Ancient Philosophy Final Exam Study Questions

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6 December 2021

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Al-Ghazali (pp. 73-77)

According to the Al-Ghazali studying, what’s the problem with the traditional philosophers? What is the danger inherent in following them? (100 phrases – 2 pts.)

According to Al-Ghazali, the problem with the traditional philosophers is that they disregard the law and blindly settle for concepts that hold little weight. These ancient philosophers ignored constructive commandments similar to devotion and abstinence from forbidden things. They recognized God, and had religion in Him and His messengers, however faltered away and brought on others to stray away as well.

The potential inherent hazard in following them is that one could start to consider in their incoherent beliefs and inconsistent metaphysical theories. Thus, following historic philosophers may result in one being perceived as a fool in the eyes of the extra intelligent/those who understand more.

Averroes (pp. 78-82)

What is an allegorical interpretation? Under what circumstances is an allegorical interpretation both more or less appropriate? (100 phrases – 2 pts.)

An allegorical interpretation is a metaphysical interpretation of an occasion or scripture.

Averroes notes that this must be carried out without violating the usual metaphorical practices of Arabic. An allegorical interpretation is extra acceptable when an statement stands in battle with what the scriptures say about that being or understanding. Averroes additionally notes that there are contradictions in scripture to meet the varying intellectual levels of humanity. Muslims and Christian believers accept the principle or idea of allegorical interpretation but disagree on which should or shouldn’t be interpreted.

Augustine (pp. 83-92)

According to Augustine, all natures (meaning everything) are good simply because they exist.

So what is evil? Do you think Augustine is right? Why or why not? (150 words – 3 pts.)

For Augustine, the answer to “what is evil?’ is that evil is the act of turning away from God. As Augustine put it, the “defection from that which supremely is, to that which has less being” this is to begin to have an evil will.” I think that Augustine is partially right in how he believes evil exists in nature. I argue that everyone begins out their lives equally regarding the very nature of their character but there is some course of that influences one to show to evil. However, I consider that happens regardless of God or a perception in God. I believe those influences need to do with tradition, societal norms, human nature and the like. Instead of evil being a “defection’ from God, I believe it’s a defection from a real belief in goodness.

Thomas Aquinas

Thomas attempts to prove the existence of God in five ways. List his five proofs. Then explain, in your individual view, whether or not any considered one of these five arguments successfully proves that God exists. (150 phrases; 3 points)

The first proof is that things in movement were put into movement by something else. Therefore, there must have been a “first mover” to place the very first thing into motion.

The second proof states the character of efficient causation. Similar to the first proof, there should have be a primary cause that triggered everything else.

The third proof is that something needed to have existed out of its own necessity and have brought on other necessities for beings and issues so things may exist.

The forth proof is that there are issues which may be more good and issues which may be much less good. There must be an final good that others are derived from.

The fifth proof is that there should be an ultimate being that directs all thing to their end, aim, or objective.

In my very own view, I do not suppose that any of these proofs show that there is an existence of God. I think that we, rational human beings, put ourselves in motion. While there could be speculation, I find myself placing belief in what I can undoubtedly know. That is, that my dad and mom put me into motion and triggered my existence. Everything else before that is a chain, in my opinion. My grandparents conceived my parents and so on and so forth. Whether or not all that stems from a God is one thing that I am unsure I will ever know.

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