Analysis of Hydrated copper sulphate

Aim –

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To decide the molecular formula of hydrated copper sulfate.

Requirements –

Hydrous copper sulfate

Electronic balance

Evaporating dish

Glass rod

Tripod stand

Bunsen burner


Procedure –

First I weighed 3g of hydrous copper sulfate on electronic stability and began heating it in an evaporating dish on top of a Bunsen burner. After the reaction was complete I measured the new weight to find a change in mass.

Qualitative data –

After the response was full, the colour modified from blue to white because of a lack of water crystals.

Faint green tinge became evident and fantastic white powder was shaped from crystals. Continued heating led to formation of oliver green color.

Quantitative data –

Original weight of hydrous copper sulfate – 3g

Error in electronic stability – ± zero.001g (provided by the teacher)

Data collection –

Trial 1


Trial 2


Trial 3


Data Processing –

To minimize the errors I performed three trials and averaged the readings to find a more accurate answer.

= 1.93 g ± 0.001

Change in mass = (3 ± zero.001) – (1.93 ± 0.001)

= 1.07 ± zero.002

The change in mass was as a end result of lack of water crystals. Water (H20) has a molar mass of 18g. Therefore the change in mass must be equal to the mass of water present in copper sulfate.

No of moles of water evaporated = = 0.059 ± 0.002moles

The molar mass of anhydrous copper sulfate is 159.6g.

No of moles of = = 0.012 ± zero.001moles

In the equation I took the no of moles of water as x as a result of it is unknown.

CuSO4.xH20 → CuSO4 + xH2O

According to the equation the mole ratio between copper sulfate and water is 1: x.

Therefore 1:x = 0.012 ± 0.001: zero.059 ± 0.002

x = = four.9 ± zero.588

Conclusion –

Hence the x value could be rounded off to five to get an integer reply. This signifies that in 1 molecule of hydrous copper sulfate there are 5 atoms of water present as crystals. The outcome can also be equal to the literature worth which was provided by the instructor and there seems to be no deviation as a outcome of the answers are taken as integer and decimal factors are excluded. The only systematic error current was in electronic stability. Moreover random error could have been brought on throughout heating of the salt i.e. overheating or underheating. This error is dependent upon the sight of colour change, due to this fact this is a very hard random error to remove.

Evaluation –

As the reply is taken as integer, there seems to be zero error nevertheless nonetheless lots of errors are possible while conducting this experiment. During the heating of hydrous copper sulfate there perhaps some water crystals nonetheless left because of inappropriate stirring and overheated or underheated salts might have additionally caused error. Main error which is inevitable is the hydration of crystals after being heated. The reaction is reversible and the after heating there might have been water vapour in the air which might have combined with the salt. Hence these also can lead to deviations in results. To enhance upon these errors we should be sure that after the salt is heated, its weight have to be measured instantly so that there’s very less time hole between it. Furthermore correct stirring and care taken during heating also can decrease errors.


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