I have chosen the above two architectural marvels for this essay. While Parthenon belongs to the traditional instances , round 32 B. B. its architects were Iktinos and Kallikratesand. ( Parthenon). It was a spot of worship, for the Athenians, the Lincoln memorial was constructed much later, in the 20th century, and was constructed within the fond reminiscence of the 16th president of the United states of America, Abraham Lincoln. Before analyzing these marvelous artistic endeavors, it’s needed that one is thorough in the idea of an organizational system, often known as ‘Doric order’, formulated by the ancient
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Greeks, of their style of architecture.
Both these constructions are based mostly on this concept. In the Doric order, a method of structure, first adopted by the ancient Greeks, the column does not have a base. The shaft is both based on a square or a circle. The top end of the shaft, known as the ‘capital’, rests underneath the ‘architrave’. It is essential to note that the Greeks had widely used this type, in horizontal alignment, to achieve a formidable visible enchantment.
( Mell Devin, Doric style ) Sketch illustrating the Doric column ( Mell Devin )
Originally this constructing was conceived as a temple of Goddess Athena. The ground plan of the Parthenon adheres to the ratio of 9: 4 and equally the number of columns additionally adhere to the same ratio. There are 17 columns alongside the length and eight alongside the width. The ground plan of Parthenon ( The Parthenon, web page 1) A horizontal row of 6 Doric columns support the entrance and the again porch, and the interior space was divided in two unequal rooms.
The bigger one was dedicated to the placement of the statue of Goddess Athena and was surrounded by 23 Doric columns over a two storied structure.
The again portion was the treasury of the kingdom. The visual components of this structure are so designed that the visitor to Parthenon experiences a smooth transition from the visual characteristics of the exteriors to those of the interiors. The customer additionally experiences another smooth transition from earthly to divine, when he watches the Panathenaic procession on the Frieze. The statue of Athena, has mesmerizing hues of Gold and ivory, framed shorter Doric columns, in double decked association.
This makes the inner space seem bigger and taller than the outside pace. The planning reveals as if it has been designed as a theatrical event, where after experiencing the grandeur of the structural views and the procession on Frieze, the visitor will get to view the statue of Goddess Athena. ( The Parthenon, web page 1) This masterpiece one great quality of the Athenian sense of visual elements. It is a proof of the truth that they’d mastered the art of the connection between kind and space.
The horizontal placement of the Doric columns on the outer fringe of the rectangle and the identical columns epeated in the inner hall, in a smaller scale, are strong evidences of their understanding of spatial relationships. During so many centuries of its existence, Parthenon has witnessed many attacks and alter of capabilities also. From A Athenian temple, it was became a church, and later a mosque additionally. The structure was partially destroyed because of explosion, and today, only the relics of Doric columns can be seen. ( wikipedia)
The other marvelous piece taken for analysis in this essay, is the Lincoln Memorial, at Washington D. C. , USA. This construction is modeled and impressed by the Doric fashion of columns. The floor of this monument can additionally be a rectangle, and has 36 such columns alongside its periphery.. This number represents the number states which had acceded to the federal structure of USA, on the time of assassination of Lincoln. Lincoln memorial sketch, clearly revealing the impact of Doric columns on the visible enchantment of the monument. (The Lincoln memorial) This monument was built in the fond memory of Abraham Lincoln, the sixteenth president of USA.
It was opened for public in 1922, and was designed by architect, Henry Bacon. ( Lincoln memorial) The composition of type and space and the visual metaphor in this case resembles to that of the Parthenon. As a matter of reality, the visual splendor is enhanced by the graceful, stunning and visually arresting beauty of the white marble. As a visible form, the flatness of the construction above the Doric columns lend s a really pleasing visible appeal. One necessary facet of the Lincoln memorial is that it represents the Parthenon, thematically additionally.
The statue of Lincoln represents that of goddess Athena and the procession is represented by historic speeches of Lincoln, specifically his second inaugural speech and the Gettysburg handle. ( Lincoln memorial). Talking of the elements of design, the putting distinction between the Parthenon and the Lincoln memorial is that the later, perhaps beneath the impact of modernism and the after results of renaissance era, has very flat horizontal and vertical traces domination the canvas of vision.
This lends a much more pleasing perspective view from a distance, than he Parthenon, which has inclined strains intercepting the vertical composition shaped by the Doric columns. Moreover, the ornamental elements, like motifs and patterns that are so evident within the Parthenon, usually are not seen within the Lincoln memorial This is suggestive of the influence minimal movement has had on the designers. Conclusively, it might be stated that, regardless of having a time gap of thousands of years between their evolution, the Parthenon and the Lincoln memorial are adhering to comparable design ideas, the identical fashion of visual expression, and related perceptions of visual composition.