
Finally, Lucifer the emperor of the despondent kingdom (34.28) lies on the centre of the Inferno. As ugly as he as quickly as was lovely (34.34-36), Lucifer is a wretched distinction together with his restricted autonomy and mobility. Lucifer’s three faces (black, yellow, and red) parody the doctrine of the Holy Trinity: three individuals (Father, Son, Holy Spirit) in one divine nature the Divine Power, Highest Wisdom, and Primal Love which additionally created the gates of Hell, and, by extension, the entire realm of eternal damnation. His flapping wings generate the wind that retains lake at the centre of Hell frozen, whereas his three mouths chew on the shade-bodies of the three archtraitors Judas, Brutus, and Cassius the gore mixing with tears gushing out of his three units of eyes (34.53-57).
Dante’s Inferno heralded a revolution in Christian theology by way of its revolutionary use of poetic justice, historic and modern figures, and classical mythology. By combining these disparate components right into a single, cohesive poem, Dante effectively modified the finest way the Western world imagined the afterlife and Hell particularly. By specializing in the primary points of the scenes and the identities of those whom the fictional Dante converses with, Inferno illustrates a horrifyingly real and immediate imaginative and prescient of Hell, one which has persisted a minimum of in some part to this day. By specializing in the non-public journey of one man through the afterlife, the focus of the narrative is shifted onto the reader, who can easily establish with Dante as the first-person narrator. While the circumstances surrounding the creation of the Divine Comedy Dante’s exile from Florence, his fall from political grace, and his eventual dying quickly after the completion of his magnum opus are rather tragic, all of them contribute to Dante’s work in a means which colours the textual content and gives it a personality and fervour which remains to be felt to today. For seven hundred years, Inferno has elicited sturdy responses from its readers from fascination to revulsion and every little thing in between (Raffa 5). Regardless as to the readership, the response to Inferno has been, and will proceed to be, anything but apathetic.