Ap European History

After reading and learning this chapter, you want to have the ability to discuss the meanings of the term renaissance. You should have the flexibility to clarify the economic context for the Renaissance, the new status of the artist in Renaissance Italy, and the meanings of the phrases humanism, secularism, and individualism as utilized by students to the Renaissance. Also, you should be capable of explain how the Italian Renaissance affected politics, the financial system, and society. Finally, be succesful of elaborate on the evolution of medieval kingdoms into early fashionable nation-states, and the spread of Renaissance humanism northward.

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Chapter Outline I. The Evolution of the Italian Renaissance A. Economic Growth as the Basis of the Renaissance 1. Venice, Genoa, and Milan grew wealthy on commerce between 1050 and 1300. 2. Florence, where the Renaissance originated, was an essential banking heart by the fourteenth century. B. Communes and Republics 1. In northern Italy the bigger cities gained independence from native nobles and became self-governing communes of free males in the twelfth century.

2. Local nobles moved into the cities and married into wealthy merchant families.

This new class arrange property necessities for citizenship. . The excluded, the popolo, rebelled and in some cities set up republics. 5. By 1300 the republics had collapsed, and despots or oligarchies governed most Italian cities. C. The Balance of Power among the Italian City-States 1. City patriotism and constant competitors for power amongst cities prevented political centralization on the Italian peninsula. 2. As cities strove to take care of the stability of energy amongst themselves, they invented the apparatus of modern diplomacy.

3. In 1494 the city of Milan invited intervention by the French King Charles VIII. 4.

Italy became a battleground as France, Spain, and the Holy Roman Emperor vied for dominance. 5. In 1527 the forces of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sacked Rome. II. Intellectual Hallmarks of the Renaissance A. Individualism 1. Renaissance writers confused individual persona, greatness, and achievement, in distinction to the medieval ideal of Christian humility. B. Humanism 1. The revival of antiquity took the form of interest in archaeology, restoration of ancient manuscripts, and research of the Latin classics. 2. The study of the classics grew to become often identified as the “new learning,” or humanism. three.

Humanist scholars studied antiquity not a lot to search out God as to know human nature and understand a special historic context. four. Humanists derided what they considered as the debased Latin of the medieval churchmen. C. Secular Spirit 1. The secular way of thinking focuses on the world as experienced rather than on the non secular and/or eternal. 2. Renaissance thinkers got here to see life as a possibility somewhat than a painful pilgrimage toward God. three. Lorenzo Valla argued that sense pleasures had been the best good. 4. Giovanni Boccaccio wrote about an acquisitive, sensual, worldly society.

Renaissance popes expended a lot money on new buildings, a model new cathedral (St. Peter’s), and on patronizing artists and males of letters. III. Art and the Artist A. Art and Power 1. In the early Renaissance, corporate groups corresponding to guilds sponsored non secular art. 2. By the late fifteenth century particular person princes, merchants, and bankers sponsored artwork to glorify themselves and their families. Their urban palaces were full of expensive furnishings as properly as artwork. three. Classical themes, particular person portraits, and sensible type characterized Renaissance art. four.

Renaissance artists invented perspective and portrayed the human physique in a more pure and scientific manner than previous artists did. B. The Status of the Artist 1. Medieval masons had been viewed as mechanical workers/artisans. Renaissance artists have been seen as intellectual employees. 2. The princes and merchants who patronized artists paid them properly. 3. Artists themselves gloried in their achievements. During the Renaissance, the idea of artist as genius was born. four. Renaissance culture was solely the tradition of a really rich mercantile elite; it did not have an result on the lives of the urban center courses or the poor.

IV. Social Change A. Education and Political Thought 1. Humanist writers were preoccupied with schooling for morality and advantage. 2. Baldassare Castiglione’s The Courtier (1528) presented a picture of the ideal man as grasp of dance, music, the arts, warfare, mathematics, and so on. 3. Daughters of the elite received an education much like sons and some went on to turn out to be renowned painters or students. 4. In The Prince (1513), Niccolo Machiavelli argued that politics couldn’t follow easy guidelines of virtue and morality—that it ought in fact to be studied as a science.

B. The Printed Word 1. Around 1455 in the German city of Mainz, Johan Gutenberg and two different males invented the movable sort printing press. 2. Methods of paper manufacturing had reached Europe in the twelfth century from China through the Near East. three. Printing made government and Church propaganda much more sensible, created an invisible “public” of readers, and stimulated literacy among laypeople. C. Clocks 1. City individuals involved in commerce had a need to measure time. 2. By the early fourteenth century mechanical clocks were widespread in Europe. .

Mechanical clocks and precise measurement of time contributed to the event of a conception of the universe in measurable, quantitative phrases. D. Women and Work 1. Early modern tradition identified women with marriage and the domestic virtues. 2. Women had been involved with all financial exercise linked with the care and nurturing of the household, in addition to working outdoors the home. 3. Women in the course of the Renaissance labored in a selection of businesses—for instance, sailmaking—and even in a quantity of isolated instances managed giant enterprises.

Wealthy women had been normally excluded from the general public enviornment and instead managed their households. E. Culture and Sexuality 1. Women’s standing within the realm of affection, romance, and intercourse declined during the Renaissance. 2. Writers corresponding to Castiglione created the “double standard”? women had been to be trustworthy in marriage, whereas men need not be. three. Penalties for rape in Renaissance Italy have been very light. four. In spite of statutes against “sodomy,” usually referring to male homosexuality, Florentine data from the fifteenth century show a lot of gay activity going on, usually relations between an grownup male and a boy.

F. Slavery and Ethnicity 1. In medieval and Renaissance Europe many Slavic, Tartar, Circassian, Greek, and Hungarian slaves had been imported. 2. Beginning in the fifteenth century the Portuguese brought many black African slaves into Europe. 3. Within Africa the financial motives of rulers and retailers trumped any cultural/ethnic/racial hostility towards Europeans. They sold fellow Africans into slavery apparently with out qualms. 4. Africans did not establish themselves as “black,” but as members of greater than 600 totally different tribal and ethnic teams. 5.

Black slaves had been an object of curiosity at European courts. 6. The Renaissance idea of individuals from sub-Saharan Africa was formed by Christian symbology of light and darkness? blacks represented the Devil. Race did not emerge as a concept till the late seventeenth century. V. The Renaissance within the North A. Northern Humanists 1. In the late fifteenth century college students from northern Europe studied in Italy and introduced the Renaissance house. 2. Thomas More (1478–1535) of England argued that reform of social establishments may cut back or get rid of corruption and war. 3.

The Dutchman Desiderius Erasmus (1466–1536) was an expert within the Bible and Greek language who believed that each one Christians should learn the Bible. four. Francois Rabelais (1490–1553) ridiculed established institutions such as the clergy with gross humor in Gargantua. 5. Flemish artists got here to rival the Italian Renaissance painters. VI. Politics and the State in the Renaissance (ca 1450–1521) A. Centralization of Power 1. Some students have considered Renaissance kingship as a new form, citing the dependence of the monarch on urban wealth and the ideology of the “strong king.

In France Charles VII (r. 1422–1461) created the first permanent royal military, arrange new taxes on salt and land, and allowed elevated affect in his forms from middle-class males. He also asserted his proper to nominate bishops in the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges. 3. Charles’s son Louis XI (r. 1461–1483) fostered business from artisans, taxed it, and used the funds to construct up his military. He brought much new territory beneath direct Crown rule. four. In England Edward IV ended the War of the Roses between rival baronial houses. 5.

Henry VII ruled largely with out Parliament, using as his advisers males with lower-level gentry origins. 6. Henry’s Court of the Star Chamber tried instances involving aristocrats and did so with strategies contradicting common law, similar to torture. 7. Although Spain remained a confederation of kingdoms till 1700, the marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon did lead to some centralization. Ferdinand and Isabella stopped violence among the nobles, recruited “middle-class” advisers onto their royal council, and secured the right to appoint bishops in Spain and in the Spanish empire in America. . Popular anti-Semitism elevated in fourteenth-century Spain.

In 1478 Ferdinand and Isabella invited the Inquisition into Spain to go looking out and punish Jewish converts to Christianity who secretly continued Jewish religious practices. 9. To persecute converts, Inquisitors and others formulated a racial theory? that conversos have been suspect not due to their beliefs, however due to who they were racially. 10. In 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella expelled the Jews from Spain.

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