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Architecture of Parthenon and Pantheon

Ancient Greece

The Ancient Greek interval is said to have begun around one thousand B.C.  Scholars typically divide the historical past of ancient Greece into some necessary durations based on the culture, politics and artwork of the instances.  During the Dark Ages of Greece (1100 – 800 B.C.), the artists embellished amphoras in addition to other pottery with geometrical patterns, utilizing circles, squares, and lines.  In the archaic period (800 – 490 B.C.), ancient Greek artists built massive and stiff sculptures with the popular “archaic smile.”

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Also during this era, the Greeks began to settle colonies in plenty of places.

  After colonizing Asia Minor’s Aegean coast, they went to Cyprus and Thrace’s coasts, adopted by the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea’s south coast.  Greek colonization spread so far as Ukraine within the north east, and the coasts of Sicily, Illyria, and southern Italy within the west.  France’s south coast, Corsica, northeast of Spain, Egypt, Libya, Naples, Syracuse, Marseille, and Istanbul also experienced life as elements of the traditional Greek civilization (Ancient Greece).

The classical interval of Greece (490 – 323 B.C.) saw the artists perfecting their type, as in evident within the “classical” Parthenon.  Following Alexander’s conquests, historical Greece entered the Hellenistic period (323 – 146 B.C.).  This was adopted by the top of the ancient Greek interval with the death of Alexander (Ancient Greece).

Alexander the Great was not the one god of the ancient Greek civilization.  Rather, the traditional Greeks worshipped plenty of gods that have been believed to appear to them in human form however with extraordinary energy and beauty.

  Ancient Greek gods and goddesses have been portrayed in painted scenes on stone, vases, and likewise with bronze and terracotta sculptures.  Although lots of the ancient Greek temples honored multiple gods and goddesses, certain locations showed greater reverence to at least one deity or a pair of gods, e.g. Olympia’s Zeus, and Eleusis’ Demeter and Persephone (Culture).

The Parthenon

The Parthenon is the classical Greek temple of the goddess of wisdom, Athena Parthenos, constructed between 447 – 432 B.C. on the Acropolis, which is in the capital metropolis of ancient Greece, Athens (Geography).  The temple has survived regardless of extreme damage over the centuries (Art).  It was built with a “rectangular floor plan with a sequence of low steps on every side, and a colonnade (8 x 17) of Doric columns extending across the periphery of the whole structure.  Each entrance has an extra six columns in front of it.  The bigger of the two interior rooms, the naos, housed the cult statue.  The smaller room (the opisthodomos) was used as a treasury” (The Parthenon).

Perikles, the well-known politician of Athens, had championed the construction of the Parthenon (The Parthenon).  The temple was constructed with marble, and represented primarily the Doric order with options of the Ionic order integrated in its sculptural program (Kerr).  The Doric order gave Parthenon its sequence of ninety two metopes (with panels of sculptured reliefs depicting law and order and struggle); and triglyphs on its entablature.

Additionally, the Doric order made the Parthenon a peripteral, simple-looking temple with quick and thick columns.  The “continuous sculpted frieze” of the Parthenon represents the Ionic order, however.  There are 4 tall and slim columns of the temple, too, that symbolize this architectural order which occurs to support the opisthodomos’ roof at the Parthenon.  The capitals or the columns’ tops which would possibly be built utilizing the Ionic order have volutes, that are the names of the curlicues special to this order (The Parthenon).

Above the metopes and triglyphs of the temple lie the pedimental sculptures, considered one of which exhibits the birth of Zeus.  The frieze of the temple, operating “around the higher edge of the temple wall” and inside from the metopes and the triglyphs, shows day to day life in ancient Greece, the rituals of the Greeks, processions, musicians, gods and goddesses, and far more (The Parthenon).

Indeed, the place of the frieze within the sculptural program of the temple is unique, seeing as they not only painting actual life and beliefs of the ancient Greeks, but also give the Parthenon a central place within the life of Athens.  The Parthenon was, in spite of everything, a place the place non secular festivals as nicely as sacrifices had been held.

Ancient Rome

Inspired by the tradition of the traditional Greeks, the traditional Roman civilization started in the 9th century B. C. in the form of a city-state on the Italian Peninsula.  Ancient Rome lived on for twelve centuries, rising into a tremendous empire dominating Western Europe and the entire area across the Mediterranean Sea through assimilation as well as conquest.  Rome was for the ancient Romans as Athens was for the traditional Greeks.

The city of Rome, “located on seven hills,” represented the center of historic Rome with immense architectural masterpieces such as the Forum of Trajan, the Colosseum, and the Pantheon.  The Romans were also significantly skillful at making political work, portrait sculptures, in addition to relief sculptures that depicted their victories in battle (Ancient Rome).

Although the ancient Greeks and historical Romans shared lots of their gods and goddesses, the traditional Romans did not keep that each one gods appeared to them in human form.  Rather, the gods of historical Rome had been believed to be spirits.  In order to assist individuals successfully talk with and worship the spirits of the gods, historic Rome employed priests to information individuals within the issues of faith.  Ancient Romans also believed in their emperors turning into deities following their deaths (Ancient Rome).

The Pantheon

The Pantheon was originally built between 27-25 B.C. by the Roman Empire for seven deities, earlier than it was destroyed and rebuilt around one hundred twenty five B.C. for the worship of all Roman gods.  In the 7th century, the Pantheon was made into a Christian Church, and the sculptures outside of the temple were destroyed.  The marble inside and the bronze doors of the temple survived, nevertheless (Cyrstal).

The temple is circular, and has a portico of immense “granite Corinthian columns” that are “under a pediment opening into the rotunda, under a coffered, concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus), the Great Eye, open to the sky.”  The pediment used to be decorated with a bronze sculpture depicting the Battle of the Titans.  Other options of the Pantheon have been described thus:

The top to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the identical (43 metres, or 142 feet 6 inches), so the entire inside would match exactly within a cube (alternatively, the interior could home a sphere forty three metres in diameter).  The dome is the most important surviving from antiquity and was the largest dome in western Europe until Brunelleschi’s dome of the Duomo of Florence was completed in 1436.  It was covered with gilded bronze plates.

The interior of the roof is intended to symbolize the heavens.  The Great Eye, 27 feet throughout, on the dome’s apex is the source of all mild and is symbolic of the sun.  Its authentic circular bronze cornice remains in position.  The interior features sunk panels (coffers), which originally contained bronze star ornaments.  This coffering was not only ornamental, nonetheless, but lowered the weight of the roof, as did the elimination of the apex via the Great Eye (Crystal).

The Pantheon used to deal with the statues of three necessary Roman emperors before the Christian Church took over the temple (Crystal).  Although the Pantheon remains in place at present, and has been in use for the explanation that time it was first built, it is extremely completely different from what it was (Pantheon, Rome).

The Parthenon and the Pantheon

Both the Parthenon and the Pantheon acted as the representatives of multiple gods of the traditional civilizations that constructed them.  Although the Parthenon was essentially built for a single deity, it ultimately housed the sculptures of assorted gods.  Many of those ancient sculptures are nonetheless present.  On the other hand, the Pantheon, primarily constructed for seven deities, has lost all depictions of the deities of the ancient Romans.

Both temples had been constructed with massive columns.  As a matter of truth, the columns of the Parthenon and the Pantheon are the main physical features that strike the attention of the beholder of the 2 temples.  However, the Pantheon doesn’t look like as big as the Parthenon. Although both the traditional Greeks and the Romans used their temples to have fun and remember their gods, the latter did not focus heavily on the bodily depictions of the deities.  Instead, they built the heavens contained in the Pantheon.  The heavens are where the spirits of their gods lived.  The Romans additionally constructed statues of their emperors in the Pantheon.  This is as a result of they deified their mighty emperors after the deaths of these emperors.

Lastly, it appears to be a incontrovertible reality that the ancient Greeks built the Parthenon with greater richness in its sculptural program.  The historical Romans did not reveal something about the day by day life in the ancient Roman civilization.  Both ancient Greeks and ancient Romans portrayed battle scenes in the temples.  All the same, the ancient Romans, with their focus on spirits, didn’t present too many human figures inside and across the Pantheon.  Moreover, they used bronze with gold in the temple.  The Parthenon, quite the opposite, did not use gold.  Hence, the ancient Roman temple was richer by the use of the materials utilized in its ornament.  Both temples, however, stay in place today to disclose the majesty of their respective civilizations.

Works Cited

  1. Ancient Greece. Wikipedia. Retrieved 14 Apr. 2007 .
  2. Ancient Rome. Wikipedia. Retrieved 14 Apr. 2007 .
  3. Ancient Greece. Retrieved 14 Apr. 2007 .
  4. Ancient Greece. Retrieved 14 Apr. 2007 .
  5. Crystal, Ellie. Sep. 2006. The Pantheon: Rome’s Masterpiece. Crystalinks, Vol. eight. Retrieved 14 Apr. 2007 .
  6. Ancient Greece. Retrieved 14 Apr. 2007 .
  7. Kerr, Minott. 23 Oct. 1995. “The Sole Witness”: The Periclean Parthenon. Retrieved 14 Apr. 2007 .
  8. Lodge, Nancy. The Parthenon: Religion, Art, and Politics. Retrieved 14 April 2007 .
  9. Pantheon, Rome. Wikipedia. Retrieved 14 Apr. 2007 .
  10. The Parthenon. Retrieved 14 Apr. 2007 .

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