1)What is a joint?
Functional junctions between bones
2)How are joints classified?
Structurally: fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
Functionally: immovable, barely moveable, freely moveable
3)Describe the 3 types of fibrous joints.
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•Syndemosis: sheet or bundle of dense connective tissue
•Sutures: solely between flat bones of skull
•Gomphosis: binds tooth to bony sockets
4)What is the operate of the fontanels?
Allows the cranium to barely change which allows the infant to cross by way of the start canal extra easily.
5)Describe two forms of cartilaginous joints.
•Synchondrosis: bands of hyaline unite the bones
•Symphysis: bones are lined by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage, and the cartilage is attached to a springy fibrocartilage.
6)What is the perform of an intervertebral disc?
They take up shocks and help equalize stress between the vertebrae when the body moves 7)Describe the structure of a synovial joint.
Two bones are held collectively by a joint capsule composed of two layers. Ligaments assist reinforce the capsule. The cavity between the bones are filled with a viscous fluid called synovial fluid.
8)What is the operate of the synovial joint?
Allow free movements
9)Name six kinds of synovial joints and describe the structure of every. •Ball + Socket: globular shaped head articulates with a cup formed cavity •Condylar: Ovoid condyle of one bone fits into the elliptical cavity of one other •Plane/Gliding: practically flat or barely curved
•Hinge: convex floor of 1 bone fits into concave surface of one other •Pivot: the cylindrical floor of one bone matches rotates in a hoop fashioned of a bone and a ligament.
•Saddle: articulating surfaces have each convex and concave surfaces. 10)Define the next movements and provides an example.
Flexion-bending parts, angle decreases, parts come closer
Extension-moving components, angle increses, parts move farther away Hyperextension-extension beyond anatomical position Dorsiflexion-movement at the ankle that brings the foot nearer to the shin Plantar flexion-moves the foot farther from the shin Abduction-moving part away from the midline, elevating the arm Adduction-moving half towards the midline
Rotation-moving half around on an axis
Circumduction-moving a part so the end follows a circular path Supination-rotation of forearm so the palm is upward
Pronation-rotation of forearm so the palm is downward Eversion-turning the foot so plantar floor is going through laterally Inversion-turning the foot so the plantar surface is dealing with medially Protraction-moving a component forward Retraction-moving a component backward
Elevation-raising a part
Depression-lowering a part
11)Describe how a movement happens at a joint when a muscle contracts. The fibers pull the moveable finish (insertion) towards its fixed end (origin) 12)What part helps to maintain collectively the articulating surfaces of the shoulder joint? •Coracohumeral ligament
•Transverse humeral ligament
13)What factors permit an especially big selection of movement in the shoulder? •The looseness of its attachments
•Large articular surface of the humerus compared to the shallow depth of the glenoid cavity 14)What structures form the hinge joint of the elbow?
Trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna
15)Which parts of the elbow permit pronation and supination of the hand? The head of the radius
16)Which constructions help maintain the articulating surfaces of the hip together? •Iliofemoral ligament
17)What types of movements does the structure of the hip permit? •Flexion
18)What types of joints are within the knee?
•Modified hinge joint
19)Which elements help hold collectively the articulating surfaces of the knee? •Patellar ligament
•Oblique popliteal ligament
•Arcuate popliteal ligament
•Tibial collateral ligament
•Fibular collateral ligament
20) Describe the next joint problems.
Sprain -over streching or tearing the connective tissues
Bursitis-overuse of a joint or stress on a bursa
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)- immune system attacks body’ wholesome tissues. Synovial membrane becomes inflamed and thickens. Then articular cartilage is damaged, fibrous tissue infiltrates and interferes with joint motion. Osteoarthritis-articular cartilage softens and disintegrates gradually Lyme Arthritis-casues intermittent arthritis of a quantity of joints 20)Which type of joint is the first to level out indicators of aging? Fibrous
21)Describe the loss of function in synovial joints as a progressive progress (while aging). •Begin in 30’s but progresses slowly
•Fewer capillaries serving synovial membrane; slows circulation of synovial fluid; leading to a chance of stiffening •More collagen cross-links shorten and stiffen ligaments; affecting range of motion