APUSH Outline– Harding/Hoover

His “ohio gang” consisted of Hughes, Mellon, Hoover, Albert Fall, and Daugherty. Hughes was secretary of state, Mellon- sec. Of treasury, Hoover- Sec. of commerce, Fall- Sec. of the Interior, and Daugherty- Attorney General GOP Reaction at the Throttle

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Harding generally recognized as an “amiable boob” He wished the gov’t to assist information business alongside the trail to income Adkins V. Children’s hospital (1923)- courtroom reversed its personal reasoning in Muller V. Oregon. They declared that as a outcome of women now had right to vote, the had been authorized equals of men and couldn’t be protected The Aftermath of War

Washington returned the railroads to personal administration in 1920 Esch-Cummins Transportation Act of 1920- encouraged non-public consolidation of the railroads and pledged the Interstate Commerce Commission to guarantee their profitability.

Merchant Marine Act of 1920- licensed the Shipping Board, which managed 1500 vessels , to get rid of much of the war time fleet at cut price prices La Follette Seaman’s Act of 1915- American delivery couldn’t thrive in competition with foreigners who usually offered their employees with wretched food and low wages Labor board ordered a 12% cut in 1922.

2 month strike occurred Veterans Bureau created which was authorized to operate hospitals and provide rehabilitation for the disabled Adjusted Compensation Ac t- gave every former soldier a paid-up insurance coverage due in 20 yrs America Seeks Benefits Without Burdens

Washington “Disarmament” Conference in 1921-1922. Invitations despatched to the main naval powers except Bolshevik Russia Secretary Hughes declared a ten 12 months “holiday” on the construction of battleships Five-Power Naval Treaty of 1922embodied Hugh’s thought of the 5:5:three ship ratio Four-Power Treaty bounded Britain, Japan, France, and the U.

S. to protect the status quo of the pacific Coolidge’s secretary of state Frank Kellogg signed the wit the French foreign minister in 1928the Pact of Paris Hiking the Tariff Higher

Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law During Harding and Coolidge, tariffs were increased quite than really being lowered The Stench of Scandal Forbes looted the gov’t of about 200 million under Harding, sentenced to 2 years of jail Teapot Dome Scandal- sec of inside, Fall, induced the sec. of the navy to switch the oil reserve properties of Teapot Dome Wyoming and Elk Hills, California to the interior division Harding signed the secret order. Fall quietly leased lands to oilmen Sinclair and Doheny vut not till he obtained bribe of over 100,000 “Silent Cal” Coolidge

Coolidge was shy, quiet, and boring “cautious Cal” would bring again morality to the scandalous Harding regime Frustrated Farmers 1920 value of wheat went as a lot as $3 a bushel “what belt” located in higher midwest The McCormick reaper allowed farmers to reap an overabundance in wheat. Depression occurred in 20s Capper-Volstead Act- exempted farmers’ advertising cooperatives from antitrust prosecution McNary-Haugen Bill- sought to keep agricultural prices high by authorizing the gov’t to purchase up surpluses and promote them overseas. Coolidge vetoed the bill twice A three-Way Race for the White House in 1924

Republicans nominated Coolidge for presidency in 1924 Democrats nominated John W. Davis Senator “Fighting Bob” La Follette led a model new Progressive grouping. Gained endorsement of the American Federation of Labor Platform called for gov’t ownership of the railroads and aid for farmers, lashed out at monopoly and anti-labor injunctions, and urged an amendment to restrict the Supreme Court’s power to invalidate legal guidelines handed by congress Foreign- Policy Flounderings

American troops faraway from the Dominican Republic in 1924. Remained in Haiti till 1934.breifely faraway from Nicaragua in 1925 1926 mexico began to say its sovereignty over oil assets. Coolidge tried to barter America loaned 10 billion to allies during and after the war. U.S. needed to be paid again and the allies protested that the demand for compensation was unfair Unraveling the Debt Knot

Allies demanded Germany to pay 32 billion in war damages Dawes plan of 1924- negotiated primarily by Dawes, it rescheduled German reparations funds and opened the means in which for further American non-public loans to Germany The Triumph of Herbert Hoover, 1928 Coolidge’s successor was the secretary of commerce, Hoover within the 1928 election Democrats nominated Alfred E. Smith. Was a colorful alcoholic. “Al(chohol) smith” Radio helped hoover win greater than Smith

Hoover had strong religion in American individualism, free enterprise, and small authorities He endorsed labor unions and supported federal regulation of the radio broadcasting industry Hoover received election

President Hoover’s First Moves Agricultural Marketing Act- passed june 1929- arrange the Federal Farm Board. Helped farmers assist themselves 1930 the farm board created the Grain Stabilization Corp and the Cotton stabilization corp- goal was the buy up all the surpluses Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930turned out to be the very best protective tariff in the nation’s history The Great Crash Ends the Golden Twenties

Stock market crash got here in October 1929 Partially as a end result of Britain raised their rates of interest to deliver back capital “black Tuesday” can be October 29, 1929 By the top of 1930 greater than 4million workers in the united states were jobless 5000 banks collapsed within the first 5 yrs of the despair Hooked on the Horn of Plenty Great depression primarily introduced on by overproduction by farm and manufacturing unit Overexpansion of credit score by way of installment-plan shopping for overstimulated manufacturing Drought scorched Mississippi Valley in 1930. Thousands of farms sold at public sale of taxes People slept under “Hoover blankets (old newspapers) and fought over issues in garbage cans Shanty towns referred to as “Hoovervilles”

Rugged Times For Rugged Individuals Hoover feared that the gov’t handing out welfare/money would weaken or destroy the nation Hoover finally stepped away from his doctrine of individualism and accepted that the welfare of the people in a nationwide catastrophe is a direct concern of the national gov’t He would help the railroads, banks, and rural credit companies Hoover Battles the Great Depression

Hoover dam constructed for functions of irrigation, flood management, and electric power Hoover vetoed the Muscle Shoals Bill because it was to dam the Tennessee River which meant to gov’t would promote electricity in competitors with its personal citizens/private firms Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)- made in 1932, it became a gov’t lending bank. Was designed to supply indirect reduction by assisting insurance coverage companies, banks, railroads, and state/local gov’ts Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act- handed in 1932, outlawed “yellow dog” (antiunion) contracts and forbade the federal courts to concern injunctions to restrain strikes and peaceful picketing Routing the Bonus Army in Washington

“Bonus Expeditionary Force” (BEF) had been unemployed veterans who mustered 20000 individuals to arrange a “Hooverville” on the capital to intimidate congress into giving them their whole bonus for the struggle General Douglas MacArthur evicted the people

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