Apple’s Inc. Operations Management

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Apple’s Inc. Operations Management

IntroductionDefinitively, the time period operations administration refers to the choices, responsibilities and activities of managing the belongings devoted in the path of the manufacture and distribution of a service or a product. Successful companies are majorly depending on use of operation administration expertise to facilitate the massive changes and technological calls for of the world markets. The use of expertise to affect the working pace of workers and to hurry up shopper transactions inside a enterprise surroundings is vital in uplifting a company.

All of these elements are pegged on the daily business operations inside the company. The focus of this specific report aims to highlight on the main and evident processes carried out in some of the profitable tech companies on the earth, Apple Inc (Boyer & Verma, 2010).

This company each offers an innovative and aggressive edge throughout the global market. It is among the extremely efficient companies within the global technological sector given its year after 12 months upkeep of its shopper base and revenue margins.

The company endures to guide the tech industry by attaining the calls for of its shoppers via its rapid innovation of latest or improvised merchandise. Some of its merchandise entail the award successful laptop operating system functions just like the iLife application, the Professional purposes and the OS X (Boyer & Verma, 2010).

The strategic operation management policies at Apple Inc. have confirmed to be impeccable since it’s’ establishment within the 12 months 1977. The Apple Inc. Company has been dedicated to delivering the finest quality providers to the tip customers of its products via promoting a satisfactory person experience of their digital merchandise.

Throughout the course of this report, the paper content will spotlight on the major management and operation strategies undertaken by the company to make sure the clients are at all times kept pleased (Greasley, 2008).

The enterprise operation strategy mainly entails expanding its distribution network inside every country and its institutions. The establishments embrace authorities markets, small to medium businesses, enterprises and the schooling sector. In order to take care of a high-quality purchasing expertise for the company’s products, the Company continues to make plans on the expansion schemes (O’Grady, J. D.2009). These proposed techniques are aimed at improving the distribution talents of the company. The important plan of motion highlighted in the paper includes the steps taken towards the growth of the number of the Apple Inc. Company’s retail shops worldwide.

Current Operations StrategyThe consistent and fixed introduction of hardware and software purposes by the Apple Inc. Company has enabled it to maintain a large and rising buyer basis. Not solely does the Apple Inc. operate in the United States of America, but in addition in numerous worldwide markets throughout the global market. The present operational capabilities in the firm mainly depend upon the factors the working surroundings of the organization, and they primarily embody the political and financial parts throughout the setting of business operation (O’Grady, J. D.2009).

The primary political factors affecting the operations of the Apple Company comprise issues relating to policy compliance in numerous international locations like political instability. The financial factors affecting the business operations include the periodic adjustments within the worth of the U.S greenback versus the local currency. Nevertheless, the corporate has been in a position to preserve a steady shareholder return on investment within all its years of business (Kamauff, 2010). The key issues concerned within the administration operation methods are discussed under in detail:

Operations functionsThe operational features within a company define the unit roles or the organizational parts liable for particular activities throughout the organization. The operational administration capabilities recognized on the Apple Company entail communication providers and support distribution of merchandise to warranted suppliers and retailers (Linzmayer, 2004). The Apple Company has major distribution channels and production subsidiaries, for example, in the Asian continent primarily in China and Korea. The fundamental roles of the operations managers in the Apple Company are listed beneath:

Roles of the Operations ManagerThe important roles assigned to operations managers within the Apple Company assist in streamlining enterprise operations while maintaining the worth of the corporate. The managers are additionally expected to practice and abide by the principles of administration by conducting all enterprise actions ethically, actually and with full compliance (Nersesian, 2000). The company rules require and anticipate the operation managers to accomplish the next responsibilities in the Apple Inc. Company to ensure smooth working of operations:

Make PoliciesThe operations supervisor is obligated with the duty of coverage making and implementing them to conform to the Apple Company’s mission statements and vision. The operations manager ought to guarantee that the set insurance policies are effective in the enterprise setting and that they’re being put to proper use. Some of the insurance policies employed by operations managers on the Apple Company include inspecting the expected efficiency stage for employees, the employee retention, the worker safety laws, and so forth. Furthermore, the operation managers are additionally tasked with making sure the enterprise follows all nationwide government legalities and other guidelines set by the company (Ireland, Hoskisson & Hitt, 2008).

Solve ProblemsThe operations manager works in the direction of attaining the corporate aims and subsequently presents project plans to improvise the enterprise operations. The managers reveal their abilities by way of facilitating decision-making methods that clear up organizational issues associated to business operations. The operations managers try to resolve different points in the day to day operations of the Apple Company (Parker & Anderson, 2013).

Some of the areas that require drawback in the Apple Company embrace issues relating to the consumer retention, the issues in regards to the delays in cargo, the shopper satisfaction index and the quality of services. The operation managers possess the problem fixing abilities necessitated for danger administration within the Apple Company, which is why the managers are expected to be good at making fast selections associated to the Company’s operational processes (Cooke, 2012).

Manage FinanceThe management of the finances allotted for enterprise operations can be very important for an operations manager. The finances for operational prices are properly managed by the managers so as to make sure the enterprise does not succumb to any losses. The Apple Corporation utilizes its financial assets to positively safeguard its daily operations within all its major departments (Young, 2009). In order to trace and optimize firm spending, the managers are mandated to organize periodical finances reviews for the Apple Company’s senior administration.

Operation managers are expected to take care of and successively acquire data concerning sales, develop the revenue margins and reduce general operational costs. Coming up with enterprise forecasts that help in future decision-making processes is important in realizing efficient ways for dealing with the corporations operational prices (Cao & Zhang, 2013). The consistency in income technology and profit making is pegged on the manager’s ability to control the expenditure.

Enable Communication (Company Representative)The clean circulate of communication inside the organization is vital to accomplish all of the business processes. The communication between all of the entities involved within the operational processes enables the company operations supervisor to efficiently ensure supply of services to both the suppliers and direct clients within the international market. The operations supervisor ought to ensure there is a constant understanding and no miscommunication amid the top-level management and the staff (Mahadevan, 2010).

Their accountability is to guarantee there is a good perceive at all times in order that the enterprise operations are dealt with in the best method. Therefore, resolve any misunderstandings and disputes at the earliest time are essential to run efficient operations. Having distinctive interpersonal and communication expertise is also appropriate for an operations supervisor. This permits them deal with people and deal with them in a formal and ethical way.

Manage LogisticsManaging the logistics within the Apple organization is an important job for the operations managers. For occasion, making certain that the machinery utilized in product manufacture are up to the business standards and the subsequent items and companies supplied are of high quality. The operations managers analyze the current state of logistics in the Company and conclude whether there may be any want for adjustments to be carried out (Nicolás & Sanz, 2014).

Human Resource ManagementHuman useful resource administration is vital in deciding on an acceptable employee base that maintains successive enterprise operations which would possibly be profit making. All the elements of the enterprise operation course of are highly dependent on the precise roles for every specialised worker all the finest way down to the lowest wage invoice throughout the firm. The managers have the obligations to assign duties to numerous staff inside the group. Employing new employees is also a significant accountability for the managers at the Apple Company.

Process ManagementThe process administration varieties the important part of the operational actions throughout the business. A smooth management process ensures that items and companies are delivered to the purchasers. The business processes in Company contain manufactures or the producers, the wholesalers they supply the products to, the retailers, the customers and most significantly the client inquiry and feedback service.

The manufacturers primarily take care of the design and development of the products or specified service. The merchandise include the hardware gadgets accompanied with software materials. The Sales teams are tasked with working actions that promote the quantity of product provide throughout the shopper base. The Apple Company majorly relies on wholesalers and retailers to produce and distribute the Company’s products. The shoppers additionally have entry to an all-time out there buyer support in all time zones the Apple Company or its affiliates conduct enterprise. The business operations processes are demonstrated on process chart under. It highlights the primary parts that help the Apple Company (Lashinsky, 2012).

2008977337820Manufacturers/Producers

0Manufacturers/Producers

Process Chart296648421429000

7581902590800075755525908005178056255935003912781255935020110452540Suppliers

(Sales and Marketing Team)

0Suppliers

(Sales and Marketing Team)

495935026098500

-243205149860Retailers

0Retailers

421894095885Wholesalers

[newline]

0Wholesalers

651702198490005167423194975001711325317500

39127812489500064858624895000201492136830Consumers

0Consumers

29663816858000

2007899-7251Consumers Support

0Consumers Support

Customer service strategiesThe customer care middle section of the company is significant to up preserving the image and social accountability the corporate has in the path of its clients. The plans put in place within the enterprise operations platform to support the customers comprise:

Staying Online– This service allows the shoppers who embody the individual clients, retailers and wholesalers to contact the Apple Support staff concerning any points. The clients can submit on-line tickets or use self-service on-line chats that provide immediate feedback regarding numerous issues whether they are technical, logistics or even for educational purposes.

Make Service Delivery a precedence – utilizing a well-trained workforce to handle the shoppers all the time comes first for any group. The Apple Company ensures that all of their working employees from the sales group, the net or telephone customer service maintains a excessive level of courteous conduct when coping with prospects.

Store collective Wisdom – This technique units up a system that provides ready data for the assist staff to respond to the shopper complaints and inquiries. Information collection, recording and storage ensure the Apple Company maintains a database of client data relating to customer care. This ensures there is a constant circulate of accurate information for the workers to use while dealing with customer complaints.

Staff Empowerment – This coverage has saved the corporate a lot of paper work and time for solving consumer problems. Streamlining the hierarchy or line authority inside the operational sections of the Corporation has enabled the corporate frontline representatives to unravel consumer problems. Empowering low level workers with capacity to make certain selections based on good judgment is nice for the business (Nicolás & Sanz, 2014).

Client Understanding – The Apple Corporation has a simple Web-based customer relationship management software program (CRM) utility that helps the assist team work together with the client. Having a database of shopper information affiliated with their Apple IDs ensures the management group understands the patron conduct.

Managing Client Relationships – Retaining particular therapy of the customers is significant for keeping up the Apple Company’s picture. This is achieved by way of reward programs that fulfill buyer loyalty. Establishing a track document of high quality provision through identifying and gratifying useful purchasers that use the company’s merchandise.

Managing capability and demandManaging the capacity and demand of the Company has been facilitated by the globalization of the Apple Company’s operations. Globalization of sales permits the purchasers all all over the world to entry the companies provided by the Apple Company. The fixed demand held by the Apple product’s market will get its support from the a quantity of chain suppliers and the wholesale product sellers with the help with the manufacturing entities.

The demand for Apple products is growing especially in two massive rising markets, China and India where the demand for the latest iPhone 6 product went above 10 million on the primary weekend of launch. The customer demand has to be predicted and the manufacturing demand glad on the manufacturing end. The Apple Company serves the worldwide market with approximately 437 Apple retail stores in 15 nations all round the world. Localization of manufacturing in locations like china has enabled the company increase its productivity while maintaining a low value labor force which saves on the any further operational costs (Latif, Jaskani, Ilyas & Gulzar, 2014).

Inventory managementThe Apple Company has a disciplined Inventory management group. This can be seen from historic consistency on degree of efficiency with the inventory. This can be indicated by how lengthy the company takes to sell via its complete stock. The number of days it takes for inventory movement was common of 5.3 for the most recent product unraveled available in the market. This may be very low compared to different high performing tech companies like Dell or HP which had 10.2 and 26.5 approximated days respectively to move stock. The stock turnover information also help the incredibly efficient inventory system given high stock turnover the corporate has over a small periods of time (Abraham, 2014).

Scheduling operationsThe system put significantly helps the management keep observe of the dales. The devices are designed and developed in a high quality industrial and manufacturing firms which are in turn delivered to distribution channels and systems around the globe. Scheduling operations are completed through job tracking all of the concerned services liable for the supply of the product to the consumer.

The scheduling operations contain activities in the production facilities, the distribution channel, and the buying level retailers. The time-frame and placement of operations are also entailed within the scheduling plans to showcase the scheduling actions planned for the corporate. Forecasting demand and foreseeing gross sales ranges are additionally vital to scheduling operations.

Process evaluation and improvementThe Apple Company is endlessly working to be on the forefront of leading edge technology. That is why its process evaluation and enchancment setting continues to conduct research towards discovering new and revolutionary expertise for the Apple Company’s prospective purchasers (Cornelissen, 2014). The operations supervisor is anticipated to look into the assorted working departments inside the company and establish the particular areas that need improvement.

The evaluation carried out recognized a quantity of processes that limit company’s operations. Some of the failings that needed to be improved on included the periodic system failures in certain locations that threaten to impede the engineering and shipping of merchandise. System failures may also hinder successful supply of on-line companies, financial reporting and processing of transactions. Other areas that want improvisation is the connection administration between the corporate and the retailers, the macroeconomic components within the business setting which may lead to unexpected fluctuation in sales if they do not appear to be positively addressed (Abraham, 2014).

Purchasing and supplier managementThe Apple Company supply and purchasing mannequin is majorly depending on its dedicated shopper base which offers a steady marketplace for the company’s products. The company’s main client foundation is vast which has made it attainable to provide a variety of merchandise constantly for a protracted period of time. The main operations concerned in the firm majorly entail the design and development of hardware and software program functions.

Lean Management inside the OrganizationThis is a process inside an organization that includes the efficient removal of waste from the entire features of the daily operations. Where, the consideration of wastes involves the loss or use of assets that doesn’t lead to product creation or service provision with regards to customers’ expectations (Cornelissen, 2014). Therefore, APPLE Corporation advantages a lot as there could be elevated effectivity in management. The objective of adoption of lean management by Apple Inc. includes; the want to increase customer responsiveness, to attenuate production useful resource wants and costs minimization, and to reinforce high quality of merchandise therefore rising the firm’s competitiveness and profitability.

According to Apple’s highlights of audits conducted in 2011 within the company’s 2012 Supplier Responsibility Report, violations that occurred and corrective measures that occurred with their outsourcing supply chain and manufacturing consultant is clearly illustrated. This shows the necessity for the agency and its subsidiaries to adopt lean administration as part of their enterprise. Lean administration is carried out via application of quite a few tools and strategies that include;

Total Productive Maintenance

5S

Just-in-time Production/KanbanCellular Manufacturing/ One-piece Flow Production Systems

Pre-Production Planning (3P)

Six Sigma

Lean Enterprise Supplier Networks

Kaizen rapid enchancment process

The firm’s adoption of lean administration is to realize immense service and product high quality at the minimal price attainable and at maximum buyer responsiveness. This effectivity in administration is attained via purposes of goals including;

Increasing the flexibleness and velocity of manufacturing

Minimizing service and product resource requirements in the type of materials and capital invested. This reduces the prices of manufacturing permitting for the ease of alterations and mixing of merchandise developed.

Improving the initial high quality of the product

Implementation of lean administration minimizes costs of operation almost about useful resource allocations, gear downtime, and rework thereby optimizing the production process.

For occasion, lean strategies implementation at Warner Robins U.S. Air Force Base in Georgia has minimized the duration it takes for the overhaul of a C-5 transport aircraft from an approximate 360 days to 260 days. This has immense effect on the resource allocation for the Air Force since minimized upkeep time of 30% requires that a decrease inventory of planes is stored. Therefore, this will increase the aircraft’s flying status by 10% as a result the total value of the in-service target is tremendously minimized (Cornelissen, 2014).

Capacity Management within the organizationThe capacity necessities for the company APPLE Inc. is outlined by the short term and long run planning performed by the organization’s management. The planning course of is essential in figuring out how the wants are to be fulfilled. The company’s capability planning choices are dependent in the marketplace calls for and the management aligns its materials, human, and financial sources. The analysis of the company’s capacity necessities is from two views including; short-term capacity strategies and long-term capacity methods.

Short-term capacity strategiesThe organization’s managers every so often use the product’s calls for to approximate the work load that the corporate can deal with within the short-term since managers anticipate output requirements for various services within a short period of 12 months. Requirements comparability with the out there sources is completed to establish the particular capacity alterations which are necessary. The short-term enterprise durations are characterised by unchanged amenities hence making basic capacity to remain fastened inside the period (Cousins, Lawson & Squire, 2006). The needed alterations to the capacity is decided by whether or not the product could be stored as stock, the conversion process is labor intensive or capital intensive.

The processes, that are capital intensive, rely heavily on plant, physical amenities, and tools. Intense operation of the organization’s facilities can lead to the modification of the company’s short-term capability. On the other hand, labor intensive processes alterations solely involve the hiring or laying off of workers or by permitting sure workers extra time. A product’s duration in storage as inventory would trigger shifts in strategies for capacity alterations. The short-term capacity strategies that might be utilized by the company include;

Backlog; this is a strategy applied during periods when the business is at its peak. Customers, who are keen, are requested by the company to attend for the success of their orders at a much later date after the peak interval.

Inventories; During the intervals of gradual business or slack durations, the company opts to replenish finished items so as to fulfill the customers’ calls for throughout peak intervals of enterprise.

Level of Employment; the corporate would re-structure the employment level by way of hiring and firing of employees relying on the fluctuation of calls for during peak durations.

Training of Employees; the company’s staff are required to be taken by way of multi-skilled training in order to allow job rotation for the employees. These multi-skills earned from the training assists the administration in selecting alternate options for the hiring opportunities.

Process design; Contents of the job are altered by way of redesigning the job

Subcontracting; the corporate opts for subcontracting specific corporations for momentary production of particular components. This is a typical course of during peak hours.

Long time period capacity strategiesThe market dynamics and the rate of know-how uptake in current time have made it troublesome for APPLE Inc. and other firms in the industry alike to discover out the long-term capacity. This is due to the uncertainties in expertise and client demand tendencies. This long-term strategy application in capability administration faces immense threat and increased challenges. APPLE’s latest unveiling of the new IPhone Series supplies in depth leverage available on the market to supply more merchandise for the long run and at a rate equal to consumer expectations (Heap, 2008).

The long-term capability necessities are determined by the company’s product development, advertising plans, and the products life cycle. The entire output stage of the agency involving quite a few alterations to the organization’s operation is accommodated by the long-term capability planning course of. Therefore, the firm’s administration is answerable for the implementation and advertising the environmental assessment of the long-term capability plans. However, the long-term capacity choices could also be affected by the following;

Phasing in capability; a expertise company such as APPLE Inc. faces the danger of increased rate obsolescence. Therefore, the trade requirement is that swift roll-out of merchandise is essential to the firm’s success. The period of facilities building is prolonged compared to the rate of product improvement and commercialization thereby rendering the facilities incapable. However, the firm might apply functions such as phase in capacity on segmental basis. In addition, the corporate would employ an efficient technique of technological breakthrough capitalizing by way of committing males and funds in the path of facilities for a duration of 3-5 years.

Variety of merchandise; for the company to extend its profitability it requires to produce a variety of merchandise using the identical services since this will increase efficiency. Also, the manufacture of a number of merchandise minimizes the chance of failure in the market and numerous merchandise improvement will increase the performance of capacity planners. Maximization of the firm’s capability is achieved through correct scheduling as the completely different merchandise have completely different life cycles.

Phasing out capacity; the production services that are old-fashioned result’s excessive plant and machinery downtime and closures. The phasing out of capacity is completed in a manner that’s environmentally pleasant minimizing the unfavorable impacts to the buyer population since the impacts of closure prolong beyond the fastened costs of vegetation and equipment. This phasing out course of additionally creates the chance for the agency to sift staff to other job purposes for an ongoing product growth.

APPLE Inc. needs to contemplate significantly the immense advantages that capacity planning and choices provide the corporate thereby rising operation effectivity. The advantages vary from;

There is real impression felt by capability selections affect the ability of the firm to attain its future calls for for the providers and merchandise since capacity mainly minimizes the rate of potential output. Numerous opportunities can be capitalized on if the corporate has adequate capacity to handle client demand.

Operating prices are affected by capacity decisions since practically it is evident that the demand necessities and capacity are instantly associated. This signifies that a positive correlation current between demand and capacity minimizes the costs of operation immensely. However, the actual demand and anticipated demand often differs or cyclically varies thereby needing capability selections to assist in creation of stability of the prices of over and underneath capacity.

Initial costs are majorly decided by the firm’s capacity. Normally, the prices are greater when the capacity of a productive unit is nice.

It is generally cheaper to switch or alter capability choices since they characteristically contain long-term useful resource allocation. This therefore limits the extent of major prices incurred.

A firm’s competitiveness may be affected by the capability decisions of the managers. The availability of excess capability in a agency or growing capacity could act as barrier to entry or push other corporations out of enterprise within the industry by other corporations. This will increase its aggressive benefit.

Management greatly advantages from efficiency in capacity decisions because it increases ease of operation and fluidity between departments involved within the production course of.

ConclusionsThe outcomes from the above evaluation of Apple’s Inc. operations processes, fascinating subjects and issues present that the accomplishment of its provide chain processes is contingent on how properly the managers management the provider and customer relationship. This comprises of early provider participation in innovative product growth, proximal communication and provider efficiency upgrading or enhancement by way of analysis of the current system.

In the close future, the mix of universal strategies to propel the company operations will certainly give Apple Inc. the development it must helps its consumer’s demands. The management technique, the outsourcing strategy, the differentiation technique and the customer-centered providers are major areas recognized inside the operations management docket. Positively addressing these particular points whereas maintaining a excessive quality service heart on the identical time is essential to the company’s enchancment aims for merchandise understandability especially for the software and hardware. Apple’s new products and services could be expected soon that might introduce a model new mannequin of know-how on leading front.

Honesty in operations administration is important to enabling the sleek processes concerned the Company’s inner controls. Decisively, the supervisor has the function to assist forestall or reduce any errors or fraud by detecting them at early levels before they turn into one thing that would alarm the senior administration. It is worth noting that a management system, irrespective of how properly designed and developed, can deliver only sensible, not absolute, reassurance that the needs or targets of the enterprise operations are duly met.

One other vital issue highlighted in the report content is the importance of maintaining honest activity prices for the operational system. The system depicts useful resource constraints as a main feature in particular places which hinders and limits sale of products to customers because of ignorance or lack of prepared acceptance. The evaluation of inside controls within the operational platform of the Apple Company helps the managers predict and illustrate the long run expectations of the enterprise. The change in business circumstances also poses a vital topic of how to consider the effectiveness of business controls sooner or later intervals within the case there might be any threat involved.

The Apple Company assesses the enactment of its functioning components or subdivisions in relation to the operating revenue and the web gross sales. The Retail part overall sales are established on the gross sales made and retrieved from the Apple Company’s retail stores. On the opposite hand, the general internet transactions for the geographic divisions are commonly based mostly on the setting of clienteles. The enterprise operating earnings for each part contains of the working expenditure openly attributable to the each department related to enterprise operations. Additionally, the general web gross sales to third parties and the related value of gross sales and other expenses; for instance, promoting expenditures are normally integrated in the geographical area in which the bills or operational prices are incurred.

Recommendations

The recommended approaches for the agency to take to improvise its operations would involve multiple departments or segments within the group. The operating revenue for each part ignores different bills and revenue that are managed exterior the functioning segments. This must be looked at and be addressed. The initially part is the communication sector, which must be stored working at all times to ensure the passage and exchange of data throughout the organization during operations.

Since the Company deliberates the weakening in market share worth of its in demand securities funding portfolio to be provisional in nature, the Company characteristically capitalizes in highly-rated securities. This policy often restricts the amount of standard investors who can acquire shares. The Company’s investment plans require the shareholders to follow the highest form of activity performance with the chief objective of lowering the possible threat of principal loss. Other areas really helpful for change embrace:

The transport costs must be stored low for all the intervals presented. The aggregates payable to clienteles linked to the transport and handling value of goods or providers are usually categorized as revenue. Therefore, the Company’s handling and transport costs should be stored low to attenuate operational expenses while maximizing profit returns. The guarantee expense additionally forms an essential part of the Company’s general estimated price for both a hardware or software program component offered to purchasers. The warranties for many hardware and software program applications should be assessed for adequacy with regards to the pre-existing guarantee liabilities. This goes a good distance in ensuring that the actual changes in future estimates and shopper expertise are simply tracked.

The operational costs incurred in software program development and analysis of new utility by the corporate additionally need be regulated. There are events the place heavily funded analysis outcomes into lifeless ends. Therefore, the development prices of PC software program, to be leased, offered or else marketed, are extremely exposed to capitalization by the corporate. This instigates when a product’s technological viability is recognized and confirmed then ends with the product availability to common clienteles. Consequently, bills incurred following the accomplishment of a technological practicability are typically not necessary. The firm ought to look into the spending on most software and application improvement costs and what impact they have on the returns anticipated from the finalized product or service.

References

Boyer, K. K., & Verma, R. (2010). Operations & Supply chain management for the twenty first century. Mason, Ohio: South-Western/Cengage Learning.

Greasley, A. (2008). Operations administration. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.

O’Grady, J. D. (2009). Apple Inc. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.

Linzmayer, O. W. (2004). Apple Confidential 2.0: The definitive history of the world’s most colorful company. San Francisco, Calif: No Starch Press.

Ireland, R. D., Hoskisson, R. E., & Hitt, M. A. (2008). Understanding enterprise technique: Concepts and cases. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Nersesian, R. L. (2000). Trends and instruments for operations administration: An updated information for executives and managers. Westport, Conn: Quorum Books.

Kamauff, J. W. (2010). Manager’s information to operations management. New York: McGraw-Hill

Anderson, M. A., Parker, G., & Anderson, E. G. (2013). Operations management for dummies.

Cooke, J. T. H. (2012). Operations administration: The artwork & science of creating issues occur: what the enterprise colleges don’t train you to survive and flourish.

Young, S. T. (2009). Essentials of operations management. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Cao, M., & Zhang, Q. (2013). Supply chain collaboration: Roles of inter organizational methods, belief, and collaborative tradition. London: Springer.

Cousins, P. D., Lawson, B., & Squire, B. (2006). Supply chain management theory and practice: The emergence of an academic discipline?. Bradford, England: Emerald Group Pub.

Mahadevan, B. (2010). Operations administration: Theory and follow. Upper Saddle River: Pearson.

Heap, P. C. (2008). Globalization and summit reform: An experiment in international governance. New York: Springer.

Lashinsky, A. (2012). Inside Apple: How America’s most admired-and secretive-company actually works. New York: Business Plus.

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Nicolás Marín Ximénez, J., & J. Sanz, L. (2014). Financial decision-making in a high-growth firm: the case of Apple integrated. Management Decision,52(9), 1591-1610.

Latif, M., Jaskani, J. H., Ilyas, T., Babar, Z. K., & Gulzar, H. (2014). Issues faced by Apple Inc in sensible telephones business. International Journal of Accounting and Financial Reporting, 4(2), Pages-50.

Abraham, M. (2014). Five Leadership skills that made Steve Jobs rework Apple.

Cornelissen, J. (2014). Corporate communication: A guide to principle and apply. Sage.

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