- According to Martin (“Pleistocene Overkill”), what disproves the so- called “overkill hypothesis”?
– The loss of small animals, vertebrates, marine life, aquatic organism and plants, is not anywhere substantiated through fossil records; the records do not indicate the loss of organism mentioned above.
2. According to Martin, what is the primary cause of mass extinctions during the Late Pleistocene?
-Extinction is a rapid process that occurs with changing times and climatic conditions as the evolution of new species. This is evidenced by a close examination of fossil records. Partly, this was caused by the prevailing habitant which led to significant extinction of North American horses(Collin & Kay, 1999).
3. According to the Scientific American Frontiers documentary “Coming Into America,” how old are the remains of Arlington Springs Woman?
-In this documentary, the remains are approximately 13,000 years of age.
4. According to the documentary film “Coming Into America,” what is the current accepted theory in archeology regarding the identity of the first Americans?
– A study of “coming to America” opposes the notion and theory of Clovis, this documentary upholds the theory of Arlington spring. It provides more truth and is better substantiated as opposed to Clovis theory
5. According to the documentary film “Coming into America,” why is the Arlington Springs Woman so puzzling to archeologists?
-The reason that made scientist to get puzzled is because they had the notion that as earlier as 50, 000 years ago, there was no way a person could have boats, as means of water transport. This is accurately true of any person, who would reflect on the nature of life that people lived 50,000 years ago.
6. According to the documentary film “Coming Into America,” what prehistoric stone point was lethal against large animals like mammoths, horses, and bison?
– Archeologists found an entirely new form of stone point which they named Clovis. This points were at various points located in other geographical sites. They were always found with nothing deeper. Therefore, archeologists came to perceive that the inventors of these points were the very first to be found in this land. At the current times, Dennis Stanford reveals that making of Clovis involved basic processes to be implemented. It was very efficient in hunting down large animals including mammoths and lions which at that time had very heavy teeth and were not able to effectively chew bones as it is the case today(Chapdelaine , 2012). The points had flakes on all their sides, they had characteristics which had thin bases, thus allowing the end points to be joined into the spear shaft. After the name was struck, the shaft was then removed, leaving that particular point embedded. After this, the hunters would apply another load in order to target their next kill. This proved to be very lethal and efficient in bringing down large animals.
7. According to archeologist Michael Collins (“Coming Into America”), what was the number one game animal of the people who lived at Gault 13,000 years ago?
-It is certain that the people who resided, 13,000 years ago, at Gault, were very active and sophisticated game hunters. They however exploited all the resources at their disposal to ensure that they got food and lived happily. Due to the challenges that they encountered they opted to gather berries and small game animals. Therefore, turtles formed an essential part of their meal. They were normally found at the creek.
8. According to the documentary film “Coming Into America,” which South American site has called into question the “Clovis-first” theory and why?
– Alan learned that there were multiple discoveries which led to the questioning of the theory of Clovis first theory. There was one site called Monte Verde in Chile, which has led to so many controversies for many years. It is believed to be more than a thousand years older than Clovis. At the same time, there was a site in Topper located in South of Carolina. This site also offers powerful evidence as to why Clovis first theory does not suffice. It shows that people resided in Northern, East, and America even before the Clovis people arrived.
9. According to archeologist Steve Holen (“Coming Into America”), what evidence is there that might allow us to push the peopling of America back to 18,000 years?
-Holen Steve of the Museum of Denever believes that he can drive the American people further by even 18,000 years with the help of mammoth bones exposed at five sites in the US. Critics claim that the bones might have been broken by animals, but Steve shows Alan why it’s impossible.
10. According to the documentary film “Coming Into America,” via what Alaskan land bridge is it believed that the Clovis people traveled?
-For many years it’s assumed that Clovis people originated through Alaska using a bridge from Siberia, they traveled through the south because ice sheets were all over larger part of Canada(W2aters et al., 2011). It is this reason that archeologist have tried to locate any signs of the Clovis people in the Alaska.
11. According to archeologist Dennis Stanford (“Coming Into America”), how might the Solutrean people of Europe have traveled to America?
– Dennis believes that fossils jaw that is found in Chesapeake, suggest how Solutreans got their way through to the northen part of America. Around 15,000-20,000 years, ice-loving walrus could have made their way through the northern part of America. Dennis also believes that the solutreans got to Chesapeake bringing with them their boats which stretched across the waters of the ocean.
12. According to Guthrie (“Primitive Man’s Relationship to Nature”), in what ways do primitive cultures differ from modern society?
– The modern man seems so isolated and disconnected from nature, perhaps due to the advances in nature and evolved styles of living (Bradley et al., 2010). This unnatural attitude is a result of the notion that man, the primitive man, lived in total harmony with nature as evidenced by the Indians. Contrary the current man, there is a notion that primitive man more so the American Indian was so much attuned to nature.
13. According to Hutchinson (“The Remaking of the Amerind”), what evidence supports the claim that the notion of Native Americans as “noble savage” in North America is a myth?
– This concept faced a lot challenges and criticism with the reality that the Amerind was not meant to be a romantic symbol. Regardless of the brutal attacks of nearly three centuries, that were marked with ‘settler’ and ‘redskin’, the objective the Noble savage could not completely dissipate.
14. On what bases does Hutchinson reject the claim that the pre-Columbian Amerind did not upset the delicate balance of nature?
-The core reason is that movements of population started with early wanderers of Asia who passed through Bering Strait. The strict and harsh competition for agricultural land and hunting grounds forced some groups of communities to move to different regions. This led to exhaustion of agricultural among other natural commodities. The prevailing climatic conditions especially in the valley of upper Missouri, led to movements. Therefore the pre-Columbians did not offset nature.
Bradley, B. A., Collins, M. B., Hemmings, A., Shoberg, M., & Lohse, J. C. (2010). Clovis technology. Ann Arbor, Mich: International Monographs in Prehistory.
Chapdelaine, C., & Association des archéologues du Québec. (2012). Late Pleistocene archaeology & ecology in the far Northeast. College Station: Texas A & M University Press.
Collins, M. B., & Kay, M. (1999). Clovis blade technology: A comparative study of the Keven Davis Cache, Texas. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Waters, M. R., Pevny, C. D., & Carlson, D. L. (2011). Clovis lithic technology: Investigation of a stratified workshop at the Gault Site, Texas. College Station: Texas A & M University Press.