Archaeological Ethics: Moctezuma’s Headdress

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21 December 2021

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Archaeological Ethical motives: Moctezuma’s Headdress

Contentss

Introduction

Back to History

Features about Moctezuma’s Headdress

Amplification of the Moctezuma’s Headdress

Controversy about the Moctezuma’s Headdress

Decision

Mentions

Introduction

“I confide to your consideration my darling kids, the most cherished gems I can go forth you. The nice sovereign beyond the ocean will involvement himself to see that they come into their heritage, should you current earlier than him their merely claims. I know your maestro will make this, if for no other ground, so for kindness I really have shown the Spaniards though it has occasioned my ruin.

For all my dangerous lucks, Malinche, I bear you sick will”Moctezuma.

The history of the states is what represents us daily ; traditions, mores and beliefs are marks of the states, that alone which differentiate one for other. Some artefacts symbolize this singularity and the cultural heritage that many artefacts bring to the states is big, unreplaceable and stuffed with beauty. Its bequest have to be preserved in the most effective method and it’s a obligation of everybody to take attention of those objects.

This undertaking aims to analysis the Mexican history specially the Aztecs and the reign of Moctezuma when the Spanish conquers arrive to Mexico headed by Hernan Cortes. With this conquer there is a explicit point that stand out from the civilization and has been a figure of contention for a protracted clip now. This is the Moctezuma’s Headdress ; nowadays its location is in the Nacional Museum in Vienna.

This endeavor in addition to will contact the purpose of position of the Mexicans and if is just lots to come again to Mexico or remain in Austria its state for the previous old ages.

Back to History

Mexico is recognized as an enormous state, rich from civilization and historical past. From all of the completely different civilizations that Mexico has, an of import and a powerful one is the Aztec civilization.

The Aztecs had been generally known as those who foremost settled in Texcoco Lake ( what right now we called Mexico City ) guided by their God Huitzilopochtli ( History, 2014 ) . After many aged ages of reign and rising, in 1519 Spanish ships got here to the Mexican district in hunt for gold or new districts to widen is power ( Gonzalez y Gonzalez, 2009 ) .

Spanish conquers foremost arrive to Veracruz, and simple travel to Tenochtitlan dominated by the Aztec emperor Moctezuma II. On the forenoon of November 8, 1519 the Aztec emperor Moctezuma II and the Spanish settler Hernan Cortes had their first meeting ; Moctezuma believed that Hernan Cortes was the traditional God Quetzalcoatl, and he was coming again for his district ( Cartwright, 2013 ) . The Aztecs received their conquers pleasant however after two old ages of life with the Aztecs the Spanish conquers destroy most of Tenochtitlan under the bid of Hernan Cortes ; Moctezuma was captive and killed, which is historically referred to as “La noche triste” . This created that Spanish people escaped to Spain, with them, 1000000s of Tenochtitlan artefacts were shipped outdoors Mexico. One of the artefacts involved was the Moctezuma’s headgear and together with many other artefacts they started its journey. This lead that many of them have been misplaced in the journey or bargain, there is not a a sure sum of how many of them the place involved and how many of them are misplaced at present.

The first official phantom of Moctezuma’s headgear was on 1596 in an stock list of the Archduke Ferdinand II of Tirol ( situated in Ambras Castle ( Schloss Ambras Innsbruck, 2014 ) ) , however due to the Napoleonic Wars these relics were moved to the Belvedere Castle in Vienna for their safety ( Rivero & A ; Feest, El Penacho del Mexico Antiguo, 2012 ) .

In 1878 the Moctezuma’s headgear was rediscovered by a geologist Ferdinand von Hochstetter, it was founded severely damaged and because of this, he ordered the Restoration and replaced on the Museum of Natural History in Vienna ( Rivero & A ; Feest, Shared Heritage: The Ancient Mexican Feather Headdress in Vienna, 2012 ) .

When the World War I started the museum closes his doors and reopens till March 1915, completing this part the objects had been moved to the Museum of Ethnology in Vienna where there stay until October 19, 1940, holding the start of World War II, they have been moved and saved within the vault of the National Bank in Austria. Until the terminal of the World War II these artefacts were left in the National Bank, subsequently they were changed to the Museum of Ethnology, since so, its place.

At this clip, a reproduction of the Moctezuma’s headgear was created by Francisco Moctezuma, but because of what was go oning within the universe and the sum of cash that the Austrian authorities was soliciting for, he did the copy with a picture, that is really on the National Museum of Anthropology and History in Mexico City.

Features about Moctezuma’s Headdress

Moctezuma’s headgear is portion of the Mexican plume trade ; is see an of import mark of patriotism due to its custom, beauty, complexness, engineering and the colourful of their stuffs which might be from historic species based in many Mexican civilizations.

The plume commerce was created to face for the scope for the upper regulations, monks and successful warriors ; they wear them as a mark of regard, wisdom and self-respect. Since the minute of births via decease, plumes have been portion of the day-to-day lifetime of the Mexica, at the minute of the start, current a plume symbolizes power, award and welcome ; for the decease, plumes had been portion of the belongings that the asleep return with. ( Rivero & A ; Feest, El arte plumario en el Mexico del sigo Sixteen, 2012 ) .

Amplification of the Moctezuma’s Headdress

It was created within the Sixteen century by craftsmen referred to as “amantecas” . At the forepart of the headgear we will respect four different colourss from several types of species ( green, brown, ruddy and bluish ) . At the dorsum there are extra green plumes crisscrossed absolutely to the construction, it has a tallness of 116 centimetres and a hundred seventy five in diameter ( Welt Museum Wien, 2014 ) .

The plumes had been collected when the birds alteration of tegument after sure consideration and with out harming them. The artistic activity of the “Penacho” was actually hard and it concerned a batch of individuals to make this piece of artwork, from goldworkers to craftsmans. It besides had a batch of various methods to its amplification, like noodles and an distinctive art in signifier of mosaic. It incorporates 1,594 pieces of goldworker ( 80 % gold, 10 % Ag, three % Cu ) ( Olvido Moreno, 2013 ) . Its inventive exercise was highly careful and it was guided by an expert referred to as tlatoani, who was in command of supervising and concluding inside informations. Because of its development it permits the piece to be versatile, immune, dynamic and light-weight ; these created that anybody can have on it for hours with out buying tired.

Controversy in regards to the Moctezuma’s Headdress

Presents there are a batch of historic factors and vegetation of art displayed in museums around the universe, but the existent inquiry is if those artefacts should return to its village/city/town of beginning? And if they return to their beginnings what would the old state, which has it before, have it back? Those inquiries has turn into an of import concern when archaeological factors are based or recovered, mainly as a result of those artefacts had been founded in different states far from their beginnings.

The Moctezuma’s Headdress piece has been an unbelievable mark of competition between Mexico and Austria for so much of old ages. It had been the centre of positions, remedies and dialogues between both authoritiess, however with out holding success. Since Mexico fought against its independence, they’ve been looking for to amass it again. The latest to official bespeaking its return was the Mexican president Felipe Calderon. On February, 2010 he proposed, with the coaction of the National Institute of Anthropology and History and the Museum of Ethnology in Austria, to develop a endeavor in which their function was to make a scientific analysis of the piece, with the intent of determine its circumstances and to cognize the proper processs of Restoration that can let the conveyance of the chef-d’oeuvre to Mexico ( Conaculta, 2011 ) . With this endeavor there was apart from bearing in mind a loan by trade of the float of Maximilian of Habsburg, which is exhibit in Mexico City in Chapultepec Castle, along with different artefacts that represent the authorities of Austria.

But after a troublesome and extended analysis that last three old ages, in which specializer might reexamine, analyze and look into the Moctezuma headgear ; the representatives of both states ( Maria Moreno from Mexico and Melanie Kim from Austria ) announced that it could non be moved from one state to other with out impacting their construction ( Amador, 2014 ) . An advanced engineering in which the quivers of the journey are rejected to influence the piece of artwork is required. Until this engineering is reached the best option is that the Moctezuma’s Headdress corsets in Vienna Austria.

Based on the interview with the Dr. Moreno, the research helps the Museum of Ethnology in Vienna to alter and higher the saving and preservation of the maestro piece. Before the Restoration the piece of artwork was uncovered at 90? , like an image, however so it change to a horizontal place 22.5? , this fashion tourers can hold a better grasp of this piece and in addition to it would non impact its development ; eventually she said that whether it is saved beneath the conditions of light management, microclimate and management of quivers, the stake is that we now have “Penacho” for 500 old ages extra ( Olvido Moreno, 2013 ) . What is for sure is Mexico and Vienna has already agreed to interchange goods that symbolize both states, to have the ability to rich culturally and historic these states.

Decision

This headgear piece is a really of import artefact that contains prolonged details about how had been the Aztec civilization and its traditions. Is a mark of beauty, wealth and power for the Mexican civilization, it varieties portion of Mexicans, but we will non deny that it besides form portion of Austrians as a outcome of for all of the history behind it. It represents the Mexican civilization wholly and bettering in engineering would truly give the prospect for Mexicans to accumulate that cultural heritage with such a big importance and influence in the history of Mexico.

The trade of the pieces will besides be valuable for both states, as a outcome of it will convey value for Mexicans and Austrians and besides it’ll non make struggle between the states. The touristry that each items of artwork characterize for the states is immense and its one of many of import aspects to see, it could convey forth more because of the of import and historical value of the objects.

From my level of position, I think about the reality that each are cherished artefacts, they symbolize an unbelievable value of custom and civilization which are situated far off from its roots. But sing the hazards of touring them, this could influence its construction for good, doing it susceptible and with out chance to retrieve. The best option is to attend till engineering is superior at the level the journey could be carried out with out impacting the artefact ; making a win-win state of affairs in which each states have one thing in exchange that can wealthy culturally, traditionally and touristic.

The Austrian-Mexican binational committee analyzing the Ancient Mexican Feather Headdress, February 2010

Mentions

Amador, J. ( 2014, June three ) .Mitos y verdades del Penacho de Moctezuma, documental de Jaime Kuri. Retrieved October 27, 2014, from Proceso: hypertext switch protocol: //www.proceso.com.mx/ ? p=373771

Cartwright, M. ( 2013, October 10 ) .Montezuma. Retrieved October 26, 2014, from Ancient History Encyclopedia: hypertext switch protocol: //www.ancient.eu/Montezuma/

Conaculta. ( 2011, January 17 ) .Mexico negocia el retorno temporal del Penacho de Moctezuma. Retrieved October 29, 2014, from Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.inah.gob.mx/boletin/6-museos-y-exposiciones/4819-mexico-negocia-retorno-temporal-del-penacho-de-moctezuma

Gonzalez y Gonzalez, L. ( 2009 ) . Los pueblos indigenas a la llegada de los espanoles. InViaje por La historia de Mexico( pp. 10-13 ) . Mexico, D.F. : Editorial Clio.

History. ( 2014 ) .Mexico Timeline. Retrieved October 27, 2014, from History: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.history.com/topics/mexico/mexico-timeline

Olvido Moreno, M. ( 2013, September 7 ) .El Penacho de Moctezuma. Restauraciones de los siglos XIX Y XXI.Retrieved October 28, 2014, from Youtube: hypertext switch protocol: //www.youtube.com/watch? v=dR6UDB0Lh0Y

Rivero, L. , & A ; Feest, C. ( 2012 ) .El arte plumario en el Mexico del sigo Sixteen. Retrieved October 27, 2014, from Reseach Gate: hypertext switch protocol: //www.researchgate.net/publication/238521006_La_sombra_de_los_dioses._El_arte_plumario_en_el_Mxico_del_siglo_XVI

Rivero, L. , & A ; Feest, C. ( 2012 ) .El Penacho del Mexico Antiguo. Retrieved October 27, 2014, from Research Gate: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.researchgate.net/publication/238506996_El_Penacho_del_Mxico_Antiguo_en_Europa

Rivero, L. , & A ; Feest, C. ( 2012 ) .Shared Heritage: The Ancient Mexican Feather Headdress in Vienna. Retrieved October 28, 2014, from Research Gate: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.researchgate.net/publication/262005724_Shared_Heritage_The_Ancient_Mexican_Feather_Headdress_in_Vienna

Schloss Ambras Innsbruck. ( 2014 ) .Ambras Castle. Retrieved October 27, 2014, from Schloss Ambras Innsbruck: hypertext switch protocol: //www.schlossambras-innsbruck.at/en/explore/at-ambras-castle/the-history-of-ambras-castle/

Welt Museum Wien. ( 2014 ) .North and Central America: History of the aggregation. Retrieved October 29, 2014, from Welt Museum Wien: hypertext switch protocol: //www.weltmuseumwien.at/en/wonder/collections/north-and-central-america/history-of-the-collection/

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StudyScroll. (2021). Archaeological Ethics: Moctezuma’s Headdress. [Online]. Available at: https://studyscroll.com/archaeological-ethics-moctezumas-headdress-essay [Accessed: 9-Aug-2022]

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