Apple Inc Case Analysis

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17 December 2021

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1. What had been Apple’s aggressive advantages?

The PC (personal computer) industry is pretty aggressive, making it essential for a corporation like Apple Inc. to face out amongst its rivals. Although all computer systems aren’t created equally and each model can have huge variations, it is sometimes difficult for the end user to distinguish between brands. One competitive advantage for Apple is that Macs are recognized to be different than all different manufacturers of PCs. To a shopper it typically looks like there are two types of computers: Macs, and all different brands.

Adding on to this advantage, there are often optimistic differences that separate Macs from all different brands. Macs are identified to be extra “user-friendly” and are advertised for use proper out of the field.

They are additionally recognized to be safer than other PCs, since most viruses can not connect Apple computers. In the Apple Inc., 2008 case research, an analyst is quotes as saying, “The majority of IBM and compatible customers ‘put up’ with their machines, but Apple’s clients ‘love’ their Macs” (Yoffie & Slind, 2008).

This sort of affection towards a product leads to one other competitive benefit that Apple has capitalized on: model loyalty. When Apple turned its path extra towards up and coming know-how, such as the iPod, iTunes and now the iPhone, shoppers already trusted the Apple name and thus were extra apt to buy the merchandise.

Apple created the iPod in 2001 when MP3 know-how was relatively new to consumers. There are moveable music gamers made by different brands, but Apple’s iPod shortly grew to become the industry leader and has remained in that position.

A wise selection by the company was to make iPods appropriate with Windows working systems. Initially they could only be used on a Mac, however by opening the technology to other PC users, Apple rapidly gained clients. Apple spends a better p.c of their price range on analysis and improvement than different competing corporations which has been a powerful benefit for the company. Technology is ever-changing at this cut-off date and shoppers demand that products are the “newest” and the “fastest.”

In recent years Apple has been the first company to launch popular new expertise, together with the iPod, iTunes, the music store, and the iPhone, with its giant vary of purposes. While there at the second are many various versions of smartphones, the iPhone was the primary of its kind to revolutionize how a phone is used. Essentially Apple mixed a pc, a transportable music participant, and a cellphone into one handheld gadget. Apple’s focus to create new technologies that combine varied features has been extremely successful within the technological age.

The firm also launches new versions of their gadgets annually. This helps the corporate as a outcome of even individuals who already personal an iPod, for example, are excited about upgrading to a model new version in the following year or two. One last benefit for Apple has been its capacity to create merchandise that work together. For example, Apple created the music retailer iTunes to work with the iPod. Consumers purchase the iPod for a set price, but then end up spending far more money through Apple on purchasing music. Creating complementary merchandise like these boost the success of the company. If Apple can proceed to differentiate their merchandise from others, be the first to create new applied sciences that are altering the best way consumers reside day-to-day, and launch complementary products, they’ll continue to have benefits over their rivals.

2. Analyze the dynamics of the PC trade. Are these dynamics favorable or problematic for Apple?


Overall the PC business has turn out to be more and more superior by way of the years and this could be a results of Apple. In our case examine, we saw the history of Apple Inc. unfold from its humble begin in 1976 to the introduction of the iPod, as properly as the iPhone. The analysis did indicate that although Apple developed “personal” computing units, it was IBM that brought the PC into mainstream market (Yoffie & Slind, 2008, p. 6). This evaluation went on to mention that IBM’s explosive start into the market fizzled out by the early 1980’s. Other firms similar to Compaq and Dell developed their versions of the PC all through the 1990’s. By 2008, PC’s in use topped one billion worldwide and in 2007 PC shipments totaled 269 million models (Yoffie & Slind, 2008, p. 7).

The evaluation additionally emphasized how aggressive the PC trade is, as one firm might be on top for years and one more may take over the market years later. From a consumer’s perspective, it appears that evidently popular tendencies have lots to do with which PC company is doing higher. Years ago, Dell captured a big market share as a outcome of its ability to customise a PC by building to the precise specifics a person wished. Recently, the shift has come back toward Apple and their technological advances within the PC trade in addition to different products they provide. Apple has been in a place to study from the risky PC business by accepting developments in shopper behavior and creating knew innovative products. As the PC industry rises and falls every year, Apple seems to all the time maintain progress with their many merchandise which are introduced to the market. We should additionally take a look at who the patrons are for both PC’s and Apple based mostly computers (iMac and MacBook).

Consumers who buy PC’s are usually homebuyers and possibly massive companies who very value acutely aware. When an individual is on the lookout for a private laptop, they’re on the lookout for ease of use at a price that can fit their finances. Businesses, each large and small, are in search of the same aspects in that the extra they spend on a PC system, the much less cash they will see as a company. In retrospect, Apple has created quite a name for its company, so there will be shoppers, each homebuyers and businesses, who will buy Apple products whatever the price. We should understand brand loyalty runs strong amongst the computer business and Apple has had great respect in sustaining a customer base.

3. Has Steve Jobs lastly solved Apple’s long-standing issues with respect to the Macintosh business?

Apple has had its ups and downs with their Macintosh expertise. When Jobs first introduced the Macintosh into market in 1978 it was a easy machine that made a big impact in the PC business by boasting $1 billion in annual sales in lower than three years. But, after the introduction of the Mac, Apple appeared to face long-standing issues. In 1981 the IBM PC competition dropped Apple’s market share, and by 1984 the sales had been restricted because of “Mac’s gradual processor speed and lack of suitable software” (Yoffie & Slind, 2008). Throughout the years Mac’s gross sales declined due to their high value construction, and the truth that the Mac’s working system was not suitable with the out there software, such as Microsoft Office, which was extensively used within the business world.

An instance of that is that Mac was maintained on a proprietary platform (Mac OS) which was in a small market. Apple tried many alternative choices to help remedy their downside; they even had a three method partnership with IBM and tried shifting its manufacturing to subcontractors, but they nonetheless faced a drop in their gross margin. The pricing technique of Apple kept the Mac at a premium price, which additionally put the gross sales at a disadvantage in a market the place the consumers were very worth acutely aware. It had appeared that the competition was producing sooner and more efficient machines at a lower price, which meant that Apple was in a necessity of a drastic change.

Steve Jobs returned to Apple in 1997 and appeared to be the perfect man to assist with the turnaround of the Mac. In order to improve the sales more Jobs expanded Apple’s partnership with Microsoft that created a product, a Mac model of Microsoft Office, which has mass enchantment. In 1998 the iMac was released, however Jobs didn’t stop there. He “outsourced the manufacturing of Mac products…and revamped its distribution system, eliminating relationships with hundreds of smaller shops and increasing its presence in national chains” (Yoffie & Slind, 2008). Jobs also centered on price cuts by lowering inventory, but increased R&D to ensure each attainable technological advance. Apple grew to become a cultural pressure due to Jobs’ effort to revamp the picture of the corporate.

“Apple highlighted options that differentiated them from different PCs while additionally emphasizing their interoperability with different machines.” With the new picture, their repair of the compatibility downside, and pace of the Intel microprocessors plainly Jobs had found the right combine for fulfillment. This success showed in the numbers. Mac revenues increased 40% from 2006 to 2007, with the unit sale increase of 5.3 million, which was 3 times as fast as the overall PC market. “Apple had become the third-largest PC maker inside the U.S. market, with a market share of eight.5%;” a real success from the previous 3%. Jobs has appeared to fix Apple’s long-standing issues with the Mac.

4. The iPod-iTunes business has been a spectacular success. Has Jobs found a brand new method to create a sustainable competitive advantage for Apple?

Indeed the iPod-iTunes enterprise has been a spectacular success for Apple, Inc. When the iPod MP3 was first launched in November 2001, it was reported to have turn into “an icon of the Digital Age” (Yoffie & Slind, 2008, p. 10). The iPod permits shoppers to play wherever from 240 to 40,000 of there favorite songs, therefore eliminating the effort and bulkiness of portable cassette and CD players. Between the years of 2004 and 2008 unit gross sales for the iPod had grown exponentially, surpassing other major opponents corresponding to Sony, Creative, Samsung, and Zune. In the wake of Apple’s success within the PC trade, beneath the leadership of Steve Jobs, the company has managed to create and sustain the aggressive advantage within the overwhelming majority of Apple, Inc. ventures. But, has Jobs found a new method to create a sustainable aggressive advantage for Apple? We imagine there is not any thriller to how Jobs successfully introduced his brilliance and innovation to the PC trade.

It can be believed that Jobs started with the basic basis to working a great business, which is to seek development. This translates into maximizing worth for the shopper and let earnings circulate to us from there (Edward Jones). As the PC business began to cultivate new competitors, Jobs knew that Apple should diversify its technique to be able to keep market share and maintain the competitive advantage. As aforementioned, the arrival of iPod in November 2001 (avg. iPods offered 113,000 per quarter) and the introduction of iTunes Music Store in April 2003 (avg. iPods bought 733,000 by the tip of the quarter) had as quickly as once more sparked gross sales of the two-year old idea (iPod) and had confirmed to be “an icon of the Digital Age” (Yoffie & Slind, 2008, p. 10).

The iPod, together with iTunes, allows consumers to then obtain their very own CD or transfer it to their iPod or buy music for less than one greenback. In order for these modifications to happen within this agency, Jobs and the Apple Corporation had to analyze the industry in such as the consumers, suppliers, opponents, substitutes, and potential entrants in an effort to domesticate a winning strategy that would permit them to sustain their aggressive benefit.

5. How would you assess Apple’s preliminary strategy for the iPhone? Why did Apple change so quickly to a different strategy?

Riding on the momentum created by iPod and iTunes, Apple premiered the iPhone on June 29, 2007. In keeping with Apple’s mission of providing technologically innovative merchandise, the iPhone was a blend of the iPod and a cell phone and was Apple’s try to reinvent the cellphone as a multifunction communication device. During the first year of its availability, consumers of the iPhone paid quite a premium for the a lot heralded system, which retailed for $399 for the 8GB model and $499 for the 16GB model. Despite its high value, roughly 1.4 million models were bought in the united states in 2007, which jumped to a staggering eleven.6 million in 2008.

Although the gross sales numbers had been spectacular, they fell below sales forecasts and Apple’s share of the worldwide cell handset market was disappointingly lower than 1% (Yoffie & Slind, 2008). An analysis of Apple’s iPhone technique utilizing Porter’s Five Forces model reveals some of the issues with the preliminary technique and why Apple was compelled to make modifications.

Threat of Entry According to Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo, CEO of Nokia, the world’s largest producer of cellphones, the cellular gadget market has become more risky and competitive. Mr. Kalasvuo notes that the “mightiest firms in the world,” together with Microsoft, Google and Apple, Inc., at the second are competitors.” He additional noted that the industry is underneath a metamorphosis and that there are many new entrants into the mobile market, including a number of the world’s largest expertise firms, like Google and Microsoft. With Apple’s push to realize market share, new entrants into the cellular device marketplace puts a cap on the profit potential of the iPhone. Therefore, in order to remain competitive, Apple needed to scale back the value of the iPhone to discourage its competitors.

The Power of Suppliers Like different Apple products, the iPhone operates on a proprietary platform and utilizes specialized elements. Suppliers of raw supplies may impact strategy via pricing and quality. As a large and highly revered company, Apple must keep partnerships with key suppliers to make certain that there is not any impression to the manufacturing of the iPhone or its different products. There is no indication that suppliers had a direct impression on the company’s decision to alter strategies for the iPhone.

The Power of Buyers The iPhone was initially only available only within the United States and 5 European international locations. In the united states, phones had been available solely by way of AT&T and Apple’s on-line and retail shops. International cell phone operators balked at Apple’s revenue sharing mannequin, which effectively shut the iPhone out of some of the world’s largest cellular device markets. Due to the limited distribution of the iPhone, Apple lost important income in worldwide gross sales as service income fell into the worldwide “gray market.” Additionally, 80% of cell phones bought in the us were priced under $100 and solely 5% of handsets bought worldwide have been priced at $300 or extra.

The iPhone was subsequently highly priced and did not enchantment to nearly all of customers. In an try to stem the lack of income, Apple was pressured to alter its distribution and pricing policy to adapt to buyer’s demands. The restructuring of the pricing and revenue sharing fashions was extra interesting to consumers and Apple was capable of rapidly launch the iPhone in numerous overseas markets, thereby reducing the lack of income in “gray markets.” New channels of distribution additionally opened when Apple contracted with Best Buy to permit gross sales via its 1,000 shops. This new strategy opened new revenue streams for the iPhone and supplied an opportunity for Apple to increase revenues and market share.

Threat of Substitutes Since the launch of the iPhone in 2007, a number of firms have launched telephones with comparable capabilities and options. The iPhone has modified the game for cellular system manufactures and Apple should continuously attempt to be on the forefront of know-how and innovation. The risk of substitutes could be very excessive and Apple should stay progressive in order to be competitive. There have been quite a few complaints concerning the iPhone 2G, together with the excessive price of the system, high cost of service plans, short battery life and gradual community. Coupled with a limited distribution network and Apple’s revenue sharing mannequin, sales had been beginning to sluggish and competitor’s units have been making inroads on iPhone gross sales. Apple was subsequently forced to look at its expertise and pricing models and make changes in response to its opponents.

Rivalry Among Existing Competitors Although Apple is known for the superiority of its merchandise, it should compete in an trade where there are speedy technological modifications. Mobile system companies are continuously striving for dominance in a market that has seen significant progress over a quantity of years. With lower than one p.c of the global market share, Apple should position itself to compete against the other giants of the business. Failure to stay aggressive will lead to an erosion of its market share and the loss of income. Apple’s new strategy higher positions the corporate to compete in the world market and beat back potential rivals.

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"Apple Inc Case Analysis" StudyScroll, Dec 17, 2021.

"Apple Inc Case Analysis" StudyScroll, 17-Dec-2021. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 4-Dec-2023]

StudyScroll. (2021). Apple Inc Case Analysis. [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 4-Dec-2023]

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