Differences Between Meiosis and Mitosis
Mitosis is a word from biology that means cell division. Another word, Meiosis, also comes from biology and means cell division. Cell is the basic unit and building block of all organisms. Cells have to divide because outside of the cell unable to keep up with the inside when the cell grows bigger. Cell division is conducive for the transportation of the food and oxygen to the cell. Although these two words are similar, when compared, the actual processes are totally different in purpose, occurrence, steps, and production. In the daily life of all organisms or living things include the human; both of mitosis and meiosis play important role. Nevertheless, each of them plays a different role. For mitosis, the purpose of it, which is growth and maintenance or keep organism healthy. Conversely, the most important role that meiosis plays is reproduce.
As you know, growth and reproduce are two necessary factors help us to determine a thing is organism or not. In addition, different purpose decides they take place in different sort of cells. Usually, mitosis only occurs within somatic cells or body cells but meiosis take place within gamete cells or sex cells. Here, people can ask a question “What make cell division of a normal cell and a sex cell different. In this case, a new word from genetics will be introduce, which called crossing-over. Crossing-over, this word in genetics means the exchange of chromosome between homolog chromatids during meiosis. It only takes place within meiosis and usual occur before meiosis I. Furthermore, because it mixes chromosomes, it can explain why you have both of your parents’ genes. After crossing-over, chromosomes are truly entering the process of meiosis.
The whole process of meiosis divided two sections- meiosis I and meiosis II. More specifically, meiosis I divided to prophase 1, metaphase 1, anaphase 1, and telophase 1. Meiosis II also includes prophase 2, metaphase 2, anaphase2, and telophase 2. On the other hands, mitosis is easier, which only divide to four phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. During prophase, chromosomes appear. Then, the process of metaphase is chromosomes line up the middle. And anaphase makes sister chromosomes separate. After telophase, two new nuclear membrane form. The last step of normal cell division is cytokinesis. However, it is the cytoplasm divided to half and it was not included by mitosis. After all of these phases, mitosis and meiosis will produce new cells. The difference of the products is mitosis produces 2 diploid (genetically identical) cells but the outcomes of meiosis are 4 haploid (genetically unique) cells. That is why the function of mitosis is growth and the function of meiosis is reproduce.
By comparing, we know mitosis and meiosis are dissimilar sorts of cell division. Especially in their purpose, steps, occurrence, and production. In particular, meiosis occur crossing-over, which is a very specific step of cell division. Therefore，we have every reason to believe that although as words, meiosis and mitosis are similar, as well as the fact they are both essential to the body, they are completely different types of cell division.