I. The Urban Frontier
By 1890, New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia all had a population larger than 1 million. Louis Sullivan contributed to the event of the skyscraper. City limits have been prolonged outward by electrical trolleys. People were interested in the cities by facilities similar to electrical energy, indoor plumbing, and telephones. Trash became a big downside in cities due to throwaway bottles, bins, baggage, and cans.
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II. The New Immigration
The New Immigrants of the 1880s came from southern and jap Europe. They got here from countries with little historical past of democratic government, where individuals had grown accustomed to harsh living situations.
Some Americans feared that the New Immigrants wouldn’t assimilate to life in their new land. They began asking if the nation had turn out to be a melting pot or a dumping floor.
III. Southern Europe Uprooted
Immigrants left their native countries as a end result of Europe had no room for them. The population of Europe nearly doubled within the century after 1800 as a end result of ample provides of fish and grain from America and the widespread cultivation of Europe.
“America fever” caught on in Europe as the United States was portrayed as a land of great opportunities. Persecutions of minorities in Europe despatched many fleeing immigrants to the United States. Many immigrants by no means supposed to stay in America endlessly; a large number returned house with money. Those immigrants who stayed within the United States struggled to preserve their traditional tradition.
IV. Reactions to the New Immigration
The federal government did virtually nothing to ease the assimilation of immigrants into American society.
Trading jobs and providers for votes, a strong boss might claim the loyalty of 1000’s of followers. In return for his or her assist on the polls, the boss provided jobs on the city’s payroll, discovered housing for brand new arrivals, and helped get colleges, parks, and hospitals in-built immigrant neighborhoods. The nation’s social conscience gradually awakened to the troubles of cities. Walter Rauschenbusch and Washington Gladden were Protestant clergymen who sought to apply the lessons of Christianity to the slums and factories.
Jane Addams established Hull House, probably the most outstanding American settlement house. Addams condemned struggle in addition to poverty. Hull House supplied instruction in English, counseling to help immigrants cope with American big-city life, childcare companies for working mothers, and cultural activities for neighborhood residents. Lillian Wald established Henry Street Settlement in New York in 1893.
The settlement houses became centers of women’s activism and of social reform. Florence Kelley was a lifelong battler for the welfare of ladies, youngsters, blacks, and shoppers. The pioneering work of Addams, Wald, and Kelley helped to create the trail that many ladies later followed into careers in the new occupation of social work. The city frontier opened new prospects for girls. The vast majority of working girls have been single as a result of the truth that society considered employment for wives and moms taboo.
V. Narrowing the Welcome Mat
Ant foreignism, or nativism, arose in the Eighties with depth. Nativists nervous that the unique Anglo-Saxon inhabitants would quickly be outnumbered and outvoted. Nativists thought-about japanese and southern European immigrants inferior to themselves. They blamed the immigrants for the dreadful circumstances of urban government, and unionists attacked the immigrants for his or her willingness to work for small wages. Among the antiforeigner organizations formed was the American Protective Association (APA). Created in 1887, it urged to vote against Roman Catholic candidates for workplace.
Organized labor was quick to show its unfavorable perspective towards immigrants. Immigrants had been incessantly used as strike-breakers. In 1882, Congress handed the first restrictive law towards immigrants. It compelled paupers, criminals, and convicts again to their home nations. In 1885, Congress prohibited the importation of international employees under contract-usually for substandard wages. Federal legal guidelines had been later enacted that were made to maintain the undesirables out of America. In 1882, Congress barred the Chinese fully from immigrating to the United States (Chinese Exclusion Act).
VI. Churches Confront the Urban Challenge
Protestant church buildings suffered considerably from the inhabitants move to the cities, where many of their conventional doctrines and pastoral approaches appeared irrelevant. A new technology of city revivalists stepped into this spreading ethical vacuum. Dwight Lyman Moody, a Protestant evangelist, proclaimed a gospel of kindness and forgiveness.
He contributed to adapting the old-time religion to the details of metropolis life. The Moody Bible Institute was based in Chicago in 1889 to carry out his work. Roman Catholic and Jewish faiths have been gaining enormous power from the New Immigration. By 1890, there were over one hundred fifty non secular denominations within the United States. The Church of Christ, Scientist was founded in 1879 by Mary Baker Eddy who preached that the true apply of Christianity heals illness.
VII. Darwin Disrupts the Churches
Published in 1859 by Charles Darwin, On the Origin of the Species stated that people had slowly developed from lower forms of life. The principle of evolution cast severe doubt on the concept of religion. Conservatives stood firmly in their beliefs of God and faith, whereas Modernists flatly refused to accept the Bible in its entirety.
VIII. The Lust for Learning
During this time period, public training and the thought of tax-supported elementary colleges and excessive schools were gathering power. Teacher-training colleges, known as “normal schools”, experienced great growth after the Civil War. The New Immigration in the 1880s and 1890s brought new strength to the personal Catholic parochial faculties, which have been fast turning into a serious a half of the nation’s academic structure. Public faculties excluded hundreds of thousands of adults. Crowded cities usually provided higher academic facilities than the old one-room rural schoolhouses.
IX. Booker T. Washington and Education for Black People
The South lagged far behind different areas in public training, and African-Americans suffered probably the most. The main champion of black schooling was ex-slave Booker T. Washington. He taught in 1881 at the black regular and industrial faculty at Tuskegee, Alabama. His self-help approach to fixing the nation’s racial issues was labeled “accommodationist” as a end result of it stopped in want of directly difficult white supremacy.
Washington avoided the problem of social equality. George Washington Carver taught and researched at Tuskegee Institute in 1896. He turned an internationally famous agricultural chemist. Black leaders, together with Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois, attacked Booker T. Washington as a end result of Washington condemned the black race to guide labor and perpetual inferiority. Du Bois helped to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910.
X. The Hallowed Halls of Ivy
Female and black schools shot up after the Civil War.
The Morrill Act of 1862, passed after the Southern states had seceded, offered a beneficiant grant of the common public lands to the states for support of training. The Hatch Act of 1887 extended the Morrill Act and provided federal funds for the institution of agricultural experiment stations in connection with the land-grant faculties. Millionaires and tycoons donated generously to the tutorial system. Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, maintained the nation’s first high-grade graduate faculty.
XI. The March of the Mind
Due to new scientific gains, public health increased.
William James made a big influence in psychology by way of his quite a few writings.
XII. The Appeal of the Press
The Library of Congress was founded in 1897 from the donations of Andrew Carnegie. The invention of the Linotype in 1885 increased the manufacturing of texts. Joseph Pulitzer was a pacesetter within the methods of sensationalism in St. Louis. William Randolph Hearst constructed up a series of newspapers starting with the San Francisco Examiner in 1887. The Associated Press, founded in the 1840s, was gaining strength and wealth.
XIII. Apostles of Reform
Magazines partially satisfied the public urge for food for good studying. Possibly the most influential journal of all was the New York Nation.
Started in 1865 by Edwin L. Godkin, it crusaded militantly for civil-service reform, honesty in government, and a moderate tariff. Henry George, one other journalistic creator, wrote the book Progress and Poverty in 1879, which tried to unravel the association of progress with poverty. According to George, the stress of growing population on a fixed supply of land unjustifiably pushed up property values, showering unearned income on owners of land. He supported a single tax. Edward Bellamy wrote the socialistic novel, Looking Backward, by which the year 2000 contained nationalized huge business to serve the general public interest.
XIV. Postwar Writing
As literacy elevated, so did book reading. “Dime novels” were brief books that usually advised of the wilds of the West. General Lewis Wallace wrote the novel, Ben Hur: A Tale of the Christ, to combat Darwinism. Horatio Alger was a Puritan-driven New Englander who wrote greater than one hundred volumes of juvenile fiction involving New York newsboys in 1866.
XV. Literary Landmarks
In novel writing, the romantic sentiment of a youthful era was giving method to the crude human comedy and drama of the world. In 1899, feminist Kate Chopin wrote about adultery, suicide, and women’s ambitions in The Awakening. Mark Twain was a journalist, humorist, satirist, and opponent of social injustice. He recaptured the bounds of realism and humor within the genuine American dialect. Bret Harte was additionally an creator of the West, writing in California of gold-rush tales. William Dean Howells became the editor in chief of the prestigious Boston-based Atlantic Monthly.
He wrote about odd individuals and about up to date, and generally controversial, social themes. Stephen Crane wrote about the unpleasant underside of life in urban, industrial America. Henry James wrote of the confrontation of innocent Americans with delicate Europeans. His novels incessantly included girls as the central characters, exploring their inner reactions to complicated situations with a ability that marked him as a master of psychological realism.
By 1900, portrayals of modern-day life and social issues have been the literary order of the day. Jack London was a famous nature author who turned to depicting a potential fascistic revolution in The Iron Heel. Black writer Paul Laurence Dunbar embraced the usage of black dialect and folklore to seize the richness of southern black tradition. Theodore Dreiser wrote with disregard for prevailing ethical requirements.
XVI. The New Morality
Victoria Woodhull wrote the periodical, Woodhull and Clafin’s Weekly in 1872, which proclaimed her belief in free love. Anthony Comstock made a life-long struggle on the immoral. The Comstock Law censored “immoral” material from the public.
XVII. Families and Women within the City
Urban life launched the era of divorce. People within the cities have been having fewer youngsters because more youngsters would mean extra mouths to feed. Women were rising extra unbiased within the urban surroundings. Feminist Charlotte Perkins Gilman called upon ladies to abandon their dependent standing and contribute to the bigger lifetime of the neighborhood through productive involvement within the economic system. XVIII. In 1890, the National American Woman Suffrage Association was founded. The re-born suffrage movement and other women’s organization excluded black girls. Ida B. Wells helped to launch the black women’s membership motion, which led to the institution of the National Association of Colored Women in 1896.
XIX. Prohibition of Alcohol and Social Progress
Liquor consumption had elevated within the days of the Civil War and had continued to flourish afterwards. The National Prohibition Party was fashioned in 1869. The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union was fashioned in 1874 by militant ladies. The Anti-Saloon League was sweeping new states into prohibiting alcohol, and in 1919, the national prohibition modification (18th) was handed.
XX. Artistic Triumphs
Music and portrait painting was gaining popularity.
The phonograph, invented by Thomas Edison, enabled the replica of music by mechanical means.
XXI. The Business of Amusement
The circus, arising to American demand for enjoyable, emerged within the Eighteen Eighties. Baseball was additionally rising because the national pastime, and in the 1870s knowledgeable league was shaped. The move to spectator sports was exemplified by soccer.
Basketball was invented in 1891 by James Naismith.