AP World Case Study
Big Picture Questions
1. “The particular cultures and societies of Africa and of the Americas mentioned in this chapter developed largely in isolation from one another.” What proof would help this assertion and what may challenge it?
2. “How do you perceive areas of the world, similar to Bantu Africa and North America, that didn’t generate “civilizations”? Do you see them as “backward”, as moving slowly towards civilization, or as merely different?
three. How did African proximity to Eurasia shape its history? And how did American separation from the Eastern Hemisphere affect its development?
4. “The histories of Africa and Americas in the course of the second-wave period largely resemble those of Eurasia.” Do you agree with this statement? Explain why or why not.
Margin Review Questions
1. What similarities and variations are noticeable among the many three main continents of the world?
2. How didthehistory of Meroë and Axumreflectinteraction with neighboring civilizations?
3. How does theexperienceoftheNiger Valleychallengeconventionalnotions of “civilization”?
4. With whatEurasian civilizations may the Maya be compared?
6. WhatkindofinfluencedidChavínexertin theAndes region?
7. WhatfeaturesofMochelifecharacterizeitas acivilization?
8. What was the significance of Wari and Tiwanaku in the historical past of Andean Civilization?
9. What options frequent to all civilizations can you determine within the civilizations of Africa and the Americas? What distinguishing options give them a distinctive identity?
10. In what ways did the arrival of the Bantu-speaking peoples stimulate cross-cultural interaction?
11. In what methods were the histories of the Ancestral Pueblo and the Mound Builders similar to one another, and the way did they differ?
Ancestral Pueblo: Formerly generally known as the Anasazi, this folks established a combined agricultural and gathering/hunting societyin thesouthwestern partofNorth America.
(pron. PWAY-blow) Apedemek: The lion god of classical Meroë; his reputation shows a turn away from Egyptian cultural influence. (pron. ah-PED-eh-mek) Axum: Classical-era kingdom of East Africa, in present-dayEritreaandnorthern Ethiopia; flourishedfrom 100to600c.e. (pron. AX-uhm) Bantu expansion: Gradual migration of Bantu-speaking peoples from their homeland in what’s now southern Nigeria and the Cameroons into most of jap and southern Africa, a course of thatbegan around 3000 b.c.e. and continued for a number of millennia. The agricultural strategies and ironworking technology of Bantu-speaking farmers gave them a bonus over the gathering and hunting peoples theyencountered. (pron. BAHN-too) Batwa: Forest-dwelling folks of Central Africa who adopted some oftheways oftheirBantu neighbors whileretaining distinctivefeatures oftheirown tradition; alsoknown as “Pygmies.”(pron. BAHT-wah) Cahokia: The dominant center of an important Mississippi valley mound-building culture, located close to present-daySt. Louis, Missouri; flourishedfromabout900to1250c.e. (pron. cah-HOKE-ee-ah)
Chaco Phenomenon: Name given to a major means of settlement and societal group that occurred within the interval 860–1130 c.e.among the many peoples of Chaco canyon, in what is now northwestern New Mexico; the society shaped is notable for its settlement in giant pueblos and for thebuilding ofhundreds ofmiles ofroads (thepurposeofwhich is notknown). (pron. CHAH-koh) Chavín: Andean city that was thecenterofalargePeruvian spiritual movementfromaround900to200 b.c.e. (pron. cha-BEAN) Coptic Christianity: The Egyptian number of Christianity, distinctive in its perception that Christ has only a single, divinenature. Ezana: King of Axum in the early fourth century c.e. who established Christianity in his state. (pron. eh-TZAHN-ah) Hopewell tradition: Named from its most necessary web site (in present-day Ohio), that is the most elaborate andwidespreadoftheNorth American mound-building cultures; flourishedfrom200b.c.e. to400c.e. Jenne-jeno: Largest and most absolutely studied of the cities of the Niger Valley civilization. (pron. JENNay JENN-oh) Maya: Themajorclassicalcivilization ofMesoamerica; flourishedfrom250to900c.e.
Meroë: City in southern Nubia that was the middle of Nubian civilization between 300 b.c.e. and one hundred c.e. (pron. MER-oh-ee) Moche: An important regional civilization of Peru, governed by warrior-priests; flourished from round 100to800c.e. (pron. MO-che) Mound Builders: Members of any of a quantity of cultures that developed east of theMississippiRiverin what is now the United States and that are distinguished by their large earthen mounds, builtduring theperiod2000b.c.e. –1250c.e. Nazca: A civilization of southern coastalPeru, theNazcabecamefamous fortheirundergroundirrigation channels and their gigantic and mysterious traces within the desert within the form of monkeys, birds, spiders, andotherdesigns. (pron. NAHZ-kah) Niger Valley civilization:
Distinctive city-basedcivilization thatflourishedfromabout300b.c.e. toabout 900 c.e. in the floodplain of the middle Niger andthatincludedmajorcities likeJenne-jeno; theNiger Valley civilization is especially noteworthy for its obvious lack of centralized state structures, having been organizedinsteadin clusters ofeconomicallyspecializedsettlements. pueblo: “Great house” of the Ancestral Pueblo folks; a big, condo building–like construction that couldhousehundreds ofpeople. “semi-sedentary”: Term incessantly used to describe the peoples of the eastern woodlands oftheUnited States, Central America, the Amazon basin, and the Caribbean islands who mixed partial reliance on agriculturewith gathering andhunting. Teotihuacán: The largest city of pre-Columbian America, with apopulation between 100,000and200,000; seemingly constructed to a plan within the Valley of Mexico, Teotihuacán flourished between 300 and 600 c.e., throughout which time it ruled or influenced a lot of the encompassing region. The nameTeotihuacán is an Aztectermmeaning “cityofthegods.”(pron. teh-o-tee-WAH-kahn) Tikal: MajorMayacity, with apopulation ofperhaps 50,000people. (pron. TEE-kal)
Period 2: Organization & Reorganization of Human Societies, c. 600 BCE to c. 600 CE
Key Concept 2.1The Development & Codification ofReligious& Cultural Traditions
I.Codifications of present religioustraditionscreate abond among thepeople& anethical code A.Judaismdeveloped 1.Influenced byMesopotamian culture & authorized traditions 2.Conquered bypolitical states led to diasporacommunities B.Sanskrit scriptures fashioned Hinduism(s) II.Newbeliefsystemsemerged & spread,oftenasserting common truths. A.Buddhism B.Confucianism C.Daoism D.Christianity
E.Greco-Roman philosophy & science III.Belief systems affected genderroles IV.Other religious/traditions continued parallel to written beliefsystems. A.Shamanism& animism B.Ancestorveneration
V.Artistic expressions,including literature& drama,structure,& sculpture.
A.Literature & drama B.Indian,Greek,Mesoamerican,& Roman architectural styles. C.Greco-Roman sculpture,syncretismw/ Buddhism
Key Concept 2.2The Development ofStates& Empires I.Imperial societiesgrewdramatically. A.Persian Empires B.Qin & Han dynasties
D.Phoenician & Greek colonies/colonization,Hellenistic & Roman Empires E.Teotihuacan,Mayacitystates F.Moche
II.Empires& statesdeveloped new techniques of imperial administration
A.Rulers created centralized governments,elaboratelegal systems,& bureaucracies. B.Imperial governments projected army energy C.Muchof thesuccess of empires rested ontheir promotionof commerce & economic integration III.Uniquesocial & economic dimensionsdeveloped inimperial Societies. A.Functionof Cities 1.facilities of commerce 2.spiritual rituals
B.Social hierarchies1)cultivators;2)laborers;3)slaves;4)artisans;5)merchants;6)elites;7) castegroups. C.Methodsused to supply meals,rewardsforelites. D.Patriarchy continued to shapegender & familyrelations. IV.Roman,Han,Mauryan,& Guptadeclined,collapsed,reworked into successorempiresorstates. A.Empires triggered environmental harm & generated social tensions& economic difficulties. B.External problemsresulted fromthethreatof invasions
Key Concept 2.3Emergence ofTransRegional NetworksofCommunication & Exchange
I.Hemispheric trade,communication & trade networksimpacted climate& locationof theroutes,the everyday tradegoods,& theethnicityof people
A.Eurasian Silk Roads
B.Trans-Saharan caravan routes
C.Indian Ocean sealanes D.Mediterranean sealanes
II.Newtechnologiesled to long-distance communication & change.
A.Newtechnologiesled to domesticated pack animals,promoted longerroutes.
B.Maritime technologies,monsoon winds III.Intangible Trade Networks
A.cropsled to changesin farming & irrigation
B.Diseasesdecreased city populations,additionally decreased empires(Rome& Han) C.Religious& cultural