Capsaicin Research


Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is a reasonable & one of the essential cultivating crop which belongs to the household Solanaceae. Firstly it was found in American continent mainly in it southern & central region the place it was grown after 16th century or in beginning of 17th century. Currently it was cultivated as a pungent fruit in all around the India. The genus Capsicum comprise 24 wild and 5 home species C.annuum L., C.frutescens, C.chinense, C.pubescens and C.baccatum at he.

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e are generally grown as an spices from previous 1000 years (Bosland and Votava, 2000; Wang and Bosland, 2006).

The fruits of chilli are used each as green and ripe (dried form) to impart pungency to food. The pungency, an necessary ascribe of peppers is as a outcome of presence of six associated compounds which constitutes the ‘capsacinoids’ group capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, norcapsacin, nordihydrocapsicin, homocapsaicin and homodihydrocapsaicin. (Perucka and Materska 2001). Capsaicin (CAP) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHCAP) are most plentiful which accounts for almost 90% of all capsaicinoids in chilli pepper fruit (Kozukue et al.

2005; Choi et al. 2006). CAP and DHCAP differ solely by the saturation of acyl chain moiety (Bernal et al 1993 Walpole et al 1996 Kobata et al 1998).

Capsacinoids are synthesized and accrued in the epidermal cells of placenta of the fruits (Bosland and Walker, 2010). Capsacinoids are synthesized by way of convergence of two biosynthetic pathway phenyl propanoid pathway and branched fatty acid pathway. The phenolic structure comes from the phenylpropanoid pathway, in which phenylalanine is the precursor and acyl chain is derived from branched fatty acid pathway, in which valine is the precursor (Ochoa-Alejo and Gomez-Peralta, 1993).

Capsicum has nice business importance as it is a major component of oleoresin. It has an necessary function within the manufacturing of oleoresin in food processing business to improve taste and taste of meals merchandise (Mathew and Shakaracharya 1971). Red color in chilli is principally because of capsanthin and capsorubin pigment collectively known as oleoresin (Bosland and Votava, 2000). Capsaicinoids have probably priceless pharmacological and physiological properties together with analgesic, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant. Hence, they could show potent therapeutic worth in cancer prevention, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal techniques, ache reduction, and weight reduction (Luo, X.J.; Peng, J.; Li, Y.J 2011).

Review of literature


Pepper is likely certainly one of the most necessary constituent of the cuisines of tropical and subtropical nations and the fourth major crop cultivated globally belongs to Solanaceae household. Genus Capsicum consists of roughly 22 wild species and 5 domesticated (Bosland, 1994). Capsicum have chromosome number 2n = 24 , Capsicum species may be herb or sub-shrub of peak as much as 2.5 m with extensively branched stem having furry development with purplish spots near the nodes. The tap root is powerful with numerous lateral roots. Flowers are typically solitary, terminal, bisexual and pentamerous with campanulate to rotate corolla. Stamens are adnate on the base of the corolla tube with blue to purplish anthers. The ovary is superior having 2-4 chambers. Filiform style is discovered with capitate stigma (Bosland, 1992, 1996).

Pertinet literature is reviewed beneath the next head-

  • Capsaicin
  • Capsaicin content
  • Site of synthesis
  • Capsaicin biosynthetic pathway
  • Regulation of capsaisin biosynthetic pathway


Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is a pure vanilloid acknowledge from various chili peppers. It is found in sufficient amounts in the placental tissue (which holds the seeds) and to a lesser extent within the seeds and pericarp parts of Capsicum (Rios, M.Y.; Olivo, H.F 2014)

This naturally occurring irritant was first isolated in 1816 by Christian Friedrich Bucholz in impure form and named it ‘capsicin’ (Bucholz, C.F 1816). Later, in 1876, Thresh extracted this compound in virtually pure kind and renamed it as ‘capsaicin’ (Thresh, J.C 1876). The pure type of the compound was isolated by Micko in 1898 (Micko, K 1898). Nelson first solved its empirical formula and supplied a partial chemical construction in 1919 (Nelson, E.K 1919). The original synthesis of the compound was reported in 1930 by Spath and Darling (Spath, S.; Darling, S.F 1930). Since then, several compounds related to capsaicin grouped as capsaicinoids have been isolated from Capsicum species (Kosuge, S.; Inagaki, Y.; Okumura, H 1961).

Capsaicin is a extremely volatile, hydrophobic, odorless, and1colorless alkaloid with a molecular weight of 305.four kDa and melting level of 62-65 ?C. Structurally capsaicin belongs to a gaggle of chemical compounds generally recognized as vanilloids. The structure of capsaicin consists1of a vanillyl (methylcatechol) head group and an aliphatic tail (hydrophobic) linked1by a central amide.

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The pungency of capsaicin is principally because of the presence of the vanillyl moiety, which is also liable for its antagonistic effects in scientific use (Rios, M.Y.; Olivo, H.F 2014). There are greater than twenty capsaicinoids are recognized from Capsicum species. The most predominant varieties present in Capsicum are capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin that account for 80%-90% of the capsaicinoids, whereas others exist in smaller portions. All capsaicinoids have an identical construction, varying only by the length of aliphatic aspect chain and diploma of saturation (presence or absence of double bonds) in the alkyl aspect chain area (Luo, X.J.; Peng, J.; Li, Y.J 2011).

Capsaicin content

The actual share of capsaicinoids varies relying on the pepper variety and extraction methodology. The content of capsaicinoids in naturally occurring spices range from 0.1 mg/g in chili pepper to 2.5 mg/g in pink pepper and 60 mg/g in oleoresin red pepper (O’Neill, J.; Brock, C.; Olesen, A.E.; Andresen, T.; Nilsson, M.; Dickenson, A.H. 2012) (Al Othman, Z.A.; Ahmed, Y.B.; Habila, M.A.; Ghafar, A.A 2011).

The capsaicin content material of different peppers decided by liquid chromatography techniques vary from 0.1 to four.25 mg/g of pepper. Other pepper varieties similar to Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum annuum, and Capsicum chinense had been found to comprise zero.22 to 20 mg of total capsaicinoids/g of pepper (dry weight) (Thomas, B.V.; Schreiber, A.A.; Weisskopf, C.P 1998).

Site of synthesis

Earlier the principle website for the synthesis and accumulation of capsaicin was advised to be placenta in annully grown Capsicun annum by Iwai et al (1979) which was latter on supported by Holden et al (1987) who confirmed that capsaicin is synthesized solely in fruits of perennial Capsicum frutescens and not in another a part of the plant. Recent studies confirmed that capsaicin is mostly situated in vesicles or vacuole like sub cellular organelles of epidermal cells of placenta in the pod (Cheema and Pant 2011). The highest focus of capsaicin is found within the ovary in the lower flesh (tip) and decrease concentration could be present in seeds (Supalkova et al 2007).

Capsaicin Biosynthetic Pathway

Capsaicinoids biosynthetic pathway was studied by means of organic synthesis and biochemistry utilizing a radiotracer technique on the finish of 1960s. It has been propound that capsaicinoids are synthesized within the placenta of chilli fruits by the enzymatic condensation of vanillylamine with C9 to C11 isotype branched-chain fatty acids (Bennett and Kirby, 1968; Iwai et al., 1979; Leete and Louden, 1968; Suzuki et al., 1981). The vanillylamine is procure from the phenylpropanoid pathway and the formation of the methyl-branched, saturated, or trans-monounsaturated fatty acids proceeds from valine and leucine (Suzuki, T.; Iwai 1984).

Capsaicinoids are synthesized through the convergence of two biosynthetic pathway

i) Phenylpropaoid pathway

ii) branched fatty acid biosynthetic pathway (Ochoa-Alejo and Gomez-Peralta, 1993)

Several authors established the participation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) in phenylpropanoid-mediated capsaicinoid biosynthesis (Fujiwake et al. 1982a, b; Sukrasno and Yeoman 1993). Recently, Stewart et al. (2005) and Mazourek et al. (2009) have propound the participation of another enzymes, such as 4-coumaroyl-CoA ligase (4CL), hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT), caffeoylCoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT; instead of COMT) and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA hydratase/lyase (HCHL), within the phenylpropanoid pathway that result in capsaicinoid formation based on totally different experimental sources (see for instance Gasson et al. 1998; Hoffmann et al. 2003; Merali et al. 2007).

Capasaicin synthase catalysis the formation of capsaicin by condensing vannilylamine and medium chain length fatty acids. The condensing enzyme capsaicinoid synthase (CS) acts particularly on medium chain length fatty acids requiring Mg2+, ATP, and coenzyme A (CoA). CS operates with a 6.5 fold greater pace on the acyl-CoA derivative in comparison to free fatty acids (Perry, L.; Dickau, R.; Zarrillo, S.; Holst, I.; Pearsall, D. M.; Piperno, D. R.; Berman, M. J.; Cooke, R. G.; Rademaker, K.; Ranere, A. J.; Raymond, J. S.; Sandweiss, D. H.; Scaramelli, F.; Tarble, K.; Zeidler, J. A. 2007).

Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an economically and agriculturally important crop that belongs to the Solanaceae household. It was introduced from South and Central America where it was raise round seventeenth century and now it was grown in all elements of India for its pungent fruits. The genus Capsicum comprise of 24 wild and 5 domesticated species Capsicum annuum L., C. frutescens, C. chinense, C. pubescens and C. baccatum that are cultivated basically for use as an spice from hundreds of yr. (Bosland and Votava, 2000; Wang and Bosland, 2006).

Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) EC 4.three.1.24 Conversion of phenylalanine to cinnamate

Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) EC 1.14.14.ninety one Conversion of cinnamate to coumarate4 Coumaroyl-CoA ligase( 4CL) EC Conversion of coumarate to 4-coumaroyl- CoA

Hydroxy cinnamoyl transferase (HCT) Converion of 4-coumaroyl-CoA to caffeoyl CoA

Coumaroyl shikimate/quinate3-hydroxylase ( C3H) EC

Conversion of caffeoyl-CoA-3-O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) EC Conversion of caffeoyl CoA to feruloyl-CoA

Caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) EC Conversion of


hydratase/lyase (HCHL) EC four.2.1.a hundred and one Conversion of feruloyl-CoA to vanillin

Putative Aminotransferase pAMT EC

Conversion of vanillin to vanillylamineBranched-chain amino acid transferase (BCAT) EC 2.6.1.forty two Conversion of valine to ?ketoisovalerateketoacyl-ACP synthase ( KAS) EC 2.three.1.a hundred and eighty acyl service protein (ACL) EC acyl-ACP thioesterase (FAT) EC Conversion of 8-methyl-6-nonenoic acid

Acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) EC Conversion of 8-methyl-6-nonenoic acid to 8-methyl-6-nonenoyl CoA

Capsaicin synthase (CS) EC Condensation of vanillylamine and 8-methyl-6-nonenoyl CoA

Regulation of Capsaicin biosynthetic pathway

Capsaicinoids (CAP) are nitrogenous metabolite synthesized within the placentas of peppers after 20-30 days of flowering. The capacity of pepper to synthesize capsaicinoids is interconnected with the presence of putative acyltransferase encoded by (AT3) gene specifically pungent gene 1 (Pun1). Recently, capsaicinoid synthase (CS) exercise has been attribute to AT3 (Ogawasa et al. 2015). However both environmental and developmental elements affect CAP accumulation (Sukrasno, N 1993,Contreras-Padilla, M. 1998 ). In this fashion both genetic issue and plants interaction with the environment attribute to variations in CAP contents.

Non-pungent peppers carry a non-functional allele, that lacks a 2.5 Kb area on the 5′ finish, spanning the putative promoter and first exon of AT3. (Stewart, C. 2007).

Induction of capsaicinoid accumulation by the addition of SA and MeJa in in vitro cultured placentas require main nitrogen assimilation, via the activation of glutamine synthetase/glutamine synthase (GS/GOGAT) cycle (Ancona-Escalante, W.R 2013). Being a nitrogenous metabolite nitrogen availability regulates the formation of capsaicinoids (Johnson, C.D.; Decoteau, D.R 1996). An increase within the concentration of nitrate within the placental tissue promoted the acuumulation of capsaicinoids. (Monforte-Gonz?lez, M. 2010) (Aldana-Iuit, J.G.2015).

Capsaicinoids synthesis happen from two amino acids phenylalanine and valine from which phenolic and acyl moieties are derived. Accumulation of capsaicinoids increases in the placenta with the increase of amino acids phenylalanine and valine. Arogenate dehydratase (ADT) and acetolactae synthase (ALS) are the key enzyme involved within the synthesis of phenylalanine and valine. Both of those enzymes play crucial position within the synthesis of every amino acid and have been chosen as markers for the performance of the corresponding pathways (Fray M. Baas-Espinola 2016)

5010150266700507682520002515335251047751114425228600542925219075 Chorismate Tryptophan 2 Pyruvate

501967552070 ALS

51054002686051847850211455 Anthranilate Prephenate ?-Acetolactate

1914525339725510540023495017811752349501266825225425 Arogenate ? ketoisovalerate199072532385 ADT

50958752203452371725267970 Tyrosine Phenylalanine Valine231457522478900509587523431500 Vanillylamine 8-Methyl-6-nonenoyl CoA




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