Swiss style every life

Helvetica was created in 1957. It was named the Swiss style. As you look around at every day life, you will find time after time, that the typeface that is most prevalent is that of Helvetica. After viewing the film named the same, it was evident that although the vast majority of those interviewed were in favor, and some times in awe of Helvetica, there are still issues and controversy surrounding its use.

Many interviews, such as Massimo Vignelli, were indeed excited about the typeface. He explained that it had rightness about it; that the spaces between the letters were just as bold and important as the black. Proponents of Helvetica sight that the typeface is expressive, clear and legible. Some explained that it was good for “everything”.

Michael Bierut may have explained it best with his description of the late 50’s or early 60’s when many corporations where changing over their current ads and brochures to Helvetica. He described a scene where a company would feel as if they were drinking a cold, crisp glass of water after seeing what their new logo would look like in Helvetica.

Helvetica is the contemporary typeface of corporations, of science and many other industries as well. It has an ability to fit the style you wish to project. It was explained in the video, that when American Outfitters used it, it looks chic; when Crate and Barrel uses it, Helvetica appears clean and efficient. The video goes on to describe Helvetica as having a perfect balance of push and pull. It makes you believe it’s clean, it fits in, it won’t make you stand out.

But not everyone is on the Helvetica bandwagon. Others are morally apposed to the typeface. Paula Schuler is one of them. When she first started a career in design, it was shortly after the end of the Vietnam War. She associated Helvetica with the evil corporations that were sponsoring the war. In her way of thinking, if you used Helvetica, you were supporting the
war.

However, other views were shown in the video that also apposed the frequent use of Helvetica. It was explained that typography should have personality and that we need to get away from the horrible slickness of Helvetica. We need vitality. Helvetica represented modernism which they say equals boring. As you can see, there is a fine line between simple, clean, and powerful and simple, clean, and boring.

Whether or not you are for or against the use of Helvetica, it won’t be going away anything soon. We see it so often, that we don’t even realize we see it. It is in our print, on our walls, TV’s, and movies. Our records are labeled with it, our posters scream it. Like it or not, it is hear to stay; it is “unfixable”.

Physics lab report-motion

Introduction
A toy company is now making an instructional videotape on how to predict the position. Therefore, in order to make the prediction accurate, how the horizontal and vertical components of a ball’s position as it flies through the air should be understood. This experiment is to calculate functions to represent the horizontal and vertical positions of a ball. It does so by measuring and calculating the components of the position and velocity of the ball during the toss. Therefore, we can also calculate the acceleration during the procedure.

Prediction
The x-axis is located on the ground level horizontally, pointing to where the ball is initially thrown, that is opposite the direction the ball flies. The vertical y-axis passes through the highest point of the ball during the fly and point upward. Since the ball experiences no other force, except for gravity, during the toss. There is no horizontal force. It is predicted that the ball should have a constant horizontal speed, which is the horizontal component of initial velocity. Vertically, it has gravity pulling it down all the time. So it should have an acceleration of –g (minus is for the direction). Since it has a vertical velocity, the ball should go up for a while and then fall down. The position graph should be a parabola. The function should be as follows:

The Vox and Voy are for the initial horizontal and vertical velocities and the x0 and y0 are for the initial horizontal the vertical position.

Procedure
A 146.12g spherical ball is thrown upward obliquely. Its toss trajectories were recorded by a video camera. The Motion Lab analysis software was used to generate the graph of the position and velocity as functions of time both horizontally and vertically. The horizontal position and velocity versus time function were fit by eye as oblique line and horizontal line. The vertical x(t) and v(t) functions were parabola and oblique line. The acceleration should be the slope of the velocity of both components.

Data Analysis
The horizontal velocity versus time graph is a horizontal line, which means
the velocity doesn’t change during the entire process, as is in the graph of position as a function of time, a straight line. Vx= – 1.5m/s

Xx=(0.4m)- (1.5m/s)t
The speed is constant, so the acceleration is 0m/s2. and the initial velocity is -1.5m/s. The initial position is 0.4m/

The vertical velocity is proportional to the time. Since it has an initial velocity. The position increases at the beginning and begins dropping when the velocity reaches 0. Vy=(2.8m/s)- (9.8m/s2)t

Xy=(0.5m)+ (2.8m/s)t- (4.9m/s2)t2
The acceleration is due to the gravity. The gravitational acceleration is 9.8m/s2. The initial velocity is 2.8 m/s, and the initial position is 0.5m.

The launch velocity of the ball is (-1.5, -3.0) while the velocity of the ball at the highest point is (-1.5, -0.2). However, the vertical velocity at the highest point should be 0m/s. But because of some experimental error, the value is not so accurate. And the acceleration of the ball is the derivative of the velocity. So the acceleration is (0, -9.8) throughout the entire process and is pointing downwards. Conclusion

The result of the experiment is generally the same with the prediction. However there is still some factors that lead to some minor inaccuracy. One factor is the distortion of the camera. Since the camera is recording from the center-most portion of the field, the graph it is plotting may not be so accurate. Another one is the air resistance. During the toss, the ball experience the air resistance to some extent both vertically and horizontally. However when we are doing the prediction, the resistance is neglected, But it does exist, though minor, in the actual experiment. In the procedure, we get -0.2m/s as the vertical velocity at the highest point. However as we predicted, it should be 0m/s. This is probably because the point we are choosing is not actually the real highest point. The camera is not precise enough to record any single change of the ball.

Generally the horizontal velocity does not change and the position is promotional to time. But the vertical velocity decreases and the vertical position increases and then decreases.The ball have the maxim velocity when it hit the ground and have the smallest at the highest point.

Social Etiqutte

Saying thank you to a person gives you something and saying sorry to the person you have hurt is one of the basic social etiquette that each one of us must have in our society. Etiquette is being polite and having well mannered with people and society that usually from their parents when they are child. It is important to have because having a good manner and respect to other and by doing these you can also have the same respect as what you gave to them.

Social Skills

All of us has a social skill which helps us to have a good relationship toward other people. Social skill is any skill facilitating interaction and communication with others. Social rules and relations are created, communicated, and changed in verbal and nonverbal ways. The process of learning such skills is called socialization.

The rationale for this type of an approach to treatment is that people meet a variety of social problems and can reduce the stress and punishment from the encounter as well as increase their reinforcement by having the correct skills.[Social etiquette and good manners will definitely help you in your professional as well as personal lives and make you calm and matured while handling certain situations. With this very meager yet strong social etiquette I am sure you will apply them whenever required. Social etiquette is a must if you expect others to behave the way you do. Etiquette will stay with you your whole life and they only teach you to be good human beings.

The etiquette which involves the society is in short called social etiquette which are very important for our survival in the society. When you are interacting with a group of people as your seniors, colleagues or juniors you need to have a certain sense of speech as well as body language. This etiquette defines who you are in your future. When you are in a place where there are people around you, irrespective of interaction, you should have certain behavioral manners with every age group present. People who have social etiquette have a sense of maturity on how to behave in public and to keep their calm when there are social outbreaks and related emergencies. You can’t act ignorant and not bothered when there is something going on in the social environment around that needs your help. Social etiquette should be shown in these situations keeping in mind you could also be a part of it.

Dressing is the first thing you need to take care of when you are in a social environment is your dressing and attire. Your overall appearance shows what kind of person you are and makes the first impression about you. If you’re in your school, office, with guests or even at a fair or a public place, you need to look cultured and well mannered. It is important that when you are in a public place, do not have bad body language and postures. Sit with your legs and hands gathered and together. Your body language can give negative signs about you so we have to be careful with it.

If a senior citizen, a child, or anyone needs help with something, make sure you go ahead and help, you will not regret it. Keep in mind you could also need it someday. Be polite with everyone by saying “please, sorry, thank you, I beg your pardon”, and other such phrases when you interact with them. You should have good dining etiquette as well as workplace etiquette when you are at these social places. They are very important in times when you have to leave an impression before people.

Being Polite to yourself

Being polite is all about being considerate and appreciative. To be polite you must avoid being rude, which can make the people around you feel offended, uncomfortable, or even hurt. Being polite is also a good way to make friends. Being gentle is very important it is not forceful or insistent others to do something. It means that when you do something, offer something, or make a request, you do it without pressuring the people around you and making them feel like they’re being pushed into a corner. If you’re having a conversation, it’s one thing to ask a question or offer your opinion, but it’s rude to push the matter when someone has expressed discomfort about the subject. Even if you’re trying to help.

If the person says “No, thank you, I’ve got it” then say “Please, I’d really love to help.” If they still say no, then let it go. They obviously want to treat you, so let them, and return the favor some other time. We all have to be nice to others and always be courteous, you might meet this person again in another setting and wouldn’t want to have caused negative memories that would give you a bad standing. If someone annoys or even insults you, don’t get into an argument. It is important for to be honest so that other people will trust you and at the same time you can trust them also.

The Etiquette of Friendship

When you have been friends with someone for a long time, there is a reason for that. If you are loyal, caring, have many things in common and just have an utter respect for one another, you probably have a great friendship. The best part of that kind of friendship is unconditional love. If you mess up, they still accept you. If you have an argument, there is forgiveness. No judgment, pure acceptance, love, and laughter; that makes a true and lifelong friendship. If in the middle of this “building” process, you discover the person you are being friend is not who you thought they were. You have discovered that they refer to their current friends in a negative aspect and quite frankly, are using the people around them to try to build upon their successes.

Eighteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt

Discuss the achievements of Hatshepsut on events and issues that she is remembered for in History and assess her legacy to the world. Hatshepsut was one of the most powerful women in the ancient world. She was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt and the first female pharaoh. She ruled longer than any other woman in Egyptian history. Hatshepsut was pharaoh for approximately twenty-one years, from 1479 BC–1458 BC. Hatshepsut’s successful reign brought wealth to her country & she helped shape Egypt into a stronger nation in many ways. Hatshepsut has been widely regarded as one of the most successful pharaohs throughout time and has left behind more monuments and works of art than any Egyptian queen. Hatshepsut’s parents were both from a royal background, and her father (Thutmose I) was Pharaoh when she was born.

When Thutmose I died, Hatshepsut was about 15 years old, and Thutmose II took over as pharaoh. Thutmose II died after only three or four years of rule but historians have thought that during the reign of Thutmose II, Hatshepsut may actually have been in power. Hatshepsut had had a daughter, named Neferure, but Thutmose II also had a son, named Asset. When Thutmose II died, Thutmose III was still too young to rule, and Hatshepsut began to reign, using the title “God’s Wife”. This was an issue Hatshepsut had to face as people doubted a woman as a leader but the popularity of her father and her own charismatic presence enabled her to become a full pharaoh seven years into the reign of Thutmose III. Hatshepsut achieved a lot, including expanding territory, broadening trade, building and restoring temples, and maintaining stable order in Egypt.

Egyptologists believed that there were no wars in the time she ruled, although evidence is now growing to suggest that Hatshepsut did protect her country against others that were invading Egypt. She mostly focused her efforts on constructing buildings and making Egypt a stronger, wealthier nation through trade. Hatshepsut reestablished the trade networks after the invasion of the Hyksos (a group of mixed Semitic-Asiatics) and in the ninth year of her reign, Hatshepsut sent a number of ships on a trading expedition to the distant land of Punt, located in the South of Egypt. The Punt trade provided goods (such as frankincense, gold and myrrh) that were essential to Egypt’s economic development and Hatshepsut continued to promote these trips. Archeologists and historians have noted that these expeditions have been featured on the walls of Hatshepsut’s temples.

These expeditions brought great wealth to Egypt and enabled Hatshepsut to initiate building projects. Hatshepsut was one of the most prolific builders in ancient Egypt, commissioning several projects throughout both Upper and Lower Egypt. Hatshepsut restored and renovated several old buildings that had been damaged or destroyed by invading armies before her reign. Hatshepsut had monuments constructed at the Temple of Karnak & she also restored the original Precinct of Mut (a temple used to worship the goddess of Mut). Not only did she restore and renovate, but she also started several building programs, for example, she built the Temple of Pahket, which is an underground, cavernous shrine.

She also built her mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri, which took 15 years to build & is the most significant monument Hatshepsut has built. Egyptologists have assumed that Hatshepsut ruled a long, peaceful era but evidence is now growing to suggest that Hatshepsut was involved in warfare. The Deir el-Bahri mortuary temple provides us with fragments and inscriptions showing defensive military activity against the Ethiopians during Hatshepsut’s reign. Hatshepsut was certainly prepared to fight to maintain the borders of her country and keep her country strong. In 1458 BC, when Thutmose III was due to rule, Hatshepsut disappeared with no evidence of how she died.

Whether Thutmose III murdered her or not is not known. Hatshepsut’s tomb was destroyed and only her liver was found, preserved in a jar. It is likely that Thutmose III arranged for the removal of Hatshepsut’s name from all her constructions, but historians have found no accurate reasons of why Thutmose III did this. Hatshepsut showed to the world and her country that a woman was able to rule with great self-confidence and help bring wealth to their nation, her rise to the throne might have inspired others, such as Cleopatra.

She would do anything for her country and was brave and charismatic. Hatshepsut left behind beautiful, sacred monuments promoting Egypt’s tourist industry and further more, bringing wonder to her country in the 21st century. Hatshepsut showed legacy to the world by taking charge and getting things done for the benefit of her country.

She wasn’t one to stand around and rose to the throne with great confidence, showing her country that she was worthy to be a ruler. Hatshepsut left many monuments as her legacy, however, no construction work ordered by Hatshepsut is more remarkable or impressive than her mortuary temple complex at Deir el-Bahri, which took 15 years to build & was found several centuries after its completion, buried beneath hundreds of tons of sand. Although some monuments have been destroyed, she showed to the world that she was a great leader and was appreciated by the people of her country.

She has been remembered long after her death not only because of her physical legacy (through her monuments and projects), but also her legacy of success, peace and strategic ideas. This has been led to several makings of documentaries about her, including “The Secrets of Egypt’s Lost Queen”, which was aired on the discovery channel & a few books have been written about her, such as “Her Majesty the King” by Patricia L O’Neill. Hatshepsut was a great leader in Ancient Egypt and she showed confidence & bravery to her country, as well as showing to the world that a woman was able to rule with charisma and courage.

Bombardier Case Preparation

Bombardier is a successful company in the transportation industry. Bombardier has two divisions; The Aerospace and Transportation divisions.

Bombardier Aerospace is the third largest designer and manufacturer of commercial aircraft in the world, and one of the leading producers of regional aircraft. The company encountered some challenges because of the company’s growth strategy by acquisition.

The main problem was communication problems among systems which were different for each acquired company because Bombardier Aerospace became a “textbook silo organization” after acquiring with other companies. Addition to this problem, low visibility of inventory and lack of integration between its legacy systems was also important problem to the company.

Symptoms of the problem were process delays, sequential activities, low inventory turns, supplier proliferation and price inconsistency, and multiple Bills of Material (BOM).

The company found a solution for this problem that changing Bombardier Manufacturing System (BMS) which was the group of IT applications to support manufacturing activities to an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system.

· First ERP Implementation: After $130million spent, first ERP implementation discontinued mid-project in 2000. Failure of this attempt:

•Focusing the implementation on inappropriate business processes •An outdated company vision
•A weak sponsorship model
•Insufficient involvement of internal employees.
•Employing too many consultants who having a limited knowledge of the business to assist in the project.

· Second ERP Implementation (BMIS) Project: In 2001, a group of senior managers authored a project for the BMIS in order to establish a new integrated manufacturing system. BMIS was the first project to realize a wider ERP strategy and a vision of an integrated organization, one company. It would support Bombardier Aerospace’s operations; would focus on the processes that supporting manufacturing, procurement, finance and the engineering data to support these processes.

Issues encountered by Training:

• Lack of process documentation or system functionality for trainers •3rd party consultants prepared training material
•Lack of user friendly, understandable training materials
•Lack of information to employees about necessity of training •Lack of focusing on the roles (e-learning module)
•Incomplete and somewhat wrong data for training
•Lack of explanation of the wider role & consequences of BMIS. •Shorter training time than what was planned

Issues encountered after Go Live:

•Three weeks shutdown to implement new system
•Lack of knowledge of user’s new responsibilities and roles •Blaming new system when encountered problem didn’t solve in a short period of time by support staff •Availability of old system (some managers encouraged employees to use old system) •Lack of implementing General Ledger

•Not using reporting functionality by managers

BMIS was delivered on time and below budget.

After Go Live some issues considered and inadequate areas improved: •Initial training supported with additional courses and training material. •“Day in the Life” training documents developed by management team and these documents improved user’s attitude toward the system.

· Saint Laurent Implementation: After second implementation “Mirabel” project, some of the issues were solved and improved. •The important of user preparation was well recognized.
•Managers of the Saint-Laurel plant were convinced to own this project. •Everybody in the organization got informed about every phase and details of the project. •Communication among employees and management for the project got better. •Users understood the changes introduced by the new processes. •Attendance for the training became priority.

•Users informed about their roles and responsibilities before deploying the new system.

Recommendation: Bombardier needs to apply the best ERP implementation practices which includes; •Understanding of the project by management and users: Bombardier did it on Saint-Laurel project. •Planning project: Bombardier made schedule for all project and applied on their project. •Training: Giving training to users before implementing the new system, and continuing training after implementation to make users to understand new system well. •Utilize mapping data techniques and conduct pilot runs and testing simulations: Bombardiers implemented ERP system on one site at the time.

According to an extensive study of U.S. adults

Phobia
A phobia is an extreme, persistent fear that interferes with normal living. It is not necessarily an irrational fear. Many people have phobias of snakes, spiders, lightning, heights, and other items that really are dangerous. What is irrational is the excessive degree of the fear, leading to panic in the presence of the feared object. In most cases, people with phobias are not so much afraid of the object itself but of their own reactions. They fear that they will have a heart attack or that they will embarrass themselves by trembling or fainting. Consequently, They fear that they will have a heart attack or that they will embarrass themselves by trembling or fainting, Consequently, they do whatever they can to avoid the object that reminds them of it.

Prevalence
According to an extensive study of U.S. adults, about 11% of people suffer a phobia at some time in life, and 5 to 6% have a phobia at any given time. However, phobias vary from mild to extreme, so their apparent prevalence depends on how many marginal cases we include. As with other anxiety disorders, phobias are more common in women than men.

Fear vs. Phobia
It is normal and even helpful to experience fear in dangerous situations. Fear is an adaptive human response. It serves a protective purpose, activating the automatic “fight-or-flight” response. With our bodies and minds alert and ready for action, we are able to respond quickly and protect ourselves. But with phobias the threat is greatly exaggerated or nonexistent. For example, it is only natural to be afraid of a snarling Doberman, but it is irrational to be terrified of a friendly poodle on a leash, as you might be if you have a dog phobia

Difference between normal fear and phobia
Feeling anxious when flying through turbulence or taking off during a storm Not going to your best friend’s island wedding because you’d have to fly there Experiencing butterflies when peering down from the top of a skyscraper or climbing a tall ladder Turning down a great job because it’s on the 10th floor of the office building Getting nervous when you see a pit bull or a Rottweiler

Steering clear of the park because you might see a dog Feeling a little queasy when getting a shot or when your blood is being drawn Avoiding necessary medical treatments or doctor’s checkups because you’re terrified of needles Normal fears in children

Many childhood fears are natural and tend to develop at specific ages. For example, many young children are afraid of the dark and may need a nightlight to sleep. That doesn’t mean they have a phobia. In most cases, they will grow out of this fear as they get older. If your child’s fear is not interfering with his or her daily life or causing him or her a great deal of distress, then there’s little cause for undue concern. However, if the fear is interfering with your child’s social activities, school performance, or sleep, you may want to see a qualified child therapist. Which of my child’s fears are normal?

According to the Child Anxiety Network, the following fears are extremely common and considered normal: 0-2 years – Loud noises, strangers, separation from parents, large objects. 3-6 years – Imaginary things such as ghosts, monsters, the dark, sleeping alone, strange noises. 7-16 years – More realistic fears such as injury, illness, school performance, death, natural disasters. Common types of phobias and fears

There are four general types of phobias and fears: Animal phobias. Examples include fear of snakes, fear of spiders, fear of rodents, and fear of dogs. Natural environment phobias. Examples include fear of heights, fear of storms, fear of water, and fear of the dark. Situational phobias (fears triggered by a specific situation). Examples include fear of enclosed spaces (claustrophobia), fear of flying, fear of driving, fear of tunnels, and fear of bridges. Blood-Injection-Injury phobia. The fear of blood, fear or injury, or a fear of needles or other medical procedures.

Part of the brain which is responsible for fear and phobia.

Part of the brain which responsible for phobia
The amygdala is an “almond shaped” mass of nuclei that is located deep in the brain’s medial temporal lobe. It processes the events associated with fear and is being linked to anxiety disorders and social phobias. The amygdala’s ability to respond to fearful stimuli occurs through the process of fear conditioning. Similar to classical conditioning, the amygdala learns to associate a conditioned stimulus with a negative or avoidant stimulus, creating a conditioned fear response that is often seen in phobic individuals. In this way the amygdala is responsible for not only recognizing ceratin stimuli or cues as

Specific Phobia

Blood-Injury-Injection Phobia
How do phobia subtypes differ from each other? We have already seen one major difference in the case of Judy. Rather than the usual surge of activity in the sympathetic nervous system and increased heart rate and blood pressure, Judy experienced a marked drop in heart rate and blood pressure and fainted as a consequence. Many people who suffer from phobias and experience panic attacks in their feared situation report that they feel like they are going to faint, but they never do because their heart rate and blood pressure are actually increasing.

Therefore, those with blood-injury-injection phobias almost always differ in their physiological reaction from people with other types of phobia. The blood-injury-injection phobia runs in families more strongly than any phobic disorder. This is probably because people with this phobia inherit a strong vasovagal response to blood, injury, or the possibility of an injection, all of which cause a drop in blood pressure and a tendency to faint. The phobia develops over the possibility of having this response. The average age of onset for this phobia is approximately 9 years old.

Situational Phobia
Phobias characterized by fear of public transportation or enclosed places are called situational phobias. Claustrophobia, a fear of small, enclosed places, is situational, as is a phobia of planes. Psychopathologists first thought that situational phobia was similar to PDA. One similarity in these two disorders is age of onset. Both situational phobia and PDA tend to emerge in an individual’s early to mid-20s. The extent to which PDA and situational phobias run in families is also similar, with approximately 30% of first-degree relations having the same or a similar phobia.

But more recent analysis, both descriptive and laboratory based, do not support the similarity as anything more than superficial. The main difference between situational phobia and PDA is that people with situational phobia never experience panic attacks outside the context of their phobic object or situation. Therefore, they can relax when they don’t have to confront their phobic situation. People with panic disorder, in contrast, might experience unexpected, uncued panic attacks at any time.

Natural Environment Phobia
Sometimes very young people develop fears of situation or events occurring in nature. These fears are called natural environment phobias. The major examples are heights, storms, and water. These fears also seem to clusters together: If you fear one situation or event, such as deep water, you are likely to fear another, such as storms. Many of these situations have some anger associated with tem and, therefore, mild to moderate fear can be adaptive. For example, we should be careful in a high place or in deep water. It is entirely possible that we are somewhat prepared to be afraid of these situation, something in our genes makes us sensitive to these situations if any sign of danger is present. In any case, these phobias have a peak age of onset of about 7 years old. They are not phobias if they are only passing fears. They have to be persistent and to interfere substantially with the person’s functioning, leading to avoidance of boat trips or summer vacations in the mountains where there might be a storm.

Animal Phobia
Fears of animals and insects are called anime phobias. Again, these fears are common but become phobic only f severe interference with functioning occurs. For example, we have seen cases in our clinic in which people with snake or mice phobias are unable to read magazines for fear of unexpectedly coming across a picture of one of these animals. There are many places that these people are unable to go, even if they want to very much, such as to the country to visit someone. The fear experienced by people with animal phobias is different from an ordinary mild revulsion. The age of onset for these phobias, like that of natural environment phobias, peaks around 7 years old.

Separation Anxiety Disorder
All anxiety disorders may occur during childhood, and there is one additional anxiety disorder unique to children. Separation anxiety disorder is characterized by children’s unrealistic and persistent worry that something will happen to their parents or other important people on their life or that something will happen to the children themselves that will separate them from their parents. Children often refuse to go to school or even to leave home, not because they are afraid of school but because they afraid of separating from loved ones. These fears can result in refusing to sleep alone and may be characterized by nightmares involving possible separation and by physical symptoms, distress, and anxiety.

Statistics
Specific fears occur in a majority of people. The ones most commonly found in the population at large, categorized by Agras, Sylvester, and Oliveau. Not surprisingly, fears of snakes and heights rank near the top. Notice also that the sex ration among common fears is overwhelmingly female with a couple of exceptions. Among these exceptions is fear of heights, for which the sex ration is approximately equal.

Few people who report specific fears qualify as having phobia. But for approximately 12.5% of the population, their fears are at some point in their lives severe enough to be classified as disorders and earn the label “phobia”. These numbers seem to be increasing in younger generation. During a given 1-year period the prevalence is 8.7%. This is high percentage, making specific phobia one of the most common psychological disorders in the United States and around the world. As with common fears, the sex ratio for specific phobias is, at 4:1, overwhelmingly female; this is also consistent around the world.

Causes
For a long time, we thought that most specific phobias began with an unusual traumatic event. For example, if you were bitten by a dog, you would develop a phobia of dogs. We now know this is not always the case. This is not to say that traumatic conditioning experiences do not result in subsequent phobic behavior. Almost every person with a choking phobia had some kind of a choking experience. An individual with Claustrophobia who recently came to our clinic reported being trapped in an elevator for an extraordinarily long period.

These are examples of phobias acquired by direct experience, where real danger or pain results in an alarm response. This is one way of developing a phobia, and there are at least there others: experiencing a false alarm in a specific situation, observing someone else experience severe fear or under the right conditions, being told about danger. Many initially have an unexpected panic attack in a specific situation, related, perhaps, to current life stress. A phobia of that situation may then develop.

Munjack studied people with specific phobias of driving. He noted that about 50% of the people could remember when their phobia started had experience such as a car accident. The others had nothing terrible happen to them while they were driving, but they had experienced an unexpected panic attack during which they felt they were driving was not impaired, and their catastrophic thoughts were simply part of the panic attack. We also learn fears vicariously. Seeing someone else have a traumatic experience or endure intense fear may be enough to instill a phobia in the watcher. Remember, we noted earlier that emotions are contagious. If someone you are with is either happy or fearful, you will probably feel a tinge of happiness or fear also. Ost describes how a severe dental fear developed in this way. An adolescent boy sat in the waiting room at the school dentist’s office part
Treatment

Although the development of phobias is relatively complex, the treatment is fairly straightforward. Almost everyone agrees that specific phobias require structured and consistent exposure-based exercises. Nevertheless, most patients who expose themselves gradually to what they fear must be under therapeutic supervision. Individuals who attempt to do too much too soon and end up escaping the situation, which may strengthen the phobia. In addition, if they fear having another unexpected panic attack in this situation, It is helpful to direct therapy at panic attacks in the manner described for panic disorder. For separation anxiety, parent are often included to help structure the exercises and work with parental reaction to childhood anxiety.

Finally, in cases of blood-injury-injection phobia, where fainting is a real possibility, graduated exposure-based exercises must be done in specific ways. Individuals must tense various muscle groups during exposure exercises to keep their blood pressure sufficiently high to complete the practice. New development make it possible to treat many specific phobias, including blood phobia, in a single, daylong session. Basically, the therapist spends most of the day with the individual, working through exposure exercises with the phobia object or situation. The patient then practices approaching the phobic situation at home, checking in occassionally with the therapist

Social Phobia
Social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, involves intense fear of certain social situations—especially situations that are unfamiliar or in which you feel you’ll be watched or evaluated by others. These social situations may be so frightening that you get anxious just thinking about them or go to great lengths to avoid them. Underlying social anxiety disorder or social phobia is the fear of being scrutinized, judged, or embarrassed in public.

You may be afraid that people will think badly of you or that you won’t measure up in comparison to others. And even though you probably realize that your fears of being judged are at least somewhat irrational and overblown, you still can’t help feeling anxious. While it may seem like there’s nothing you can do about the symptoms of social anxiety disorder or social phobia, in reality, there are many things that can help. It starts with understanding the problem. Common social phobia / social anxiety disorder triggers

Although it may feel like you’re the only one with this problem, social anxiety or social phobia is actually quite common. Many people struggle with these fears. But the situations that trigger the symptoms of social anxiety disorder can be different. Some people experience anxiety in most social and performance situations, a condition known asgeneralized social anxiety disorder. For other people with social phobia, anxiety is connected with specific social situations, such as speaking to strangers, eating at restaurants, or going to parties. The most common specific social phobia is fear of public speaking or performing in front of an audience. Triggers for social anxiety disorder (social phobia)

Signs and symptoms of social anxiety disorder / social phobia Just because you occasionally get nervous in social situations doesn’t mean you have social anxiety disorder or social phobia. Many people are shy or self-conscious—at least from time to time—yet it doesn’t get in the way of their everyday functioning. Social anxiety disorder, on the other hand, does interfere with your normal routine and causes tremendous distress. For example, it’s perfectly normal to get the jitters before giving a speech. But if you have social anxiety disorder or social phobia, you might worry for weeks ahead of time, call in sick to get out of it, or start shaking so bad during the speech that you can hardly speak.

Emotional symptoms of social anxiety disorder / social phobia Excessive self-consciousness and anxiety in everyday social situations Intense worry for days, weeks, or even months before an upcoming social situation Extreme fear of being watched or judged by others, especially people you don’t know Fear that you’ll act in ways that that will embarrass or humiliate yourself Fear that others will notice that you’re nervous

Physical symptoms of social anxiety disorder / social phobia Red face, or blushing
Shortness of breath
Upset stomach, nausea (i.e. butterflies)
Trembling or shaking (including shaky voice)
Racing heart or tightness in chest
Sweating or hot flashes
Feeling dizzy or faint

Behavioral symptoms of social anxiety disorder / social phobia Avoiding social situations to a degree that limits your activities or disrupts your life Staying quiet or hiding in the background in order to escape notice and embarrassment A need to always bring a buddy along with you wherever you go Drinking before social situations in order to soothe your nerves Social anxiety disorder / social phobia in children

There’s nothing abnormal about a child being shy, but children with social anxiety disorder or social phobia experience extreme distress over everyday activities and situations such as playing with other kids, reading in class, speaking to adults, taking tests, or performing in front of others. Often, children with social phobia don’t want to go to school. Social anxiety disorder treatment #1: Challenge negative thoughts Social anxiety sufferers have negative thoughts and beliefs that contribute to their anxiety. If you have social anxiety disorder, or social phobia, you may find yourself overwhelmed by thoughts like: “I know I’ll end up looking like a fool.”

“My voice will start shaking and I’ll humiliate myself.” “People will think I’m stupid.”
“I won’t have anything to say. I’ll seem boring.”
Challenging these negative thoughts, either through therapy or on your own, is one effective way to reduce the symptoms of social anxiety disorder. The first step is to identify the automatic negative thoughts that underlie your fear of social situations. For example, if you‘re worried about an upcoming work presentation, the underlying negative thought might be: “I’m going to blow it. Everyone will think I’m completely incompetent.” The next step is to analyze and challenge them. It helps to ask yourself questions about the negative thoughts: “Do I know for sure that I’m going to blow the presentation?” or “Even if I’m nervous, will people necessarily think I’m
incompetent?” Through this logical evaluation of your negative thoughts, you can gradually replace them with more realistic and positive ways of looking at social situations that trigger your anxiety. Unhelpful thinking styles involved in social phobia

In particular, ask yourself if you’re engaging in any of the following unhelpful thinking styles: Mind reading – Assuming you know what other people are thinking, and that they see you in the same negative way that you see yourself. Fortune telling – Predicting the future, usually while assuming the worst will happen. You just “know” that things will go horribly, so you’re already anxious before you’re even in the situation. Catastrophizing – Blowing things out of proportion. If people notice that you’re nervous, it will be “awful,” “terrible,” or “disastrous.” Personalizing – Assuming that people are focusing on you in a negative way or that what’s going on with other people has to do with you. How can I stop thinking that everyone is looking at me?

In order to reduce self-focus, pay attention to what is happening around you, rather than monitoring yourself or focusing on symptoms of anxiety in your body: Look at other people and the surroundings.

Really listen to what is being said (not to your own negative thoughts). Don’t take all the responsibility for keeping conversations going—silence is okay, other people will contribute. Adapted from: Moodjuice

Social anxiety disorder treatment #2: Learn to control your breath Many changes happen in your body when you become anxious. One of the first changes is that you begin to breathe quickly. Overbreathing throws off the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in your body—leading to more physical symptoms of anxiety, such as dizziness, a feeling of suffocation, increased heart rate, and muscle tension.

Learning to slow your breathing down can help you bring your physical symptoms of anxiety back under control. Practicing the following breathing exercise will help you stay calm when you’re the center of attention. A breathing exercise to help you keep your calm in social situations Sit comfortably with your back straight and your shoulders relaxed. Put one hand on your chest and the other on your stomach. Inhale slowly and deeply through your nose for four seconds. The hand on your stomach should rise, while the hand on your chest should move very little. Hold the breath for two seconds.

Exhale slowly through your mouth for six seconds, pushing out as much air as you can. The hand on your stomach should move in as you exhale, but your other hand should move very little. Continue to breathe in through your nose and out through your mouth. Focus on keeping a slow and steady breathing pattern of 4-in, 2-hold, and 6-out. Relaxation techniques for anxiety relief

In addition to deep breathing exercises, regular practice of relaxation techniques such as meditation, yoga, and progressive muscle relaxation will also help you get control over the physical symptoms of anxiety. For step-by-step advice on getting started, see Relaxation Techniques for Stress Relief: Finding the Relaxation Exercises that Work for You. Social anxiety disorder treatment #3: Face your fears

One of the most helpful things you can do to overcome social anxiety disorder, or social phobia, is to face the social situations you fear rather than avoid them. Avoidance keeps social anxiety disorder going. Avoidance leads to more problems

While avoiding nerve-wracking situations may help you feel better in the short term, it prevents you from becoming more comfortable in social situations and learning how to cope. In fact, the more you avoid a feared social situation, the more frightening it becomes. Avoidance may also prevent you from doing things you’d like to do or reaching certain goals. For example, a fear of speaking up may prevent you from sharing your ideas at work, standing out in the classroom, or making new friends. Challenging social anxiety one step at a time

While it may seem impossible to overcome a feared social situation, you can do it by taking it one small step at a time. The key is to start with a situation that you can handle and gradually work your way up to more challenging situations, building your confidence and coping skills as you move up the “anxiety ladder.” For example, if socializing with strangers makes you anxious, you might start by accompanying an outgoing friend to a party. Once you’re comfortable with that step, you might try introducing yourself to one new person, and so on. Working your way up the social phobia “anxiety ladder”

Don’t try to face your biggest fear right away. It’s never a good idea to move too fast, take on too much, or force things. This will backfire and reinforce your anxiety. Be patient. Overcoming social anxiety takes time and practice. It’s a gradual step-by-step progress. Use the skills you’ve learned to stay calm, such as focusing on your breathing and challenging negative assumptions. Social anxiety disorder treatment #4: Build better relationships Actively seeking out and joining supportive social environments is another effective way of tackling and overcoming social anxiety disorder or social phobia. The following suggestions are good ways to start interacting with others in positive ways: Take a social skills class or an assertiveness training class.

These classes are often offered at local adult education centers or community colleges. Volunteer doing something you enjoy, such as walking dogs in a shelter, or stuffing envelopes for a campaign — anything that will give you an activity to focus on while you are also engaging with a small number of like-minded people. Work on your communication skills. Good relationships depend on clear, emotionally-intelligent communication. If you find that you have trouble connecting to others, learning the basic skills of emotional intelligence can help. Social anxiety disorder treatment #5: Change your lifestyle

While lifestyle changes alone aren’t enough to overcome social phobia or social anxiety disorder, they can support your overall treatment progress. The following lifestyle tips will help you reduce your overall anxiety levels and set the stage for successful treatment: Avoid or limit caffeine. Coffee, tea, caffeinated soda, energy drinks, and chocolate act as stimulants that increase anxiety symptoms. Drink only in moderation. You may be tempted to drink before a party or other social situation in order to calm your nerves, but alcohol increases your risk of having an anxiety attack. Quit smoking. Nicotine is a powerful stimulant. Smoking leads to higher, not lower, levels of anxiety. Get adequate sleep. When you’re sleep deprived, you’re more vulnerable to anxiety. Being well rested will help you stay calm in social situations.

When self-help for social anxiety / social phobia isn’t enough The best treatment approach for social anxiety disorder varies from person to person. You may find that self-help strategies are enough to ease your social anxiety symptoms. But if you’ve tried the techniques above and you’re still struggling with disabling anxiety, you may need professional help as well. Therapy for social anxiety disorder / social phobia

Of all the professional treatments available, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to work the best for treating social anxiety disorder, or social phobia. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is based on the premise that what you think affects how you feel, and your feelings affect your behavior. So if you change the way you think about social situations that give you anxiety, you’ll feel and function better.

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for social phobia typically involves: Learning how to control the physical symptoms of anxiety through relaxation techniques and breathing exercises. Challenging negative, unhelpful thoughts that trigger and fuel social anxiety, replacing them with more balanced views. Facing the social situations you fear in a gradual, systematic way, rather than avoiding them. While you can learn and practice these exercises on your own, if you’ve had trouble with self-help, you may benefit from the extra support and guidance a therapist brings. Group therapy for social anxiety disorder / social phobia

Other cognitive-behavioral techniques for social anxiety disorder include role-playing and social skills training, often as part of a therapy group. Group therapy for social anxiety disorder uses acting, videotaping and observing, mock interviews, and other exercises to work on situations that make you anxious in the real world. As you practice and prepare for situations you’re afraid of, you will become more and more comfortable and confident in your social abilities, and your anxiety will lessen. Medication for social anxiety disorder / social phobia

Medication is sometimes used to relieve the symptoms of social anxiety, but it’s not a cure for social anxiety disorder or social phobia. If you stop taking medication, your symptoms will probably return full force. Medication is considered most helpful when used in addition to therapy and other self-help techniques that address the root cause of social anxiety disorder. Three types of medication are used in the treatment of social anxiety disorder / social phobia: Beta blockers – Beta blockers are used for relieving performance anxiety. They work by blocking the flow of adrenaline that occurs when you’re anxious.

While beta blockers don’t affect the emotional symptoms of anxiety, they can control physical symptoms such as shaking hands or voice, sweating, and rapid heartbeat. Antidepressants – Antidepressants can be helpful when social anxiety disorder is severe and debilitating. Three specific antidepressants—Paxil, Effexor, and Zoloft—have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of social phobia. Benzodiazepines – Benzodiazepines are fast-acting anti-anxiety medications. However, they are sedating and addictive, so they are typically prescribed only when other medications for social phobia have not worked.

Symptoms of social phobia
Emotional Symptoms
Excessive self-consciousness and anxiety in everyday social situations Intense worry for days, weeks, or even months before an upcoming social situation Extreme fear of being watched or judged by others, especially people you don’t know Fear that you’ll act in ways that that will embarrass or humiliate yourself Fear that others will notice that you’re nervous

Physical symptoms
Red face, or blushing
Shortness of breath
Upset stomach, nausea (i.e. butterflies)
Trembling or shaking (including shaky voice)
Racing heart or tightness in chest
Sweating or hot flashes
Feeling dizzy or faint

Agoraphobia
Is a marked fear and avoidance of being alone or isolated in open and public places from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing. This phobia is accompanied by avoidance behaviors that may eventually interfere with normal activities. It can become so debilitating that it prevents the individual from going into any open space, traveling in airplanes or through tunnels, or being in crowds. People with a severe case may decide never to leave their home, fearing that they will lose control, panic, or cause a scene in a public place. Agoraphobia is often brought on by stress, particularly interpersonal stress. It is far more common in women than in men, and it is often accompanied by other disorders.

This disorder brings about hyperventilation, extreme tension, and even cognitive disorganization. Agoraphobics feel weak and dizzy when they have an attack and often suffer from severe panic attacks. Panic attacks are characterized as acute anxiety, accompanied by sharp increases in autonomic nervous system arousal, that is not triggered by a specific event; persons who experience such attacks often avoid the situations that are associated with them, thus perpetuating the agoraphobia.

Agoraphobia is complicated, incapacitating , and extraordinarily difficult to treat. According to freud and other psychoanalysts, traumatic childhood experiences may cause people to avoid particular objects, events, and situations that produce anxiety. Freudians speculate that as young children, agoraphobics may have feared abandonment by a cold or nonnurturing mother and the fear has generalized to a fear of abandonment or helplessness. Most researchers today find Freudian explanations of phobic behavior unconvincing. As an alternative, modern learning theory suggests that agoraphobia may develop because people avoid situations they have found painful or embarrassing. Failed coping strategies and low self-esteem have been implicated. Despite much research, no simple cause for the disorder has been found.

 

Measuring Crime

There are two different instruments used in reporting crime. There are also major crimes reporting program used in the United States. These major crime reporting programs do have a purpose and does give statistical information on crime in the United States. There are a difference between crime rates, arrest rates, clearance rates, and recidivism rates. The information reported about crime rates can be misleading and give inaccurate information about the crime rate in the United States. Crime and recidivism statistics can both give some important about crime in the United States. Instruments used to measure crime

There are different ways that crime is reported in the United States. The media reports crime and influence society perception of crime (Schmalleger, 2011). This sometimes causes public opinion on crime unrealistic (Schmalleger, 2011). Statistic data provides a better view on the amount of crime occurring than what is reported by the news media. The statistic reports are not as accurate as society would want, but it still gives a better understanding of the amount of crimes, types of crimes and also the frequency of those crimes than the news media. People who are the victims of a crime are the ones who report the crime and allow the crimes to be placed in a crime database (Schmalleger, 2011). Major crime reporting programs

The Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) are the two major reporting of crime programs used in reporting crime in the United States (Schmalleger, 2011). Crime is computed by adding the major crimes reported to the police. The police report these crimes to the F.B.I who publishes the findings in the UCR. The UCR provides an annual report of incidents and rate of the reported crime that occurs throughout the United States (Schmalleger, 2011). The UCR program created a crime index to create a comparison over time. The index contains seven major offenses.

These offenses are robbery, murder, forcible rape, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, and motor vehicle theft gives the result of crime based on the population (Schmalleger, 2011). The UCR also reports victimless crimes to the F.B.I. The NCVS is designed to report an estimate occurrence of all crimes in the United States (Schmalleger, 2011). The NCVS shows the amount of different victimized crimes not reported to the law enforcement.

NCVS provides information about crimes collected from individuals and households, who have suffered from crimes whether the crimes have been reported or not to authorities (Schmalleger, 2011). Both UCR and NCVS serve the same purpose. This purpose is to report and keep track of the crime reported in the United States each year to law enforcement agencies (Schmalleger, 2011). It is a way of keeping crime statistics so law enforcement agencies can develop ways to manage crime in different areas.

These reports also provide the areas where crime rates are higher than other and what type of crimes are high in a certain area. Crime rates, arrest rates, clearance rates, and recidivism rates Crime rates and arrest rates are difficult for a law enforcement agency to produce to the high volume of calls received. Some examples of calls that do not require an arrest include lost pets, individuals needing medical assistance, and noise complaints. Each agency must make an organized effort to make contact with the individuals making the calls with high and low priority due to the unseen or unreported information at the caller’s location. The law enforcement community has also created an organization devoted to crime reports known as the Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) data is based on law enforcement agencies (Schmalleger, F. 2011, p. 3).

Clearance rates are defined as cases that have been solved. Many times if an arrest was made then the case has been cleared. Some case are never cleared one example, if an offender commits a murder and he or she is found dead or flees the country before an arrest is made the data does not go into the cleared category. Recidivism rates are directly related to the quality of life after an offender is released from prison. Many offenders repeat crime related offenses due to the addiction of drugs. At times serious pathological offenders create a threat to the community therefore recidivism rates are often used in determining the punishment required for the offender. Myth v. Reality

Crime rates can be deceiving according to information form (Criminal Justice Video, 2013). Crime rates are based on different factors including the type of crime, the type of offender, also the place a crime is committed. In late 1990’s property crimes had decreased, today property crimes are suspected to rise due to a slow economy. Another factor leading to the deception of crime rates is based on the type of offender; including the increase of juvenile crime. Also affecting the crime rate according to Criminal Justice Video, (2013) are change in policies and mandatory laws that take effect. Crime rates relate to arrest rates in the fact that both are based on the unit of the population; per 100,000 of the population, Schmalleger, F. (2011).

The crime index is a tool used to determine the amount of crime in an area; the index is effective however, it does not provide accurate numbers of crime committed. Updated Uniform Crime Reporting, (UCR) programs can help support the number of crimes committed also helps determine the types of crime. One solution for correlation between crime rates, arrest rates, and clearance rates can be to keep data updated. Updated data is the reporting of all arrests, and criminal behaviors also dropped charges. If data is continually up dated a system can be used to compare information on specific crimes helping to determine different aspects of crimes and arrests. Crime and recidivism statistics

Crime rates did increased since the early 1970’s in many major states as the baby boomers became young adults. Most crime are being committed by today’s young males because of the higher population, the best way to eliminate crime is the eliminate poverty, because poverty breeds crime. Crime is very high in African –Americans due to they are unemployed or being a single parent and doing what he/she has to do to survive or provide for their families. The crimes that are committed by the young adults may have been seen as a child while they were growing up or maybe that is what they were taught to do.

It is estimated that sociopaths who are prone to commit crimes, because they are incapable of feeling remorse or empathize with other’s pain, comprise about 3-4% of the male population, and between 33% and 80% of chronic criminals offenders. Some females may shoplift to support their drug habit, and this means that everyone is a victim especially their family members.

Conclusion
Although there may be changes of crime statistics but not changes in the crime rate, crime can be measured in numerous ways because of all of the numerous ways crime can be measured. The National Crime Victimization Survey and Uniform Crime Reports are both reliable systems but still leave the “dark figure of crime” because of the crimes that go unreported.

Reference
Criminal Justice Video, (2013). Myth v. Reality. Pearson Custom Publishing Retrieved from: http://media.pearsoncmg.com/pcp/pcp_94869_mutchnick_cj_uop/chapter1/ch1_mvr/index.html

Schmalleger, F. (2011). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the 21st century (11th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

The Institute of Medicine Report

The impact of the Institute of Medicine report on nursing education suggests the nursing profession should have a more advanced education system providing limitless opportunities for growth. The future of nursing providing care to the entire realm of health care, especially primary care and community settings, will be determined by the evolution of a new educational system. The IOM report states that sixty percent of hospital employed nurses will be impacted by the Affordable Care Act because of the transition of patients to primary and community health care. (National Research Council, 2011) Tension in the current educational system has been steadily increasing due to the newly required nursing skills in many specialty areas.

That being said, the new educational structure will have to be expanded immensely. The IOM report suggests increasing the number of baccalaureate nurses from fifty to eighty percent by the year 2020. (National Research Council, 2011, p. 12) The report also suggests doubling the current number of nurses with a doctorate degree. Reaching these goals along with overcoming many other educational obstacles will require many changes and modifications to the current system. Increasing the use of technology to educate nurses through on-line programs is one necessary effective strategy.

This will create continuous opportunities for nurses from all ethnic groups with associate degrees to obtain their baccalaureate and master’s degrees. Leaders of organizations, hospitals, accreditors, philanthropist, employers, etc. should work cohesively to secure funding for these educational programs. Generating more diversity in nursing will help meet the demands of the projected increase of ethnic groups receiving health care due to the ACA. Intra-professional diversity has been suggested by the IOM report too.

(National Research Council, 2011) It is recommended that nurses, physicians and other health care disciplines should be educated together as students and their professions. The IOM report suggests utilizing a nurse empowering trend by hospitals around the country. This trend consists of health care organizations encouraging their nurses with associate degrees to enter into baccalaureate nursing programs within a few years of graduation or hire. (National Research Council, 2011) Impact of the IOM Report on Primary Care Nursing Practice

The impact of the IOM report on primary care nursing practice suggests a direct link to the conversion of the education system. With specialty care expecting to diminish, primary care is foreseen to generate large numbers of health care consumers in the near future. People across the country will have increased access to primary care. Therefore, it is speculated that primary care nursing practice will require more opportunities and faster transitions for the advancement of nurses to obtain BSN, master’s and doctorate degrees.

Advanced practice registered nurses should have a huge role in the success of primary care. Since there are few APRNs practicing in primary care settings then there will be plenty of opportunity for this group to grow. If these ideas do not evolve as projected then nursing shortages for primary care providers could impede nursing care. The IOM report states that continuous updates to nursing practice and education should be created by collecting and analyzing data from each role and scope of practice. (National Research Council, 2011) The collected data will also be used for future predictions of health care professional requirements in each setting.

My Practice Changes in Regard to the IOM’s Report
My practice changes in regard to the IOM report in many ways. It is not rare that my unit admits children who are over or under dosed on their medication or are prescribed medicines that are ineffective or not recommended for their diagnosis. I could change my practice to meet the goals of the IOM report by providing families and patients information about their mental health diagnosis, signs and symptoms of an exacerbation of their disorder, contact information to our facility and collect their contact information for a discharge phone call.

More so, I can provide them with contact information for trained and skilled mental health professionals in their area and have appointments scheduled within a week or two of discharge. I would ask if the information discussed in the discharge meeting is realistic for them and meets their expectations. Another way I can change my practice to meet the goals of the IOM report is by continuing to chair and co-chair evidence based practice projects pertaining to technology. Technology is mentioned in several case studies in the IOM report and I agree that we should continue to find methods to use it being fiscally responsible. Recommendations for the Nurse Leader

Recommendations for the nurse leader according to the IOM report are for nurses and physicians to start working as complete equals while providing healthcare. Nursing must contribute more to leadership roles and continue their education in these roles to help provide increased quality care to patients. Nurses must become more fluent in policy reform by becoming more involved as members of committees, councils and legislation. There should be a greater emphasis and expanded education on nursing leadership in educational programs and employer based competencies. Employers should begin or continue incentives for professional development as the IOM report suggests more nurse leaders are required for reform. (National Research Council, 2011)

References
National Research Council. The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2010/The-Future-of-Nursing-Leading-Change-Advancing-Health.aspx

TOK – Does all knowledge require some kind of rational basis?

The knowledge issue presented in this question promotes the examination of the relationship between knowledge and reason. The question being explored is if reason is the only basis upon which knowledge can be constructed. The term knowledge is broad, but under the perimeters of the knowledge issue, it means to have certainty on a certain topic. This knowledge refers to the creation of certainty about an ambiguous situation. It can be the product of critical thinking about any of the “ways of knowing,” or it can be certainty about personal situations. Knowledge is not truth but certainty. Certainty is a personal position and this is one of the major perimeters of the knowledge issue.

Rational basis (i.e. reason) is a way of knowing in which one compiles historical information about similar situations in the past, and extrapolates to find certainty. In my exploration of this knowledge issue, I will refer to all areas of knowledge, and to the area of self awareness. I will refer to reason, and emotion to expose the elusive truth behind this question. What I will explore is the idea that knowledge doesn’t have to be formed on a rational basis, but it can be formed using belief. The most common form of believe is religion, and this represents “public” belief. It is seen less, but “personal” beliefs exists, and they show how powerful the way of knowing is.

Belief is the most powerful way of knowing, because it can cloud any logical arguments, and reason holds no weight in comparison. The problem with belief, is that most people don’t have the conviction to truly believe. A belief can and often does contradict the knowledge that others have, and it is for fear of standing out, that beliefs are killed early, in many. A belief can lead to letdown if not actualized, and the best beliefs are seen as ludicrous, because most people don’t think they possible.

People learn to kill beliefs early. An example of how strong a belief can be is religion. The reason religion has survived is because it has become normal. There is nothing outstanding about being religious, so there is no social repercussions to fear. When religions are challenged, the strength of beliefs are demonstrated. Often bible stories which feature miracles, like Jesus turning water to wine, are challenged because there has been nothing in the recent past which rationally leads people to believe the stories are possible. People use reason to try to disprove the stories in the eyes of
religious people.

They use their knowledge of science and their knowledge of history (both are based on the observations of situations, and the extrapolation of the findings to gain certainty) to prove how, since it hans’t happened recently, and there isn’t a chemical reaction which could produce wine from water, the act is impossible, and the story is false. Despite these rational arguments the religious people’s knowledge is unfazed. This is because their belief overrides any rational thought. Their need for certainty of God or the everlasting, requires that they believe stories that aren’t imperially supported because religion doesn’t allow the two to be separated. In the case of beliefs, knowledge doesn’t have to be based on reason.

The strength of religious belief is hard to counter, but whether the belief is unconditional or based on logic is debatable. Almost every religion tells stories of prophets or godly interventions and actions, such as in the bible. Many people also have personal stories, or have heard personal stories, about a spiritual power. My father’s friend, as a child, was terminally riddled with cancer. In a dream, he was in a crashing plane and he heard the voice of what he thought was God. It said that he had to turn off a number of the lights in the cockpit before the plane crashed.

He did. When he next visited his doctor, all of his cancer was gone. These stories may be due to selective attention, and the invalid attribution of holy power to a simply unlikely or coincidental circumstance, or the action of a spiritual power, but almost every religious person has experiences to back up their religious knowledge. According to the definition of a rational basis, “a way of knowing in which one compiles historical information about similar situations in the past, and extrapolates to find certainty,” their knowledge of religion is rational. They are using previous knowledge and extrapolating to validate the existence of a god or spiritual power.

Belief is a strong way of knowing and religion is an exemplification of it. In contradiction to the counter-claim, religious beliefs are often accepted and then validated, meaning that they were believed before reasoned, and the knowledge was created by belief and only strengthened by the reason generated by these personal experiences. Religion is an example of how knowledge doesn’t have to have a rational basis, but how often can knowledge be created based on belief? Is religion the only example of knowledge based on belief?

Religion is one of the only publicly accepted beliefs that creates knowledge without the influence of reason, however a personal belief can create knowledge. Personal beliefs are less common. This is because knowledge-based beliefs don’t make sense. They aren’t based on anything but inner-confidence. When millions of people share the belief, it is easy to follow, but people often won’t allow their beliefs to thrive. These beliefs often have to do with personal potential, or a situation with the odds stacked against it. Not only do people not have the unconditional-confidence in their belief, but these types of beliefs often contradict the opinion of the majority of people, and people don’t want to start conflict.

These are the reasons why personal beliefs aren’t seen often. There needs to be a person who has inexhaustible confidence and doesn’t shy away from conflict. When these conditions are met, it is shown how beliefs become knowledge in astonishing fashion. Michael Jordan is the perfect example of personal beliefs. As with any NBA player, the odds of making it are stacked against them as a child. With Michael Jordan the odds were stacked higher as he didn’t make the varsity basketball team his freshman year. Any rational thinker would take this to mean that if he didn’t have what it takes to make the high school team, how could he be a pro?

He was also 5’ 10” in high school, which stacked the odds so high they would block out the sun for most people — but Michael Jordan still saw the light. He defied the odds and became not only an NBA player, but arguably the greatest basketball player of all time. What is it that drove him? It was his belief in himself. His belief in himself, which wasn’t even backed up by his high school coach, created the knowledge that he would make it. These examples exist in the greatest comebacks and upsets in sports history, such as Muhammad Ali beating George Forman.

The sports commentator Howard Cosell was concerned that not only would Ali lose, but that he might actually die in the ring, but Ali’s unshakable belief contributed to his knowledge that he would prevail against the much younger and stronger Foreman. The examples also exist in wars, such as in the Battle of Stirling Bridge where the Scottish army, outnumbered five to one, defeated the English Army. The belief that each party had in themselves was the basis for the knowledge that they would win, and for that reasons they fought on.

Regarding Michael Jordan and the other underdogs, the belief that they had in themselves is unchallenged, but there is a counter to whether reason played a part in the knowledge of their inevitable success. Having known the extent of their own ability, they could base their knowledge off of the fact that their previous experiences proving their skill, such as pick-up games, or time spent in practice, indicated that they had what it takes to succeed. Using previous experiences to extrapolate to a knowledgeable conclusion, is the definition of reason, and their belief may not have been unconditional.

The fact that Michael Jordan was denied a spot on the team indicates that his personal opinion of his ability would have been shaken severely or shattered if he based it on logical arguments. His belief was unconditional, and that was the base for his knowledge. This is an example of how personal belief can create knowledge, not only without a rational basis, but despite it.

Knowledge can be create without a reasonable basis, on the strength of unrelenting belief. In the cases of both the public beliefs of religion, and the personal beliefs in our own power to prevail, we gain certainty about an outcome. As with religion, a logical argument doesn’t dent a religious person’s knowledge of the existence of a spiritual power, because they know they will experience life after death and therefore they believe all the religious teachings which promise that. Athletes, warriors, and others who find it worth it to believe, create their own knowledge based not on the reason of others, but the belief of themselves. Why does someone believe in the first place?

In my past I have wanted few things more than I wanted to stand on the podium, while I stood on the start line of the grade six cross country city finals. The odds weren’t in my corner, but I could fight that. My stride was shorter. It didn’t matter. I wanted it so badly that I believed I would do it — that I knew it. When you want something badly enough, you will believe that it is possible, because that is the only way that you can accomplish it. When you are certain that you will succeed there is not a force in the universe that could stop you.

Explain the impact of relevant legislations

In this task I will explain the impact of relevant legislations / regulations on two types of employment contract of the company New Forrest logistics as well as analyse the impact of the legislation of the two contracts of the company. Contract 1

The key contrasting differences between the two contracts in question is that contract 1 the job title is for a secretary. Its hours of work are stated as 16 hours a week. Which means that it is part time temporary employment? While a member of time is on maternity leave. The employ will be required to be flexible with regard to the hours as he and she will work in accordance to the employers needs.

The employee will be paid on an hourly basis. Being a temporary position, no pension scheme will be available to the employee. The employee will be required to complete a monthly signed timesheet as a record of the employees work schedule. No payments will be made for any unused holiday. In case of sickness for more than 3 days, in order to be entitled to statutory sick pay, the employee will need to provide a sick note, further if the employee wishes to leave before the end date he or she will need to provide a weeks’ notice.

The employer two will provide the employee with one weeks’ notice of termination before the end date given in the contract, or else he has offered his/her basic salary in lieu of notice. However no notice will be provided to the employee in case of dismissal. With regard to disciplinary procedures, in case of serious problems, the employee will either be given verbal warning which will be recorded in his or her personal file (for a period of normally 6 months) or a first written warning will be given which will also be recorded in your personal file. This could then if need arose be followed by a final warning which would also be recorded in your personal file. Contract 2

The key points in contract 2 which differ from contract 1 are the job title which is that of a Personal assistant to the Managing directors. It in contrast to contract 1, it is fulltime appointment with the hours of work being 35 hours a week. The employee will be paid a salary which will be subject to revision from time to time. This job title also includes a probationary period of 3 months from the start date. As regards time keeping, it differs in that there is no need to sign in and the employee is required to have a responsible attitude towards keeping time.

In contract 2 unlike contract 1, the employee is entitled to full annual holiday entitlement of 28 days exclusive of bank holidays. With regard to sickness, in contract 2 the employee will be entitled to a contractual pay for the first 6 months of any period of sickness. However the employee will need to complete a self certification form if ill for 7 days or less. If sick or 8 days or more than a medical certificate needs to obtained from the doctor. The employee in contract 2 is entitled to maternity or paternity leave. The employee will also be entitled to participate in any pension scheme operated by the company.

The retirement age is stated to be 65 years. With regard to confidential information the key difference is that employee is not authorised to disclose any confidential information related to companies business affairs irrespective whether he resigns or is dismissed. Regarding Notice, the employee is entitled to one weeks’ notice after 4 week of employment. A copy of the companies’ grievance procedure is contained in the staff handbook and even the companies disciplinary and dismissal procedures are also contained within the staff handbook. The employee is required to take steps as are reasonably practicable to ensure the health and safety of him/her and others affected by his or her work. The employee also needs to have knowledge of fire regulations and necessary precautions. The organisation is an equal opportunity employer, thus no employee can be discriminated against on any grounds.

Wage salary
Contract 1: The wages for the Jobsite will be £9.50 an hour before national insurance contributions and tax deductions. Contract 2: the employee’s salary is £26,000 as stated in the appointment letter. This will be subject to revision from time to time. The employee will be paid monthly. According to law the main wage rate is £6.19. Therefore it is essential for new Forrest logistics to have knowledge and awareness of different pay rates and confirm to them. Now I shall analyse the impact of the national minimum wages act 1998 on the 2 employment contracts of the company New Forrest logistics. This act is an important piece of legislation that the company is advised to follow very closely.

This act sets the minimum wage levels an employee is entitled to per hour in accordance with the age group the employee falls under. The current wage of those falling under the group of 21 and above is £6.08 and that falling under the group of 18 to 20 is equal £4.98. This legislation will obviously have an impact on both the contracts of employment drawn by New Forrest logistics as they will have to state in the contract what wages they will pay the concerned employees. Thus they will need to ensure that they abide by the act and pay the employees the correct wages in accordance with the age group. If they violate the legislation, they will be liable legal action. Grievance procedure

Contract 1: The employee will be required to comply with the grievance procedures which will be detailed in the staff hand book. Contract 2: it is stated in the contract that the employees are expected to comply with the companies’ grievance procedures, a copy of which is contained the staff handbook. The law states that if the employee is not satisfied with the decision, he or she has a right of appeal. Thus NFL needs to be aware of this in case it runs into problems. More over it is also necessary that all employees are thorough knowledge of the grievance procedure.

The grievance procedure is another legislation that will impact both of these contracts. The main impact that it will have on the both the contracts is that by law the organisation will be bound to give a clear detailed grievance procedures to the employees through the staff handbook and staff intranet. Furthermore the employer will also need to be aware that if the employee is not satisfied with the decision he or she has the right to appeal and if correct remedial action is still not taken, he or she can refer the case to an employment tribunal. This legislation ensures that all procedures including appeals against grievance decision or appeals against a disciplinary or dismissal decision are clearly detailed in the staff handbook. Both the contacts abide and comply with the legislation. Holiday entitlement

Contract 1: it is clearly stated in the contract that the holiday year is from 1st January to 31 December. It is also stated that payments will not be made for any unused holiday. It is further stated that any holidays must be agreed with the employer at least four weeks in advance and lastly should the employee exceed his or her holiday entitlement, it will be deducted from the final pay packet. Contract 2: also states that the holiday year runs from first January to 31 December. The employees’ full annual entitlement of 28 days exclusive of bank holidays is also clearly stated therein. It also states that all holidays must be in agreement with the company and lastly except in exceptional circumstances no more than two weeks holiday entitlement maybe taken at any one time. Health and safety

Contract 1: there is no mention of health and safety in the contract. Contract 2: employees are reminded that they are responsible for observing and complying with all health and safety rules and to work at promoting health and safety at work not only for themselves but also for their fellow employees. NFL is duty bound to ensure that they comply with all health and safety rules within the workplace and to place total importance on the health and safety and the welfare of employees at work. NFL also needs to follow the health and safety act at work 1974. If NFL does not do so appropriately then they are able liable to criminal prosecution. Therefore NFL needs to put all procedures and policies in place in order to ensure that employees follow them carefully and remain safe. Maternity and paternity

Contract 1: There is no mention of Maternity or Paternity in this contract. Contract 2: this contract states that an employee who is pregnant has the right to the time off with pay. The right to Paternity is set out in the Paternity and Adoption Leave Regulation 2002. The right applies to those individuals who share a sufficiently close relationship to the child or its mother. The law states that if an employee is pregnant or adopting a child she could be entitled to 56 days leave and her partner could be entitled to 2 weeks paternity leave. NFL will need to comply with this legislation. The impact of this law will be that if a man /women take this leave, they are legally entitled to their previous job role upon their return failing which she or he can appeal against the unfair dismissal in accordance with the unfair dismissal act. Confidentiality

Contract 1: Information relating to the employer, the employer’s family and the employers domestic or personal circumstances is strictly confidential Contract 2: You must not disclose any confidential information relating to the business affairs of the company during your period of employment or even after you have either resigned or been dismissed. The Data Protection Act 1998 states and controls how you use the information of others with regard to businesses or the government. NFL too needs to abide by this act and to inform employees of their responsibilities in this regard. The impact of the law for this legislation for NFL is that they must ensure that all information is kept strictly confidential. Disciplinary Procedure

Contract 1: Minor problems will be dealt with and resolved informally. In case of serious problems, first a verbal warning will be given and then it could be followed by a first written warning and if need still arose then a final warning could be issued after which further misconduct could lead to dismissal. Contract 2: disciplinary procedure can be found in the staff handbook, you do have the right to appeal against a disciplinary or dismissal decision, the procedure for which is detailed in the disciplinary and dismissal procedures. The impact of this legislation is that NFL needs to make sure in case of dismissal of an employee that all disciplinary and dismissal procedures have been duly observed and complied with. Termination of contract

Contract 1: you will be provided with one weeks’ notice of termination before the end date given in this contract. You are required to give the employers one week’s notice should you wish to terminate your employment before the end date. Contract 2: the company will give a minimum of one day notice of termination for up to four weeks service. After 4 weeks employment you are entitled to receive one weeks’ notice increasing to two weeks after 2 years continuous service.

There after you will be entitled to receive a further week’s notice for each additional year’s service up to a maximum of 12 weeks after the 12 or more year’s service. Should the employee leave, then he or she is required to give the company one months notice. The law states that termination rights are dependent on individual contracts. So NFL need to be aware of different offers stated in contracts. The impact of this is that NFL cannot dismiss an employee unfairly. Sick leave

Contract 1: the employee will be required to inform the employer at the earliest of any sick leave. The employee will be entitled to statutory sick pay on production of an employee’s statement of sickness form for sick leave of more than 3 days. Contract 2: the employee is entitled to his or her contractual pay for the first 6 months of any period of sickness. The law states that you are entitled to sick pay depending on your contract of employment. This will vary from job to job. However any business cannot offer you less than you are entitled to through your statutory sick pay. NFL need to take into consideration the law on sick pay and keeping abide by it , keeping in mind the individual contracts.

Phytochemical Screening and Extraction

Plants are a source of large amount of drugs comprising to different groups such as antispasmodics, emetics, anti-cancer, antimicrobials etc. A large number of the plants are claimed to possess the antibiotic properties in the traditional system and are also used extensively by the tribal people worldwide. It is now believed that nature has given the cure of every disease in one way or another. Plants have been known to relieve various diseases in Ayurveda.

Therefore, the researchers today are emphasizing on evaluation Prashant Tiwari*, Bimlesh Kumar, Mandeep Kaur, Gurpreet Kaur, Harleen Kaur Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Phagwara, Punjab and characterization of various plants and plant constituents against a number of diseases based on their traditional claims of the plants given in Ayurveda. Extraction of the bioactive plant constituents has always been a challenging task for the researchers. In this present review, an attempt has been made to give an overview of certain extractants and extraction processes with their advantages and disadvantages.

INTRODUCTION

extracts. Such preparations have been popularly called Plant-derived substances have recently become of galenicals, named after Galen, the second century great interest owing to their versatile applications. Greek physician [2]. Medicinal plants are the richest bio-resource of drugs Extraction methods used pharmaceutically involves of the separation of medicinally active portions of plant traditional systems of modern folk tissues from the inactive/inert components by using medicines, pharmaceutical intermediates and chemical selective solvents. During extraction, solvents diffuse entities for synthetic drugs [1].

Into the solid plant material and solubilize compounds Extraction (as the term is pharmaceutically used) is the with similar polarity [1]. separation of medicinally active portions of plant (and The purpose of standardized extraction procedures for animal) tissues using selective solvents through crude drugs (medicinal plant parts) is to attain the standard procedures. The products so obtained from therapeutically desired portions and to eliminate plants are relatively complex mixtures of metabolites, unwanted material by treatment with a selective in liquid or semisolid state or (after removing the solvent known as menstrum.

The extract thus solvent) in dry powder form, and are intended for oral obtained, after standardization, may be used as or external use. These include classes of preparations medicinal agent as such in the form of tinctures or known extracts, fluid extracts or further processed to be incorporated tinctures, pilular (semisolid) extracts or powdered in any dosage form such as tablets and capsules.

These as decoctions, food medicine, supplements, infusions, fluid products contains complex mixture of many medicinal  plant metabolites, such as alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, flavonoids and lignans [3]. The general techniques of medicinal plant extraction include maceration, infusion, percolation, digestion, Internationale Pharmaceutica Sciencia Jan-Mar 2011 Vol 1 Issue 1

Prashant Tiwari, et al: Phytochemical screening and Extraction: A Review decoction, (Soxhlet), part of the plant like bark, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, aqueous-alcoholic extraction by fermentation, counter- seeds, etc i.e. any part of the plant may contain active current extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, components. The systematic screening of plant species ultrasound extraction (sonication), supercritical fluid with the purpose of discovering new bioactive

extraction, (with compounds is a routine activity in many laboratories. hydrofluorocarbon solvents). For aromatic plants, Scientific analysis of plant components follows a hydrodistillation techniques (water distillation, steam logical pathway. Plants are collected either randomly distillation, water and steam distillation), hydrolytic or by following leads supplied by local healers in maceration followed by distillation, expression and geographical areas where the plants are found [5]. enfl eurage (cold fat extraction) may be employed. Fresh or dried plant materials can be used as a source Some of the latest extraction methods for aromatic for the extraction of secondary plant components. plants include headspace trapping, solid phase micro- Many authors had reported about plant extract extraction, protoplast extraction, microdistillation, preparation from the fresh plant tissues.

The logic thermomicrodistillation and molecular distillation [3]. behind this came from the ethno medicinal use of fresh The basic parameters influencing the quality of an plant materials among the traditional and tribal extract are [1]: people.

Propaganda and Terror wwere equally important for enabaling Hitler and the Nazis to keep control over Germany

Propaganda and terror were equally important for enabling Hitler and the nazis to keep control over Germany. How far do you agree?

I this essay I will explore the merits of both methods in keeping control and analyse the arguments for the different cases associated with the statement before concluding with my own personal opinion. There are some who believe terror was more important than the use of propaganda. Fear was a powerful tool and one that the nazis had no issue in exploiting. They understood that if people feared the nazis then they would not cross them. In 1934 Hitler planned to straighten out the SA who had turned from a faithful ally to a stumbling block to Hitlers plans, Hitler needed the support of the army, but the army officers didn’t trust the SA and refused to support Hitler and his SA. so in June 1934 Hitler ordered the butchering of hundreds of SA storm troopers including the SA leader Ernst Rohm in the night of the long knives.

This act of terror shocked the people which is exactly what the nazis needed to keep control. This is because it showed the people that the nazis were ruthless and had no issue in executing their own allies and even Rohm who appeared to be close to Hitler and faithful to him in his build up to power, and if members of the nazi party were not safe then what hope did the German population have? People were afraid to stand up against Hitler and this act of terror stomped out any thoughts of rebellion. This would be more important than propaganda as it showed the brute force of the nazis and showed the people the true power if the nazis in a way posters and rallies could not. Posters are not able to prevent a rebellion whereas brute force would be able to and this act of terror was capable of showing this. Another tactic of the nazis was the employment of nazi soldiers to overlook the voting valets -strictly speaking the extent of which this is an act of terror is debatable, however it was introduced in order to intimidate the German people into definitely voting nazi as the soldiers would pose as a threat to anyone who voted against nazis this act of intimidation is a scare tactic and thus potentially viewable as an act of terrorising the people.

This employment of soldiers to overlook the voting was important in keeping control as it potentially ensured the voting of nazis, it achieved something propaganda could not as propaganda was designed , especially in election dates, to show why nazis were the best option however that’s all they were as far as propaganda could do, an option. This act of oversight removed that choice as people were too afraid to vote against Nazi in fear of the consequences. This helped the nazis because in order to keep control they first had to get into a position of power and this ensured that the nazis would get substantial amounts of votes. However others can argue that in fact propaganda was more necessary in keeping control. They believe that propaganda was what got people on the nazis side, while terror would stamp out any rebellion propaganda would potentially prevent the need for rebellion. People were brainwashed with this pro nazi message one that said the nazis could do no wrong and were only doing good so why need to rebel? Joseph goebbels was in charge in ensuring all pro nazi messages boomed and gang any anti nazi propaganda or anything that was not nazi was suppressed. Propaganda was required to keep the darker side of the nazis hidden, journalists were under tight restrictions on what could or could not be written and what could be played on the radio by keeping the Germans in the dark goebbels ensured that no one would question the nazis and if no one questioned the nazis then there would be nothing to stand in their ways.

Furthermore all sort of “art” including music, literature and films had to follow nazi policies this was in order to prevent any foreign influences from “corrupting” the German people. This was all important as it ensures that the German people could only see or hear what the nazis wanted them to hear, and so the nazis had full control over the senses and influences of the people meaning they could manipulate the Germans to do what they wanted. Furthermore a key point, which is perhaps this sides strongest argument, is without propaganda there would be no mass scale terror. I order for this mass scale terror to take place Hitler needed to be in a position to order these attacks, the nazis got into power because they were the most popular, had the nazis not been popular they could have never got into power and this popularity came from the propaganda set about by the nazis, huge rallies were held to show the nazis prestige, order and power. People genuinely wanted the nazis as they were led to believe that they were the solution, huge posters of Hitler and swastikas were posted up claiming Hitler to be the “last hope” fear is strong method of control however hope is much more powerful and propaganda gave the Germans hope, it gave them hope in the form of Hitler.

Had the propaganda not been effective then people would not vote for nazis and Hitler would not be in a position to gain control over Germany, so one could argue no propaganda then there would be no control. Personally I can understand both views on the argument however I would disagree with both arguments and would fully support the statement because really the two methods complimented each other nicely. Propaganda would be used in order to get people on the nazis side which was important because the nazis needed a population who genuinely believe in Hitler and what he stands for, however the propaganda can’t get everyone on the nazis side and this is where the terror comes in, while not all agreed with Hitler and his nazis the terror meant they were too afraid to oppose the nazis and so potentially acted as a sheep dog rounding up the stragling sheep.

Another example is with the night of the long knives the act of terror was incredibly beneficial to the nazis as it eradicated many potential threats to Hitler meaning Hitler could be secure however the propaganda complimented the terror by sending a message to the people saying that the night of the long knives was a good thing and that those who were executed were a threat to Germany, people believed this and praised and thanked Hitler for his decision president Hindenburg even thanked Hitler. So as you can see neither was more important than the other however both were required to work with each other in harmony in order to collectively get everyone under their control whether it was through fear or hope, so that is why I agree totally with the statement that both were equally important for enabling Hitler and the nazis to keep control over Germany

Show knowledge of the Novel

Plot
How are the events presented in the story?
How is the plot developed? Does the author use a linear (chronological) pattern? Is flashback one of the techniques used?
Do any of the early events or incidents prepare the reader for later ones? Do any events or incidents lead you to anticipate the outcome? What is the nature of the conflict?
At what point does the story climax?
Does the climax bring about a change in character or situation?

Character
What are the types of character/s present in the story? (flat, round, stereotype, stock) Are the characters believable?
How are the characters presented by the author?
What is the main character like?
Does the author present fully developed characters?
What are the conflicts that the main character faces?
Does this character change as a result of the events that he or she experiences in the story? What is the nature of the change?
If there is no change, why not?

Setting
· How important is the setting of the story?
· Does the setting help to develop the plot? How does it do so? · What does the setting contribute to our understanding of the meaning of the story? · Does the setting have any influence on the characters?

Point of View
Does the point of view that is used help the author to expose the theme? If so, how? To what extent is the narrator a reliable witness to events? Would the choice of a different point of view change the story significantly?

Theme
What is the theme of the story?
Does the title provide a clue to what it is?
Is there only one theme or are there several themes?
Does the author suggest the theme through imagery?

Style
· Does the author use figurative language in telling this story, or is the language literal? · If figurative language is used, what is the effect? · Does the author use dialogue to advance the action of the story? If dialect is used

what is the effect?
· What examples of figurative language are most striking in the story? · Why are they striking?
· How does figurative language contribute to the meaning and theme of the story?

Short Stories Prescribed for the 2012-2014 Examinations

Blackout – Roger Mais
Shabine – Hazel Simmons-McDonald
Emma – Carolyn Cole
The Man of the House – Frank O’Connor
Septimus – John Wickham
The Day the World Almost Came to an End – Pearl Crayton
The Boy Who Loved Ice Cream – Olive Senior
Berry – Langston Hughes
Mom Luby and the Social Worker – Kristin Hunter
To Da-duh, in Memoriam – Paule Marshall

* Williams, D., Simmons-McDonald, H (Ed) (2005). A World of Prose for CSEC Oxford Heinemann Educational Publishers (pp. 188-193)

3. NOVELS (Prose)

According to the current CSEC syllabus, for the English B examination, the re will be four questions, two on each of the two books prescribed. You will be required to write an essay based on thorough knowledge of one of the prescribed novels. You will not be required to compare the two texts, but you may be asked to make a comparison within a text.

Students are required to read at least ONE novel (The Wine of Astonishment). The following elements will be explored in relation to the novel under study:-

Plot
Background Knowledge
Narrative Technique
Structure
Language and Style
Setting
Themes/Issues
Characterization
Narrative Point of view

Students should be able to:-

Show knowledge of the Novel
Identify Literary Devices used by the author and state their effectiveness to the theme or issue brought out, or to the overall presentation of the novel. Use personal knowledge or experiences to comment on or analyze the novel and its effectiveness. The novel is possibly the most popular of all literary forms. This is probably so because, generally, novels are exciting, interesting and informative. The novel is longer than the short story, long enough to engage a plot or storyline that can be complex. Suspense can be built and held. A number of climaxes can keep the reader engrossed and anxious to know ‘where it will all end’.

Prescribed Novels

Songs of Silence – Curdella Forbes
The Wine of Astonishment – Earl Lovelace

4. DRAMA
Students are required to read at least ONE play. The following elements will be explored in relation to the plays under study:-

Background Knowledge
Script
Performance (Plot and Structure)
Stage Directions
Asides and Soliloquies
Characterization
Issues and Theme
Atmosphere
Visual elements
Types of plays

Students should be able to:-

Show Knowledge of the Play
Identify Literary Devices used by the poet and state their effectiveness to the theme or issue brought out, or to the overall presentation of the play. Use personal knowledge or experiences to comment on or analyze the play and its effectiveness.

Prescribed Plays/ Drama texts

A Midsummer Night’s Dream – William Shakespeare
Old Story Time – Trevor Rhone

PAPER 1- (Unseen) Comprehension type Questions

There is NO MULTPLE CHOICE in English B. Paper 1 is known as the Unseen Paper. This paper tests comprehension and the ability to say how a writer/poet achieves a given effect. The paper consists of 3 sections. On this paper you will be given extracts of a POEM, PROSE FICTION and DRAMA with questions that follow. You will be required to draw upon you comprehension skills to answer ALL the questions on this paper.

Skills required:
Analysis, that is, examining the writer’s use of language(eg. Imagery, rhythm, tone, mood, sound of words) and the ability to say how these function effectively in a piece of creative writing. Attention to dramatic devices, such as stage direction and the use of sound and lighting effects.

Awareness of the relationship between action and motive.

Awareness of the interaction among characters.

It is important that you develop the vocabulary to express ideas about literature. Your writing should:
Be convincing, clear and focused
Show that you are thinking about what you write, and
Be relevant to the questions being asked.

Posted by Nalecha Johnson at 01:18 1 comment:
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Why Study Literature
WHY STUDY LITERATURE?
To open our minds to ambiguities of meaning. While people will “say what they mean and mean what they say” in an ideal world, language in our world is, in reality, maddeningly and delightfully ambiguous. If you go through life expecting people to play by your rules, you’ll only be miserable, angry and disappointed. You won’t change them. Ambiguity, double entendres and nuance give our language depth and endless possibility. Learn it. Appreciate it. Revel in it. To benefit from the insight of others. The body of world literature contains most available knowledge about humanity–our beliefs, our self-perception, our philosophies, our assumptions and our interactions with the world at large.

Some of life’s most important lessons are subtly expressed in our art. We learn these lessons only if we pause to think about what we read. Why would anyone bury important ideas? Because some ideas cannot be expressed adequately in simple language, and because the lessons we have to work for are the ones that stick with us. To explore other cultures and beliefs.

History, anthropology and religious studies provide a method of learning about the cultures and beliefs of others from the outside looking in. Literature, on the other hand, allows you to experience the cultures and beliefs of others first-hand, from the inside looking out. The only other way to have such a personal understanding of others’ beliefs are to adopt them yourself–which most of us aren’t willing to do. If you understand where other people are coming from, you are better equipped to communicate meaningfully with them–and they with you.

How far was the failure of the general strike due to the actions of the conservative government?

The general strike of May 1926 was not a success for those attempting to force the government to act to prevent wage reductions and worsening conditions for coal miners. Had the TUC been more prepared to strike and followed through with what the miners wanted them to do, the government would have been faced with a much tougher challenge. Despite this, even if the conservative government were faced with a tougher challenge, the preparations and subsequence actions taken by them were more than enough and the main reason for the failure of the strike.

Firstly the failure of the strike was due to the conservatives because Baldwin and his government holding emergency powers under the ‘Emergency Powers Act’, which enabled them to set up the Organisation for the Maintenance of Supplies. This organised 100,000 volunteers to be drafted in to help troops by moving essential supplies such as coal from place to place in Britain. Transport services were also kept going by the volunteers meaning that for most people, life was as it was before the strike started.

As a result of this, the impact of the strike was not felt with the devastating effect to Britain that it could well have had but more importantly it kept people happy, which ensured that the government always had the sense of being in control. Baldwin and his government were able to appease the miners by offering them a subsidy in their wages for nine months. These nine months gave the government time to set up the Organisation for the Maintenance of Supplies and prepare for the strike which Baldwin was anticipating. The subsidy also created time for situation on wages to slightly calm down Generally it can be said that the conservative government had prepared well for the strike and thus as a result had full control over the situation.

They had stockpiled resources, 250,000 special constables were put on hold to be used against strikers and local authorities were told to not give poor relief to strikers. Law and order was maintained almost all the time throughout the strike and violence was kept to a minimum and was well contained when it did break out. Baldwin and his government seemed patriotic which appealed more than the militancy of the strikers, and resisted the more extreme measures proposed by Churchill by turning down the need of the army to control. By doing this, he put faith in the British public, angered few people and thus had control of the situation. Indeed, the Prime Minister Baldwin spoke regularly on radio, and brought up the notion that the strike was a threat to the British constitution and challenged the government.

Especially with the unrest that was being seen around Europe, most people in Britain did not want to see the constitution to be threatened. Vitally, several members of the TUC became worried about this and therefore there was a lack in confidence in the strike and it was not carried through with as much courage that it might otherwise have. As well as this the government referred to the strike as a ‘General Strike’ to create a sense the unions trying to undermine the democratically elected government. They presented the strike as the majority of the population of Britain being undermined by 4,000,000 union members. This didn’t appeal to most people and so they decided to not take part in the strike meaning it wasn’t effective and thus it failed because of the government acting to gain the population on their side by using the idea that the countries democracy was under threat.

Despite the actions that the conservative government took, played the main part in ensuring the strike was a failure, there were also other reasons to why it did not succeed. Most importantly the TUC were not well prepared to strike and when they did, the 90 unions that took part were not fully committed to it. This made life for the government a lot easier than it could well have been if the strike had been that had they all wanted to strike. From the beginning of the strike there was a distinct lack of communication between the TUC and the local striking committees. On occasion such as at Swansea, the messages were so vague and contradictory that the strikers thought that the government were intervening with the messages. There was a lot of confusion during the 9 days and as it wore on the TUC knew that there was a strong chance that they would lose all control. As a result it was almost inevitable that with all the confusion, the strike would fail.

The lack of unions that actually took part in the strike also contributed to its failure to both have an impact and to live up to its name as being a ‘General Strike’. The printers, gas and electricity, transport and railway workers were only some of a limited number of unions that went on strike. This meant that the strike could not have its effect that it was meant to. The fact that the general public didn’t give their support to the strike meant that there was a feeling around the country that what the strikers were doing was pointless. Indeed the way in which the TUC didn’t want to be seen in a violent way also meant that they did not want to be seen as revolutionaries so went into the strike half heartedly and thus it failed. The labour party and the trade unions had a very close relationship with each other.

The trade unions had helped to fund the party. However during the lead up to the strike, the Labour party, led by Ramsey MacDonald, made it clear that they were not supportive of the strike. The relationship between the unions and Labour was especially important to the TUC and they did not want to break the relationship by striking. This meant that they reluctantly went in to strike and therefore the strike did not have the effect that the TUC would have otherwise wanted it to.

The blame can also be put on the daily mail workers who went on strike. Despite the TUC not doing it, they were blamed for it and the negotiations with the government were brought to an end. As well as making it an uphill battle for the TUC. From then on the TUC knew that the longer the strike went on, the worse chance they had of winning and thus it failed In conclusion whilst the fact that the TUC were very badly prepared for the strike and were caught off guard by the Daily Mail workers, the government played the main part in ensuring that the strike didn’t spiral out of control by being well prepared.

Even if the TUC had been more radical with the strike, it is clear that the government were more than well prepared to deal with violence because of the special constables that they had and the Organisation for the Maintenance of Supplies that was ready to step in as volunteers. As a result of the thorough preparation done by Baldwin and his conservative government, the strike was a failure.

The TUC didn’t want to be seen in a violent manner so therefore

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General strike, Labour Party, Lockout, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom,

The concept of stop and frisk

In an effort to maximize an individuals rights during search and seizures along with stop-and-frisks, the United States government has developed numerous laws and amendments. The Fourth Amendment states, The right of people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched , and the persons or things to be seized (U.S. Constitution).

This amendment was first used in the court system in the case of Terry vs. Ohio (1968). This case was the case that shaped the stop-and-frisk laws that are found in our country today. In 1942 legislators started to authorize stops-and-frisks on less than probable cause under the Uniform Arrest Act. This act gave an officer the right stop a person in public based upon reasonable ground to suspect that the person is committing has committed, or is about to commit a crime, and then search him for a dangerous weapon if the officer has reasonable ground to believe that he is in danger (Whitebread, 2000).

In 1968 the Supreme Court addressed the issue in terry v. ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 88 S. Ct. 1868, 20 L. Ed. 2d 889. In Terry an experienced plainclothes officer observed three men acting suspiciously; they were walking back and forth on a street and peering into a particular store window. The officer concluded that the men were preparing to rob a nearby store and approached them. He identified himself as a police officer and asked for their names.

Unsatisfied with their responses, he then subjected one of the men to a frisk, which produced a gun for which the suspect had no permit. In this case the officer did not have a warrant nor did he have probable cause. He did suspect that the men were “casing” the store and planning a Robbery. The defendants argued the search was unreasonable under the Fourth Amendment because it was not supported by probable cause.

The concept of stop and frisk
References Whitebread, C.H., & Slobogin, C. (2000). Criminal Procedure An Analysis Of Cases

The Perception of the New World: Columbus and Montaigne

During the era of exploration, the discovery of unexplored territories had greatly struck interest in the European countries that were on the search for more riches in East Asia. In 1493 under the flag of Spain, Christopher Columbus attempted to reach the Indies by navigating west on the Atlantic Ocean but ended up in new world; the Americas. He reported the new world he discovered in a letter, which grabbed the attention of another writer, Michel de Montaigne, who challenged the perception of how Europeans viewed these “savages”. The genres in the literary works of Columbus’ letter and Montaigne’s essay both portray new ideas, images, and the practices of the new world they are trying to portray.

Although while Columbus recounts his experience in the “Indies” and its inhabitants, Montaigne argues against the poor treatment of the inhabitants that Columbus came across in the new world. The boasting in Columbus’s letters to his king back in Spain he states, “I have taken possession of them all for their Highnesses, and all are more richly endowed than I have skill and power to say, and I hold them all in the name of their Highnesses who can dispose thereof as much and as completely as of the kingdoms of Castile—in this Española. (58)” It was made clear that Columbus was attempting to earn more support from them as well as more money for his expedition. Montaigne on the other hand was a humanist whose goal was to raise awareness about criterion and to oppose civilized and primitive ideas (equality) about the savages in the new world.

Montaigne mainly discusses that all people are relative and impermanent, and that “everyman man calls barbarous anything he is not accustomed to (61)”. The lifestyles of the primitive are not so different from theirs, but are more innocent, natural, and authentic than European nations. Columbus characterizes the natives as naïve when it came to trading stating, “They took even pieces of broken barrel hoops, and gave whatever they had, like senseless brutes; insomuch that it seemed to me ill (57).” The main idea that Columbus wanted to interpret in his letter to the king is that the money used to fund the voyage was not wasted, and that he would also like to receive even more money to finance his expedition.

Columbus and Montaigne however, are painting the same picture with their literary works. Columbus seems to be sugar-coating his meeting with the inhabitants of the Americas to make himself seem gentle. He wrote, “I have gone and been able to hold speech with the, I gave them of everything which I had, as well cloth as many things, without accepting aught therefor; but such they are incurably timid (56).” He seems to contradict himself also when he refers the native later to savages and barbarous.

Montaigne seems to paint a rosy picture of the native people back in the Americas and can be seen when he quotes Plato that, “all things produced by nature , fortune, or art, the greatest and fairest by the first two, the lesser and least perfect by the last. (62)” Here Montaigne regards that those who call the natives barbarous are blinded by the fact that they are more barbarous because they are far from nature. Although both Columbus and Montaigne both seem convincing, I take Montaigne’s side due to the fact that he argued reasonably against the treatment of natives.

What Happens in the Sacraments

1. What does the Church’s liturgy celebrate?
The Church’s liturgy celebrates the Paschal Mystery of Christ.

2. Redemption is the action of Jesus Christ whereby he paid the price of his own Death on the cross to save us from sin and thus return us to new, eternal life in union with God. In the Eucharist we proclaim the mystery of our Redemption.

3. True or False? In the liturgy we remember and participate in the events that accomplished our Redemption. True

4. What is a central theme of the spiritual writing of Blessed Dom Columba Marmion, O.S.B.? Explain. A central theme in his writing is “divine adoption”

5. In the Eucharist Christ communicates the fruits of the Paschal Mystery. Through faith and our participation in the sacraments, every facet of our lives becomes intertwined with the life of Jesus as we grow in union with the Blessed Trinity.

Pages 32 – 37 Christ Acts through the Sacraments
6. True or False? The Apostles were empowered to begin the mission to teach and baptize people of all nations on the Jewish Feast of the Ascension. FALSE The Apostles were empowered to begin the mission to teach and baptize people of all nations on the Jewish Feast of Pentecost.

7. The experience of Paraclete forever changed the Apostles as they became enlivened, rejuvenated, and filled with courage. They spoke openly to the “Jews from every nation” who had come to Jerusalem for the celebration.

8. The Holy Spirit continued to be present in the Apostles and they became “sacramental signs” of Christ. Through Apostolic succession they entrusted the power and authority of the Holy Spirit to their replacements.

9. True or False? The events of our Salvation occurred only once, but by the power of the Holy Spirit the liturgy makes these events present and real for us today. True

10. God the Father is the source of the blessing we receive from the liturgy. Our response involves recognizing God’s blessings in the story of creation, His covenants with the Chosen people and finally in the coming of Christ.

International students in English speaking universities

Introduction
With the brisk pace of economic globalization, higher education is becoming more internationalized as well. An increasing number of students choose to receive higher education abroad in countries like the US, the UK and Australia, where there are many world-class universities that are expected to provide high-quality education for both domestic and overseas students. However, due to various reasons, and often out of their expectation, international students inevitably meet kinds of problems and difficulties that hinder them from integrating with the new environment, especially heavily impact their life and learning at university. This essay will account for the difficulties that international students may encounter in their adjustment and achievement, using the Leslie and Smith (2004) and Andrade (2006) to support the points.

Emotion changes
Due to the cultural differences, most international students feel shocked. They leave home and parental care, studying in an unfamiliar country. Rajapaksa and Dundes (2000) discovered that international students felt more lonely and homesick than domestic students. “Their adjustment was affected by their satisfaction with social networks as opposed to the number of close friends.” (Andrade, 2006). In this case, international students may feel difficult to achieve the targets. On the other hands, international students can be easier to get angry because of lack of language proficiency then they often do not understand what is going on.

Passive VS Active
Based on the past study in their own countries, international student consider that learning is passive. However, now in English speaking universities, learning become more active. (Leslie and Smith, 2004) International students have difficulty understanding spoken English and have weak writing skills whereas students criticized instructors for their use of colloquial English and rapid speech. Similarly, professors felt students did not take responsibility for their own learning while students found professors indifferent. (Robertson et al., 2000)

As a result, international students need more and more independent study by themselves. They also have to be initiative. It is Another research demonstrated that international students preferred to work alone, which supports a common view that international students dislike group work. (Sarkodie- Mensah, 1998) Also, they reported valuing warm, friendly relationships with their instructors in contrast with the belief that international students are accustomed to a formal student-professor relationship. (Sarkodie- Mensah, 1998). Although, students need more group work in English speaking universities and they should know how to work cooperatively, they still need to learn how to work by themselves when they write essays and review for the exams.

Teaching tools
It is worth mentioning that there are a lot more advanced facilities in English speaking universities than at home. (Leslie and Smith, 2004) There are a lot of computers in library so that students can use to find information to make preparation for essay or presentation. In addition to this, students all have their own text books back home and sometimes teachers give them lots of photocopied handouts.( Leslie and Smith, 2004) There are three other pertinent interventions for international students.

One involves using outreach support groups to help international students who may need counseling but are reluctant to initiate contact (Smith et al., 1999); however, actual adjustment is not measured. Another outlines ideas for web-based orientation (Murphy et al., 2002) and the third suggests a multi-phase approach to orientation (Lin and Yi, 1997) (Andrade, 2006) Also, content-based ESL courses, learning communities, support courses, comprehensive programming and peer study partnerships have been successful in providing international students with academic support. (Andrade, 2006)

Summary
Due to various reasons, international students have to encounter many problems when they study in English speaking universities. The adjustment issues raised in this review should be considered to enhance the mutually rewarding practice of international study.

Reference
Andrade, 2006 p3-4, p7
Leslie and Smith’ survey, 2004, p13-14

Analyzing Mr. Keating’s Teaching Concept in Dead Poets Society from Progressivism

Ⅰ Introduction
1.1 Brief Introduction of Dead Poets Society In 1959, Welton Academy is respected by the people for its dignified style at that time. The education mode there is fixed, not only monotonous but ideology shackled. However it all changed in the hands of a new teacher. John Keating’s educational method against tradition brought vitality to this school: in his classroom, he encouraged the students to stand upon the desk, to observe the world around with a different perspective; he introduced thoughtful poetry to students; the free divergent thinking philosophy he advocated caused great repercussions among students. Gradually, some people accepted him, began to bravely face every day and grasp their own life. Charlie is eager to find the real self, renamed Nuwanda.

He takes advantage of being one of the proofers, seeks chance of expressing self-independent thought. Knox behaves uncharacteristically, be brave to pursue his love, finally get a gleam of hope. With the help of Mr. Keating and Neil, the autistic Todd breaks out infinite potential, walks out of shadow and becomes confident and gregarious. Under the edification of the Poetry Society, Neil listens to inner voice and found his real ideal. In spite of his father’s opposition, he successfully starred in the play A Midsummer Night’s Dream. 1.2 Overseas and Domestic Research Status

According to the document literature, there are not many domestic scholars study on education through Dead Poets Society. The articles one-sidedly analyze the teaching methods, teaching concept or teacher-student relationship of this film, which still help the analysis of several aspects in this thesis. For example The Teaching Paradigm Thinking Triggered by ‘Dead Poets Society’ written by Long Qixiang, it has explained the changes in teaching purpose in this film; and Discussion on Mr. Keating’ Teaching Concept in ‘Dead Poets Society’ written by Liu Weixing, it has analyzed teaching concept of Mr.Keating.

Western scholars have fully analyzed Progressivism. They have put forward their own views from the meaning, thought and influence of Chinese and western education reform. The writer collates and selects the useful materials, by combining Progressive theory with this film will let readers understand how to reasonably teach in theory, and properly apply theory into practice better. Ⅱ Background
Knowledge of Progressivism

Progressive Education is an educational philosophical thought populated in the United States in first half of 20th century. It has a considerable impact on education at American schools. 2.1 Definition

At the end of 19th century and the early 20th century, with the emergency of ‘Progressive Education’ movement in United States, the solid status of Western Absolutism which was completed by Herbart was shaken. Progressive education is an extensive educational trend based on progressive ideas. Its core idea is to promote the transformation of society and the update of human, so as to promote successive progress of human society through education and educational reform. This educational trend originated from 17, 18 century, its influence has continued to present day.

2.2 Theoretical Basis
Progressive Education is the education experiment under the guidance of Dewey’s Pragmatism educational thinking. People strongly criticized the old traditional theories and methods led by Herbart, then its opposite ‘Children Centered’ theory put forward. Brief Introduction of Content about Dewey’s Pragmatism Educational Thought: (1) Education namely is Life, Growth and Experience Transformation Education is the process children are now living but not the preparation of future life. The best education is ‘learn from life’, ‘learn from experience’. Due to personal contact with people in social life, individual influences each other, and then we can gradually expand and improve experience, acquire knowledge and develop moral character. (2) School namely is Society.

Dewey proposed, ‘I believe school primarily a social organization. Now that education is a social process, the school is a form of social life’. (3) Learning from Doing.
The knowledge children gain from listening and reading is not real. The primal and impressive knowledge was gain from doing something like experiment. When we engaged in activities that are meaningful to us, our study effect will be magically revealed. So the study from doing will never
be replaced by textbooks. (4) ‘Children Centered’ Theory

Proponents of this theory take a child’s development as a natural process that teachers can not dominate, but being a ‘natural servant’. Take children’s interest as the center, emphasize children’s personal development and growth and put students in central point of teaching. Promote new forms, content, methods of education. 2.3 Influences to American Education

Due to the establishment of guiding ideology based on people (children, learners), it would inevitably lead to the overall changes which are related to this aspect in education system. That is this whole education reform, at the end of 19th century, early 20th century American society really needs. In this sense, the first contribution of Progressive Education to American education is that, it powerfully promotes American education from agricultural age to industrial age, from modern to contemporary. The Progressive Education constitutes an important beginning of modern American education.

Another critical contribution of Progressive Education to the development of American education in 20th century is that, it has had profound impact in forming the basic characteristics of school education in U.S.A. In contemporary American education, progressive educators have strongly advocated the importance of children’s needs and personality differences; emphasized providing more space for children; encouraged inquiry and creative development; respect for the rights of children and so on. All these have become a widespread reality.

To some extent, Progressive Education fundamentally changed the atmosphere of American schools and classrooms. Though the ‘Children Centered’ theory advocated by Progressive Education was criticized, the authoritarianism educators opposed could no longer rule the American schools. Ⅲ Analyzing Mr. Keating’s Teaching Concept from the Perspectives of Progressivism In this chapter, the writer will analyze Mr. Keating’s teaching from the Teaching Purpose, Teaching Principles and Teacher-student Relationship of Progressivism; point out the advantages and hidden problems in his teaching. 3.1 Teaching Purpose

Progressivism considered there is no ultimate, stable or universal goal preplanning for education. Education should promote children’s continuous
growth and development, and this kind of growth and development will contribute to the follow-up. That is the purpose of education. In Welton Academy which filled with dogma and stuffy atmosphere, great courage and boldness is needed to be faithful to one’s personality. But Mr. Keating dares to use a unique way, visually warn students ‘to find your own road, to find your own walk, do not care what others say’. He uses’ Seize the Day’ to alert students to find themselves, to do what they want to do, ‘to make your life extraordinary’.

He is a maverick. He is brave to lead the students to get rid of the shackles of tradition and discipline, to arouse the passion and desire in their hearts. In his view, paying attention to students’ creative thinking and self-expression of personality is more valuable than inheriting tradition. The traditional education starts from imparting knowledge and skills, the students’ task is to accept and store knowledge as much as possible in order to succeed at all levels of exam. This kind of education leads to the consequence that study is for knowledge and exams not for students themselves or their ideal life. So during the teaching process, Mr. Keating not only emphasizes students’ acquirement about knowledge and skills, but the training of the way they thinking and the cultivation of healthy personality. 3.2 Teaching Principles

The principles of Progressive Education like methods, content and materials being adopted in the teaching process are all included. These are concrete steps to achieve the teaching purpose of Progressivism, and these are also the steps Mr. Keating always keeps on doing. Basic principles of ‘progressive education’ is: express and cultivate personality, oppose to instill from outside; behave freely, protest compulsory discipline; learn from experience not from the textbooks; oppose to obtain isolated skills and techniques through training; make full use of opportunities in real life, against fixed target and materials. To be more specific, principles can be divided into 10 points: (1) Attention to all abilities and power of a child.

Student is considered to be a total organism which contains intellectual, social, emotional, physical, spiritual and other aspects. Students should not only develop intelligence but social, emotional, physical and other aspects should also be developed. This point is thought to be one of basics of ‘Children Centered’ theory. It doesn’t set a specific goal or inclined to develop the important aspect for children, but to grow up comprehensively.

However, Welton as an educational institution, it likes a machine without heat and emotional coloring which only focuses on enrolment rate, processes each student into qualified product with its powerful deterrent and imprisoned force. The arrival of Mr. Keating injects fresh blood for them, so that they see the human instinct. The instinctive impulse, repressed desires, emotions and intentions deep in their unconscious begin to stir. (2) The role of a teacher is to encourage but not to supervise. This point is related to teacher-student relationship. In traditional teaching, the role of teacher is not only to teach students knowledge but a supervisor to assure students would not do the things which are out of discipline or influence their study. One pillar of Welton is discipline.

What school should do is to assure enrollment rate, eradicate every activity that would influence students’ score, teachers always put heavy study pressure on students’ shoulder. Students there are not people but learning machine. In Progressivism, Teacher is a person who uses his rich and right experience to help students analyze and deal with different situations. He is important to be a guide or a leader in teaching, but he is not the only authority. In Mr. Keating’s teaching, he teaches book knowledge and life philosophy through normal daily activities and his own experience. He doesn’t limit students’ freedom and to encourage them to seize the day, to find things people really stay alive for.

But it also shows that if students lack proper supervision, it will have negative impacts. (3) School should be positive and active to solve problems then enhance, but not be negative or passive in teaching through memories. Analysis and reconstruction of facts is indispensable for an increase of knowledge, explanatory power and the ability to correctly classified. If people want to find something new, they must do something to the object. It is necessary to jump out of the environment which has been set previously.

A usual way of teaching is to remember and recite the book knowledge like formulas, equations and poems then repeat practicing. Welton only uses traditional ways to teach while sometimes not suitable for students, for example students learn Latin by reading after teacher; they learn science by doing much homework. While Mr. Keating encourages students try to look at things from different perspectives when they are learning, even though it may seem silly or wrong. He regards the way to rate and determine a poem great or not by the rational coordinate in textbook is excrement.

He let students rip out entire introduction. (4) Friendly, enthusiastic and humanitarian classroom atmosphere. Class is the main place for teaching, the quality of teaching hinges on the atmosphere in class more or less. A teacher of profound learning should have the ability to make his students actively participate in the learning process, students have interest to learn then even profound knowledge could be understood. In other teachers’ classroom, students are silent and indiscriminate, teachers are authoritative and rigorous and the atmosphere is always tense. Students should follow and comply with teachers’ requirements otherwise they would get a low score in their exams. Mr. Keating’s class is on the contrary, no bondage is in the classroom. He does not adopt the way that teacher stands seriously on platform and students sit properly below. He walks among students and uses approachable ways imparting knowledge. (5) More space.

This point likes the second point, which is to provide more space for children in learning and private daily life. In this film, students are under the control of authority; their inner desires are bound by reality. Space is namely freedom, it is required to learn, to live. People are instinctive to chase happiness, but it always restricts by reality, so we need to find a compromising way to chase happiness.

They release repressed sentiment by reading poems in the cave, by reading a meaningful sentence before kicking football. The things they cannot achieve in real life can be got in poetic imagination. Under the suppression of Welton’s educational concept, Mr. Keating also harshly criticized school’s management system with his own practical action. (6) The curriculum should be adapted to each child’s level of maturity, and based on children’s interest, creativity, self-expression and personal development to achieve individualized. Children were born in their own way, but through the struggle with reality their individual character would be obliterated, from a pentagon to a round shape.

Though Welton always cultivates only one type of person, which is qualified graduate. It is hard to implement this kind of curriculum even in today’s society, what we could do is to keep our pure personality from changing by our surroundings. (7) To provide children with a wealth of teaching materials, facilitate students to explore, to operate, to apply. Teaching is not limited in classroom, not limited in the required materials. Learning can in everywhere. In the first class of Mr. Keating, he whistled and led students to the school history exhibition room, let them stop their impetuous pace and face the age-old yellow photos, to listen to the silent advice’ Carpe Diem’, to comprehend the short time and demise of life.

In gym class, he was playing vibrant Baroque music, while let students line up single file and read an incentive poetry before kicking the ball. These are not the ways traditional teachers would adopt but by which encourage students most. In headmaster’s eyes, students should sit in the classroom and absorb traditional materials which have been tested by practice. There is no need for them clapping and marching in the courtyard or doing anything which does not help with their study. (8) Establish organization to promote cooperation and make common experience.

The knowledge and experience work out together by learners themselves will be more impressive than the one by force-feeding. In this film, students firstly organize study groups to help each other with their homework. Afterwards, they reorganize The Dead Poets—a community devotes to ‘suck out all the marrow of life’. They transfer the way to release repressed emotion to this literary society. Students rally in a cave at night, they recite the works of Byron, Whitman and even the one creates by them, feel the meaning and value of life. (9) Oppose to the concept of education is preparation for life. Advocate education is a constituent part of actual production process.

This point is the same as Dewey’s Pragmatism. Progressivism sides on the idea that education is to enhance personal development in real life; rather than let children adapt to education, but let education adapt to children. Mr. Keating never urges students to get a high score or be the top of ranks, he just wants his children to acquire right values and grow up comprehensively through education. However, headmaster insists that the duty of school is to prepare students for college, because a best enrolment means bright future for students and reputation for school. The development of student’s rest aspects will take care of itself. It cannot say which one is absolutely right, but the two contradictions will cultivate entirely different students. (10) Against compulsory and strict punishment.

This is the common rewards and penalties system even in today’s school. Students with good grades will receive many rewards, and others behave badly will be published differently due to their behaviors. In Welton Academy which takes enrolment rate as the ultimate goal. Mr. Keating as an English teacher, he abandons the stereotype and dogma and teaches without pointer and corporal punishment, but in the form of poetry, music and sports, inspires students to pursue the truth of life by applying his unique insights towards art . But when Charlie slipped an article in school paper, received a phone call from ‘God’ demanding girls be admitted to Welton, he was published by headmaster; he has to bow his head and look for forgiveness. 3.3 Teacher-student Relationship

Progressivism inherited and developed the educational philosophy of Dewey’s Pragmatism. They think that children should be in accordance with their own needs and interests. Therefore, teachers should act as a mentor or advisor rather than an authoritative figure. The responsibility of the teacher is not to command relying on the authority but to provide advices. Children should determine their own things by the interest, and they plan their own development, teachers are just learning guide. (1) The role of students: they turn from ‘knowledge passive receptacles’ to ‘positive constructors’.

Mr. Keating always thought the idea of education was to learn to think for yourself. He encouraged students to be a free thinker and told them the dangers of conformity. ‘Suck out the marrow of life in my own way. And not, when I had come to die, discover that I had not lived’. Obviously, Mr. Keating asked students to break the reality that passively accept tradition and authority, trying to require them to acquire knowledge through active thinking then resulting in the growth of life. Student is a total organism which is autonomous and developmental.

They are not affected by external factors and continuously feel, experience the meaning and value of life in growing process. Thus teachers should not to control students’ behavior but to respect their self-awareness; pay attention to the needs of student’s physical, emotional and other aspects. Make the learning process becoming the process of students’ growth. Furthermore, knowledge is not granted by others, but discover and invent by learner themselves. The learning materials were chose, understood and reformed by learners’ own experience, then constructed their own new knowledge system. So students should not be the passive receptacles to store knowledge but active constructors.

(2) The role of teachers: They change from ‘knowledge porters’ to ‘wisdom enlighteners’. Mr. Keating has vividly showed how to be a guide and enlighteners through his teaching methods and behavior. Teachers should create teaching situation, lead students to use prior knowledge and skills to delve into learning. In his class, Mr. Keating would start from the book learning or a shallow action into a deep life lesson. ‘Seize the day!’, ‘Talking about poetry is not laying pipe.’, ‘See everything in a different way, seek for your own voice’, ‘Find your own pace, swim against stream.’ Teachers should be aware of the importance of letting students know how to acquire knowledge rather than directly give them knowledge.

To encourage students to be good at thinking, be daring to innovate, be brave to explore. It is sure if without Mr. Keating’s enforcement, Todd would not make his excellent verse and still be an obedient child; keep his desire deep in mind forever. From this point we can see, teacher and student are both living individual. They have their own emotions, personality, values and ways of thinking.

They also have their own views and experience towards teaching. The teacher cannot be a substitute for his students to perceive or understand knowledge. Therefore, teacher cannot be the one controlling teaching; student should not comply with it. Teachers should walk down from the superior central authority; eliminate cold, nervous, hostile atmosphere in the classroom; return the classroom to students and regard students as individual life; respect their personality and equally talk with them. 3.4 Advantages of Mr. Keating’s Teaching

3.4.1 Mr. Keating set a model for teacher about Happy Teaching. He takes ease and freedom as standard to create a casual learning environment. Mr. Keating broke the ‘force-feeding’ teaching mode and built an interactive platform between teacher and students. He respected students and concerned about their real needs, made them happily grow up in a free, casual teaching environment. He taught students to have a pair of eyes to discover beauty, to feel the wonderful in discipline with their heart. Be good at observing and discovering; let all students to become the master of their own ideas.

E.g. Mr. Keating encouraged them to look at things in different ways, to seek for own voice. This free divergent thinking form leaves students more space for positive thinking; another example is telling students lifetime is short, if you want to make your life extraordinary you have to seize the day. 3.4.2 Mr. Keating taught students to Learn to Think.

He let students to learn thinking freely and independently. Have your own voice not to follow indiscriminately. Learning in the classroom is always dead and mechanical; the knowledge while we chat outside of the classroom is alive and vivid. The former is specialized knowledge; the latter ‘liberal’ education. E.g. Mr. Keating let students walk freely in the courtyard to experience that it is easy to follow the pace of others while walking behind them and it is difficult to adhere to their own pace and personality.

3.4.3 Mr. Keating helped students to Establish Confidence and Keep Faith. Mr. Keating introduced thoughtful poems to students, let them gradually comprehend the connotation of poem; learn to focus on reality and love life and to cultivate students’ self-confident, optimistic and tough characters. Students can play their potential ability by reciting poetry. E.g. Todd is an introverted and sensitive student, Mr. Keating saw his cowardice but he did not condone it. He forced Todd to yawn to compose a verse thus to release his repressed emotions. Mr. Keating makes students know the meaning of life through his poems. 3.4.4 Mr. Keating encouraged students to develop freely and show their personality. In the whole teaching process, Mr. Keating always encouraged students to develop personality.

He thought teaching is not purely imparting knowledge but also deeply cultivating one’s personality. It is a process to let students think freely and explore independently. He let me know success is not unary. Some students study in reputable schools like Welton are carrying too much pressure from family and society, most of times what surroundings force them to do are not they really dream of. Like Neil, Todd and others, they all under the pressure of outside, so they have to hide their inner desire and abide to requirements. In the end, Neil found his dream, Todd overcame his cowardice, and Overstreet was brave to pursue his girl.

These are all successes, they all develop without limitation. 3.5 Hidden Problems of Mr. Keating’s Teaching and the Solutions The most touching picture was on the football field: With the melody of Beethoven’s ‘Ode to joy’ and under the encouragement of Mr. Keating, the students wearing red sweatshirt enjoy running, chasing and frolicking. They simply carry Mr. Keating on their shoulders and run hilariously around the playground. In the golden sunset, the immortal melody that shines forever on the concept of human seems to have a new tone. However, the result of a movie is not always a happy ending. Neil’s death is really a tragedy.

The hidden problems in Mr. Keating’s teaching have emerged. 3.5.1 ‘Children Centered’ Theory should work in its moderate otherwise it will gradually become an indulgent behavior. It is really a good thing that Mr. Keating changes the monotonous atmosphere for his students, to help them to find their inner desire and tell them many life philosophies. It is obvious that everyone hopes to meet a teacher like Mr. Keating. But it still needs supervision. At their meeting in cave, except a few good poems the students occasionally recited, practically accompanied by smoking and drinking. When Charlie did wrong, Mr. Keating just told him not to be blatant. But there is no need to excessively against nature like Welton. In my view, both teachers’ guidance and students’ interest should take into consideration in teaching.

By combining both of them, students, teachers and school will be in a harmonious relationship. 3.5.2 The education concept of Mr. Keating seems to be too ideal. He said, ‘Medicine, law, business, engineering: these are noble pursuit and necessary to sustain life; but poetry, beauty, romance, love: these are what we stay alive for’. He tried to let students be aware of the importance of individual growth and the meaning of life. His words inspired students. They want to seek for dream at the same time they are trammeled by reality. But Neil is too concerned with his ideal to make necessary compromise with reality. He puts himself into an impasse and he kills himself in order to make his body free. This is the character of Progressivism: it focuses on personal development.

However, it would be better if we balance personal needs and social needs; ideal and reality. Education should be the integration of these four parts. Blind pursuit of ideal is extremely dangerous because it would make us defeated by the cruel reality. Thus we must look for the most appropriate method to seek for dreams and try our best to keep the balance between ideal and reality. 3.5.3 Progressivism education ignores imparting system knowledge. In this film, Mr. Keating also emphasizes more on telling students about life philosophies rather than imparting system knowledge. He skips around the chapter in textbook which is not beneficial for students. To realize inner desire needs to put into action, systematic knowledge is the basis of practice. Understanding life philosophies is important for mental development while systematic knowledge is also indispensable for intellectual development. Ⅳ Conclusion

After analyzing Mr. Keating’s teaching concept, educators can apply some useful points in Chinese education. There are some unreasonable status quos in Chinese education, like it highly required technicality of subject knowledge but ambiguously required for all-round capability of mastering and applying knowledge; most of disciplines which are self-contained do not communicate with each other and the learning content is away from reality and its practicality is poor. By combining useful points in the analysis, solutions could be put forward to improve status quo:

As for Teaching Purpose, except focusing on high scores, there are many other things they should learn and experience like moral values. Personal growth and social purpose of education should in a balanced state. This is complete and correct purpose. As for Teaching Content, practical skills like fostering creativity, teamwork and logical reasoning could be increased, at the same time we should not neglect students’ learning about basic knowledge. Another important thing is that we should led students know how to apply them to practice, especially by using the examples in real life. After all, education is to help us to be able to deal with problems in many fields.

As for Teaching Method, funds and advanced technology has been applying to teaching facilities nowadays, teaching methods become diverse and we should make full use of existing facilities. Teachers can combine their teaching content with appropriate method and facility, by doing so students will be more engaged in teaching process. By analyzing Mr. Keating’s teaching purpose, teaching principles and teacher-student relationship in Dead Poets Society from perspectives of Progressivism. Readers can firstly have a general understanding about this western educational philosophy, and then they can comprehend the theoretical foundation of Mr. Keating’s teaching behaviors, which is really commendable in Chinese education.

Progressivism breaks through the fetter of traditional education, advocates the importance of children’s interests and free space to develop. But everything should be in a moderate, so that can avoid the issues because of extreme. The analysis of unreasonable status quo of Chinese high school education will attract people’s attention to problems of educational practice and education itself. That is we have to eliminate exam-oriented education which only focuses on students’ grades and neglects the development of other respects. As for the solutions of these problems are writer’s desired methods to solve them. The reform and healthy growth of Chinese education system will keep going through trial and error.

Works Cited
[1].谢妮妮. 运用弗洛伊德精神分析批评——评析《死亡诗社》[J],延安职业技术学院, 2011(03) [2].刘卫星,彭劲松. 浅议《死亡诗社》中基廷老师的教学理念[J],科教文汇(中旬刊), 2010(02) [3].龙起香. 实现生命化教学的转型——由影片《死亡诗社》引发的教学范式思考[J],代教育论坛(教学研究) 2010(07) [4].孙勇. 电影《死亡诗社》的教育启示[J], 中国德育 2010(08) [5].卢庆生,谢枝龙 《死亡诗社》中的浪漫与现实 [J],期刊荣誉,2010(12) [6].连缤燕,徐跃华. 进步主义教育运动的理论基础——杜威的教育思想[J],科技信息(科学教研) 2007(31) [7].张斌贤. 进步主义教育运动与现代教育发展[J],教育科学,1996(02)

Better to convince people than to force them

It is better to convince people than to force them: DISAGREE/ Agree I would like to talk to you about today the topic “convincing people is better forcing them” and I am against this saying no forcing people is better but I also agree and saying that convincing Is better, please don’t get confused because in some cases it is truly better to force people but in some other cases it is better to convince all depending on the situation. There are a few ways to prove this point. One, forcing someone to do something is quicker and more efficient. There is also a term “fake it till you make it”.

Convincing people might make it slower and waste time but in some cases it will be more efficient and thus be less violence. Forcing people can be quicker and more efficient. I believe in some cases being forced to do something is much more effective than convincing since it will be a waste of time. One, Valley and the damn

Another example is homework, I know we all hate it but, we have to do it, we are forced to because of teachers and parents even though we don’t want to we are forced to do so but imagine if they tried to convince us but, obviously no one will actually do it in the end, in other words you can say they force us because they want what is best for us. Have you ever heard the term “Fake it until you make it” before? New school

Working out
Convincing people does take time but reduces all force or in some cases war or violence. Palestine and Israel war for the past almost 70 years

Imagine a world where there were no advertisement and you were forced to eat them than to convince them. Eating products forcefully Buying forcefully.

But this might not always work in some cases like for example in Syria where the war that has been occurring for more than two years and after all the bloodshed and lives lost there is no room for trying to convince someone who has lost everything to the regime to stop fighting. Trying to convince some and to force someone both have their own time and place. To reduce violence

Not to waste time in case of emergency

Tech Writing

As you may have recently heard, lately we received news from the corporate headquarters that it would be in the best interest of the entire company to pay more attention to matters of preventing accidents and any other safety-related measures that affect the workplace, including both office and field activities related to all types of jobs that we complete.

Every single employee in each office at every branch needs to be mindful in this regard so that he/she is most efficient and effective in the daily performance of his/her everyday tasks that relate to their job responsibilities so that safety is always of paramount concern. With this goal of safety ever present in our minds, I believe the bottom line of the emphasis on safety could be considered to be the training that each of us receives in his/her first initial weeks on the job as well as the training provided on a regular basis throughout each year of our employment with M-Global, so that we are always aware of how to operate in a safe manner.

The training video gives the company the mechanism to provide each of you with the means to become aware of the elements of safety that relate to the specific needs and requirements of your own particular job. Therefore, at this point in time I have come to the conclusion in the process of contemplating the relevance of the new corporate emphasis on safety to our particular branch that we need, as a branch, to give much greater scrutiny and analysis to the way we can prevent accidents and emphasize the concern of safety at every stage of our operation for every employee.

Toward the end I have asked the training coordinator Kendra Jones to assemble a written training program that will involve every single employee and that can be implemented beginning no later than June of this year. When the plan has been written and approved at the various levels within the office, I will conduct a meeting with every department in order to emphasize the major and minor components of this upcoming safety program.

It is my great pleasure to announce to all of you that effective in the next month (February) I will give a monthly safety award of $100 to the individual branch employee at any level of the branch who comes up with the best, most useful suggestion related to safety in any part of the branch activities. Today I will take the action of placing a suggestion box on the wall of the lunchroom so that all of you will have an easy way to place suggestions for safety into the pipeline and to be considered.

As an attachment to the memo you are now reading from me, I have provided you with a copy of the form that you are to use in making any suggestions that are then to be placed in the suggestion box. On the last business day of each month, the box will be emptied of the completed forms for that month, and before the end of the following week a winner will be selected by me for the previous month suggestion program, and an announcement will be placed by me on the bulletin board in the company workroom.

If you have any questions in regard to the corporate safety program as it affects our branch or about the suggestion program that is being implemented here at the Denver office at M-Global, please do not hesitate to make your comments known either in memorandum form or by way of telephone response to this memorandum.

“Dealing with Difficult People” by Rick Brinkman, Rick Kirschner

Difficult people: they’re those people you can’t
stand and who don’t do what you want them to do
or do what you don’t want them to do—and you
don’t know what to do about them!
Good news: you don’t have to be their victim
anymore. And while you can’t change difficult people, you can communicate with them in such a way that they change themselves.

In this book, we define the four key areas you’ll
have to focus on to solve your people problems.
First, we’ll describe the “10 most unwanted”
types of behavior and examine the forces that compel people to be difficult in such a variety of ways. Then we’ll help you build a “lens” for understanding why people act the way they do. Your ability to recognize the four key behavioral intentions is the

first step toward success in influencing people to
change their behavior toward the positive.

1

Then, we’ll focus on surviving through skillful
communication. This involves, among other things,
learning the critical skills of blending and redirecting. We’ll show you techniques that will help you listen to understand—and thereby to reach a deeper understanding. We’ll suggest ways that you can

speak to be understood. With effective listening skills
and speaking skills in your repertoire, you’ll have the
building blocks for specific strategies for the toughest behaviors. And as you make these positive communication skills a habit, you will be able to prevent many of the difficult behaviors from ever occurring.

After that, we discuss each of the 10 most
unwanted behaviors and tell you how to get the best
result with each of them. We close by simply encouraging you to get started and suggesting some concrete action steps that you can take, immediately, to start dealing better with the people you can’t stand.

So who are “we”? We are best friends, business
partners, and physicians. We have spent many years
studying health from an attitudinal and behavioral
point of view. Long ago we became convinced that
when people clarify their values, update their concepts, learn effective communication and relaxation skills, and define and work to meet their goals, they
feel better. And as their mental and emotional health
improves, many of their physical symptoms disappear.
In 1982, a mental health organization asked us to
create a program on how to deal with difficult peo2

ple. That marked the beginning of the process that
resulted in this book—and also changed the way we
define what we do. We now view all our work as public practice, supporting the health and well-being of people by educating them in some essential life
skills, while getting a kind of continuing education
in people for ourselves.

For almost two decades,
we’ve been learning about people’s hopes and fears,
how people build their lives or destroy them, how
people communicate, what makes people difficult,
and how best to deal with people at their worst.
We’ve written this book to pass that information
along to you.

We’ve presented these ideas to hundreds of thousands of people, through books, tapes, and seminars. We hope and believe that the ideas in
this book will make a meaningful and lasting difference in the quality of your life.

There are difficult people and everyone has to deal
with them: We identify 10 general types of troublesome behavior. You may have your own “least favorites.”
There are effective ways to deal with these people:
That’s what this book is all about.

“This book will help you to identify and assemble elements of effective communication. You can get through and be one of the few who brings out
the best in most people at their worst.”
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፬ Avoid or ignore difficult
people
፬ Recognize the 10 most

unwanted behaviors

What are the 10 most unwanted behaviors? We all
answer this question slightly differently, depending
on our own interpersonal strengths and weaknesses.

But we would generally agree about which people
are difficult and what they do that makes them difficult. We’ve identified 10 specific behavior patterns that sane people resort to when they feel threatened
or thwarted, that represent their struggle with (or
withdrawal from) undesired circumstances.

The Tank: Pushy and ruthless, loud and forceful, or with the quiet intensity and surgical precision of a laser, the Tank assumes that the end justifies the
means. If you are in the way, you will be eliminated.
The Sniper: This covert operator resents you for
some reason. Instead of getting mad, he or she gets
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even by identifying your weaknesses and using them
against you, through sabotage, gossip and putdowns.

The Grenade: This person explodes in tantrums
that seem disproportionate to the present circumstances, sending others ducking for cover and wondering what it’s all about. The Know-It-All: This person knows 98% of everything. (Just ask!) Know-It-Alls will tell you what they know—for hours at a time!—but won’t take a

moment to listen to your “clearly inferior ideas.”
The Think-They-Know-It-All: Although these people don’t know that much, they don’t let that get in the way. If you don’t know much about what they’re
talking about, they may mislead you into trouble or
throw a project off track.

The Yes Person: Quick to agree, slow to deliver, the
Yes Person leaves a trail of unfulfilled commitments
and broken promises. Although they please no one,
Yes People over-commit to please.

The Maybe Person: When faced with a crucial decision, the Maybe Person keeps putting it off until it’s too late. Finally, there comes a point when the decision makes itself. Then it’s nobody’s default but his or her own.

The Nothing Person: You can’t know what’s going
on because the Nothing Person tells you nothing—
no feedback, verbal or nonverbal.

6

The No Person: This person says, “Every silver
cloud has a dark lining” and “I’m not being negative, I’m being realistic.” Doleful and discouraging, the No Person drives others to despair.
The Whiner: These people wallow in their woe,
whine incessantly, and drag others down with the
weight of their generalizations that nothing is right,
everything is wrong, and it’s always going to be that
way unless you do something.

Some initial ideas for dealing with the 10 most unwanted types:Understand that everybody reacts differently to
these types of behavior: The person who’s most irritating to you may be perfectly acceptable to someone else. Get to know these types: Each warrants a different
response. Think about the people around you. Does
anybody at work or at home fit one of these descriptions?
Recognize the part you play: We can all be difficult at times. Understanding these behaviors in yourself will help you in your success with others.

“There is a certain consensus in polite society
about who difficult people are and what it is they
do that others find difficult.”

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፬ React instinctively
፬ Choose your approach

Before we go any further, we need to stress the fact
that there are at least four choices when dealing
with people you can’t stand. There’s no magic formula; you are the best judge of which choice is right in any particular situation—although, as you’ll see,
we believe the first of these four choices is in fact a
non-choice.
The four choices are:
Stay and do nothing. Doing nothing is not necessarily complete passivity; it may include both suffering and complaining to other people who can do nothing. Doing nothing is dangerous, because frustration with difficult people tends to build up and get worse over time. And complaining to people

who can do nothing tends to lower morale and productivity, while postponing effective action. Vote with your feet. Sometimes, your best option
is to walk away. Not all situations are resolvable,
9
Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

and some are just not worth resolving. Voting with
your feet makes sense when it no longer makes any
sense to continue to deal with the person. If the situation is deteriorating, if everything you say or do makes matters worse, and if you find yourself losing control, remember that discretion is the better part of valor. Then walk away. Like Eleanor

Roosevelt said, “No one can make you feel inferior
without your permission.” Before you decide to
walk, however, you may want to consider your two
other choices.

Change your attitude. Even if the difficult person
continues to engage in the difficult behavior, you
can learn to see the person differently, listen to the
person differently, and feel differently about the person. There are attitudinal changes that you can make in yourself that will set you free from your
reactions to problem people.

Change your behavior. When you change the way
you deal with difficult people, they have to learn
new ways to deal with you. There are effective,
learnable strategies for dealing with most problem
behaviors. That’s what this book is about.
To summarize:

Realize that difficult behaviors fit into types, but
each situation is different: You need to decide what
kind of response is called for in each situation.

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Avoid trying to do nothing: That strategy is probably not sustainable. If the situation is bad enough, you’ll probably have to act.
Change your attitude first, then your behavior:
Sometimes an attitude change alone is enough. But
it’s always a prerequisite for the harder task of
changing your behavior.

“Don’t despair. Remember that when dealing
with difficult people, you always have a choice. In
fact, you have four choices.”

11

፬ Don’t worry about
motives
፬ Understand the four

intents

The first step in changing your attitude toward the
10 most unwanted behaviors is to understand them.
The key is the four intentions with which people
respond to situations and in two variables:
assertiveness level and focus of attention.
People range from passive (less assertive) to
aggressive (more assertive). The assertiveness level
is often influenced by the situation: during times of
challenge, difficulty, or stress, people tend to move
out of their normal “comfort zone” and become
either more passive or more aggressive.

The focus of attention in a situation can be primarily on the task at hand—a task focus—or primarily on relationships—a people focus. In times of difficulty or stress, most people focus more on
13
Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

either the “what” (task) or the “who” (people) of the situation.
Now put the two variables together. A person
can focus on people aggressively (e.g., belligerence),
assertively (e.g., involvement), or passively (e.g.,
submission) or on a task aggressively (e.g., bold
determination), assertively (e.g., involvement), or
passively (e.g., withdrawal).

We each have a comfort zone of normal—more
or less acceptable—behavior that challenges, difficulty, or stress can cause us to leave for a zone of exaggerated—or problem—behavior.
Every behavior (whether acceptable or problem)
has a primary intent or purpose that it’s trying to
accomplish. We’ve identified four general intents
that determine how people will react in any situation:
■ Get the task done.
■ Get the task right.
■ Get along with people.
■ Get appreciation from people.
Task Focus
Intent:
Get it
right
Passive

Intent:
Get it
done
Normal Zone

Intent:
Get
along

Intent:
Get
appreciated
People Focus

14

Aggressive

(These aren’t the only intentions that motivate
people, but they serve as a useful framework for
understanding and dealing with difficult behaviors.)
When these intents become thwarted or frustrated, trouble arises. Behaviors can be pushed to the extreme—which may lead to the difficult behaviors outlined earlier. The following diagram shows how the four

intents relate to the four behaviors.
Intents are constantly shifting, depending on
the person and situation, which brings changes in
behavior. So you should:

Understand the four intents: They all have their time
and place in our lives. When we keep them in balance,
the result is often more success and less stress.
Be attentive to communication patterns (words,
tone, and body language): They reveal the primary
intent of difficult people and indicate how to deal
with them.
Don’t be difficult: When your intents are thwarted, you may become a difficult person. The more you know about why people behave as they do, the
more you can change yourself.

“Have you ever been astonished at how
quickly a person’s behavior can change from one
moment to the next?”
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፬ Counter the behavior
፬ Understand the first

intent: get it done

Have you ever needed to get something done, finished, and behind you? When you need to get it done, you focus on the task at hand. And when you
really need to get it done, you speed things up,
focus on action, and assert yourself. You may even
become careless and aggressive, leaping before you
look or speaking without thinking. The people
around you become peripheral.

When this attempt to get things done is frustrated, it can distort people’s perceptions of a given situation. Suddenly, others appear to be wasting time, going off on tangents, or just plain taking too long.

The intent increases in intensity and the subsequent behavior becomes more
controlling. The three most difficult controlling behaviors
are found in the Tank, the Sniper, and the Know-ItAll.
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The Tank. On a mission to get things done, the
Tank is unable to slow down and may push you
around or run right over you in the process. The
Tank has no inhibitions about ripping you apart personally, yet it’s nothing personal: you just happened to get in the way. In an effort to control the process
and accomplish the mission, Tank behavior ranges
from mild pushiness to outright aggression.
The Sniper. When things aren’t getting done to his
or her satisfaction, the Sniper attempts to control
you through embarrassment and humiliation. Most
people live in fear of public embarrassment—a fact
that Snipers use to their advantage, by making
loaded statements and sarcastic comments at times
when you are most vulnerable.
The Know-It-All. The Know-It-All controls people
and events by dominating the conversation with
lengthy, imperious arguments and eliminates opposition by finding flaws and weaknesses to discredit other points of view. Because Know-It-Alls are actually knowledgeable and competent, most people are quickly worn down by their strategy, and finally just give up.
Intents shift over time. You may begin a task
with the intent of getting it right, then find that
you’re running out of time and have to shift to getting it done. When starting a new job, you may lean

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more toward getting along, but over time you may
come to focus more on getting appreciation.
The key points:

Understand that behaviors are sometimes driven
by the intent to get it done: This isn’t necessarily bad
or inappropriate. In fact, it may be needed.
Know the dynamics of the intent to get it done: It
causes people to focus on the task, to speed up, to
assert themselves. They may become careless, treat
other people as peripheral, and act aggressively.
Recognize that the intent to get it done can lead to
controlling behaviors: These can express themselves
as the bullying of the Tank, the lethal comments of
the Sniper, or the dominating lectures of the KnowIt-All. But what they all have in common is they seek to take charge of you and the situation.

“If you need to get it done, you focus on the
task at hand. Any awareness of people is peripheral or unnecessary to accomplishing the task. … You tend to speed up …, to act …, to assert …. You
may even become careless and aggressive.”

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፬ Counter the behavior
፬ Understand the second

intent: get it right

Getting it right is another task-focused intent that
influences behavior. Have you ever sought to avoid
a mistake by doing everything possible to prevent it
from happening? When getting it right is your highest priority, you slow things down enough to see the details. You probably take a good, long look before
leaping—if you ever leap at all. You may avoid taking any action because you feel unsure about what might happen as a result.
When the intent to get it right becomes thwarted or threatened, everything around this person begins to seem haphazard and careless. To add
insult to injury, people seem to address these concerns with increasingly fuzzy terms. When sufficient intensity is reached, the result
is increasingly pessimistic and perfectionist behav-

21
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ior. The Whiner, the No Person, and the Nothing
Person all exemplify this behavior.
The Whiner. In our imperfect world, the Whiner
believes that he or she is powerless to create
change. Burdened and overwhelmed by all the
uncertainty around what can go wrong, Whiners
abandon all thought of solutions. Instead, as the
feeling of hopelessness increases, they focus on any
problems that can be used as evidence for their massive generalization. They begin to whine, “Nothing is right. Everything is wrong.” This, of course, serves

only to drive everybody else crazy—and the deteriorating situation provokes further whining. The No Person. Unlike the Whiner, the No Person
does not feel helpless in the face of things going
wrong. Instead, the No Person becomes hopeless.
Certain that what is wrong will never be set right,
No People have no inhibition about letting others
know how they feel. “Forget it, we tried that. It didn’t work then, it won’t work now, and you’re kidding yourself if anyone tells you different. Give up and save yourself from wasted effort on a lost

cause.” This attitudinal black hole pulls others into
the No Person’s personal pit of despair.
The Nothing Person. When events fail to measure
up to the standard of perfection, some people get so
totally frustrated that they withdraw completely.
There may be one last shout at the powers that be
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for failing to get it right: “Fine! Do it your way. Don’t come crying to me if it doesn’t work out!” From that
point on they say—and do—nothing.
The key points:

Understand that behaviors are sometimes driven
by the intent to get it right: Again, this isn’t necessarily bad or inappropriate. In fact, it may be exactly what the situation calls for.
Know the dynamics of the intent to get it right:
People concentrate on avoiding mistakes and slow
down to pay more attention to all of the details.
They may not take action because of concerns about
the consequences. They may find fault with others
for not caring enough.
Recognize that the intent to get it right can lead to
perfectionist behaviors: This can express itself as the
whining of the Whiner, the negativity of the No
Person, or the silent withdrawal of the Nothing
Person. But what they all have in common is their
sureness that nothing works out positively.

“When getting it right is your highest priority,
you will likely slow things down enough to see
the details …. You may even refuse to take action
because of a particular doubt about the consequences.”

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፬ Counter the behavior
፬ Understand the third

intent: get along

A third intent is to get along with other people.
This is necessary if you want to create and develop
relationships. When there are people with whom
you want to get along, you may be less assertive as
you consider their needs and interests above your
own. In other words, personal desires are of lesser
importance than the intent to get along with another person. The problem is that when people who are
focused on getting along with others are uncertain
about how others feel about them, they tend to take
reactions, comments, and facial expressions personally. Behavior becomes increasingly geared toward gaining approval and avoiding disapproval. The
three most difficult approval-seeking behaviors are
the passive Nothing Person, the wishy-washy Yes
Person, and the indecisive Maybe Person.
25
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The Nothing Person. Timid, uncomfortable, and
uncertain, get along Nothing People excel at
tongue-biting. Since they don’t have anything nice
to say, they don’t say anything at all. At their worst,
they say nothing almost all the time. This, in many
ways, is the perfect strategy to avoid conflict, to
avoid hurting someone else’s feelings, and to keep
from angering anyone. However, since a Nothing
Person can’t relate authentically or speak honestly,
he or she doesn’t really get along with anyone.
The Yes Person. Yes People attempt to get along
with others by trying to please everyone. A Yes
Person agrees to every request, without considering
the consequences. Before long, the Yes Person has
overpromised and underdelivered to such an extent
that the very people he or she wanted to get along
with are furious. In the rare instance where the
promises are kept, the Yes Person’s life is no longer
his or her own, because all choices are made around
other people’s demands. This produces a deep-seated anxiety and much resentment in the Yes Person and can even lead to unconscious acts of sabotage.
The Maybe Person. The Maybe Person avoids disapproval by avoiding decisions. After all, the wrong choice might upset someone, and who would be
blamed? The solution is to put the decision off, waffle,
and hedge until someone else makes the decision—or
the decision makes itself. Like all the other difficult

26

behaviors, this behavior perpetuates the problem it’s
intended to solve, mainly by causing so much frustration and annoyance that the Maybe Person is locked out of meaningful relationships with others.
The key points:

Understand that behaviors are sometimes driven
by the intent to get along: As we will see in subsequent chapters, establishing common ground is a good technique. But basing your actions—and your
self-esteem—on your perceptions of how others see
you is usually counterproductive.
Know the dynamics of the intent to get along:
People tend to feel unsure about how others feel
about them, so they take reactions, comments, and
facial expressions personally and behave in ways
that they believe will gain approval and or at least
avoid disapproval.
Recognize that the intent to get along can lead to
approval-seeking behaviors: This can express itself as
the withdrawn Nothing Person, the agreeable Yes
Person, and the indecisive Maybe Person. But what
they all have in common is you really don’t know
where they stand.

“If getting along is your top priority …, personal desires are less important than the intent to get along with another person.”
27

፬ Counter the behavior
፬ Understand the fourth

intent: get appreciated

This

fourth intent requires a higher level of
assertiveness, as well as a people focus, in order to
be seen, heard, and recognized. The desire to contribute to others and be appreciated for it is one of the most powerful motivators. Studies show that
people who love their jobs—as well as husbands
and wives who are happily married—feel appreciated for who they are and what they do. When the intent to get appreciated becomes distorted, the lack of positive feedback combines in a person’s mind with the reactions, comments, and

facial expressions of others and the person tends to
take it personally. The intent to get appreciation
intensifies in direct proportion to the lack of appreciative feedback and the problem behavior becomes increasingly aimed at getting attention.

29
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The three most difficult attention-getting behaviors
that result from the desire to get appreciation are the
Grenade, the Sniper, and the Think-They-Know-It-All.
The Grenade. Grenades feel they don’t get any
appreciation or respect. When the silence becomes
deafening, look out for the Grenade’s grown-up
temper tantrum: “Nobody around here cares! That’s
the problem with the world today. I don’t know why
I even bother!” (While the Tank uses focused fire in
a single direction, based on a specific charge, the
Grenade produces out-of-control explosions in any
and every direction: his or her outbursts may be
completely unrelated to present circumstances.)
Since this desperate behavior produces negative
attention and disgust, the Grenade is even more
likely to blow up at the next provocation.

The Friendly Sniper. This Sniper, a variation on the
unfriendly sniper who’s trying to undermine your
self-control, actually likes you and his or her sniping
is a “fun” way of getting attention. Many people have
relationships that include friendly sniping. Normally,
the best defense is a good offense, because instead of
offending, a return snipe is a sign of appreciation.
But if the person on the receiving end doesn’t give or
receive appreciation in this manner, he or she may be
laughing on the outside and hurting on the inside.
The Think-They-Know-It-All. The Think-TheyKnow-It-All is a specialist in exaggeration, half-truths, 30

jargon, useless advice, and unsolicited opinions.
Charismatic and enthusiastic, this desperate-forattention person can persuade and mislead an entire group of naïve people into serious difficulties. If you
argue with the Think-They-Know-It-Alls, they turn up
the volume and dig in their heels, then refuse to
back down until you look as foolish as they do.
The key points:

Understand that behaviors are sometimes driven
by the intent to get appreciated: We all want to be
appreciated. It’s how we get there that counts.
Know the dynamics of the intent to get appreciated: People who become more concerned about receiving positive attention can take lack of affirmative feedback personally and read too much into reactions, comments, and facial expressions.

Recognize that the intent to get appreciated can
lead to attention-seeking behaviors: This can express
itself as the tantrums of the Grenade, the barbed
jokes of the Friendly Sniper, or the boastfulness of
the Think-They-Know-It-All. But what they all have
in common is they force you to notice them.

“The desire to contribute to others and be
appreciated for it is one of the most powerful motivational forces known.”

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፬ Focus on behavior, not
reasons
፬ Recognize the results

of threatened intents

The four intents—get it done, get it right, get
along, and get appreciated—have their time and
place in our lives. The priority of those intents can
shift from moment to moment. We normally balance
them, for more success and less stress.
But what happens when a person’s intent is not
met? Let’s look at each of the four intents and the
results when those intents are threatened (see diagram).

When people want to get it done and fear that
it’s not getting done, their behavior becomes
more controlling. They try to take over and
push ahead.
When people want to get it right and fear that it
will be done wrong, their behavior becomes
33

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more perfectionistic. They find every flaw and
potential error.
When people want to get along and fear that
they will be left out, their behavior becomes
more approval seeking. They begin sacrificing
their personal needs to please others.
When people want to get appreciation and fear
they’re failing at that intent, their behavior
becomes more attention getting. They become
difficult to ignore.
Task Focus
Perfectionist

Controlling

Intent:
Get it
right
Passive

Intent:
Get it
done
Normal Zone

Intent:
Get
along

Aggressive
Intent:
Get
appreciated

Approval Seeking

Attention Getting

People Focus

And so it begins: a person who might otherwise
be inclined to act within the “normal zone” of
human interaction starts drifting outside that zone,
into a “gray zone” of less acceptable behavior and
even into problem behavior.
The key points:

Understand that each of the four intents grows out
of human nature: People are only human, after all!

34

Know that each intent leads to predictable kinds of
behaviors: People who want to get it done become
more controlling. People who want to get it right
become more perfectionistic. People who want to
get along become more approval seeking. People
who want to get appreciation become more attention getting.
Be alert to signs that someone’s behavior is going
beyond the “normal zone”: That’s when people who
are acting acceptably start to become the people
you can’t stand.

“Once people determine that what they want is
not happening, or that what they don’t want is happening, their behavior becomes more extreme and therefore less tolerable to others.”

35

፬ Accept differences as
obstacles
፬ Reduce differences

What makes some people so easy to relate to and
others so difficult? We argue that conflict in a relationship occurs when the emphasis is on the differences, rather than on the similarities. Think of it as “United we stand, divided we can’t stand each

other.”
So reducing differences is essential to dealing
with people you can’t stand. Success in communication depends on finding common ground, and then trying to redirect the interaction toward a new
outcome.
Two essential communication skills will help
you reduce differences: blending and redirecting.
“Blending” refers to behavior by which you reduce
the differences between yourself and another person. “Redirecting” is any behavior by which you use a growing rapport to change the trajectory of your
37
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interactions. These skills are not new, of course;
they are part of normal human contact. In fact, you
already use them, to some extent.
You can (and probably do) blend with people in
many ways. Visually, you may blend by altering your
facial expression, degree of animation, and body
posture to match the other person. Verbally, blending occurs when you try to match the volume and speed of your counterpart’s speech. And you blend
conceptually with your words. When people feel
like you’ve listened to them and you understand
them, that’s the result of blending. It’s natural to
blend with people whom you like or with people
with whom you share an objective. Conversely, it’s
equally natural not to blend with people whom you
perceive as difficult. But the failure to blend has
serious consequences, because without blending,
the differences between you become the basis for
conflict.
Three key points:

Remember that no one cooperates with anyone
who seems to be against him or her: In human relations, there’s no middle ground. Unconsciously or consciously, people want to know, “Are you with me
or against me?” You come across as either hot or
cold in the relationship—perceived as being on
common ground or as worlds apart.

38

Reduce the differences between yourself and the
other person: You can blend by modifying your facial
expression, your gestures, your posture, the volume
and speed of your speech, and your words.
Blend before you redirect, whether you’re listening
to understand or speaking to be understood: Only
after establishing some rapport with your difficult
person through blending will you be able to redirect the interaction and change the trajectory toward a worthwhile outcome. In dealing with a
particularly difficult person, try to recall instances in
which you have successfully blended with or redirected this person in the past and try to imagine circumstances in which you might do so again.

“Conflict occurs when the emphasis is on differences. Reducing differences can turn conflict into cooperation.”

39

፬ Make people understand
you first
፬ Listen to understand

When people express themselves verbally, they
generally want evidence of at least two things:
they’ve been heard and they’ve been understood. A
good communicator tries first to be a good listener.
We advocate five steps toward good listening.

The first step toward good listening—introduced
in the last lesson—is blending. How does someone
know that you’re listening and understanding? In
essence, it’s through the way you look and sound
while they’re talking. Rather than distracting a difficult person with puzzled looks, interruptions, or statements of disagreements, help him or her to fully
express his or her thoughts and feelings. You do this
by nodding your head in agreement, making occasional sounds of understanding. Everything about you, from body posture to voice volume, must give
the impression that you hear and understand.
41
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When your problem person begins to repeat
what’s already been said, it’s a signal to move to step
two: backtracking. This involves repeating back
some of the actual words that another person is
using, sending a clear signal that you’re listening and
that you think what the other person is saying is
important. Translating or rephrasing what they have
said is counterproductive and may create the impression that you haven’t understood what’s been said. Having heard what the difficult person has to
say, the next step is clarifying.

At this point, you
start to gather information about the meaning of
what is being communicated. Ask some open-ended
questions, which will allow you to figure out why
the person is being difficult and what intent he or
she is hoping to satisfy with that behavior.
It isn’t always possible to understand why someone is upset. Emotions so cloud the reasoning capabilities of many people that their intelligence effectively becomes disconnected from their feelings. While it’s virtually impossible to reason with an emotional person, it’s still possible to look
and sound like you understand, backtrack what you’ve heard,

and then become curious enough to ask questions.
The fourth step is to summarize what you’ve
heard. This allows you to make sure that both you
and your difficult person are on the same page.
When you do this, two things happen. First, if
you’ve missed something, he or she can fill in the
42

details. Second, you’ve demonstrated, yet again,
that you’re making a serious effort to fully understand. This increases the likelihood of gaining cooperation from that person down the line. Having listened carefully, you’ve now arrived at
a crucial juncture. But before you move on, confirm
with the person that he or she feels satisfied that his
or her problem has been fully voiced. Ask if he or
she feels understood. Ask if there’s anything else
that needs to be put on the table.
When enough sincere listening, questioning,
caring, and remembering are brought together,
understanding is usually achieved and a difficult
person becomes less difficult and more cooperative.
The key points:

Listen first, listen well: You aren’t likely to be
heard (or understood) until the person has said
what he or she has to say.
Learn and practice the five steps to good listening:
Blend, backtrack, clarify, summarize, and confirm.
Make sure the other person knows you’ve heard and
understood: You must establish this fact before you
attempt to get him or her to hear and understand you.

“When two or more people want to be heard
and no one is willing to listen, an argument is
inevitable. Listen and understand first, and you
unlock the doors to people’s minds.”
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፬ Just deal with behaviors
፬ Reach a deeper

understanding

We’ve discussed listening as a method for increasing trust, cooperation, and understanding. Yet sometimes the most important and useful aspects of
communication are hidden—not just from the listener, but also from the speaker. When you identify the elements driving the difficult person, you reach
a deeper understanding of that person’s needs and
intent.
Identifying the intent is an important first step to
understanding your difficult person. You can apply
the blending strategy to the four intents to increase
cooperation and decrease misunderstanding.
For example:

If you’re dealing with someone whose top priority appears to be to get it done, your communications with him or her should be brief and to the point.
45

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If you’re dealing with someone whose top priority appears to be to get it right, you should pay great attention to the details in your communications.
If you’re dealing with someone whose top priority appears to be to get along with you, use considerate communications to demonstrate
your interest in him or her.
If you’re dealing with someone whose top priority appears to be to get appreciated, recognize his or her contributions with words of enthusiastic appreciation.

In other words, it’s crucial to ask yourself which
intent lies behind a person’s behavior or communication. Here’s a surprise: even if you’re not totally sure what the key intent is, make the likely choice
and act appropriately. Because these intents are
within you, in most cases your intuition will be right
and you’ll get a good response and increase rapport.
And if it is not, then simply try something different.

Another way to reach a deeper understanding of
your problem person is to identify the criteria that
are important to them. Criteria are the filters on
our points of view—the standards by which we measure ideas and experiences to determine if they’re good or bad. Criteria become especially important
when differing ideas or points of view are being discussed. Any time you identify criteria in a discussion, you generate more flexibility and cooperation. 46

Whenever a discussion starts to degenerate into
conflict, try to ascertain the reasons why people are
for or against something. Then look for an idea or
solution to the problem that blends those criteria
together. That’s another way to turn conflict into
cooperation.
The key points:

Identify and act on intents: If, for example, someone appears to need your appreciation, make your appreciation clear.
Act on intent even when you’re not sure of intent:
Because these intents are within you, let your intuition guide you. And if what you’re doing isn’t working, then simply do something else. Use criteria to reach a deeper understanding:
What are the filters that your difficult person is
using? How can you use your understanding of
those filters to create new options?

“This … is about … the kind of understanding
that will help you communicate effectively, prevent future conflict, and resolve current conflict before it gets out of hand …, the kind of understanding that results when you … closely examine the difficult behavior until you can see the motive behind it.”

47

፬ Just make your point
፬ Speak to be understood

We’ve advocated effective listening as the best way
to increase trust, cooperation, and understanding—
and as a prerequisite for effective communication
back to your difficult person.

When you express
yourself, it’s important to do so in ways that produce
positive effects. The signals, symbols, and suggestions that constitute our communication output provide a profound opportunity to influence relationships for the better. Here are six effective techniques. Monitor your tone of voice. Your tone sends people either a positive or a negative message. Even when you choose your words well, if your tone of

voice is hurried, hostile, or defensive, people may
hear something very different from what you
intended.
Mixed messages, caused by voice tones that
don’t match spoken words, cause miscommunications. If you hear yourself sending a mixed message, call attention to it and explain what you’re really
49
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saying: “I know I sound angry, but that is because
this issue is so important to me.”
State your key intent. Articulating your key intent
lets people know where you’re coming from. When
your key intent is implied rather than stated clearly,
misunderstanding can result. Telling people why
you’re telling them something before you actually
tell them is a simple way to direct attention where
you want it to go.
Tactfully interrupt. There are occasions when it is
necessary to interrupt a difficult person. If someone
is yelling at you, dominating a meeting, or complaining in endless cycles of negativity, an interruption may be an elegant solution. Done carefully, it can also be tactful.
A tactful interruption is done without anger,
without blame, and without fear. Just say the difficult person’s name over and over, in a matter-of-fact way, until you get his or her attention. These repetitions create an irresistible force that so distracts Tanks, Know-It-Alls, Grenades, or Whiners that they

must stop talking to find out what you want.
Tell your truth. Honesty can be effective, no matter
what difficult behavior a person engages in, if you’re
honest in a way that builds someone up rather than
tears him or her down. Remember to tell the person
why you are telling your truth before you actually
tell it. State your positive intent and why you think
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it’s in the person’s interest to hear what you have to
say. Be sure to point out that it’s your opinion. Then
be specific about the problem behavior, show how
the behavior defeats his or her intent, and suggest
new behaviors to replace the old ones.
Stay flexible. If your problem person becomes defensive, be willing to temporarily drop what you’re saying to focus on his or her reaction. Do your best to fully
understand any objections by backtracking, clarifying,
summarizing, and confirming. This may seem timeconsuming, but overall, it takes less energy than an adversarial conversation that goes nowhere.
The key points:

Once you have listened well, move on to effective
speaking: One grows naturally out of the other.
Learn and practice the five techniques of speaking
to be understood: Yes, effective speaking is harder
and often takes longer—in the short run. But it’s the
best way to better outcomes in the long run.
Remember that “communicate” has the same origins as “common”: To communicate is to establish a common understanding.

“What you say to people can produce defensiveness or trust, increase resistance or cooperation, promote conflict or understanding.”

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፬ Don’t expect too much
of people
፬ Project and expect

the best

The difficult behavior of problem people is often
reinforced, and even escalated, by thoughtless
and/or negative reactions from people around
them. So if you want to have a positive influence,
thoughtful responses are required.
It’s in your interest to give difficult people the
benefit of the doubt. It’s also in your interest to help
them break their reliance on negative behaviors and
reinforce more constructive behaviors. If you do this
habitually, a difficult person may come to see you as
an ally rather than an enemy and be all the more
ready to fulfill your positive expectations.
The power of expectations can’t be underestimated. We call this phenomenon Pygmalion Power. If you tell people you have high expectations of
53
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them, they will not deny it. They will in fact take a
step in that direction. But conversely, if you let it be
known that you have low expectations, these will
most likely be fulfilled, as well.
When your problem person is engaging in negative behavior, you may be tempted to say, “That’s the problem with you. You always ….” To use Pygmalion
Power effectively, learn to say, “That’s not like you!
You’re capable of …” and then describe how you
want the person to be, as if he or she already were.
And whenever your difficult person behaves well,
reinforce the behavior by learning to say, “That’s
one of the things I like about you. You’re always …”
and then say what the person has done successfully
so he or she will do it again.
Pygmalion Power is not the easiest technique to
employ when someone is acting badly. You may
have to spend some time mentally rehearsing it
before you’re able to talk this way with ease. You
may have to force yourself to hope that the person
can change, when all evidence is to the contrary. Yet,
we have no doubt that you can surprise yourself
delightfully with your power to bring out the best in
people at their worst.
The key points:

Understand and embrace Pygmalion Power:
Human nature is what it is. When you tell people
that they’re doing something wrong, they’re very

54

likely to get defensive. You can minimize that reaction by giving them the benefit of the doubt and expecting the best. Sometimes you get it!

Appreciate criticism: This is nothing more than
the flip side of Pygmalion Power. If you tend to get
defensive to criticism, perhaps you’ve noticed that it
usually makes things worse. The implication is that
your defenses are an admission of guilt, and anything you say may be used against you. Here’s a simple way to rapidly shut down criticism without either internalizing it or fighting against it: verbally

appreciate it. A simple “thanks for the feedback”
may be all that it takes, and it’s over. Alternatively,
you can listen effectively, helping the critical person
to be specific until you learn something useful, he
or she learns it isn’t about you, or he or she loses
interest in criticizing you.

“It’s a fact that people rise or fall to the level of
your expectations and projections. Use projection
strategies to motivate your problem people to
change themselves.”

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፬ Cope with the Tank
፬ Bring out the best in

the Tank

When you’re under attack by the Tank, you’ve
been targeted as part of the problem. The aggressive
behavior is meant to either shove you back on
course or eliminate the obstacle that you represent.
Your goal must be to command respect, because
Tanks simply don’t attack people they respect.
Aggressive people require assertive reactions.
Here’s a five-step action plan that will send a clear
signal that you are strong and capable.
Hold your ground. Stay put. Don’t change your
position and don’t go on either the offensive or the
defensive. Wait until the attack is over, then tell the
Tank what you’re going to do about it (even if it
means walking away)—and do it. Other times, you
may need to proceed to the next step.
Interrupt the attack. Say the person’s name over
and over until you have his or her full attention.
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Once you’ve begun this step, don’t back off.
Aggressive people like assertive people who stand
up for themselves, as long as this isn’t perceived as
an attack. Keep your voice volume at 75% of the
Tank’s volume. Then he or she will perceive you as
assertive but not aggressive.
Backtrack. Now that you have the Tank’s attention,
backtrack the main accusation. This sets a good
example of listening with respect and conveys that
you’ve heard him or her. A Tank has a short attention span. Two sentences will do. He or she will go back to venting. Wait a few seconds, then interrupt
again and backtrack again.
Aim for the bottom line and fire! Redirect the
conversation to the bottom line—the Tank’s if he or
she is right, yours if he or she is wrong. The Tank
wants to get it done, and your best chance of ending the attack is to blend with his or her intent. The bottom line varies with your situation, but can usually be stated in about two sentences. Keep it short and sweet: the attention span of a Tank is extremely

short. Try to establish that you and he or she are on
the same side: e.g., “We both want what’s best on
this project.” Or respond with a problem: e.g.,
“That’s terrible, I’m here to help you and we’re
going to do something about it!” A take-charge attitude will definitely blend with a Tank. If you’re not on the same side, just tell it like it is: e.g., “I’ll dis-

58

cuss this with you when you’re ready to communicate in a reasonable manner.” Peace with honor. Never close the door in the
Tank’s face. When you leave the door open, the
Tank has the opportunity to back off and probably
will take it. You can let him or her have the last word
… but you decide where and when this happens:
e.g., “When you’re ready to talk to me with respect,
I’m willing to hear what you have to say.”
There are three typical emotional responses to
an attacking Tank. They’re all natural—and all futile.
So adjust your attitude:

Don’t counterattack! Avoid engaging with the
Tank. You may win the battle, but you could still lose
the war if the Tank decides to build an alliance
against you.
Don’t defend, explain, or justify: The Tank has no
interest in your explanations and defensive behavior
is likely to further antagonize the Tank.
Don’t shut down: Out of fear or to avoid conflict,
you may be tempted to withdraw. But fear is a surefire sign to the Tank that the attack was justified and may inspire him or her to return for more.

“The Tank is confrontational, pointed, and
angry, the ultimate in pushy and aggressive
behavior.”
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፬ Cope with the Sniper
፬ Bring out the best in

the Sniper

When events don’t go as planned or are obstructed by others, a get it done person may try to eliminate the opposition through sniping. Your goal when dealing with the Sniper is to bring him or her

out of hiding. Since the Sniper’s limited power is
derived from covert operations, rather than overt,
once you’ve exposed a Sniping position, that position becomes useless. Stop,
look, backtrack. Since your goal is to bring
the Sniper out of hiding, you must first zero in on
his or her hiding place.

If it seems that someone is
taking shots at you, stop!—even in the middle of a
sentence. Interrupting yourself brings attention to
the Sniper, effectively blowing his or her cover. Look
directly into the person’s eyes for a moment, and
then calmly backtrack his or her remark.

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Use searchlight questions. Now it’s time to turn
on the searchlight, asking a question to draw the
Sniper out and expose his or her behavior. The two
best questions are based on intent and relevancy:
“When you say that (backtrack), what are you really
trying to say?” and “What does that (backtrack) have
to do with this?” The key to asking a searchlight
question is to keep your tone neutral and maintain
a neutral (read “innocent”) look on your face.
Use Tank strategy if necessary.

If a Sniper
becomes a Tank, you may have actually improved
the situation; at least now you know what the problem is! Use the strategy recommended for dealing with the Tank not only to command respect from
the Sniper, but also from those who have witnessed
the attack.
Go on a grievance patrol. If you suspect that
someone is holding a grudge against you, but you’re
not certain, see what you can scout out. If you find
evidence that someone is harboring a grudge, you
may want to clear the air. If you’re successful in
bringing the grudge to the surface, listen carefully to
all that your Sniper has to say. Once you fully understand the grievance, let
your problem person know that you understand and express appreciation for
his or her candid description of the problem.
Suggest a civil future. Whether in private or public, finish the interaction by suggesting an alterna62

tive behavior for the future. At the end of any
encounter with the Sniper, it’s important to let him
or her know that your preference in the future is
open and friendly communication. So …

Don’t overreact: Reacting strongly to the Sniper
may encourage him or her to dish out more of the
same. The best attitude to develop is one of amused
curiosity. Try not to take it personally; instead, focus
on the Sniper, rather than yourself.
Distinguish between friendly Snipers and malicious Snipers: Friendly Sniping has its origins in the intent to get appreciated, the need for attention.
Malicious Sniping, on the other hand, originates in
the intent to get it done and fulfills the need for control by seeking to undermine the control of others. For the friendly Sniper, try reframing: Take the
remark as a sign of affection or a behavioral quirk. If
you can’t laugh at it, you can at least learn to laugh
it off. Or just let the Sniper know you don’t respond
well to teasing or put-down humor. Since the person likes you, he or she may change his or her behavior around you. And when that happens, reinforce it by appreciating the person for the change.

“Whether through rude comments, biting sarcasm, or a well-timed roll of the eyes, making you look foolish is the Sniper’s specialty.”
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፬ Cope with the Know-It-All
፬ Bring out the best in

the Know-It-All

Know-It-Alls

are knowledgeable and extremely
competent people, highly assertive and outspoken
in their viewpoints. Their intent is to get it done in
the way that they have determined is best, so they
can be very controlling, with a low tolerance for correction and contradiction. Know-It-Alls perceive new ideas as challenges to their authority and
knowledge and will rise to those challenges. They
will do anything to avoid humiliation.
Your goal with the Know-It-All is to open his or
her mind to new information and ideas. But as
we’ve seen, this isn’t easy(!). With Know-It-Alls, it’s next to impossible to get your two cents in.

Be prepared and know your stuff. If there are any
flaws in your thinking, Know-It-All radar will pick up
on those shortcomings and use them to discredit

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your whole idea. In order to get a Know-It-All to
consider your alternative, you must clearly think
through your information beforehand and be ready
to present it clearly and concisely.
Backtrack respectfully. Be forewarned: you’ll have
to do more backtracking with the Know-It-All than
with any other difficult person. They must feel that
you have thoroughly understood the brilliance of
their point of view before you’ll be able to redirect
them to another point of view.
It’s not enough to simply backtrack; your whole
demeanor must be one of respect and sincerity. You
want to look and sound like the Know-It-All’s view
is in fact the correct one.
Blend with their doubts and desires. If the KnowIt-All really believes in an idea, it is because of specific criteria that make that idea important to him or her. You will find it helpful to blend with those criteria, if you know them, by acknowledging them before you present your idea. Then show how your

idea takes those factors into account.
Present your views indirectly. When the time has
come to redirect the Know-It-All to your position,
use softening words like “maybe,” “perhaps,” and
“bear with me a moment” to sound hypothetical
and indirect, rather than determined or challenging.
Try questions rather than statements and “we”
rather than “I.”
66

Turn them into mentors. By letting the Know-It-All
know that you recognize an expert and are willing
to learn, you become less of a threat. This way, the
Know-It-All spends more time instructing you than
obstructing you. It is entirely possible that, with
time, the Know-It-All may be more willing to listen
to you, as well.
Adjust your attitude:

Don’t use the Know-It-All’s weapons: Resist the
temptation of becoming a Know-It-All yourself. It
will only serve to entrench the Know-It-All more
firmly.
Don’t resent the Know-It-All: It’s not in the KnowIt-All’s nature to get a
second opinion. Resentments will only lead to an argument, which is pointless.
Don’t force your ideas on the Know-It-All: Train
yourself to be flexible, patient, and very clever about
how you present your ideas.

“Seldom in doubt, the Know-It-All has a low
tolerance for correction and contradiction. If
something goes wrong, however, the Know-It-All
will speak with the same authority about who’s to
blame—you!”

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፬ Cope with the ThinkThey-Know-It-All
፬ Bring out the best in

the Think-They-KnowIt-All

People who behave like Think-They-Know-It-Alls
are driven by the need to get appreciation. When
they feel slighted in any way, they’re likely to try
harder than ever to attract attention. Think-TheyKnow-It-Alls push their way into conversations where they may not be wanted.
Your goal when dealing with Think-They-KnowIt-Alls is to catch them in their act and give their bad ideas the hook. You’ll be most successful if you can
avoid putting the Think-They-Know-It-All on the
defensive. Here’s an action plan for bringing out the
best in Think-They-Know-It-Alls.
Give them a little attention. There are two ways to
give a Think-They-Know-It-All attention. The first is
to backtrack on his or her comments with enthusi69
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asm. This lets the person know that you’re paying
attention (and it puts these types on the receiving
end of their own foolishness). The second way is to
acknowledge the person’s positive intent, without
wasting your time on his or her information: you’re
giving positive attention without necessarily agreeing with his or her remarks. Clarify for specifics. If the person doesn’t know what
he or she is talking about and you do, this should be
easy. Ask some revealing questions about the specifics
of his or her information. Since Think-They-Know-ItAlls speak in huge generalizations, pay special attention to words like “everybody” and “always.” Tell it like it is. Carefully redirect the conversation

back to reality. Use “I” language to keep your
remarks as nonthreatening as possible. To add
irrefutable evidence, you can document your facts
as you go.
Give them a break. At this point, it has become
clear that the Think-They-Know-It-All doesn’t know
what he or she is talking about and that you do.
Resist the temptation to embarrass the person.
Instead, give him or her a way out, minimizing the
chance that the Think-They-Know-It-All will go on
the defensive. Think-They-Know-It-Alls are not as
attached to their ideas as Know-It-Alls. If you give
them a way to go along with you, chances are they’ll
be ready to jump on your bandwagon.
70

Break the cycle. Once people believe someone is
just a Think-They-Know-It-All, they may stop giving
that person any recognition at all, even when he or
she deserves it. But that increases the Think-TheyKnow-It-All’s need for appreciation, so he or she engages in that behavior even more. “Break the
cycle” means be ready to give credit where credit is
due. Notice what this problem person is doing right
and praise him or her for it. For some people, this
attention will be all that’s necessary to get the problem behavior to subside. With others, use a gentle confrontation to tell them the truth about the consequences of their negative behavior. Adjust your attitude:

Don’t burst their bubble: When you challenge ThinkThey-Know-It-Alls directly, their only way out is to counterattack with ever grander claims. And their conviction could sway others who don’t know any better. Don’t be too quick to judge: We’ve all defended

ideas that we didn’t necessarily believe to be true.

“Think-They-Know-It-Alls can’t fool all of the
people all of the time, but they can fool some of the
people enough of the time and enough of the people all of the time—all for the sake of getting some attention.”

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፬ Cope with the Grenade
፬ Bring out the best in

the Grenade

When a person’s efforts to get appreciation are
thwarted by another’s indifference, he or she may
explode in a thinly disguised demand for attention.
Losing emotional control is a defense strategy
against the feeling of unimportance—a strategy frequently employed by the Grenade. If, as an adult in a group, you’ve ever lost control of yourself, you know how humiliating this can be. Grenades hate themselves for their behavior—

but this self-hatred often becomes the timing device
that provokes the next explosion. This volatile cycle
can continue unchecked, meaning that an ounce of
prevention can be worth far more than a pound of
cure! Here are the five steps to bringing out the best
in the Grenade.
Get the Grenade’s attention. This is the one time
you may have to be louder than your problem per73
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son … but don’t let it seem aggressive. Call his or
her name loudly, but in a tone of voice that’s interested rather than angry. Aim for the heart. Show your genuine concern by
telling your problem person what he or she needs
to hear. By listening closely, you can determine the
cause of the explosion, then backtrack while assuring the person of your concern. When you hit the heart, you’ll be surprised at how quickly the
Grenade cools down.
Reduce intensity. When you see the Grenade
responding, begin to reduce your voice volume and
intensity. You can talk the person down from his or
her peak of explosion to a normal level of communication by reducing the intensity level of your own communications.
Take time off for bad behavior. There’s no point
in trying to have a reasonable conversation with
your problem person while the adrenaline is still
coursing. So take a little time out and let things cool
the rest of the way down. Then ask to get back
together to work things out.
Avoid setting off the Grenade. This step addresses the long-term relationship and is, therefore, the most important in dealing with your problem person. Try to figure out what pulls the pin on your Grenade … and then don’t pull it! If you discover

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that the pin-puller is someone else in the office,
training in interpersonal communication and conflict resolution might be helpful. Adjust your attitude:

Release your anger: Adding your anger to an
already volatile situation will simply be pouring gas
on a raging fire.
Learn to look at the Grenade in a different way:
Sometimes it can help to imagine the tantrum
thrower as a two-year-old in diapers. Adjusting your
perception of the Grenade will give you some much
needed distance on the situation.
Listen to the Grenade: Whatever the cause of the
explosions, if you’re willing to invest a little time in
actively listening to the problems the Grenade faces,
you will slowly be able to reduce the frequency and
intensity of the explosions.

“After a brief period of calm, the Grenade
explodes into unfocused ranting and raving about
things that have nothing to do with the present circumstances.”

75

፬ Cope with the Yes Person
፬ Bring out the best in

the Yes Person

Yes People have a strong people focus and a weak
task focus. They are extremely disorganized and frequently overcommit
themselves as they try to run their lives based on the desires of other people.
Sometimes they don’t know how to follow through
on something they’ve agreed to do; more often than
not, they don’t think about the consequences of
what they’re agreeing to do.
Yes People feel terrible when they can’t deliver
something they’ve promised. Yet they rarely feel responsible, because they can always find circumstances beyond their control that have caused the trouble.
Your goal with the Yes Person is to get commitments you can count on. Here are five steps to bringing out the best in the Yes Person.
Make it safe to be honest. Through nonverbal
blending and verbal reassurance, make sure your
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communication environment is safe, so that you and
your Yes Person can honestly examine whether he
or she will keep promises. As the person becomes
more comfortable with you, his or her true thoughts
and feelings will surface more easily.
Talk honestly. If you think the Yes Person is angry or
resentful about something or believes the excuses he
or she is spinning, talk it out. Hear the person out
without contradicting, jumping to conclusions, or taking offense. Acknowledge him or her for being honest. Help them learn to plan. Once you’ve listened to
your Yes Person’s point of view, it will be obvious to
you why the person can’t deliver on his or her commitments. This is the time to create a learning opportunity. Teaching your Yes Person simple task-management skills is a better use of your energy than getting upset at the person when he or she can’t deliver!

Ensure commitment. Thank your Yes Person for
communicating openly with you and ask how he or
she will approach the situation differently next time.
In future projects, make sure the Yes Person is
committed at the beginning. Have him or her summarize the project to demonstrate an understanding of what’s involved. Write the commitment down.
You may even come up with memorable deadlines
to ensure that the timeframe will stick. Finally, be
sure to describe the negative consequences should
your Yes Person fail to deliver.
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Strengthen the relationship. Look at every interaction as a chance to strengthen the relationship. Make an event out of every completed commitment and
see mistakes and broken promises as an opportunity to help the Yes Person develop his or her skills. Adjust your attitude:

Don’t place blame: Blaming the Yes Person will
simply make him or her ashamed, the behavior will
continue as the person promises you anything he or
she thinks will placate you.
Be patient: Recognize that your Yes Person is
lacking organizational skills and is unable to recognize or fix this without help. Once you’ve helped the Yes Person develop task skills, his or her helpful
nature will make that person the best teammate you
could hope for.
Help with task management: Ask the Yes Person to
explain the basics of the project, the tasks involved,
and any negative consequences if he or she doesn’t
meet the commitment. Then, help him or her plan
toward the deadlines, to establish a timeframe.

“To please people and avoid confrontations,
Yes People say ‘Yes’ without thinking things
through. They react to the latest demands on their
time by forgetting prior commitments and overcommit until they have no time for themselves. Then they become resentful.”
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፬ Cope with the Maybe
Person
፬ Bring out the best in

the Maybe Person

Decisive people know that every decision has a
downside and an upside and are able to weigh these
possibilities as they make the best decision possible.
Maybe People, by contrast, are unable to make decisions, especially when the consequences of their decisions could affect other people in a way that
might lose them approval. So they put off the difficult decision, hoping that a better choice will come up. Unfortunately, with most decisions there comes
a point when it’s too late to choose: the decision
just happens.
Maybe People have plenty of reasons for not getting help; they don’t want to bother or upset anyone and they don’t want to be the cause of anything going wrong. Your goal when dealing with a Maybe

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Person is to give him or her a strategy for making
decisions and the motivation to use it. Here are five
steps to bring out the best in your Maybe Person.
Establish a comfort zone. When you’re dealing
with people in the get along quadrant, your best bet
is to develop a comfort zone around the decisionmaking process. Take your
time. Reassure the Maybe Person that you believe relationships are
improved by open communication.
Surface conflicts and clarify options. Patiently
explore, from the Maybe Person’s point of view, all
of the options and obstacles involved in the decision. Listen for words of hesitation like “probably,” “that could be,” and “I think so” as signals to
explore more deeply. If the person is worried about
how you will feel should he or she decide something, provide reassurance that you will be fine and it won’t adversely affect your relationship.
Use a decision-making process. If you have a
process that works well for you, teach it to your
problem person. It could be as simple as listing with
him or her all the pluses and minuses of each of the
possibilities. Seeing these in a concrete form may
make the strongest choice more obvious.
Reassure and follow through. Once the decision
has been made, reassure the Maybe Person that
there are no perfect decisions and that his or her

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decision is a good one. Then stay in touch until the
decision is implemented.
Strengthen the relationship. Take a few moments
from time to time to listen to the Maybe Person’s
concerns and help him or her learn the decisionmaking process whenever the opportunity arises. With patient investment, the Maybe Person may
become one of your most dependable decision
makers.
Adjust your attitude:

Don’t push the Maybe Person: Irritation, impatience, or anger will simply make the decision that much more difficult.
Be patient: If your Maybe Person feels pressured,
he or she won’t be able to relax and think clearly.
Stay calm: Intensity or intimidation will drive
Maybe People deeper into their wishy-washy behavior. Even if you can force a decision, they will probably change their minds as soon as they’re pressured by someone with a different agenda.

“In a moment of decision, the Maybe Person
procrastinates in the hope that a better choice will
present itself. Sadly, with most decisions, there
comes a point when it is too little, too late, and the
decision makes itself.”

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፬ Cope with the Nothing
Person
፬ Bring out the best in

the Nothing Person

Nothing

People are passive, but can be taskfocused or people-focused depending on their intent—get it right or get along. When the intent to
get along is threatened, shy people tend to withdraw and become ever more passive. When get it right Nothing People see their quest for perfection
thwarted, they get frustrated and withdraw, convinced that nothing will change the situation, no matter what they say or do.
Although Nothing People seem to withdraw from
conflict, inside they can be boiling cauldrons of hostility. Silence can be their form of aggression. Your goal with a Nothing Person is to break this silence and
persuade him or her to talk. Here is a surefire five-step
process to break your Nothing Person’s silence.
85

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Plan enough time. Dealing successfully with a
Nothing Person may take a long time. If you’re tense
because of time constraints, you may be too intense
to draw him or her out. The more intense you get,
the deeper the Nothing Person withdraws into nothing. So pick the time and place for approaching your Nothing Person so that you have the time it takes.
Ask open-ended questions expectantly. The best
question for a Nothing Person is one that can’t be
answered with a yes, a no, or a grunt. Ask questions
that begin with a “Who,” “What,” “When,” “Where,” or “How” to open up topics for discussion. Make
sure that your non-verbal communication is also
asking for a response. You must look and sound like
you’re about to get an answer. We call this the
“expectant look”—and it works.
Lighten it up. When nothing else is working, a little humor can go a long way. Making absurd, exaggerated, and impossible guesses as to the cause of the silence has cracked the armor of some of the

most intransigent Nothing People.
Guess. If your Nothing Person still isn’t responding,
try putting yourself in his or her shoes and thinking
back over the course of events as to what that person might be feeling. Start talking out loud, rattling off possibilities whether they seem plausible or far
out. It doesn’t matter. If you can hit on or near the
reason for the silence, the person will figure the jig
86

is up and he or she might as well start talking. If you
don’t come close, the Nothing Person may figure
you don’t have a clue and feel compelled to tell you
what is going on.
Show the future. Sometimes the only way to get
Nothing People talking is to take them out of the
moment and show them the consequences of their
continued silence. Don’t make idle threats, but be
clear about how their behavior could damage the
project or your relationship.
Adjust your attitude:

Slow down: The biggest challenge with a
Nothing Person is to find the time to deal with him
or her. To get something from a Nothing Person,
you must be calm and relaxed.
Understand the intent: Nothing People can be
task-focused, if their intent is to get it right, or people-focused, if their intent is to get along. Determine what matters.
Avoid getting angry: Your Nothing Person is trying to avoid conflict and disapproval. Getting angry will simply push a Nothing Person deeper into his
or her nothingness.

“No verbal feedback, no nonverbal feedback.
Nothing. What else could you expect from … the
Nothing Person?”
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፬ Cope with the No Person
፬ Bring out the best in

the No Person

The No Person is task-focused, motivated by the
intent to get it right by avoiding mistakes. Perfection
is his or her standard: when shortcomings get in the
way, the No Person despairs and finds negatives in
everyone and everything.
When dealing with a No Person, your task is to
move from fault finding toward problem solving. It
may be impossible to stop the flood of negativity completely, but you may be able to turn the tide. Here are five steps to dealing successfully with a No Person.
Go with the flow. The worst thing you can do with
No People is to try to convince them that things
aren’t as bad as they think they are. The first step in
dealing with No People is to allow them to be as
negative as they want to be.
Use them as a resource. No People can serve two
valuable purposes in your life. First, they can be
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your personal character builders. If you want to
build strength, you lift heavy weights. If you want to
build a positive attitude, spend some time being
positive with a No Person.
No People can also serve as an early warning system. Amid the negativity, there are often grains of truth. The No Person is sometimes aware of substantial problems that others have overlooked. We know of one company that has a No Person on its

executive staff. By running every new plan by her,
they often find flaws that might otherwise have been
overlooked.
Leave the door open. No People tend to operate in
a different time reality from other people. Any effort
to rush them may actually slow them down. The wisest course of action with No People is to give them time to think, and leave the door open so that they
can come back in when they’re ready.
Go for the polarity response. Sometimes, you can
turn the tables on your No Person by suggesting the
negative alternatives before he or she does. In such
cases, No People may respond positively—either
because they’re convinced by your approach that
you’re dealing with the problem realistically or
because they’re so incurably negative that they want
to prove you wrong even if they agree with you.
Acknowledge their good intent. Assume and project good intent onto negative behavior, like 90

“Thanks for pointing out problems so we can all
come up with solutions” or “I appreciate that you
want this to be right.” Through Pygmalion Power,
the No Person may come to believe it. This can lead
the person to use his or her analytical perfectionism
in a more constructive—and less difficult—way.
Adjust your attitude:

Maintain your perspective: There’s usually some
bad history involved when people behave negatively.
You don’t need to know what the circumstances are,
but try to keep the No Person’s actions in perspective.
Be patient: It may sometimes appear that
changes take place at a snail’s pace. But if you are
patient, there are few things as gratifying as people
conquering their negative behavior.
Appreciate the No Person: He or she may bring
up points worth considering, if you’re wise enough
to sort through the negativity. Just because the No
Person goes to extremes doesn’t mean that he or
she is wrong.

“More deadly to morale than a speeding bullet,
more powerful than hope, able to defeat big ideas
with a single syllable. Disguised as a mild-mannered normal person, the No Person fights a never-ending battle for futility, hopelessness, and
despair.”
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፬ Cope with the Whiner
፬ Bring out the best in

the Whiner

While some complaining can be therapeutic for
the complainer, and some can even be helpful to the
listener, lots of complaining is simply wallowing.
This is the Whiner’s specialty. The Whiner’s complaints have little to do with stress relief and are rarely helpful. Whiners are cousins to the No
People, in the sense that their actions also emerge
from the intent to get it right. But while they have a
sense that things should be different, they have no
idea how this should happen. So instead of taking
action, they whine.
Your goal with Whiners is to form a problemsolving alliance. (And if this doesn’t work, your revised goal is to get them to go away!) The best
thing you can do for people who feel helpless when
they encounter difficulty is to diminish their helplessness, by working with them to identify solutions. 93
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Here are five action steps to work successfully with
a Whiner.
Listen for the main points. Listening to a Whiner
complain is probably the last thing you want to do.
But it’s a crucial first step. You may even want to
take notes. This proves to the Whiner that you’re listening and it will
ensure that you recognize the complaint if the Whiner tries to recycle it.
Interrupt and get specific. Take command of the
conversation and ask clarification questions to get
the specifics of the problem. If your Whiner isn’t
able to be specific, suggest that he or she go out and
gather more information.
Shift the focus to solutions. Because Whiners
often complain in vague generalizations, they don’t
usually look at problems long enough to start thinking about solutions. Asking them what they want can start to move their minds in an entirely new
direction.
Show them the future. When people feel helpless,
it’s constructive to give them something to look forward to. Offer to set up a meeting with the person they’re complaining about or simply set a time to
discuss the problem further. You may find it helpful
to suggest that they come back to you with possible
solutions within a specific time frame.

94

Draw the line. If the previous steps haven’t produced a real change, it may become necessary to draw the line. If your Whiner begins the cycle of
complaints again, shut him or her down. Make it
clear that talking about problems without solutions
isn’t a good use of your time … or anyone’s.
Adjust your attitude:

Don’t agree or disagree with Whiners: If you
agree, it simply encourages them to keep whining.
If you disagree, they may feel compelled to repeat
their problems.
Don’t try to solve Whiners’ problems: You won’t
be able to solve their problems for them; you’ll
need their participation.
Don’t ask Whiners why they’re complaining:
They’ll simply see this as an invitation to start over
from the beginning.

“Whiners feel helpless and overwhelmed by
an unfair world. Their standard is perfection, and
no one and nothing measures up to it. But misery
loves company, so they bring their problems to
you. Offering solutions makes you bad company,
so their whining escalates.”

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፬ Wait until there’s a
problem
፬ Take the first three

action steps

The communication lessons in this book are not
intended to be a quick fix, but a path to long-term
solutions for problems in human relationships. The
longer it takes for a problem to develop, the more
time and energy you must invest in turning things
around. As you begin to apply these attitudes and
strategies, chances are that you will have some easy
successes … and some unsuccessful efforts. More
important than “winning” or “losing,” though, is
having more choices, opportunities, and alternatives to suffering. You can now empower yourself to be the cause of what happens next, rather than the
victim of what others have done.
Difficult people are a part of every person’s life.
They’ve been here since the beginning of time—
97
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use.

running away, blaming, withdrawing. But with commitment and perseverance, each of us can do our part to reduce misunderstandings and eliminate the
conflicts that plague the earth. And without becoming too grandiose, we think it’s fair to say that the future of humanity depends on each of us learning
how to stand each other, in spite of our differences.
Though you can’t directly change anyone else,
your flexibility and knowledge can help people to
change themselves. So the next time you’re dealing
with someone you can’t stand, remember this: Life
is not a test, it’s an actual emergency. Good luck!
Here are a few simple action steps you can take
immediately:

Resolve to become an effective communicator:
Make it your goal to become an effective communicator; take advantage of all available opportunities to practice and perfect these techniques. Pay attention! Whether you’re watching a movie or attending a meeting, you’ll find lots of examples of people

using or failing to use the skills and strategies in this
book.
Find a communication partner: Team up with
communication partners who are as eager to learn
as you are. Share resources (like this book) with
your partners so that you’ll have a common language in your discussions. Meet once a week to discuss what you’ve observed, learned, and tried dur98

ing the preceding week. More than any other action
you can take, regular meetings with communication
partners can remind you to pay attention, while
keeping you focused on developing and improving
your skill.

Count your blessings! If you have the luxury of
reading this book, you’re already better off than perhaps 80% of the earth’s population. You probably have a roof over your head, sufficient food, people
you care about, and some who care about you. Life
is difficult enough without filling yourself with negativity and wasting your life force on worry and stress. If you remember to count your blessings
today and everyday, then you’ll have the strength
and focus to enjoy the challenges presented by difficult people.

“While you can’t change difficult people, you
can communicate with them in such a way that
they change themselves. It’s a matter of knowing
how to get through to them when they’re behaving
badly.”

99

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“If you work with people who
are difficult, there is both good news
and bad news. The bad news is you
work with them. The good news is you
have time to study them, understand the
patterns of their behavior, and plan
your strategic response.”

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“Think of dealing with problem people
like going to the gym. They are giving
you a workout of your communication
muscles! Although you may not always
get the result you want, the strength
you build from the effort may be exactly
what you need to preserve some other
relationship that truly matters to you.”

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“What is the secret to communication
effectiveness with difficult people?
Flexibility. Flexibility means having more
than one option. If what you’re doing
isn’t working, do something else, or
do something differently. Anything you
do differently increases the likelihood
of your success.”

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McGraw-Hill Professional
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by Jeffrey A. Krames (0-07-138750-1)
The Lombardi Rules: 26 Lessons from Vince Lombardi—the
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How to Manage Performance: 24 Lessons for Improving
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Making Teams Work: 24 Lessons for Working Together
Successfully
by Michael Maginn (0-07-143530-1)

Why Customers Don’t Do What You Want Them to Do:
24 Solutions to Overcoming Common Selling Problems
by Ferdinand Fournies (0-07-141750-8)

The Sales Success Handbook: 20 Lessons to Open and Close
Sales Now
by Linda Richardson (0-07-141636-6)

108

About the Authors
Dr. Rick Kirschner and Dr. Rick Brinkman are worldrenowned professional speakers and trainers. They are the coauthors of the bestselling audio- and videotape series How to Deal with Difficult People and have authored six other audio and video training programs. Their book Dealing with People You Can’t Stand is an international bestseller, now available in

a revised second edition with translations in 15 languages. They wrote the entertaining and practical sequel Dealing with Relatives: Your Guide to
Successful Family Relationships and they coauthored
the book Life by Design, Making Wise Choices in a
Mixed Up World. They now present their entertaining
keynote speeches and training programs worldwide.
Their client portfolio includes AT&T, HewlettPackard, the Inc. 500 Conference, Young Presidents Organization, the U.S. Army, and hundreds of other
corporations, government agencies, medical conferences, educational groups, and professional associations.
For information about Dr. Kirschner’s keynotes
and seminars, visit www.QuickChangeArtist.com. For
information about Dr. Brinkman’s keynotes and seminars, visit www.RickBrinkman.com. To learn more about their work together, visit www.TheRicks.com.

Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

How firmly was the Tsar in control of Russia before 1905?

Russia was an Autocracy before 1905 and the Tsar was Nicholas 2nd. Many people dispute over whether he was in control or not, the main factors being: The Tsar’s leadership, Opposition to the Tsar, Social and Economic conditions and finally means of control. It can be argued that some factors are more important than others, but they are all significant in how I believe the Tsar was losing control.

The Tsar’s flaws as a leader were an extremely important reason as to why he was losing control of his country. Russia was an autocracy- this meant that the Tsar had full control of the country and had the final say in every decision. This could have been positive, but I think it was a negative thing. He was not a very decisive person, and he would not delegate to others (An example of this being, how he interfered in the appointments of local midwives.) While he was busy doing the wrong jobs he needed employees that were capable of the best. Another flaw of Nicholas’ was that he was extremely suspicious of those cleverer than him and fired many of his best workers (Count Witte) and preferred to hire only family and friends. This helped to weaken his control on Russia because not only did he lose respect from his people, but also he was not doing his job and as the only ruler of the country, Russia did not have a focused authority figure.

The Tsar had a lot of opponents within Russia and he did not deal with them to the best of his abilities. This meant he was not firmly in control of Russia at all. The 4 main opposing groups were: The Liberals (Cadets), The Social Revolutionaries (SRs) and The Social Democratic Party (Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks) Although the different groups were all angry at different things, the one thing they had in common was that they were all unhappy about Russia’s Social and Economic Situation. In my opinion the Bolsheviks were the most dangerous group towards Tsar and the government, followed by the SRs then the Mensheviks finally the Liberals. Even though the Liberals had the most supporters, they were a peaceful group; they were not doing any damage to Russia. The Tsar did not believe they were a threat so chose to ignore them.

However with the Bolsheviks they had a huge following (the working class.) Their approach to change was violence as was the SRs. The SRs managed to get close enough to the government to kill 2 of their officials. The Tsar dealt with the Bolsheviks and the SRs by killing them or exiling them. By exiling them he showed a lot of inexperience with how he dealt with these groups .All he did was send them away; this did not stop them from coming back! Siberia is in the east of the country (the opposite side as to where the Tsar was), but it is also a desert. This meant that the people the Tsar exiled became resentful towards him, as they had to live in a desert. An advantage to being exiled was that it was in the middle of nowhere.

The organisations could discuss ideas and produce plans of future rebellions without the Tsar knowing what was going on. By not knowing this he lost an element of control because he did not know what his most violent organisations were doing. Every group in the Feudal system (except the aristocrats) had an organisation to rival the Tsar. This was bad because that meant at the very least only 1.5% of the population (aristocrats) were in full support of him. By not having the full support of his people the Tsar lost a lot of control because as a leader your people need to respect you but also have faith that you will do the right thing for the country in general (not just a specific group.)

The monarchy was mostly made up of aristocrats, so was the government and army officials. By having only aristocrats in important positions the Tsar was not being fair, the 80% of the population that were peasants had a lot of reasons to despise the Tsar. This further allowed his control on Russia to loosen, it lost him support of people and the public started to realise that the Tsar was not the leader they needed to help them receive a better way of living.

They needed someone that was not desperate for the power and someone who could hold control. Finally the fact the organizations even existed meant that he had lost some control already. If people respected him they would no t have started oppositions and formed plans. The groups all had plans. Whether they would work or not was a different issue. His weak leadership meant that he would not let anyone help him, he had resorted to last attempts by exiling people and had become desperate this shows how out of control he was and he knew it, because no one helped him he did not have a well thought out plan as to how to deal with the groups.

The social and economic conditions in Russia would have made it hard for any leader to keep control, never mind the Tsar (a poor leader who had a lot of opposition.) 80% of Russia were peasants where as the aristocracy who owned 25% of the land and were only 1.5% of the population. This suggests that the gap between the rich and the poor was extreme. As the number of peasants moving to the city increased, more and more people started to realise how big this gap truly was and did not like it. Having to walk past lavish mansions on their way home, to rooms they probably shared with at least 1 other family created tension between the two social groups. The rich were getting richer and the poor poorer and nobody could move up the system.

To make matters worse Russia spans 12 time zones and 60% of the population did not speak Russian. The Tsar lived in the far west so if a problem occurred in the east he would not be able to deal with it for days which meant his control of the situation decreased. If only 40% of you population speaks the national language it makes it harder for internal communication. The laws in Russia may have been harder to understand and those who did not speak the Tsar’s language would not have been as easy to control. The Tsar did not have as much domination as he thought he did because he could not control what was happening with some of the people and circumstances in the other end of his country.

The Tsar used a lot of resources to try and keep his people under control, but to me it became apparent that the more resources he used the more the people refused to submit to his rules. One of his many means of control was the religious persecution of the Jews. All throughout history dictators have used specific groups of people (mostly the Jews) as scapegoats. Trying to pass the blame of the country onto someone else showed that the Tsar feared he would lose all of his control over the people if they thought it was his entire fault. Other means of control the Tsar used were: Secret police, regular police, prisons, and the army. In Leo Tolstoy’s letter to the Tsar in 1902 he says, “The numbers of regular police and of the secret police are continually growing.”

This shows that the Tsar had started these policies but they were not working. People refused to be led by a man that was not objective to all groups in society and did not have the leadership required to be a successful Tsar. Overall I think that in the long-term it weakens his control but in the short term in strengthens his control. Showing the force he has the power to use might scare some of the population into behaving (but not for very long, I think they will see right through him.) However, having to rely on force (only at the point of a gun) shows his concern of the control he has over his country. The fact that the severity of the situation ended in armed forces patrolling the people, carrying live ammunition also shows his concern and ever shrinking clasp of control.

After reviewing all of the evidence I believe that the Tsar was not in control of Russia before 1905. The Tsar’s poor qualities as a leader lost him respect from the people, as did the organizations opposing him. His desperation showed a lot in the decisions he made. If you are in control you are not desperate, you believe in the decisions you make, and the Tsar did not. Almost all of his forms of control failed in the long-term.

The opposing groups managed to create plans and had a substantial number of followers. The social and economic situation made it ever harder to control Russia and his flaws isolated him from help and minimized the 1.5% of people that believed in him. The strongest evidence in my opinion is the opposition to the Tsar. All of the other facts contributed to the main point that he had opposition. If a leader has friction between him and his people he will always struggle to have control but the Tsar just had to many recurring problems to have control.

Team spirit

In a world, where cut-throat competition and increasingly higher standards are becoming a way of life, achieving excellence and success in not easy. Although achieving success has never been an easy task, these are the times when dreams of success seem far more unrealistic or difficult that what they actually are. However, today the mantra one must adopt for the attainment of success is ‘teamwork and unity’.

When one works in a team, the pressure is distributed and attainment of success seems relatively easier. Success seems to come nearer and appears more realistic. Encouraging one another in a team gives additional strength to achieve the goal. As a popular saying goes “you are one when you are one and you are ten if you are with another four”.

This applies to all walks of life, all professions and at all times. Though all the fingers are not alike, the power of a fist which brings the five fingers together is immense. The diversity in a group has a very positive multiplying effect on the strength of unity. This is the fact behind India emerging as a powerful nation economically and politically. This is why the Indian cricket team is being ranked among the top teams in the world. And this is precisely the reason behind the Indian corporate and the individual booking slots in the top lost of world’s famous publications.

The world has witnessed the weakening of Russia with the disintegration of the erstwhile USSR. An equal match to the US in the bipolar world has now been reduced to just ‘one’ among the developed nations, losing out on crucial power fronts in the world political scenario. It has also seen how the European Union has emerged an economic super-power through common policy and common currency. We can also hope to see the emulation of this success of the Asian countries through a common currency, a proposal brought by our Finance Minister Mr. P. Chidambaram recently, though it might take some time to materialize.

Another recent classical examples of victory through unity is the restoration of democracy in Nepal. After four long years, Nepalease Parliament once again echoed with sounds of victory of the might of the common people. King Gyanendra’s autocratic rule, which began after the bloodshed in the royal family, came to an end, when seven major political parties of the country joined hands and played a crucial role in turning the discontent of the people into a movement against the tyranny of the monarch. People refused to be cowed down by bullets and batons and many scarified. Curfews were clamped to quell protest organized by the parities but the demonstrators remained undaunted. Ultimately the king had to bow down before the unity of the people.

Away from the political world and stepping into the corporate and economic world, we find the ‘cooperation’ in the buzz word, i.e., cooperation coupled with competition. This form of unity is helping our corporate scale news heights and carve their own niche in this extremely competitive world. Another form of increasing competency is ‘mergers’, where the merged entity is often much more powerful than the two individual entities taken separately. Speaking contemporarily, it is really heartening to hear that the two developing nations, India and Pakistan, often see firing controversial political statements against each other, are on the economic front, going to file a joint application for patenting ‘Basmati’ rice, one of our own and very special agricultural products.

Also, India and China, being looked upon as the next generation economic super powers and the top investment destinations, are increasingly working towards economic co-operation to share each other’s success.

Coming to sports, the significant rise in the performance of the Indian cricket team after the re-organisation, reiterates the fact that setting aside group politics is half the job done. They were the biggest obstacles to the performance of the entire team. The rest was accomplished through encouraging true talent, putting focused efforts and above all, realizing the fact that the team is above an individual.

Unity has always been the strength. Not only in intellectual human thought, this truth has been applicable even in the animal world from the ages. One can seldom see an elephant or a deer roaming alone in jungle. The sense of security they get moving as a herd is extremely important for their very
survival. Similarly, hundreds of ants together can kill a venomous snake. We often see gees flying in a ‘V’ pattern. This pattern is a classic case study in the management world. The observation of this case study can be briefed as below.

The flight of a whole flock increases the efficiency of each goose by 71 percent. It is interpreted that if a team works in a focused manner in the same direction, the efficiency of the team increase and the destination is reached faster and the goal is attained sooner.

Often the leading goose in the flock changes. After flying for a while, and backseat and another takes its place. Thus, leadership is shared and the hardest problems and tasks are achieved by gathering abilities and combining, resources of all the individual in the group.

When a goose gets or tired and is compelled to leave the flock, few other gees follow it and stay by its side. Staying beside each other matters, especially in times of difficulties and great challenges.

Thus ‘united we stand, divided we fall’ is a universal truth and has always stood the test of time. In the animal world or in the human world, in sports or in business unity is the best mantra to achieve success, Our enemies take advantage of us only when they notice cracks and fissures in our solidarity. A mile can be covered with the smile if we are united, but a molehill would become insurmountable as a mountain if we dive. Unity is strength and brings success while division is weakness that brings downfall.

Its holds true not only in the context of smaller group like a family or a clan, but also in case of larger groups like the society or nation as a whole. It is this regard that our great nation presents a unique instance of essential unity in spite of myriad diversities. While its diversities give it a multifaceted, kaleidoscopic and pluralistic outlook, its unity keeps them together as an integrated whole. Since time immemorial, India has kept its unity intact by attaching prime significance to the motto of peaceful co-existence among people belonging to different cultural backgrounds,
following different beliefs and speaking different language. And this underlying spirit of unity has earned our nation a distinct place of pride among the comity of nations throughout the globe.a

Kyoto Protocol

1) Why did the Kyoto protocol take so long to be put into practice? The Kyoto protocol took so long due to the fact that some countries did not sign the “treaty” and other countries were getting more nervous because it isn’t that easy to sign the order of the Kyoto Protocol because that would lead to large economic changes for every country which signed.

2) What was the target for a reduction in greenhouse emissions? The target for the reduction in greenhouse emissions of greenhouse gases was to only be 5.2%. The USA had the chance to sign it but only for 7% due to the point that they are 1 of the countries which produces most of the CO2. (The more the USA has to reduce the more they help our planet.)

3) Why where India and China not obliged to reduce any greenhouse emission? India and china are not obliged to reduce any greenhouse emissions due to that they are both growing countries. At that time they had a very low greenhouse gas emission and they weren’t seen as the main culprits for emissions during the period of industrialization thought to be the cause for the global warming of today.

4) Do you think it has been a wise decision to not enforce China and India to reduce emissions? Why? Although China and India are growing (developing) countries, in my opinion, it was not a very wise decision. All countries are still equal and they must be followed by the same rules as in that they have to carry the same out like any other ones. China’s power is mostly led by coal plants, and that is bad for the planet.

5) Why did Australia and USA not ratify the Kyoto agreement? Most countries in the world have signed the Kyoto Protocol; it is referred as a token of gesture of support. Australia was allowed an 8% increase in emissions, but still Australia refused to ratify the agreement until a change in government in late 2007. Their reasoning why they did not want to sign it was because it would have been very bad for Australia’s economy and the same reasoning has been used in the USA. (The USA has been more selfish and did not care
about other countries it only cares about itself and how it is doing.)

6) Has the Kyoto Protocol been a success?
The answer to this question can vary between people because in some views it is really good and some people say that its bad. In a way it is good because countries are trying to cut down on greenhouse gasses but still CO2 levels in the atmosphere are still rising at a high rate with no sign of slowing down. Global temperatures are continuing to rise. Without the USA ratifying to the protocol or emerging economic powers such as China there will be no big change unless they reduce emissions drastically! The action for the future is still now required!

Jet blue case study

The United States airline industry includes roughly 600 companies with combined annual revenue of approximately 170 billion dollars (bts.gov). The major companies include American, Delta, and United Continental (bts.gov). There are air operations of express delivery companies such as FedEx and UPS. This industry is highly concentrated with the 10 largest companies accounting for more than 75 percent of industry revenue (bts.gov). The global airline industry generates about $500 billion annually (tbs.gov). The major international companies include Air China, Deutsche Lufthansa, Air France-KLM, Japan Airlines, and British Airways (bts.gov). Discussion Questions

1. Discuss the trends in the U.S. airline industry and how these trends might impact a company’s strategy. Trends in this industry are numerous. This discussion will include the price of jet fuel, on-time performance, security, and cheaper substitutes. Oil price volatility is the leading player in airline strategy (jetblue.com). Fuel is probably the most significant element in an airline’s base cost (jetblue.com). The new fuel price average for the year 2012 is around 129.7 dollars per barrel (jetblue.com). The impact of this year’s fuel bill for the global airline industry is upwards of 32 billion dollars (jetblue.com).

The causes for delays and cancellations of flights are reported monthly to The Bureau of transportation Statistics (bts.gov). On time performance has many factors; a few of these factors are air carrier delays, late arriving aircrafts, security delays, extreme weather, and equipment (bts.gov). Air carrier delays are within the airline’s control. This area includes maintenance/crew problems, aircraft cleaning, baggage loading, fueling, and such (bts.gov). A late arriving previous flight… Read Full Essay

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Youth in Pakistan

Pakistani Youth’s Role in Development
The Pakistani Youth has stepped on a train named as destiny that takes its passengers on the path towards development. Since the establishment of Pakistan, youth had always been crushed and oppressed by teachers, leaders and parents. Moreover the role of youth in politics has always been limited due to corrupt and inept political system. They failed to get exposed to the world that could lead to a new era of modernization. As the clock ticked and time flew, things started to change their discourse. The new century brought about much advancement along with the change in trends of Pakistani youth. Problems of Youth in Pakistan:

Alongside the changing trends in 21st century, problems of Pakistani youth have started to dwindle.The world is a continuous process of change and so it brings with it distinctive features in which modernization in youth plays huge importance. As globalization took place, it became harder for teachers, leaders and parents to further hold back youth in homes. These students found their way to their demands. The supply had always been short but this time these young Pakistanis created their own demand and became their own suppliers. They have started to negate the old irrational conventions that have been down streaming their lives. Through the use of media, internet and self right realization; these rising humans instilled with great zeal and zest have found a common point where they could lead their lives with cultural and contemporary trends.

Youth protest by Kashmiri youth against India. Problems of Pakistani Youth

Talented Pakistani Youth
Talented Pakistani youth has started to bring in more innovation and novel ideas than a matured one. The science has lead older people to understand that after living a life of forty years and above, the brain is less able to produce something new and revolutionary. Now we see the youth working in across Pakistan in almost all the fields currently working. From education to films to arts to medicine to engineering to politics; you would not find a place where these young talented people are not functioning. Every day they bring in new ideas such as Street Art Competitions, Sports events, Debates, magazines, public relations and the list goes on. talented youth of Pakistan – Arfa Karim young

Power to Speak
A new trend has started to emerge in Pakistani youth i.e. the power to speak. About a decade ago, young people were not allowed to raise their voices against elders. Even if the elders were completely irrational about a certain situation or subject, youth was not allowed to interfere in it. An orthodox behavior was being followed by the elders that was “Old people have a lot of experience and so they speak keeping in mind everything they have learnt from it but young people are careless and innocent. They do not understand the realities of life”. But now these people have started to realize that not all their experiences are applicable in the contemporary world of fast choices. These people realize that they are not the one’s getting exposed to new knowledge everyday; it is the youth who is thirsty for knowledge and who can actually understand the world with a different dimension.

Optimism of Youth in Pakistan:
Optimism is an intriguing step that the youth in Pakistan has recently adopted. They have seen their families and relatives living lives in depression and so dying a painful death. They have seen people regretting what they did and sticking to the negative side of the situation and eventually falling into a dig of wasted wishes. Pakistani youth has now chosen a path of positivism. This way they can mould, innovate and produce whatever they think is best. They are currently striving for the betterment
and progress of country. They are not self centered rather they have adapted ways which would make the people of Pakistan unite and bring about change as a whole.

Voice of Youth

voices of youth

I have been sitting here for a while listening to all those voices of youth. To feel what you have, you need to forget what you had. Concepts are intellectual. No one is born to be so. People sit on a porch to learn and throw. Nothing is confusing, you are. Life compels you to form images. What you speak is not your tongue but your society. You creep, you crawl, and you walk and run. Is there anything else to do in this family of indifferent relations? If not, then there is yet to begin another stance of local characters (Pakistani Youth) to trigger the features bound to relish the last sip of tea. The Youth- ONLY HOPE FOR THE FUTURE OF PAKISTAN.

Dear Sir/Madam,

The role of youth in the rebuilding of Pakistan should be envisaged and elaborated in such a way that it becomes easy to address the grievances and suggest ways out of it, so that a new era of dawn can be started. Since the creation of Pakistan, the Pakistani is deprived of their basic right to rule this country according to their aspiration and dream. At the same time, the real strength for the development along with their internal skill i.e. the youth power of Pakistan was left alone in isolation at the mercy of circumstances and their basic right to get the development opportunity without any discrimination was denied.

Pakistan is a country of diversified culture and traditions. It is a nation of one hundred sixty million diverse people ranging from having skill within, having no opportunity to utilize the skills, and those who need help and guidance for development of skills to utilize. Pakistan is a melting pot of creative ideas and god gifted skill. But it needs organized planning and a system to develop and utilize these skills for rapid development in industrialization and agricultural
sector.

Though the youth of Pakistan is still under its formative phase, they have the ability to increase vast production processes and providing substantial training to the masses in all parts of the country. According to the vision of the father of the nation, Pakistan was to be a democratic country based on the concept of equal citizenship for all Pakistani, irrespective of their color and creed. As per Jinnah’s vision, Pakistan had to facilitate vibrant economic opportunities by curbing corruption and partiality. Although this speech was censored by those who wanted to create confusion, derail democracy, and deny the development as per aspirations of Pakistani.

The Youth of Pakistan, the “Nation Builders”, are also nullified and ignored in sharing the rewards given to us by our mother land. The country, which was established after countless sacrifices of our forefathers to attain the liberty, prosperity and peace, simply. For being free and prosperous Pakistani. But, In return, our rulers have given this country nothing but a gloomy future, poverty and betrayal. As a result, our youth has been connotated as “Young Seagulls” trying to fly without feathers towards their destiny. Pakistanis in their quest for real freedom continue to struggle to get free from the shackles of ruling elites, encircle us. Whenever a person rises up for something new in his mind, it is pressed down as being a “rebellious thought”.

The question is, to what extent such a paralyzed mind and body can serve the nation? In fact, the “Nation Builders” themselves need overhauling and ample space to fly. Unless and until, we develop an optimistic thinking and unshackled of the chained, our journey to the country’s prosperity cannot reach its destination. We should not lose the right path for the fear of being followed by absurdities and unfair means, like a dark shadow. Islamic Democratic Party has decided to give the rain of socio-political change in the hand of new generation in Pakistan. IDP wants them to read and understand the program and come forward to lead this party at grass route level to decide the fate of their future destination and take power in their hands.

As the Pakistani people, have been left at a distance from the corridor of power so that the ruling elite can do what they wanted to do in favor of their interest, leaving the Pakistani people at the mercy of circumstances. This policy is an outright denial of the right of Pakistanis to rule their country according to their aspiration and desire to build this country, which can provide equal opportunity to all, without any discrimination for the establishment of welfare society. Only the society based on tolerance, equality and justice can be the real guarantee for a prosperous and strong Pakistan.

Islamic democratic party has accepted this challenge to rationalize the system from its base of centralization of sole power, controlled by the feudal and mighty elites, to the new base of decentralization of power in the hands of Pakistani at grass route level so that the route cause of deprivation, hatred and poverty could be eliminated and Pakistan can become a prosperous, developed state without any discrimination. Under the name and banner if Islamic Democratic party (IDP), the power should transfer at divisional level within the provinces with financial, administrative and political power to establish real democracy in Pakistan.

The divisional council will be responsible for providing the basic guarantee for the people living or settled in the division with transparency and accountability of the public representative and institution, where as provinces should be based on democratic division and the centre should be based on democratic provinces. There will be no politician in the senate but experts form all walks of life, including religious scholars assuring that no law can pass in NA against the law of Allah.

We have already lost the major part of Pakistan in 1971 simply to save the centralized sole power to exploit the resources of this country, they let the country breaking, in a part then allowing the masses to rule this country democratically. In the present circumstances they are again dragging our sovereignty at stack for the external interest in the name of national interest, instead of our interest i.e. the interest of Pakistani people at large.

The only way out of these crucial circumstances is to empower the common Pakistani at grass route level i.e. the change of system. This change is inevitable for the prosperous Pakistan .As a citizen of this country I have try to provide an alternate socio-political system to empower the masses at grass route level for rapid industrial and agriculture development with transparency and accountability in the system. Along with basic guarantees for the creation of welfare state, where in public representative and institution shall be answerable and accountable to the masses.

SAMPLE CHAPTER 1,2,3 THESIS

Background of the study
(DISCUSSION OF MAIN TOPIC, PROBLEM STATEMENTS AND SPECIFIC TOPIC) VoIP is a revolutionary technology that has the potential to completely rework the world’s phone systems. VoIP is often referred to as IP telephony (IPT) because it uses Internet protocols to make possible enhanced voice communications. Objectives of the study

General Objectives:
The general objective of the study is to develop a Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) program generator. It specifically aims: 1. To design a system that (FEATURES)
2. To create a prototype as designed
3. To test and improved the developed prototype.
4. To evaluate the prototype (REFER TO ISO STANDARD)
5. Document the result

Scope and Limitation of the study
This study is limited to a voice over internet protocol program generator that generates and customizes phone services, phones and devices, voice mail managing, notifications, and call management. A phone service manages calls, faxes and has a Caller ID tools for both making and receiving calls. In an event a call maybe diverted to a personal number if permitted. Significance of the study

VOIP program generator is a system that generates steps and instructions. The proposed project is a generic program that can be used by any Office
VOIP Program Generator in the offices generates set of instructions to be used by the office staff in managing and organizing voice calls. School
The use of VOIP program generator in school generates VOIP program that may reduce the costs of telephony communication. The Future Researchers
This will give information and knowledge that serves as a guideline to improve their project development.

CHAPTER II
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies underlying the framework of the study. It includes the conceptual model of the study and the operational definition of terms.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Introduction

VOIP is a digital telephone service that uses the public Internet and private backbones for call transport. VOIP applications are used mostly by the call centre company or an individual for a cost cutting and managing of calls. Program generator is a software program that enables an individual to easily create a program of their own with less effort and programming knowledge.

Communication

Subtopics of this major topic identify what communication is all about. It also discusses what and how communications are sent and received. There are different types of communications discussed in this section.

CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF THE STUDY
On the basis of the foregoing concepts, theories and findings of related literature, studies presents and insights taken from them, a conceptual model is developed as shown below:

Figure 1: Conceptual Model of the proposed project VOIP Program Generator.

Knowledge Requirements. This includes the knowledge of the researchers to develop the proposed project. And also, it includes basic ideas a user needs to know in able to understand easily the proposed project..

Software Requirements. These are the computer programs that are going to be used in the system. The proposd project will be created in the Linux operating system. Trixbox will be used as the Trixbox is an iso image of a pre-configured Asterisk server which makes installation and deployment easier. Trixbox contains a full version of Asterisk and other pre-configured applications considered add-ons.

Hardware Requirements. It includes the technical requirements of the proposed project. A network interface card and network interface devices will be needed to for the connection of different calls. And the computer unit, with at least 512Mb RAM, Pentium 4 processor and 10Gb space for the hard disk, where the users interface with data, through a database, is actually seen.

Operational Definition of Terms
VOIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) is a voice communication over the network the bridging the gap of communication IP (Internet Protocol) is a numerical label assigned to the device participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication

CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the sequence of project development. It also includes the discussion of methods and actions in developing the project. It also includes some related information, development procedures and the definition of a number of viewpoints on how the application was evaluated by the users and Information Technology specialists.

PROJECT DESIGN

Figure 2 shows the Context-level Data Flow Diagram of the proposed project. The process is initiated by the user by entering the configured details. The system then processes the generated program to the user.

Figure 2.0 Context Diagram of the proposed project.

Figure 3.0 Shows the low level Diagram of VOIP Program Generator

The figure above shows the process of Voice over Internet Protocol Program Generator. New user needs to create an account before selecting a program. Upon selecting a program whether school or office selected programs may be configured depending on the requirements of the user. Every Program configured will be checked and update for verifications and clarification. All programs that are configured and updated may be viewed by the user.

PROJECT DEVELOPMENT

In developing the project, the researchers undergone different activities shown in figure 5 which identifies the analysis, resources and in designing the project. The activities involved are illustrated below:

Data and Information Gathering
Data and information gathering related to the development of the study were conducted. Several tools were used to perform this task. This includes playing existing games, researching new and existing game concepts, observing gaming trends, evaluating successful games and researching in different school libraries. Study and Analysis of the Information Gathered

The pieces of information gathered were analyzed. Useful information was comprehensively utilized. Data flow diagrams and conceptual diagrams were used as tools. System Design
In the system design, all pertinent input data and required outputs were determined and planned. The design was made according to JMonkeyEngine’s Application API game loop, this creates multithreaded game loops. Making the game fast and the source code is much more maintainable. System Development

This is the process of writing algorithms and coding with a specific
programming language. Java programming language was used. This is the phase of the development where Object Oriented Programming knowledge and skill are required. System Evaluation

User participation is very important. The system was evaluated by would-be users. Documentation
Documentation is the last phase in project development. The preparation of the users’ manual to guide the end-users in manipulating the game was the main activity of this phase.

OPERATION AND TESTING PROCEDURE

Operation Procedure

1.Identify the problems that will be encountered in the development of the system. 2.Establishment of timelines, schedules and the cost of project development. 3.Warehouse system related data.
4.Conduct interview with call center agensts, team leaders and some IT professionals. 5.Creation of screen design based on the defined requirements. 6.Program Coding.
7.Testing and evaluation of the system.
8.Creation of user support documentation.
9.Perform user’s training.
10.Implementation of the developed system.
Testing Procedure

1.The proponents will create test cases for each component of the VOIP Program Generator functionality and expected output in various developments. 2.The proponents will perform input testing wherein the inputted set of instructions manages and customizes calls properly. Invalid inputs will also be examined to test the efficiency of the system. 3.The proponents will perform module testing for the daily reports to check if it produces accurate data.

On the sidewalk bleeding

Don’t judge a book by its cover. We all grow up listening and trying to live day in and day out following the metaphorical phrase. For most of us, this idiom means little however; Evan Hunter uses a character from On the Sidewalk Bleeding to influence the reader of its importance

Andy is a young gang member growing up in the rough neighborhood of The Bronx. As a result, the attraction of membership leads Andy to join The Royals, a gang represented by a bright purple jacket. We are first made aware of Andy just after a rival gang member has fatally stabbed him. It is made clear to us that Andy is no stranger towards violence and gang culture even at his young age. He thought to himself “That was a fierce rumble, they got me good that time” indicating that fighting is a common occurrence for him that he is still unaware of how serious the stab wound is.

As Andy lays helpless down a dark alleyway, we are made aware of three groups of public denying Andy help, a direct result of this appearance and his relationship with the gang culture. Most notably, one young couple is felt inclined to leave Andy helpless. The couple’s first reaction in finding Andy was “He’s a Royal” demonstrating the immediate prejudice. This is again reinforced when they leave him to die due to his gang connections, suggesting that because of this, he doesn’t deserve to get help.

“We help him and the Guardians will be down our necks” It is also made clear that the Guardians are another rival gang. This is confirmed when Andy comments about these gangs being “two of the biggest” As the couple flee the scene, Andy thinks to himself, “Why are they afraid of the Guardians? I’ve never turkeyed out of a rumble with the Guardians” The emphasizing how Andy is no stranger to violence.

However, Hunter positions the reader to understand what is beneath the purple jacket. Hunter demonstrates how Andy is simply a young and impulsive boy therefore is inclined to make poor decisions. In the first paragraph, Hunter uses the word ‘boy’ twice and also makes reference to his age, 16. The author’s intention is to create sympathy for Andy.

He does this successfully because we relate the word ‘boy’ to someone who is young and naïve. The reference to his age convinces us that everyone is inclined to make mistakes, especially at his age. Andy made one poor decision and he should not lose his life be cause of it.

Hunter also reveals how Andy is a kind and caring person. The positive personality is evident when Andy talks about his girlfriend Laura, and his hopes and plans for his future with her. “Someday he would marry Laura, someday he would marry her and have lots of kids, and then move out of the neighborhood” Though this we learn how this gang member ship is just a phase that Andy is going through and how he wants to start a clean project with good opportunities.

We also see how Andy believes in traditional values, not the norm of a gang member. This is further emphasized when we see him put Laura’s needs first “He wondered if Laura would be angry”

Andy is also revealed as tenacious and determined, which are qualities that we admire. He realizes that “they had only stabbed the jacket and the title” Because of this, Andy was driven to take the jacket off, so when he was found, he would not be seen as a Royal, but just Andy.

Andy’s determination is shown when he fights the pain just to remove his jacket. “With great effort, he rolled over onto his back. He felt great pain tearing at his stomach when he moved” Hunter also uses the verbs “squirmed and fought and twisted” These verbs have great impact on the reader because it develops our appreciation of just how determined and tenacious Andy is.

Andy has taught us a very important lesson in the short story On the Sidewalk Bleeding. He has demonstrated how we are not all synonymous to our appearance. Evan Hunter conveys this throughout the text influencing us to understand how maybe we are inclined to make unsafe judgments based on appearances, or is it in our power to prevent it.

Monsanto paper critical analysis

aTitle: A review of core issues relating to the global adoption of genetically modified foods. As we are confronted by more and more information, it is of great importance that as global citizens we endeavour to form our own conclusions by thoroughly analysing factual data. Often information we are presented with can carry a vast undertone of additional, and usually bias information, which conveyed through language, body language, and even in extreme, but uncommon instances, subliminal messaging.

Professionals in environmental management must be able to efficiently draw unbiased conclusions by filtering large quantities of information and communicate their findings effectively. In environmental management, global issues typically generate the most controversy. Currently, a global movement to abolish genetically modified foods, is raging. As scientific evidence that challenges the safety of GMO’s mounts, global protests and national governments are rejecting genetically modified foods, in particular the notorious company Monsanto.

This assignment is aimed at evaluating key literature relating to the safety of GMO’s using the correct models developed in critical analysis for environmental management in hope that informative and unbiased conclusions can be drawn.

Table1:
The Purpose of this table is to briefly summarise five sources of literature using methods gained in the course to aid in the development of a draft plan for assignment two. Reference/Source
Publication Type
Brief Synopsis
Application of Course Concepts
Comments relevant to planning the draft review
Gilles-Eric Séralini, Emilie Clair, Robin Mesnage, Steeve Gress, Nicolas Defarge, Manuela Malatesta, Didier Hennequin, Joël Spiroux de Vendômois (2012) Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize. Food and Chemical Toxicology 50. Pg4221-4231 Peer Reviewed Journal

This paper discusses the health effects of roundup tolerant genetically modified maize cultivated with roundup weedkiller on rats over two years.

The lead author on this paper is well known for his stance against genetically modified organisms and has published many papers in the past relating to the same topic. The paper is well referenced but sources many of the lead author’s previous papers, which gives the impression of being prejudiced. It stands alone today as the longest toxicity study of GM NK603 maize and the commercial herbicide it was designed to grow with.

The nature of this article is intended to target an audience of professionals and members of the industry alike. However, due to its controversial conclusions, it has attracted far more attention through the media. The paper claims to have evidence demonstrating that rats fed genetically modified maize cultivated with roundup were twice as more likely to suffer a premature death and 70% more likely in females over a two year period.

Since its release many have claimed it to be solid evidence of the negative effects of ingesting GMO’s, but it has come under equal fire from Monsanto and other scientific academies. They have claimed that flaws exist in the design of the experiment, its statistical analysis, and use of a rat species prone to tumour formation (MacKenzie 2012).

However the same species of rat was used in the Monsanto paper, which Seralini was challenging (Hammond et.al 2004). As the paper had attracted much attention, and there had been no protocols in place for studies of its kind, the European Food Safety Authority released its guidelines which generally validated the paper in question (EFSA 2013).

According to the results, the common time frame of 90 days is an insufficient time frame to thoroughly analyse the toxicity of GM foods as the first signs of tumours occurred between four to seven months into the study. A startling result shown in figure1 shows an increase in mortality rates in males per the concentration of roundup. However not much attention is drawn to this. Confronting photos of these rats clearly in significant pain with tumours equating to 25% of their body mass are then illustrated provoking an emotional response in the reader. Too few rats were also used in the control groups with only 10 of each sex.

This paper will be useful in demonstrating the extent of obvious bias seen across much of the research about GM foods. It was also purposely designed to mimic the methods used in Monsanto’s paper (Hammond et.al 2004). It claims to provide strong contradictory views that can be used in setting the context of the debate.

The flaws present in experimentation and obvious intention of generating publicity can be elaborated in assessing key elements of the controversy. B. Hammond, R. Dudek, J. Lemen, M. Nemeth. (2004) Results of a 13 week safety assurance study with rats fed grain from glyphosate tolerant corn. Food and Chemical Toxicology 42. Pg 1003-1014 Peer Reviewed Journal

All three authors of this paper are associated with Monsanto, who also provided the funding for the paper, making the paper extremely bias and leaving no room for alternate interpretations of findings. As the strain of maize had not been adopted worldwide it can be assumed that the authors were motivated publish data confirming the safety of the product. It thoroughly documents the study’s methodology and references a wide range of literature. A large number of test subjects were used in each group. Rigorous results are shown and are clear and easy to interpret.

The paper claims to have found minimal changes in body weight, haematology and urine chemistry, and therefore deem these results to be insignificant as they fall within an average of ±2 standard deviations of the population of reference controls. A paper co-authored by Searlini analysed data of the paper in question, noticing a significant increase in effects with relation to the dosage of GM feed specifically the group fed a 33% concentration of NK603 Maize. Stating that the differences are of greater concern than suggested by Hammond (Spiroux et.al 2009).

Even though these differences are acknowledged in the papers discussion, thorough interpretation of their possible impacts over an extended period of time are not discussed. As the paper reflects the current standard of evidence used for the approval of GMOs, it can be used to demonstrate the many gaps in knowledge. This will help to reveal how despite having inconclusive results, it is still deemed to be thorough enough to approve GM foods for widespread consumption. This speaks to broader issues regarding insufficient regulatory systems.

It will also be used to specifically compare the findings of Seralini’s paper (Seralini et.al 2005). Judy A. Carman1, Howard R. Vlieger, Larry J. Ver Steeg, Verlyn E.Sneller, Garth W. Robinson, Catherine A. Clinch-Jones, Julie I. Haynes, John W. Edwards. A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and

GM maize diet. Journal of organic systems. Pg38-55
Peer Reviewed Journal
A long-term toxicology study of 168 pigs carried out over 22.7 weeks (being the normal life span of a commercial pig from weaning to slaughter) in order to compare the effects of diets including mixed GM corn and soy and the commercial non-GM counterpart. The lead author has long been associated with anti GMO research and is the director for the Health and Environmental Research institute. The paper was published in the Journal of Organic Systems, a journal funded by the Organic Federation of Australia.

The paper itself was partly funded by the Government of Western Australia, who currently favours GM crops. The second co-author Howard Vlieger is a farmer that promotes organic food production and also provided funding towards the paper. The paper claims to have successfully created a real world experiment by using product acquired from commercial farmers in accordance with the USA piggery practice. It is clearly specified how the feed was prepared and administered but does not specify the exact conditions in which it was grown.

The results of their study are shown to indicate that there was no significant changes in total body weight and death rates were similar with 13% and 14% for the non-GM fed and GM fed groups respectively. But that significant changes in stomach inflammation and uterine weights were apparent and attributed to the difference in diet as other variables were controlled for. However, the study in question has its own shortcomings, and does include significant additional variables that damage the reputation of the paper. For example, the control group’s food source was contaminated with a median of 0.4% GM products in Maize and 1.6% in soy, a problematic technicality in a paper trying to prove negative effects in GM.

It is stated however that similar amounts of GM contamination occurs in non-GM material in the United States but does not reference this claim. Finally the GM feed contained four different varieties of feed increasing the variables and making it impossible to pin point an individual feed as causing harm.

The author is clearly trying to change the current dogma surrounding GMO’s by referring to multiple short term toxicity studies, criticising the test subject species, the way in which feed was administered, variables used to come to their conclusions and time-frame in which the studies were carried out. It is suggested that as the study utilised pigs instead of birds or fish that the data gained is more relevant to human consumption.

The lead author’s strong connection to the Seralini research team and fundamental flaws in experimentation can be emphasised in the context of the debate. Furthermore, as the paper has taken a different approach to setting up parameters, this can easily related to the commercial industry. It can then be concluded that the paper has particular agendas as the general public is a target audience is targeting the public audience and preaching to convert.

Aysun Kılıc, Turan Akay. (2007) A three generation study with genetically modified Bt corn in rats: Biochemical and histopathological investigation. Food and Chemical Toxicology 46. Pg1164-1170 Peer Reviewed Journal

The study was carried out across three generations of female Wistar Albino rats divided into three groups, with the third being fed a diet of BT transgenic corn. The lead author of this paper is an independent researcher from the university of Hacettepe in Turkey. She has published many papers on the subject of toxicity with relation to food additives and GMO’s. The nature of the paper is intended for an academic audience. The authors recognize the controversial nature surrounding the issue. Their results are approached in an entirely unbiased nature by stating they feel a substantiated answer to the safety of GM foods cannot be derived from the available literature.

The paper is thoroughly referenced with a wide range of sources but makes no obvious mention to the source of funding. The paper came to the conclusion that no significant changes in body and organ weights were found, but minimal histopathological differences were noticed in the liver and kidneys as well as creatine, protein and globulin changes in a biochemical analysis. Test subjects were already 11 weeks old before GM feed was administered interfering with results.

The concentration of GM feed was 20% which is shown to have less of a measurable affect as suggested in Seralinis review paper (Spiroux et.al 2009). The paper notes the strain of GM maize used but provides little information for the GM free variety. Instead of utilising their available resources to test multiple variables the study uses two control groups and only one GM fed group.

This paper will provide a contrast to the other 3 papers sited as it holds no bias. Even though it has no pre-determined opinions, it still fails to provide definitive results, and the study itself has various shortcomings. This can again be used to show how a general lack of quality scientific research is a key factor in driving the ongoing debate regarding the safety of GM foods.

Public Attitudes towards biotechnology in Australia. Australian Government, Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research.

Public survey
Results of an Australian survey of public attitudes from 2009-2010 with relation to the biotechnology industry. The paper thoroughly discusses the Australian public’s opinions regarding GMOs, also detailing its various other applications in the biotechnology industry. It concludes that 67% were accepting of GMOs as they realised its potential benefits. However it does show that support of GMOs has in fact decreased slightly since 2007, but that half of those opposed would change their position if long term evidence suggested GM food was safe. A further 45% of the opposed public would reconsider if detailed labelling explained what had been modified and why.

Yet despite the surveys thoroughness in many areas, there are still issues. The survey presents its findings in a way that suggests it is representative of opinions of the whole of Australia, but only 1,086 people were surveyed. There is also very little explanation of the methodologies used to attain the results, nor are any of the exact questions given to the participants provided. As such, there is potential bias as questions can be designed to give a particular response.

Furthermore, it is unclear as to what information about GMOs was provided to the participants, which could influence their opinions. This source will be used to summarise the effect the debate is having on the Australian public. The survey demonstrates that the controversy exists within both the scientific community and the public domain. It also helps to reveal the lack of clear information available for GMOs and how this affects consumers. This will help to confirm how divided opinions are in both the scientific and public arenas.

Literature Review draft outline
Upon researching the topic it became quickly apparent that even though GM technology is well established being utilised in countries over the globe, there is still vast amounts of doubt over its safety and economic value. Long term toxicity papers were the focus of the draft plan as they were the source for the majority of controversy. After inspecting the papers I noticed opinionated research and data analysis as well as a lack of experimental explanation and sly tactics. Section heading

(approx. word
length)
Brief outline of content
Introduction (300)
The introduction will discuss the debate that is currently being waged about the safety of genetically modified crops. This is an issue that has divided scientists and consumers alike; on one hand many advocate for its safety and extensive benefits, while others are troubled by the lack of information regarding its long term health effects.

I will analyse several key studies which have all played a significant role in this debate and have endeavoured to provide studies that both support and refute the safety of GMOs. I will also outline other topics surrounding the controversy, such as the need for government authorities to more closely regulate GMOs, specifically the privatised biotechnology companies who are largely responsible for their production.

From here I will discuss the role Monsanto, an American biotech company, has played in the controversy, including information about Monsanto’s history, and their involvement in research and distribution of GM crops. An integral part of the analysis and discussion will focus on the current lack of reliable scientific data as nearly all research carried out about GMOs is plagued with inaccuracies and conflicts of interest. From a close analysis of all of these sources, it will ultimately be clear how the controversy is being largely fuelled by the lack of reliable scientific data. History of Monsanto (300)

This will elaborate on statements made in the introduction, and continues to assess the history and development of the issue. It will be necessary to discuss Monsanto’s belief that to account for the world’s growing population, new biotechnologies need to be developed. However, the trustworthiness of the company should be called into question given its extensive history that involves the development of such detrimental products as Agent Orange.

Furthermore, there are many instances where previous Monsanto employees have later been employed at various government agencies, such as the FDA, suggesting a possible conflict of interest. It will also be relevant to discuss the range of crops that are being modified, and their prevalence across the world today. What is driving the controversy (500)

This section will form arguments questioning ideas and methodology from the literature that have shaped the issue to date, such as: Conflicting results: Séralini’s paper shows an increase in mortality rates per roundup concentration, while Hammond’s paper disregards these findings as they fall within an average of ±2 standard deviations of the population reference controls. Increased variables due to poor experimentation: Kilic’s paper used 11 week old rats which had been consuming an unspecified feed before the experiment commenced.

Carmen’s paper showed that trace amounts of GM feed had contaminated control groups. Overall this shows how a lack of consensus about studies findings, and problematic data continues to fuel the controversy. This is where I will site the survey conducted by the Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research.

Implications of the
controversy (500)
The ongoing debate surrounding the safety of GM crops has many varied and significant implications, particularly for consumers. Given the quagmire of conflicting evidence, it becomes extremely difficult for consumers to make informed decisions about the products they buy. It is also necessary to discuss how inaccessible much of the available data is for the general public as vast majority of studies released are targeted to other scientists.

These studies consist of extensive graphs and complex tables that are nearly impossible for the everyday person to decipher. This then leads to the public having to upon others to interpret the research, which can be informed by personal bias, creating misinformation and further confusion about the topic. Broad interpretation of the issue/consider other
factors.

(500)
In this section I will broaden the scope and refer to other aspects of the GMO debate. It is important to discuss the widespread environmental effects herbicides used on GMO crops have, especially on bee populations. As an integral part of our ecosystem, a significant decline in bee populations can have disastrous effects across the globe. There have also been various instances where GM crops have been unintentionally cross-contaminated with non GM crops.

This gives rise to a myriad of issues from lawsuits between Monsanto and farmers, and for organic farmers such contamination can mean they are discredited, and many other issues besides. There are also other problems regarding Monsanto’s reluctance to release its scientific data for independent researchers to interpret.

Conclusion (250 to
300 words)
From an analysis inclusive of all significant aspects of the GMO debate, it will be clear that it is the lack of sufficient data and consensus about potential health effects that continue to fuel the controversy. Because there have been no rigorous long term studies conducted about health effects GM foods may have, it is impossible to definitively say one way or the other whether they are safe for us to eat, or not.

This creates a situation where bias and conflict of interest is rife as each side of the debate has the opportunity to continue to argue for their respective beliefs. In a broader social context, this creates much confusion as the everyday consumer has no reliable information to make decisions by, and is thus susceptible to misinformation. Given the prevalence of GM foods and that we consume them over the course of a lifetime, consumers concerns are wholly justified, and until conclusive and unbiased data is released, the debate will continue.

Key Word Search/Database
MonsantoGeoBase
GlyphosateCAB Abstracts
GMO
Roundup
References:
1. Debora MacKenzie. (2012). Study linking GM crops and cancer questioned. Available: http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn22287-study-linking-gm-crops-and-cancer-questioned.html?full=true#.UhQOP94_7IU. Last accessed 25th aug 2012. 2. Aysun Kılıc, Turan Akay. (2007) A three generation study with genetically modified Bt corn in rats: Biochemical and histopathological investigation.

Food and Chemical Toxicology 46. Pg1164-1170 3. B Hammond, R Dudekb, J Lemena, M Nemetha. (2004). Results of a 13 week safety assurance study with rats fed grain from glyphosate tolerant corn. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 45 (1), 1003-1014 4. European Food Safety Authority. (2013). Considerations on the applicability of OECD TG 453 to whole food/feed testing. EFSA Journal. 11 (7), 33-47. 5. Flachowsky G, Chesson A, Aulrich K. (2005).

Animal nutrition with feeds from genetically modified plants. Arch Anim\Nutr 59:1 – 40. 6. Joël Spiroux de Vendômois, François Roullier, Dominique Cellier,Gilles-Eric Séralini. (2009). A Comparison of the Effects of Three GM Corn Varieties on Mammalian Health . International Journal of Environmental Sciences. 5 (7), 706-726. 7. Gilles-Eric Séralini, Emilie Clair, Robin Mesnage, Steeve Gress, Nicolas Defarge, Manuela Malatesta, Didier Hennequin, Joël Spiroux de Vendômois (2012) Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize.

Food and Chemical Toxicology 50. Pg4221-4231 8. Judy A. Carman1, Howard R. Vlieger, Larry J. Ver Steeg, Verlyn E.Sneller, Garth W. Robinson, Catherine A. Clinch-Jones, Julie I. Haynes, John W. Edwards. A long-term toxicology study on pigs fed a combined genetically modified (GM) soy and GM maize diet. Journal of organic systems. Pg38-55 9. IPSOS-Eureka Social Research Institute (2010) Public Attitudes towards Biotechnology Australia, Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research