CU3820 Principles of Assessment in Lifelong learning
1.1: Explain the types of assessment used in lifelong learning.
To ‘Measure (assess) the breadth and depth of learning’ (Geoff Petty 1998) I, as a teacher must ensure that my students will understand the targets and goals set for them. This is achieved by using assessment practises.
‘Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning’ breaks down the structure of assessing and learning thus:
These methods also enable me, as a teacher to measure success within the classroom. To evaluate whether learning is taking place, there are three assessment methods to use.
To assess the learning capabilities of the learner an initial assessment will take place. This will enable me to determine whether there are any learning difficulties that may affect the learning and teaching process. Once any difficulties are found the relevant support can be given to the learner.
This method is used to monitor the learning progress of the learners during the course. It will enable me to provide feedback on their progress and also give the learner the opportunity to give me feedback on my performance. This method can also highlight ant problems that may need o be addressed.
Summative assessments takes place at the end of each course or learning session. It will assess to what extent learning has been achieved and to enable me to re-evaluate my own teaching methods. This will allow verifiers to assign course grades and certification.
1.2 EXPLAIN THE USE OF METHODS OF ASSESSMENT IN LIFELONG LEARNING
To explain how assessments show progress and achievement, it is essential to learn what an assessment is. Assessment for learning is a term used to describe how evidence of student learning is recorded by me the teacher and is used by both students and teachers to decide where a student is within their learning and what they need to do better or to keep to the level that they are working at.
Assessment for learning is a very effective way to put on record that learning and good teaching are being achieved. Assessment for learning is a joint process between student and teacher where both are engaged in an on-going process of student progress and development.
The assessment to use will depend on the subject in my case spanish and any requirements of the organisations involved. Although all teachers should use some initial assessment to identify needs of the learner and to see if they have any previous experience in the language work set to them which in my subject would be spanish.
Assessment methods can be recorded for group or individualls to reflect on the ability of the students. The student or learning group and the activities you select and the learning outcomes might affect your choice of assessment methods in a lesson.
Formative assessment takes place during learning with the purpose of improving learning and involves me as the teacher giving feed back into the learning process to help me as the teacher, to decide whether a student is ready to move on or needs to practice what is being learnt, or has still yet to learn.
It is usually the teacher’s final decision as to whether a student is ready to move on to the next stage of the course. Formative assessment can take a variety of forms; peer and self assessment, verbal and written, questioning and marking.
Summative assessment happens at the end of a course. To measure and talk to the student/groups about what they have learned so far in the lessons. Summative learning is less about informing and improving the learning process but more about measuring the end result; for example end of year exam.
1.3 Compare the strengths and limitations of assessment methods to meet individual learner needs
Student questioning is an effective way for engaging students within the learning process, obtaining existing knowledge of the chosen course and demonstrating, thinking and understanding of the students enables me to informally yet formatively assess their knowledge and the understanding of the progress the student is making with their studying. For example; at the beginning of my micro teach session, which was a De-fragmentation learning exercise, I asked the group if any of them had any previous experiences. This aided me in what level to teach the group. A good ice-breaker can be used as a group activity, as in my micro teach i got the group to exchange questions and answers with the person next to them to get the group engaged. I then dealt with each learner individually by asking them how they were getting on and if they understood the subject. This simple but effective method engaged the group, then I could address the learners individually and provide individual needs for the said learner.
David Miliband stated:
‘We need to do more than engage and empower pupils and parents in the selection of a school: their engagement has to be effective in the day-to-day processes of education, at the heart of the way schools create
partnerships with professional teachers and support staff to deliver tailor-made services, In other words we need to embrace individual empowerment within as well as between schools.’
Milliband,D (2004)’Personalised learning meeting individual learner needs’ Published by The Learning and kills Network
2. Understand ways to involve learners in the assessment process.
2.1. Explain ways to involve the learner in the assessment process.
Carol Boston says ‘Black and William (1998b) define assessment broadly to include all activities that teachers and students undertake to get information that can be used diagnostically to alter teaching and learning. Under this definition, assessment encompasses teacher observation, classroom discussion, and analysis of student work, including homework and tests. Assessments become formative when the information is used to adapt teaching and learning to meet student need.” Where and how do we include students in the formative assessment process? What is the role of technology in this feedback cycle?’
Formative assessment, as I understand it, is an on-going process where both teachers and students evaluate assessment evidence in order to make adjustments to their teaching and learning. Robert Marzano has called it “one of the more powerful weapons in a teacher’s arsenal.”
The formative assessment process can strengthen students’ abilities to assess their own progress, to set and evaluate their own learning goals, and to make adjustments accordingly. Formative assessment can also elicit valuable feedback from students about what teachers are doing effectively and what they could do better.
Student Self-Assessment and Reflection
Activities which promote meta-cognitive thinking and ask students to reflect
on their learning processes are key to the formative assessment process. When students are asked to think about what they have learned and how they have learned it (the learning strategies they’ve used), they are better able to understand their own learning processes and can set new goals for themselves. Students can reflect on their learning in many ways: answering a set of questions, drawing a picture or set of pictures to represent their learning process, talking with a partner, keeping a learning log or journal, etc.
Having students set their own goals and evaluate their progress toward achieving them is an effective part of the formative assessment process. Goal setting has a positive effect on student motivation and learning when the goals are specific and performance based, relatively short-term, and moderately difficult. Goal sheets are an effective way to help students set goals and track their progress. It is best to identify specific goals. For example, “I will read in English for 20 minutes each night” is more specific than “I will read more.” Also, goals need to be achievable in a short period of time and not impossibly difficult. The teacher can model how to set effective goals and also how to evaluate one’s progress toward achieving them by asking students to periodically write or talk about what they have achieved, what they still would like to achieve, and how they will do it.
2.2. Explain the role of peer and self-assessment in the assessment programme
F. Dochy (2006) said ‘The growing demand for lifelong learners and reflective practitioners has stimulated a re-evaluation of the relationship between learning and its assessment, and has influenced to a large extent the development of new assessment forms such as self-, peer, and co-assessment. Three questions are discussed: (1) what are the main findings from research on new assessment forms such as self-, peer and co-assessment; (2) in what way can the results be brought together; and (3) what guidelines for educational practitioners can be derived from this body of knowledge? A review of literature, based on the analysis of 63 studies, suggests that the use of a combination of different new assessment forms encourages students
to become more responsible and reflective. The article concludes with some guidelines for practitioners.’
Principles for using self and peer assessment
1. The purpose for using self and peer assessment should be explicit for staff and students A major reason for using self and peer assessment is for its role in developing students’ skills in improving learning and in helping students to improve their performance on assessed work. Additionally, it has a place as a means of summative assessment.
2. There is no reason why peer and self assessment should not contribute to summative assessment In many such cases such assessment will not contribute a major proportion of the mark until it has been well tried and tested. However, in a well-regulated scheme, there is no reason to limit the proportion of the marks involved. It is particularly important that the principles below are noted.
For any situation in which the mark from peer or self assessment contributes towards the final mark of the module, the member of staff should maintain the right to moderate student-allocated marks. The initial step in alteration of a student-allocated mark may be negotiation with the student(s) concerned.
4. Instances of unfair or inappropriate marking need to be dealt with sensitively Any instances of collusive (‘friendship’) marking need to be dealt with sensitively and firmly.
5. The quality of feedback on student work must be maintained In situations of self and peer assessment, students are usually in a position to learn more than from situations of tutor-marked work. They learn from their engagement in assessing and frequently from oral, in addition to written feedback. However, the tutor should monitor the feedback and, where appropriate, elaborate it to ensure that students receive fair and equal
6. Assessment procedures should always involve use of well-defined, publicly-available assessment criteria While this is true of all assessment, it is particularly true where relatively inexperienced assessors (students) are involved. The assessment criteria may be developed by the tutor, but greater value is gained from the procedure if students are involved in developing the criteria themselves.
7. Involvement of students in assessment needs careful planning Many students see assessment as a job for staff, but at a later stage they are likely to recognise the benefits to their academic learning and skill development. Initial efforts will take time and tutor support. For these reasons, it is preferable that the use of peer and self assessment is seen as a strategy to improve learning and assessment across a whole programme. The common situation is for these assessment procedures to appear in isolated modules, often not at level 1.
8. Self and peer assessment procedures should be subject to particularly careful monitoring and evaluation from the tutor and students’ point of view It can take time for such procedures to run smoothly and for this reason, the initial involvement of relatively few marks – or solely formative assessment is wise. Student feedback to the tutor on the procedure will be important.
9. The use of peer and self assessment should be recognised as skill development in itself Such procedures are not just another means of assessment but represent the development of self-appraisal/evaluative, analytical, critical and reflective skills. These are important as employability skills and can be recognised in the learning outcomes of a module.
Dochy,F (2006) Studies in Higher Education.
Published by Web of Science(2006)
3.1. Explain the need to keep records of assessment of learning. Record keeping is part of the role and responsibility of the tutor and some often these records are required by law or codes of practice in the institution or industry. But there are boundaries and legislation regarding what can be collected and kept and how it can be used. The Data Protection Act 1998 states that records must be kept securely, be relevant and not excessive, accurate and up to date and not kept for longer than necessary. Students can request a copy of all information held about them under The Freedom of Information Act 2000. All important things to bear in mind.
The need for keeping records
I like that you are forced to think about why there are these records, not just what they are or how they work. Why are these records being kept, to what end? • Track progress
• Prove achievement
• Identify issues such as low attendance / learning difficulties • Ensure all sections of course have been completed
It could be that a lot of these are required by your institution. But I’m not sure that’s the best answer: “because I have to”. Take it one step further back and think about why the organisation requires you to keep or submit them. Once you’ve thought about what records you need then it is on to how you collect and categorise that information.
The types of records you would maintain
A lot of this focuses more on the pastoral side, which I think is nice. Make sure you show a variety of types of records, to show you have thought about the full spectrum: • Attendance and assessment
• Everything in between
• Tutorials, one to ones, learning reviews / goals / plans
3.2. Summarize requirements for keeping records of assessment in an organisation.
Recording and Keeping Assessment Results
Most organisations have a process in place for recording the results of assessments, and so does your Registered Training Organisation. It is not uncommon as well for assessors to maintain their own records in case of any follow up or appeals. A generic approach would be:
• Assessor either records or passes on the results for recording • Assessor checks that the result has been accurately recorded • Result provided to learner
There are several reasons why the results need to be kept:
• Feedback to learner
• Legislative requirements
• Record in case of appeal
• Company records for future training needs
Recognition of Prior Learning
Another reason to maintain a record is for the recognition of prior learning and credit transfer processes. If outcomes can be matched by different training organisations detailed records of exactly how competency is assessed simplify the process. It also means, the competency a learner has acquired in one environment may be considered in another, different environment. With records a learner can apply to have prior learning recognised often before commencing a new training program. While it is necessary to keep a record of the actual result, it can be useful to also keep details on how the assessment was made.
Training Records and Confidentiality
Generally speaking, the only way an external person is able to access another
person’s record is with the written permission of the person involved. |Access to records must be restricted for the sake of confidentiality. | | |Generally, managers and supervisors have limited access to personal files, but consider: | | |Who should have access to assessment records? | | |Why would they need the information? | | |What level of detail do they require? | |
Each organisation will have a policy and procedures for access that should comply with ethical and legal obligations. It would be worthwhile checking your store policy and procedures in relation to this area.