In this case, Yun, Cox & Sims carried out a study the main purpose being to investigate how to develop a (TOCB) Team Organizational Citizenship Behavior. They examine whether there is a unique relationship between leadership and TOCB. They first offer a theoretical study presenting a literature review on citizenship and leadership behavior. They take citizenship as a result of leadership and probably mediated through job satisfaction. They went further to explain research method present results and finally move on to the discussion and implication part.
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According to earlier research carried out in this field, it revealed that leader characteristics such as consideration, participation and fairness are linked as evoking (OCB) Organizational Citizenship Behavior at personal level. In this research, they tested whether TOCB relates to other forms of a leadership typology. They also investigated the mediating responsibility of job contentment. Yun, Cox & Sims concluded that leader characters influence TOCB both indirectly and directly via job satisfaction, and distinct kinds of leaders’ traits were developed to manipulate both TACB and TOCB. Whilst empowering and transformational leadership revealed that, TACB and TOCB have indirect impacts to job satisfaction. They also indicated that if employees are forced to do what they do not want they will feel less contented than other people will. The aversive managers will not contribute to unhappy employees. The study also indicates that transactional leadership has no impacts on job satisfaction, while transformational leadership has a positive result which is in line with earlier researches that showed that an augmenting competence of transformation leadership.
This research is extremely helpful to the organization on how to create team organization behavior. The research, however, did not cover group level of analysis. This is a gap identified in this reserach or call for a further research.
In this article, Wray-Lake & Syvertsen look at how adolescents and children can make a positive input to community, and development knowledge during this period also create the arena for citizenship thought the life span. They start by defining social responsibility and explaining how it develops. They aim at understanding environmental and personal traits in adolescence and childhood that undergird the enhancement of social responsibility. They define social responsibility in relation to the development at the same time stressing on focal aspects that are communal along theoretical traditions. In development viewpoint, they aim at identifying elements of adolescence and childhood that stand for opportunities for development in social responsibility. They then move on to context, discussing the proximal scenery of young people everyday lives that motivate social responsibility. Lastly, they move on to seedbeds of social responsibility that comprise of communities, peers families and schools. Still in this last context, they discuss techniques of developing social responsibility.
Wray-Lake & Syvertsen review regarding procedure through which social responsibility is earned in adolescence and childhood throughout the context propose quite promising avenues for changing development route of social responsibility. They argue that a single aspect is not significant; instead, a number of setting such community, family, school, peer environment can lead to seed of social responsibility via both indirectly through cultivating socio-emotional and cognitive competence and openly socialize social responsibility. They also conclude that adult who works together with youth can explicitly integrate a social accountability lens into relations. Assisting young individuals develop bridging community capital via forming connections with various others, for instance, is every potential way for promoting social responsibility. In addition, Wray-Lake & Syvertsen think that a social responsibility is mainly controlled by some steady forces and yet has an element that is open to review across the lifetime.
Wray-Lake & Syvertsen consideration of social responsibility in adolescence and childhood is the substantial aspect for citizenship across lifetime. If all these aspects discussed in this article are put into consideration, then, we can develop adults who are socially responsible. This can further contribute to a community rooted with moral responsibilities. Wray-Lake & Syvertsen article assist in identifying factors to consider and breach the gap that they have not considered in studying social responsibility in youth and childhood in drafting the final essay.
Yun, S., Cox, J., & Sims, Jr, H. P. (2007). Leadership and Teamwork: The Effects of Leadership and Job Satisfaction on Team Citizenship. International Journal of Leadership Studies (pp. 171 – 193). Virginia: School of Global Leadership & Entrepreneurship, Regent University.
Wray-Lake, L., & Syvertsen, A.K (2011). The development roots of social responsibility in childhood and adolescence. In C.A Flanagan & B.D Christens (Eds) Youth civic development: Work at cutting edge, New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 134, 11-25