Advantages and Disadvantages of the HPV Vaccine in Adolescent Girls: An Ethical

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a bunch of more than 40 kinds of viruses that infect the genital areas, throats (recurrent respiratory papillomatosis), and mouths of men and women and is the primary most typical sexually transmitted illness (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2009). It is spread by genital contact. It is most simply spread by vaginal and anal sex, but also by way of oral intercourse and even simply genital-to-genital (skin-to-skin). In 90% of people that contract HPV, their own immune system clears it up within two years, most by no means even developing any signs from it (CDC, 2009).

Out of the many kinds of HPV sorts, most find yourself inflicting warts on one of many above-mentioned areas, whereas a sure few are known to cause cervical cancer. Lockwood-Rayermann & McIntyre (2009) state that “[t]he most common oncogenic/high-risk virus sorts worldwide and in the United States are Types sixteen, 18, 31, 45, and fifty two; 11% of invasive cervical cancers within the United States are caused by Types 16 and 18 (55% by Type sixteen and 22% by sort 18).

HPV Types 31, 45, and fifty two comprise another 8% of all instances.” Cervical most cancers is often not detected till it’s fairly superior, which is why girls ought to get screened for cervical cancer frequently. There is also another precaution girls can take. The Food and Drug Administration accredited the very first vaccine to prevent cervical most cancers by the kinds of HPV that cause it in June of 2006 (Thomas, 2008). This vaccine, being new, and therein little is known about its long term results, has brought on ethical debates about the use of it, significantly in adolescent women.

Thomas (2008) mentions that the CDC beneficial, by a unanimous vote, that ladies aged 11 to 12 years old receive this new HPV vaccine. This may seem young, but in order for the vaccine to be effective, it have to be administered before a person has been uncovered to HPV, which occurs throughout sexual encounters. Since few ladies are sexually energetic at this age, most of whom haven’t gone through puberty yet, this is an ideal age to have them be vaccinated (Thomas, 2008). Thomas (2008) also goes on to say that this vaccine has been administered to eleven,000 ladies all over the world with no severe unwanted effects. Their ages ranged from 9 to 26 years old.

This vaccine is given by a collection of three shots over the course of six months and it’s necessary that they get all three to be effective, since little is known in regards to the effectiveness of folks that only obtain one or two (2008). But is it moral for a lady as younger as 9 years old to be receiving such an invasive process in order to avoid a sexually transmitted disease? After all, what nine year old is even thinking about intercourse and STDs? That is why this issue is one that’s left for the dad and mom to determine, and opinions are unsurprisingly blended.

One of the main arguments towards vaccinating younger girls with the HPV vaccine is value. Thomas (2008) lists the total price of this vaccine, for all three photographs, as around three hundred dollars, comparatively inexpensive considering the detrimental consequences of contracting one of the sorts which might be known to trigger most cancers. There is another problem to think about, although, when accounting for the worth of this vaccination; the effects for protection are solely estimated to be 4 or five years (2008). If a young woman had been to be vaccinated at 9 years old, and again at ages twelve, sixteen, and twenty, you are looking at close to 1 thousand dollars in whole.

How are dad and mom with poor health insurance protection or none in any respect supposed to protect their daughters for this virus that may trigger cervical cancer? A father or mother can even anticipate shedding a day’s pay to take their baby to the doctor’s office or the clinic on three totally different events to obtain all three pictures. Because of the fee, and the limited duration of effectiveness, a lot of girls determine not to get vaccinated and not to vaccinate their daughters, hoping that a better, longer lasting, and less expensive alternative will “arrive on the pharmaceutical market” at some point in the near future (2008).

Another well-liked argument against HPV vaccination is that some parents view it as a green mild for his or her daughters to behave promiscuously (Thomas, 2008). Much like condom distribution at excessive faculties, there are those that view HPV vaccination as another method to promote, and trigger a rise in irresponsible sexual habits (2008). Thomas (2008) goes on to explain a conservative political group called the Traditional Values Coalition and how they’ve publicly denounced the HPV vaccine and claim that genital warts, cervical most cancers, etc. usually are not a national well being concern, and “that HPV could be prevented by way of abstinence and marital constancy.” This group attributes “monetary gain” by pharmaceutical corporations as a motive for the mandate for HPV vaccination.

Like most each moral or moral dilemma happening in this nation, this issue rests within the parents’ religious and personal beliefs. Studies have proven that despite abstinence applications, youngsters nonetheless have interaction in intercourse, proving that something as insignificant as a vaccine isn’t going to encourage kids to have sex—they are having it anyway. Thomas (2008) cited a examine that confirmed that 90% of teenagers are using condoms once they engage in sexual activity, however condoms alone can not protect you from HPV, making the vaccine all that more necessary for younger ladies to receive. If a dad and mom can’t put aside their spiritual and private beliefs lengthy sufficient to acknowledge that this vaccine has the potential to keep away from wasting their daughter’s life, then they might require a lot more than simply schooling.

Each year 6.2 million new instances of HPV come about and currently, 20 million people in this country are infected with HPV. The vaccine that is obtainable has the potential to avoid wasting 70% of the individuals it would in any other case infect from cervical most cancers in younger girls (Thomas, 2008). “In 2008, an estimated 11,070 girls within the United States will be identified with cervical most cancers, and three, 870 women will die from the disease” (Lockwood-Raverrmann &McIntyre, 2009). Lockwood-Raverrmann & McIntyre (2009) go on to elucidate that the prevalence of HPV in peaks in ladies in their early twenties, and also go on to say that even youthful ladies, i.e. teenagers, are extra vulnerable to the virus. They describe one attainable clarification for it’s because in younger women, it “could be the altering histology of the cervix following the graduation of puberty.” They go to say that “during this period of time, large populations of cells are undergoing maturation and are more susceptible to the event of an HPV infection” (2009).

With all of this statistical knowledge, it is confusing to assume that some little girl’s parent’s are prepared to deprive her of a vaccine that could potentially save her life should the chance come up and she or he chooses to have intercourse. Again, stated girl wouldn’t even have to have vaginal intercourse to contract Type 16 HPV, which might years later cause cervical most cancers by which she might fairly realistically die from. It is a frustrating and infuriating thought—that this girl may die because of her parent’s ignorance and/or their undyin

Adolescent being pregnant and responsibility

At the identical time, adolescent moms usually are not necessarily the best fit for what could be thought of the best motherly figure in a child’s life. It is what many call “a child raising a baby”. There are moms who have been impregnated on the age of as young as just five years old. Though, the average age of adolescent being pregnant is typically in the course of the mid to late teen years; 81% of which are unintended. While the usual timeline of a person’s life is presented in the order of school, marriage, then kids.

In the circumstances of adolescent mothers, their timelines are altered. During this time, the adolescent mothers could discover difficulty in attempting to support and stability the three elementary roles: parenthood, partnerhood, and work and/or faculty. As stated, “first time parenthood is a turning level, a “normal crisis” involving opportunities in addition to challenges” (Musick 146). Due to the younger age of adolescent moms, there are particular limitations to the sort of parent that can be current.

The mother will proceed to have struggles as time passes on.

One of those difficulties consist of affording the value of a child. According to The Phi Delta Kappan, “The National Research Council counsel that it prices $18,one hundred thirty a year to assist a 15-year old and her baby” (789). At this particular time interval of the adolescent’s life, the everyday focus ought to be school. Instead, these adolescent moms are scattering to try to handle a sustainable life-style that is nicely enough to raise her child.

Seeking a job itself is already onerous, but looking for a job for a minor is even more durable. Although quite a few amounts of firms hire teenagers ranging from the common age of 16, the average quantity of hours and wage given is way from the amount wanted to lift a child. For teenagers who usually are not of age to legally work, it’s even tougher to maintain up a financially steady household for her child. Thus, many relying on their family/the baby’s father and the government for assist. The two commonest forms of monetary assist for pregnant teens are Medicare, which helps cover well being care prices, and Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) which helps cowl nutritional wants.

There are teenagers who are able to obtain a job, but that additionally leads to the lack to keep up with the obligations of the three fundamental roles, normally forcing a choice between work or faculty. Even when found pregnant, the “adolescent should be allowed to attend a public faculty and take part in extracurricular actions and be treating with the same qualities as some other student” (US Department of Education). It is unlawful for any scholar to be kicked out of faculty or pressured to go to a different college simply based of the reality that they are pregnant. Also, through the pregnancy, any time that is missed as a outcome of pregnancy could be later excused with the assistance of a doctor’s notice. However, there are numerous conditions the place adolescent mothers are bashed and discriminated in opposition to at college, frightening the need to drop out of faculty. An alternative faculty is essentially the most perfect option that many adolescent mothers are probably to lean towards. An different college has the same qualities as a traditional public school, but the offer schedule and learning flexibility, help and variety; most helpful for its versatile schedule. Even with these choices, it’s difficult for adolescent mothers to proceed and pursue their schooling, leading to adolescent moms who wind up as dropouts, unenrolled from any faculty. As many as “40% of women who drop out of school do so due to pregnancy or marriage”, usually never going again to high school sooner or later (Teen Pregnancy 789). Along with the reality that “only about 50% of teenage moms receive a high school diploma by 22 years of age, whereas roughly 90% of women who don’t give birth during adolescence graduate from excessive school” (About Teen Pregnancy). Pregnancy is a big contributor to high school dropout rates amongst teenagers, inflicting adolescent moms to have to surrender their education to support and care for his or her youngster. As a result, the lost of studying time also delays the time of the adolescent mother getting a successful job or even getting one if attainable in the future. Thus, inflicting the adolescent moms to lose their focus and time to search out their very own goals and aspirations in life, steering off of the usual timeline.

After an unprotected intercourse, and the looks of the 2 strains, there’s only three choices possible: To hold the child, have an abortion, or put the infant up for adoption. Especially, for adolescent mothers that have unintended pregnancies, the choice of maintaining the infant is tough. Particularly if their mother and father have yet to have an acknowledgement of the pregnancy. The choice is made based on the sentiments of the teenager, the baby’s father, and the kids parents. Usually the selection of abortion is a results of pressuring from parents and/or their sexual associate. About half of all unintended pregnancy inhabitants are ended with abortion.

Many teens know well upfront that their mother and father or boyfriends will help just one selection: abortion. But teens who conceal their pregnancies are by no means actually protected from the strain to abort. Since abortion is legal during all nine months of being pregnant, it’s by no means too late for folks or others to start pressuring a lady into an abortion as soon as her being pregnant is discovered or revealed.

In a lot of these sorts of cases, the mother and father actually consider that they are serving to their daughter’s future. They have no idea that they are subjecting her to a bodily and psychological trauma that will scar her life. Also, the value of an abortion is terribly excessive Although teenagers beneath the age of 18 are required to have parental consent to have an abortion, teenagers can nonetheless discover a way to have it done illegally. For occasion, “16-year-old Erica Richardson of Maryland and 13-year-old Dawn Ravanell of New York died from complications after they’d abortions without telling their parents”, the teenage girls were in fear of the obligations and penalties (Brown).

Based on that reasoning, the young teenager can potentially purchase psychological risks. Research studies present that “teenage abortion has been linked to physical and psychological problems, together with drug and alcohol abuse, suicide makes an attempt, and suicidal ideation, and different self-destructive behaviors” (Amaro). The abortion process seems to be annoying to the adolescent mother ensuing in the emotions of guilt, depression, and a sense of isolation. There can additionally be indicators of greater levels of worry and anxiety for the extreme ache prior and through the abortion course of.

What people don’t realize is that there are numerous bad results of an abortion. “Every year, hundreds of thousands of ladies around the globe decide to finish a being pregnant by way of abortion . . . 16.5 per one thousand girls aged 15-44 years”, up to twice as likely to expertise cervical lacerations during abortion compared to older ladies (BMJ). Teenage women are susceptible to doubtlessly having a infection of the womb, a number of the pregnancy remaining in the womb, excessive bleeding, scar tissue on the uterine wall, and and so on. When discovering out of teen pregnancies, mainly the surprising ones, the teenager will abort the baby. An abortion would eliminate the duties of being a mother at such a younger age, and the liberty of being a young person once more would remain.

There are also families who know the adverse aspects of getting an abortion and permit the adolescent mom to offer start and hold the child to raise, however are ashamed of it. Families assume that their pregnant adolescent daughters are a disgrace. Becoming pregnant at a younger age than what people anticipate is what makes others look down upon adolescent mothers. As within the book Another Brooklyn, by Jacqueline Woodson, there’s a identified place that teenage women are sent by their parents once they discover out of their pregnancy. Everyone within the Brooklyn metropolis knew that “Down South. Everyone had one [baby] . . . the specter of a spot we could end again up in to be raised by a crusted-over single auntie or strict grandma”, it was full of teenagers with bellies out in entrance of them (126). At the time of the story, it was such a common thing to become an adolescent mother, particularly in that space of New York. Still, it was true, it was shocking and a disgrace. Teenage ladies have been afraid to go to down south, to Puerto Rico, Jamaica, or Dominican Republic as a outcome of they knew that once you go, there is no coming again. The crusted-over single auntie or strict grandma is there to show and assist the adolescent mom from making different dangerous choices, proscribing their freedom. They make it hard on the moms to guarantee that they study from their errors and hope to make the most effective out of it, and to become a good mom.

The last choice is to carry the baby till it is full term and to put it up for adoption. If the mother is unable to offer for the kid, the termination of the pregnancy whereas the infant is a fetus isn’t mandatory. While the choice of carrying the child full term is most popular quite than having an abortion, there are negative unwanted facet effects that can happen. Children who are born to adolescent moms are most likely to expertise a wider range of issues compared to infants of older ladies. They are extra probably to have a “higher threat for low start weight, toddler mortality, behavioral problems and continual medical conditions, decrease ranges of emotional help, and are discovered to be much less ready and have fewer abilities after they enter kindergarten” (Adverse Effects). These conditions may be steady throughout the baby’s life, changing into a burden, requiring additional care and probably additional costs sooner or later.

Sex education may not be a usually comfortable talk among kids and parents, but it’s still crucial. “Overall, in 2011-2013, 43% of adolescent females and 57% of adolescent males didn’t receive information about birth control before that they had sex for the primary time” (Planned Parenthood). Consequently, is why being pregnant preventions are important and are required to be bolstered to excessive schoolers within the United States. Schools are requiring college students to take the Sex Education course that typically covers the sixteen matters beneficial by The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Topics of which vary from fundamental information on how “Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are transmitted – and tips on how to forestall infection – to crucial communication and decision-making skills” (Planned Parenthood).

There are many different sort of ways to prevent pregnancies, 18 contraception strategies to be actual. Some more effective than others. For the time being, the commonest being pregnant prevention methodology used is birth control tablets, which is 91% effective and should be taken daily. The birth control pill is a approach to management and regulate durations. General benefits of the pill is the reducement of menstrual cramps, a lighter interval, and the risk of an ectopic being pregnant. Birth management tablets additionally help prevent and cut back iron deficiency, bone thinning, endometrial and ovarian cancers, and and so forth. Most importantly pill works as a end result of the hormones within the capsule will stop ovulation. WIthout ovulation, that signifies that there is no egg for the sperm to fertilize.

The most accessible type of contraception to individuals of all ages is a condom. In addition to the worth of the bins being inexpensive, they are offered in plenty of different shops, like gas stations and nook shops, and can additionally be found free from many health facilities. A condom is a thin, stretchy pouch manufactured from later, plastic, or lambskin that can be worn to cowl the penis throughout intercourse. Condoms gather semen, which prevents it from stepping into the vagina, preventing fertilization. The protection of the penis prevents “contact with semen and vaginal fluids, and limits skin-to-skin contact” (Planned Parenthood). Not to say, a condom is the one kind of contraception that may help stop in opposition to STDs.

“Whether this campaign for girls beneath the age of 20 to not have kids is expressed in the type of abstinence from sex or when it comes to public obligation to use birth control, such women have clearly been concentrating on for strain to haven’t any children” (Burdell 163). This is a sign of acknowledgment that unplanned pregnancies are realistic issues in society right now. These forms of campaigns are used to deliver notice and knowledge to individuals to indicate that there are numerous completely different effective methods of stopping being pregnant.

The reply to adolescent being pregnant is not to humiliate teenagers for his or her scenario that they created, but to provide them information to prevent being pregnant. The major cause that the adolescent being pregnant share has dropped just isn’t as a end result of there are fewer teenagers that are having sex, however as a substitute, because of the upper percentage of contraceptive use and the added information of sexual education. People usually inform adolescent mothers that they’re ruining their very own lives, and that they will by no means create a successful live for themselves and their kids. Unlike older mothers, not solely are adolescent moms met with shame when saying that she is pregnant, they are met with little to no assist. Adolescent moms must be handled the same as any older mom. Yes, changing into pregnant may not have been one of the best decision, but they are proudly owning up to what they’ve accomplished. They are taking duty and making what they think is the most effective decision.

Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting

The numbers of teenage pregnancy have decreased in the United States, but this is not the case for everybody. Being a mother in itself represents hormonal imbalances, that contribute to temper swings, melancholy in addition to the exhaustion of the primary weeks of turning into a new mother. The pleasure of having a baby does not prevent any of the hormonal adjustments or postpartum depression typically times skilled by new moms. The psychological impression of being an adolescent mother can affect the means ahead for kids of teenage dad and mom.

High ranges of parenting stress and a scarcity of social support are associated with unfavorable psychological health standing for ethnic minority adolescent moms, which in turn negatively impacts the development of their children. It is important to discover unique risks and protecting components related to positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents to ensure healthy development for his or her children.

According to Mollborn and Morningstar, 2009, teenage childbearing has been a public health and social downside in America for the rationale that 1970s and has been some extent of concern for the healthcare sector thus far.

Among all industrialized international locations on the earth, United States has continually had the highest rate of teenage delivery with an estimation of 27 of 1000 ladies experiencing teen start aged 15 to 19 years (Mollborn & Morningstar, 2009). Teen start charges are larger amongst adolescents who come from poor backgrounds and likewise greater amongst Black and Hispanic youngsters than White teenagers. Stephanie and Elizabeth highlight that research has been accomplished on the social and economic penalties of teenage parenthood as properly as the mental well being status of teenage moms.

Longitudinal surveys have been carried out by the U.S National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and Early Childhood Birth and have been helpful in accessing and understanding psychological misery brought about by teen delivery.

According to Whitworth article, 2017, longitudinal surveys reveals that adolescent moms have high despair levels compared to their teenage peers and grownup moms who seemed to have been distressed even before getting pregnant. Therefore, childbearing wouldn’t have been the core cause behind their despair since their melancholy ranges have been larger than that of their peers even earlier than pregnancy and seems to intensify after being pregnant. Ideally, psychologically distressed teenage women face more threat of experiencing teen birth compared to their peers who aren’t distressed thus having conversations with youngsters about responsible behaviors and their sexuality helps prevent teen pregnancies (Whitworth, 2017). Since most teen moms come from financial unstable households, teenage childbearing appears to be an adaptive mechanism to cope up with hostile surroundings. From an evolutionary perspective, the optimal reproductive strategy is early copy that maximizes probabilities of leaving descendants in unsure and dangerous environments.

More so, attitudes by adolescents during pregnancy through psychological mechanisms form the consequences of depression after childbirth (Whitworth, 2017). The anticipated capacity to socially and economically present and care for a child decided the depressive symptoms during teen being pregnant thus the incapability to have sufficient sources results to break in psychological well being. Ultimately, adolescent childbearing outcomes to grownup despair as it makes desired instructional attainment and anticipated income unattainable due to unplanned for duties. Therefore, for higher mental health adjustment to surprising life occasions, people need the best attitudes and less depression outcomes to attainment of desired social and financial standing and drives away psychological well being and physical issues.

Fletcher, 2012, argues that adolescent motherhood affects the mothers’ brief and long-term health conditions in addition to their financial and academic capabilities since adolescent motherhood has been linked to lower revenue and low academic attainments. Teenage motherhood reduces the opportunities mothers have of their lives whereas growing their limitations and alter of priorities making them indulge in behaviors that might be dangerous. Tobacco consumption is certainly one of the coping mechanisms by the moms to scale back misery during parenting and so they extra probably become overweight and are less more doubtless to stop smoking. Moreover, teenage parenthood impacts moms of their relationships and marriages since they end up with low high quality choices in companions (Fletcher, 2012). Miscarriages in teen pregnancies are frequent since they may be on account of trauma caused by high melancholy ranges whereas 25% of adolescent pregnancies end in abortion, 16% end in miscarriages and 298 in a thousand of adolescent pregnancies turn out to be stay births.

According to Dowd, 2018, hyperthermia has been the trigger of averagely 38 youngsters in the United States yearly after being left in automobiles. The instances appear to have continuously increased after the National Highway Transportation Service Administration (NHTSA) indicated that the safest locations for youngsters had been in the backseats. Due to children’s immature bodily developments, they get prone to buying heat injuries and sicknesses (Dowd, 2018). Motor vehicles have greenhouse properties in hot conditions thus they get to lure heat in chilly temperatures which ultimately alters the compartment heating strategy of a automobile. Dowd, 2018, means that via instructional packages which create awareness on vehicular hyperthermia risks the frequent baby deaths might be prevented. Emphasis is created on by no means leaving children in motor vehicles alone as well as looking before locking automobiles which might help in stopping automobile interiors getting accessed by youngsters who could get trapped inside.

According to Grundstein, Dowd and Meentemeyer (2010), leaving children unattended to in motor automobiles could be risky because it may result to vehicle-related hyperthermia deaths. Since more than 2000 youngsters die every year out of unintentional deaths consciousness on vehicular hyperthermia could stop a few of the deaths since a small percentage of the dying are caused by vehicle-related hyperthermia. In addition, 75% of the recorded deaths occur through the months of summer and 70% of the deaths happened when temperatures outdoors have been more than 31 degrees (Grundstein, Dowd, & Meentemeyer, 2010). Regardless, warnings and educational packages are useful in creation of consciousness on risks related to warmth sicknesses. Therefore, through the use vehicle temperatures table, guardians can know when it might be hazardous to go away kids in vehicles thus stopping such deaths.

Further evidence indicates the connection between adolescent parenting and unintended death of kids. In a study utilizing linked start and death data from North Carolina and Washington State for 1968 via 1980. Wicklund et al. (1984) found a strong inverse relationship between maternal age and mortality rates from accidents for children underneath one, net of parity and academic level of mom (a proxy for SES). In the article, “The kids of teenage childbearers”, Hofferth states, “The actual mortality price from accidents in the course of the first 12 months of life is actually quite low—in 1980 in North Carolina about three out of 10,000 stay births died from accidents within the first year in Washington state the rate was 1.forty seven per 10,000 live births”. They differ in race, age of the mom, and stage of training.

Children of mothers underneath 20 who had 9 or more years of schooling have been considerably more likely to die from accidents in the first 12 months of life than youngsters of moms 20 and over with the identical amount of education. Among kids of mothers with very low levels of education, these with mothers 24 and youthful had been more likely to die than those with moms 25 and older. Education was additionally strongly inversely related to infant mortality from accidents and parity was immediately associated. That is, mortality charges have been decrease for children with a more educated mom and one with fewer children. Black kids had nearly twice the speed of deaths from accidents in the first year as white children. The main causes of accidental deaths in North Carolina have been suffocation by inhalation and/or ingestion of food, and suffocation by mechanical means, transport accidents coming third.

In phrases of unintentional deaths, the correlation seems to be training degree somewhat than the age of the mom, parental care is essential for the protection of youngsters; which appears to be much less trustworthy in households by which the mother is younger, black, less well-educated and has extra children. Preparation for parenting, contains data and attitudes about children’s improvement, it is effects had been also partially mediated by the mother’s psychological predisposition for aggressive coping. Similarly, the consequences of child temperament on abuse potential have been mediated by the mother’s psychological predisposition for aggressive coping. Implications for designing intervention programs, and figuring out at-risk adolescents. These psychological and hormonal modifications can definitely affect the state of mind of a young mom causing their worst nightmare, unintentional death of a child. The ‘forgotten child syndrome”, whereas this will seem unthinkable to overlook your child for a quantity of hours without realizing the kid is missing. Young mothers are at increased danger for mistreating their kids. 1–5 An ideal technique for protecting kids from maltreatment can be early identification of younger women who could also be in danger for perpetrating abusive or neglectful habits so that these issues may be addressed before they begin raising youngsters.

Child and adolescent health

The two most essential components influencing adolescent’s developments are psychological and environmental factors. As they grow, they are influenced by environmental elements similar to faith, tradition, Schools and faith. The psychological factors that influence their growth contains cognitive and emotional components (Hall & Braverman, 2014).

In the western society, what is missing that would profit well being promotion for the adolescents is a centered consideration on the diseases most adolescents expertise, and the danger components with their root causes. Moreover, another lacking factor in the western society is emphasis on prevention since largely they think about curing or treatment than prevention, yet prevention is value effective (Merrick, 2014).

The well being issues confronted by the adolescents impact their health and wellness in several methods in their lifetime. An adolescent who makes use of tobacco, has unhealthy consuming behavior, uses alcohol and different drugs, has inadequate exercise or engages in sexual behaviors that may outcome to sexually transmitted infections’ and undesirable pregnancy could negatively impression their lives (Hall & Braverman, 2014). Some of the consequences of the well being issues faced by the adolescents which may impression their well being and wellness embrace lung cancer, obesity or underweight, high blood pressure, and even contracting the incurable HIV virus or being early mothers.

There are a quantity of areas that must be addressed when taking sexual historical past of adolescents. According to Hal & Braverman, (2014), “5 Ps” are used as a general information for taking the sexual historical past of adolescents.

Partners- questions ought to ask the intercourse, quantity and concurrency, sex partners of the adolescents

Practices-the nurse should discover sexual exercise sorts that the adolescent pained engages in corresponding to oral, anal and anal sex

Protection- the questions should ask about the teenager’s use condoms and the circumstances making it easier or tougher to make use of he condoms

Past historical past of STD-the nurse ought to ask in regards to the STD historical past of the teenager.

These contains whether the kids has ever contracted the STDs in Pregnancy.

Prevention-lastly, the nurse ought to ask the teenager whether they want to be pregnant and talk about the future and current contraceptives (Hall & Braverman, 2014).

In conclusion, psychological and environmental elements are the 2 most important factors that influence adolescent’s developments. Focused attention on the illnesses skilled by the adolescents and emphasis on prevention is missing within the western society. Moreover, there are a number of well being problems adolescents face that influence their well being and wellness in several methods in their lifetime. Lastly, when taking sexual history, one need to consider the partners, apply, and safety, past history of STD and prevention.

References

Hall, C., & Braverman, P. K. (2014). Hot topics in adolescent health. man, P. K. (2014). Hot matters in adolescent health.

Merrick, J. (2014). Child and adolescent health yearbook 2013.

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Adolescent Sexuality in Teens

Adolescent sexuality and the ensuing consequences have always been a concern to many societies throughout quite a few generations. Teenage being pregnant, teenage parenthood and teenage infections with sexually transmitted illnesses brings with it unique burdens not solely to the adolescent affected, but in addition the society as a whole.

In North America, every year more than 45000 youngsters aged 19 and under become pregnant (Martin, Park, & Sutton, 2002). These charges have dropped in comparison with their latest peak in 1990, with the decline mentioned to be a outcome increased use of contraceptives amongst the youth.

Nevertheless, these adolescent pregnancy charges range from about 50 p.c to 550 % more than the rates in other European societies (Darroch, Singh, & Frost, 2001). Every year 1 in each four sexually experienced teens (3 million teens) contract sexually transmitted disease and the teen pregnancy end in over 2 hundred thousand abortions every year. For those that carry their being pregnant to time period, Eighty-three percent occur out of wedlock. Even in controlled studies adolescent mothers have been found to have decrease training attainment ranges.

The most annoying factor, however, is the proof that the burden of adolescent parenthood accrues the best impact to members of the subsequent technology. Problems normally begin at birth: Documented evidence have shown that pregnant adolescents danger giving birth weight baby and these kids of adolescent mothers usually have a tendency to exhibit poor cognitive functioning and college adjustment than kids born to older moms. In adolescents, researchers have found huge delinquency, failure and threat for early parenthood amongst children of adolescent moms.

Teen Sexuality and Pregnancy Prevention amongst Adolescents

              If sexuality is a lightning rod in the neighborhood, then adolescent sexuality reflects that point the place the charges are highest and most unstable.

There is pressure inside societies around the which means of adolescent sexuality both as a marker or moral decay or as a traditional, wholesome and natural growth process. The culture revolving around adolescent sexuality has relied heavily on sex education as a preventive measure. There are two opposing line of concept that had been developed earlier. One perspective acknowledged that on a simple empirical foundation, a sizeable percentage of adolescents turn out to be sexually energetic earlier than reaching 18 years. It further states that educating them about the nature of sexual and its consequences can be some of the efficient means of curbing teenage pregnancies. In this attitude, teenage being pregnant is best prevented by accepting a job for teenage sexual activity as wholesome, however actually requiring direct and open discussions, accompanied by moral prescriptions.

The different view posits that any educative activity that was based mostly on the idea that adolescents may become sexually active as teens cannot assist however implicitly help such behavior. Thus, “ explicit” intercourse schooling that includes educating in topics similar to birth control would result in an increase in the view of adolescents on sexual exercise as a viable possibility. Even though, express intercourse education programs may not essentially encourage such behaviors, they have been perceived as at least providing a “nod” suggesting that it’s expected. Explicit intercourse training was see at worst as suggesting that sexual activity is a normative conduct to naïve teenagers who would have in any other case not considered it. At a minimal, academic packages have been seen as lowering the teenager’s sense that sexual exercise is universally seen by adults as inappropriate earlier than marriage or maturity. In either case, packages like these had been seen as more doubtless to improve the levels of teenage sexual activity, with a very probably chance that these will increase would lead to higher rates of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancies as nicely.

Prevention Programs that work- Common elements

              There has been one strategy to sexual education schemes that have been effective. It combines academic materials with a notable quantity of abilities that revolve around assertive and sexual behaviors. For example, ability primarily based prevention measures towards HIV have been applied in Colorado faculties and has been shown to result in contribute to growing using condoms cut back number of multiple sexual companions. Similarly, a profitable HIV prevention examine during which the training program used included coaching in social skills was compared to schooling solely strategy, and located the latter clearly superior.

Research has also shown that combining of information-based applications with other development oriented programs did significantly better than interventions that centered on information alone in decreasing irresponsible sexual behavior and teenage being pregnant charges. Interventions that seek to develop expertise in self-efficacy along with the provision of knowledge did much better than applications that present info alone. Programs that educate about protected sex, while putting lots of emphasis on responsibility and delight in determination making additionally seem to do better than packages that solely teach safer sex behaviors (Jemmott & Fong, 1998). Finally, applications that narrowly focus on abstinence solely are but to yield any findings. The interpretation of these findings is that emotional and social growth elements of those prevention programs operate as catalysts that help leverage the impact of abstinence or education-based approaches.

The thought of stopping adolescent pregnancies, repeat pregnancies, or failures in parenting, by specializing in one thing else other than sexual behavior may at first seem to be avoidant, foolish or hopelessly indirect. However, on a better look of analysis done on adolescent sexual habits show that this approach could yield significantly better results than packages that focus solely on sexual behaviors. It has lengthy been recognized that irresponsible sexual exercise tends to not happen in isolation, to occur along with higher levels of substance abuse. This strategy states that it makes less sense to view a single behavioral drawback in isolation; somewhat, the issue ought to be seen as a half of a unified syndrome that has an underlying danger manifesting itself in many alternative varieties (Bell, 1986). This method is believed to use to patterns of delinquent behavior even in adulthood and starts to shed some gentle into the analysis findings discussed above.

The impact of programmatic interventions on behaviors similar to adolescent sexuality, start to be more plausible if we understand teenage sexual behavior as reflecting underlying issues which may lead to the emergence of a host of other problematic behaviors. In brief, seeing an adolescent as a “whole person” may be elementary in solving the issue.

A lot may be learned from this applications and analysis that handle teenage sexual behavior. The first is that adolescent pregnancy prevention is possible byways that may seem to be very oblique routes. A lot of evidence has emerged showing that by helping youngsters to achieve instructional success and be in control of their fertility, we are stopping teenage being pregnant within the coming era. The most necessary implication is that currently there are a quantity of tools that can be utilized to forestall unfavorable consequence of teenager’s sexual behavior.

It may make little sense to think that giving in depth intercourse training will decrease teenage being pregnant charges; it appears equally not viable that specializing in abstinence without wanting at the broader aspects of social development will have an effect. Long-term interventions might help by serving to the youth to have the next sense of connection to the larger community, for instance, by growing their sense of self-efficacy, assertiveness, their impulse control and their hope about the future. Teens who are craving for a sense of connection and intimacy usually have a tendency to have interaction in sexual conduct for which they don’t appear to be prepared for (Allen, 2002). The use of the nutritional mannequin may be notably acceptable here as these teenagers could additionally be starving for a spot inside the social world and a way of connection to the broader society.

In brief, once we focus on the event of an adolescent as a complete individual could exactly goal these behaviors and developmental elements which are instantly related to preventing dangerous sexual conduct and its consequences. These applications are likely to build the capability of youth and might tremendously increase their motivation and talent at avoiding dangerous sexual conduct (Kirby & Coyle, 1997) even when they will not be addressing sexual behavior immediately. By giving the youth opportunity to talk about their feelings, pursuits and concerns about sexuality, in addition to apply negotiation and choice making abilities, we shall be enabling them to develop their ethical framework about sexuality.

References

Allen, J. P. (2002). Observed Autonomy And Connection With Parents And Peers As Predictors Of Early Adolescent Sexual Adaptation. Paper presented on the Biennial Meetings of the Society for Research in Adolescence, New Orleans, LA.

Bell, R. Q. (1986). Age Specific Manifestations in Changing Psychosocial Risk. In D. C. Farran & J. D. McKinney (Eds.), The concept of risk in mental and psychosocial development. New York: Academic Press.

Darroch, J. E., Singh, S., & Frost, J. J. (2001). Differences in teenage being pregnant rates amongst five developed countries: the roles of sexual exercise and contraceptive use. Family Planning Perspectives, 33(6), 244-250.

Jemmott, J. B., III, Jemmott, L. S., & Fong, G. T. (1998). Abstinence and safer sex HIV risk-reduction interventions for African American adolescents. Jama: Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(19), 1529-1536.

Kirby, D., & Coyle, K. (1997). School-based packages to reduce sexual risk-taking habits. Children & Youth Services Review, 19(5-6), 415-436.

Martin, J. A., Park, M. M., & Sutton, P. D. (2002). Births: Preliminary Data for 2001. National Vital Statistics Reports, 50, Number 10.

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Adolescent Eating Habits

Many youngsters fall into unhealthy eating habits for quite lots of reasons; stress, the need to shed pounds, peer strain and so forth. These unhealthy consuming habits, might not cause damage immediately (although they often do) however they are adopted by a host of health issues. Sound nutritious habits play a task within the prevention of frequent chronic diseases corresponding to weight problems, heart disease, cancers, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Investigating and understanding adolescent eating habits is necessary to stopping diet-related diseases later sooner or later.

This paper discusses characteristic adolescent consuming habits; skipping meals, quick food consumption, frequent snacking, and different dieting practices of adolescents. The nutritional necessities for adolescents are additionally mentioned. Unhealthy Dietary Habits Teens interact in weight-reduction plan practices that possibly lower than useful, together with consuming very little, chopping out whole groups of foods (like grain products), fasting, and skipping meals. These practices can leave out essential meals which are vital for development to happen. Other weight-loss methods similar to self-induced vomiting, smoking, and diet pills or laxatives can result in health points.

See more: Sleep Deprivation Problem Solution Speech Essay

Unhealthy dieting can actually cause weight achieve since it often leads to a cycle of consuming very little, then binge consuming. Adolescents might miss meals because of unbalanced schedules. Breakfast and lunch are the meals most frequently missed, college, and social actions might trigger the skipping of evening meals. 12 to 50 % of adolescents miss breakfast; and ladies are extra likely to take action than are boys (35 and25 % respectively). More than one-half of the adolescents participating in the National Adolescent School Health Survey reported that they ate breakfast less than twice per week.

Reasons for lacking breakfast include rushing off o early faculty classes or actions, and poor appetite very first thing in the morning. Missing breakfast can negatively have an result on college performance and contribute to a negative total diet [ (Americans, 2010) ]. Hunger and meals insecurity (i. e. , disrupted consuming patterns because of monetary strains) may enhance the danger for lower dietary quality and underneath vitamin. In flip, underneath vitamin can negatively affect overall health, cognitive growth, and college performance. Benefits of Healthful Eating Eating a healthy breakfast is associated with improved cognitive operate (especially memory), and mood.

Healthy consuming helps stop excessive cholesterol and high blood pressure and reduces the danger of creating chronic diseases such as heart problems, diabetes, and cancer. Healthy consuming helps cut back the risk of weight problems, dental caries, iron deficiency, and osteoporosis Most U. S. youth don’t meet the suggestions for eating 2? cups to 6? cups of fruit and veggies every day. Teenagers within the U. S. A tend not to eat the minimal really helpful quantities of complete grains (2–3 ounces each day). Teenagers tend not to eat greater than the really helpful maximum daily intake of sodium (1,500–2,300 mg each day) (CDC, 1998).

Empty energy contribute to 40% of daily calories for youngsters and adolescents aged 2–18 years, affecting the quality of their diets. About half of these empty energy come from the following sources: soft-drinks, fruit drinks, pizza, grain desserts, dairy desserts, and complete milk. Adolescents drink extra full-calorie soft-drinks per day than milk. Males aged 12–19 years drink roughly 22 ounces of full-calorie soft-drinks per day, more than twice the consumption of milk (10 ounces), and females drink roughly 14 ounces of soft-drinks and solely 6 ounces of milk (Kushi LH, 2006).

Eating Disorders Adolescents are especially prone to eating disorders because of the development of their self-image round this time of their lives. Bulimia, anorexia and binge consuming are all consuming disorders that teenagers undergo from. Results of Anorexia nervosa can prove to be fatal; as the body is starved so are the muscle tissue. The coronary heart, being a muscle, can consequently start to weaken, and coronary heart failure will very doubtless become a reality. The low ranges of sodium, zinc, potassium and calcium, associated with anorexia may cause unusual heart rhythms.

Sudden death brought on by electrolyte and mineral disorder might occur. The blood bone marrow is also interrupted. Anemia is said with the quantity of weight lost and the decreased capability to battle pathogens and infections [ (CDC) ]. Obtaining the correct figures, in terms of the prevalence and different information about eating problems is tough. It is not obligatory for Anorexia Nervosa and Related Eating Disorders (ANRED) to report eating problems; this, the secretiveness, and denial of individuals with eating disorders makes it tough to obtain an accurate concept of the prevalence of consuming disorders within the U. S. A. According to the National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA), in 2005, 10,000,000 Americans had an eating dysfunction. The National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders (ANAD) reviews 7,000,000 women and 1,000,000 males are affected by consuming issues in America. three. 6% and 12. 9% of the American inhabitants is estimated to suffer from an eating dysfunction at some time of their lives, in accordance with the Eating Disorders Coalition (EDC) [ (Americans, 2010) ]. Junk Food

The proportion of adolescents snacking on any given day increased from 61% in 1977-1978 to 83% in 2005-2006; the proportion of adolescents who had three or extra snacks in a day rise greater than twofold, from 9 % to 23% during the same time period. The rise in charges of obese and weight problems among children and adults of late has led researchers to judge the connection between completely different eating patterns and weight status. A behavior that has acquired significant attention is that of consuming more incessantly, particularly within the type of snacking.

Although some research has proven that consuming habits, together with snacking, might assist folks meet their nutrient requirements, other analysis indicates that snacking lowers the nutrient density (the amount of vitamins per calorie) of the total diet (Forshee RA, 2006) (Brown, 2011). Snacking more times per day was related to higher intakes of calories. Many of the foods that made the biggest contributions to adolescents’ intakes (My Pyramid) at snacks were additionally excessive in solid fats, added sugars, or each.

The results of frequent consumption of junk meals, such as fast food, soft-drinks, potato crisps and different snacks, embody the increased threat of : Clogged arteries- his occurs when fats and cholesterol become oxidized and build up contained in the blood vessels, increasing the chance for coronary heart attack or stroke. * Heart disease. * Diabetes later in life. * Obesity, instantly or later in life. * Hypertension. * Cancers related to excess fats and sugar consumption. (Brown, 2011) Many teens eat at quick food restaurants usually, taking in additional calories from added sugar and fat. One quick meals meal of a sandwich, fries, and sweetened soft-drink can have more fat, energy, and sugar than one should eat in a complete day.

The finest method is to limit the quantity of quick food consumed. Choosing a grilled chicken sandwich or a plain, small burger as an alternative of a big fried burger, ordering garden or grilled rooster salads with gentle or reduced-calorie dressings, selecting water, fat-free, or low-fat milk as an alternative of sweetened sweet-drinks can go a great distance in the course of minimizing fats, sugar and calorie intake when eating out. At instances, individuals neglect what they consuming and focus solely on what they are eating. Soft-drinks and different sugar crammed drinks have changed water and milk as the drinks of selection for teenagers.

These drinks are more like desserts as a outcome of they are excessive in calories and added sugar. In truth, soft-drinks and sugar-filled drinks may contribute to weight problems in children and teenagers. Saturated fat and trans fat, found in plenty of types of quick meals together with fries, and fried chicken, contribute to excessive levels of cholesterol. High ldl cholesterol will increase the risk of blocked arteries. The resulting lowered blood flow to the heart and mind, increases risks for heart attack or stroke. Trans fat, also discovered in plenty of baked goods corresponding to cookies, snack cakes and crackers, should be prevented to reduce your danger of cardiovascular issues.

A Problem of Adolescent Rebellion

Adolescents go to extreme steps to find their id, many instances rebelling to level out that they are their very own individuals. Rebelling is a means for the adolescent to indicate their independence, that is sensible in Huck’s case. Rebelling can differ from not obeying mother and father to making good friends with unwanted characters to entirely breaking the norms of the society. Huck’s home life and upbringing gas his need to rebel specifically considering that he has problem adjusting to society, much like Holden Caulfield, continuously looking for strategies to be different and sometimes times challenging and unreasonable.

The adolescent years are marked by the look for private id and lastly experiencing the true world as a maturing adult. With this being acknowledged, the rationale adolescents corresponding to Huck insurgent is because they’ve bother accepting the norms of society and refuse to adhere. In the very first book, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Author Mark Twain utilizes this story to level out the immorality of society within the 1800’s.

To talk this message, he makes use of his major character, a defiant adolescent named Huck Finn.

Huck has a really difficult time accepting the strategies of society and declines to let his guardians, The Widow Douglas, Miss Watson, along with many other characters attempt to civilize him. Huck rebels towards numerous issues similar to religion, schooling, cleanliness, and quirks. He even rebels versus the main concept of society on the time which is slavery. He befriends a slave referred to as Jim and is obtainable the option of following society’s guidelines and turning him in or treating him as an equal and serving to him to flexibility.

Mark Twain utilizes this novel to resolve a lot of problems in society within the 1800’s, nonetheless typically slavery and bias. I imagine this novel teaches morals and lessons involving children and racial discrimination today. In the essay titled, The Debate over Race: Does Huckleberry Finn Combat or Reinforce Bigotry, critic Julius Lester goes to the extent of saying that Mark Twain’s works are “fairly unsafe” and declares that the creator is in reality somewhat racist. He thinks that Mark Twain does not take slavery significantly and for that cause African Americans.

He explains how Twain makes a mockery of Jim, degrading him throughout the novel through the utilization of Huck Finn. (356) Many critics like Lester, imply many negative claims against Twain however I imagine this accusation is irrelevant as a result of Twain isn’t using Huck Finn to degrade Jim, he’s in reality utilizing him as a logo of innocence to the immorality of society. Huck is at that age the place he’s unaware of the distinction between right and incorrect however when he is confronted with a matter as advanced as discrimination; he takes his personal path as an alternative of following society’s regulations.

Like a toddler at the playground, when a toddler of different shade or race approaches them to play, they don’t discriminate; they sense a friendly particular person and befriend them. Twain permits his character to rebel against the prejudice society, so as to increase awareness and tackle the problem of racism. The other criticisms we’ve read and mentioned this semester, critique and pin level any flaw attainable of criticism in each of the novels. Some criticisms aimed in direction of one novel may even apply to others.

In Brivic’s The Disjunctive Structure of Joyce’s Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man, the author states, “Psychoanalysis reveals how the pictures that weave through Portrait are linked by unconscious motivation to form a dynamic structure. Within this construction Stephen Dedalus develops his pondering around a central precept of reference to the world by way of alienation. And the conflicts and transformations within the structure enact opposing views by which Joyce each helps and condemns Stephen (279). This quote is attention-grabbing as a end result of it applies to 2 of the novels characters we have been launched to, each Portrait’s alter ego,Stephen Dedalus, and The Catcher within the Rye’s Holden Caulfield, the society outcast looking for a path in life. Stephen and Holden each encounter many comparable situations, the place they find themselves looking for happiness and luxury. J. D Salinger puppets the protagonist of Holden Caulfield to verbally assault almost every institution and character he encounters during his transition from childhood to maturity.

Deeply mentally and emotionally disturbed, Holden resists conformity to every vice, failing out of four preparatory faculties, mendacity about countless particulars to add pleasure to his anticlimactic life, and stereotyping each individual he encounters and labeling them “phony”, proving Holden to be probably the most superficial of all the characters. Holden’s opinionated personality permits him to overtly pass judgment and painting the sort of habits he thinks contributes toward the corrupted, indecent world he is aside of. Holden believes he must be a protector of innocence; he must shield Phobe and all hildren from the cruel reality of how the world operates. He is “The Catcher within the Rye”, based mostly off a poem, the place he’ll catch the youngsters and defend them as they fall off the cliff of childhood into the reality of adulthood, it’s potential Holden Caulfield is consumed by the idea of sex, Holden engages in a number of contradicting actions, he solicits a prostitute however refuses to sleep with her, yearns for the affection or companionship of one other girl however distances and degrades himself when he feels uncovered, and repeatedly calls “Jane” but hangs up before talking together with her.

J. D Salinger uses Holden to raise the issues of sexuality, sexual promiscuity, and homosexuality a quantity of times throughout the novel. In Daisy Miller, Author Henry James discusses the morals between the Americans and the Europeans and the involvement of girls in the time setting of the novel. Daisy Miller, the principle character, is one of the main mysteries throughout the novel as the author causes the reader to wonder whether she is really a “nice” woman or not. Daisy is younger, rich, attractive American woman who travels through Europe along with her household.

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With a wierd combination of character traits starting from excessive spirited and independent to ignorant and shallow, Daisy goes on an adventure that is illustrated to make clear the subtext involving the variations in American and European values. The writer directs the viewers in the direction of the gender roles in society and the way women of this time setting have been at a a lot greater social standard. Women right now were managed with a sexist algorithm appointed by government officials according to gender. As you get deeper into the novel, you find out that Daisy just isn’t as innocent as she appears she could be very rebellious.

Through this revolt, the writer addresses sexist tendencies and the pride of American womanhood and freedom regardless of social constraints. The reasons why adolescents rebel vary from individual to individual but they maintain one thing in frequent. It is to prove their independence as they disagree with how they should conform to society. Whether persons are “fake” or the norms of the society, like slavery and racism, are wrong, adolescents discover a approach to be difficult in a way to prove they’ve their very own identity and they’re unbiased.

Each of the authors we now have read over the course of the semester, Twain, Joyce, Salinger, and James took the danger of breaking the rules with their words so as to convey their messages to a large-scale viewers. The adolescent years are marked by the seek for personal identity and finally experiencing the real world as a maturing adult. With this being said, the explanation adolescents similar to Huck insurgent is as a end result of they have trouble accepting the norms of society and refuse to adapt.

Adolescent Interview

When picking my adolescent I had quite a few choices to pick from but I decided on my adolescent 15 year old sister since I know a lot about her and have seen first-hand how she is coping with this adolescent stage. Patricia is a normal 15 year old girl still in high school. She lives in a household of 7 with 3 older siblings and one younger one. She mentioned that she lived in a small home with three dogs, two fish, a bird and six other humans. Both her parents are field workers so they aren’t really at home much. Patricia has a younger 7 year old sister that she pays attention to a lot, they have a really close relationship, and she cares for her younger sister when her mother is at work. Patricia is in a special program in her high school called the International Bachelorette Program “IB,” this program challenges high school students and gives them and idea of what college is like after they graduate. She gets a lot of homework every day for all her classes, she manages to do all of it and still helps take care of her younger sibling.

I think my teenager didn’t quite fit in the conceptions people have of a typical adolescent. She seems to be really close to her family. When I asked her what her family life was like I was surprised with the answer she gave me. She said she loved her family and that they were the best. Most teens at her age tend to distance themselves when they hit puberty. Puberty brings an increase in parent-child conflict- psychological distancing that may, in part be a modern substitute for physical departure from the family. (Berk, 2012, p.541.) According to what my teen said about her family life, she has a very good relationship with her family; her parents seem to play an important role in how hard she is working on her education and her good grades since she mentioned that school was really important to her because her mother wanted her to have a better life for herself. I believe that my teen interviewee has reached the stage of formal operational thinking. When I asked her what if people had no thumbs she gave me a bunch of explanations as to what would happen if such a thing were true.

She said people wouldn’t be able to text, suck their thumbs, cover the sun, be able to thumb print criminals for criminal cases, be able to write, click on the computer mouse, do their hair, and that everyone would be ugly. She pretty much hypothesized what would happen if people had no thumbs. According to Piaget she has become capable of hypothetico-deductive reasoning- this being when faced with a problem, they start with a hypothesis, or prediction about variables that might affect an outcome, from which they deduce logical, testable inferences. (Berk,2012, p.566.) Her answers to the problem of having no thumbs were thought out. I wish she would have explained them a little more but I know if I asked her to explain more thoroughly she would have the logic for doing so.

Propositional thought is also a characteristic of formal operational thought; it is when a young individual can evaluate the logic of verbal statements without referring to real-world circumstances. (Berk,2012, p.595.) When I asked her question number 13 of the interview she gave me a smart remark saying “Duh it’s going to make a freaking noise if she hit it. No she did not make noise because she didn’t hit it.” She said this right away and asked why I was asking such weird questions that were so obvious.

I did notice some signs of my teen forming an identity. Her style of clothing seemed to be pretty laid back. She wore a loose fitted tee shirt, some jeans, and a pair of converse. Her hair was in a ponytail and she didn’t have any tattoos or piercings. She doesn’t wear any make-up and her only concerns about her appearance were being fat. She mentioned having a lot of friends in school and the particular group she hung out with during lunch and her breaks was only a pair of two close friends. When asked if she belonged to a group she pointed out that she belonged to a group nobody knew about and all her group does is sit and talk and think about homework and. She mentioned all the other different kinds of groups she saw in her high school such as the popular kids, the jocks, the gang bangers, the Asians, the cheerleaders, the gothics, the bible geeks, and the nerds.

She didn’t categorize herself in any of these, but she mentioned that her only concerns are getting good grades, she mentioned this a lot during her interview. Constructing an identity involves defining who you are, what you value, and the directions you choose to purse in life. (Berk,2012, p. 600.) When I asked her what role school played in her life she easily told me she was pursuing getting good grades throughout high school and eventually going to college, her moral values play a great role in her life, these being the things her mother has encouraged and guided her to pursue. Her direction in life has been identified; she explained to me she wanted to eventually be able to go to really good universities. I believe my teen has formed her identity because of these things. My teens’ identity status is probably at the identity achievement; she has established her values and goals in life. Identity achieved individuals are committed to a clearly formulated set of values and goals; they know where they are going. (Berk, 2012, p.603.)

I don’t really have much advice to give to my teen; to me she seemed to be on track. But her mentioning herself as being fat does concern me. I think her self-esteem is low, when I asked her if she had a boyfriend she said she did not because she was ugly. She also seems to think she is fat, since she mentioned twice in the interview she wanted to lose weight. The advice I would give my teen is, to not concern herself too much about physical appearance and focus more on the relationships she has formed with the people she has becomes friends with. I would tell her she doesn’t have to look a certain way to have a boyfriend, I would also mention that it doesn’t really matter if she has one or not, the right one will come along someday.

Her academic self-esteem seems to be good though, while I was interviewing her she mentioned that her grades were really good and she was concerned about keeping them that way. Academic self-esteem is a powerful predictor of teenagers judgments of the importance and usefulness of school subjects, willingness to exert effort, achievement, and eventually career choice (Bleeker & Jacobs, 2004;Denissen,Zarrettt,& Eccles,2007;Valentine, DuBois,& Cooper,2004; Whitesell et al.,2009) I would tell her she should keep on pursuing her goals of getting good grades and eventually going to the university of her choice. I would tell her this because I personally didn’t pursue going to a university after I graduated from high school and have totally regretted it ever since. Having a good education is a good goal for a young individual to have to have a better life.

My interviewees’ didn’t have any signs of a cognitive distortion, there wasn’t signs of any self-focus in her answers. Imaginary audience is when the adolescent believes that they are the focus of everyone’s attention. (Berk. 2012, p. 572.) She stated in the interview that she and her friends were part of a group that nobody knew about; she showed little concern about it. Her social development is good; she said in her interview that she talked to most of her classmates in all her classes. She seems to have attained good peer relations and has established good friendships. I don’t think my adolescent would conform to peer pressuring, she mentioned in the interview that alcohol and drugs were of easy access but they have no effect on her friends and her. She said she did not pay much attention to those things.

References
Berk, L. E. (2012). Infants, Children, and Adolescents (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Adolescent (In)vulnerability by Marilyn Jacobs

Adolescents are often viewed in a negative light that depicts them as risk-takers, irrational decision makers, and vulnerable to dangers. The validity of the above statement is proven true by the peer-reviewed journal article entitled Adolescent (In)vulnerability by Marilyn Jacobs Quadrel, Baruch Fischhoff, and Wendy Davis. The article reveals the results of three groups that were questioned on their perception of how likely they might experience different risks. The subjects included a range of individuals from different socio economic status such as middle class adults with their teenage children and high-risk adolescents receiving treatment for different diagnosis. Some of the risks included automobile accidents, unwanted pregnancies, alcoholism, being a victim of a mugging, and becoming sick from various elements such as air pollution or poison. The results show that all of the subjects feel that they would face less risk in comparison to others.

The opinion of relative invulnerability was about the same for the adolescents and the adults. Boththe teenagers and their parents agree that the parents are less vulnerable to specific risks. The study reveals that there is a slight difference in the way adolescents and adults think when they are faced with making a decision. One huge problem is that adolescents may be perceived as incompetent to make a decision which could lead to their rights being revoked and wrongly diagnosing the true foundation of their risk behaviors. The study implies that one explanation for why adolescents take great risks is because they underestimate the likelihood that a negative outcome will occur to them. Although adolescents have awareness that risks are involved, they also have misunderstandings of risks associated with certain behaviors that vary due to the adolescent’s socio economic status.

Overall, the study shows that there is not enough support to prove that perceived invulnerability is largely present during adolescence, but evidence is present to conclude adults steadily display invulnerability. When estimating one’s risk, the psychological process for all ages are similar and biased which leads to the result of ones belief as less vulnerable in comparison to someone else. Flaws appear in every study because of different variables such as the participants or their environment. One flaw of this study may be the aspect of time pressures created by the subjects that may differ in a real-life situation. A second imperfection of the study is pressure from peers is not accounted for and is neglectful of social backing. This flaw is crucial because peer pressure is a huge part of teens engaging in riskier behavior. Evidence is revealed that teens are more likely to engage or partake in riskier behaviors without foreseeing the consequences when in a group or surrounded by acquaintances.

A follow up study to this one that would attempt to eradicate a major flaw would be to study both the adolescents and adults when in a group or a peer setting. The results might be different due to peer pressure and the desire to be popular or fit in. Two discussion questions that prompted from the reading of the journal article are: 1. Should the legal drinking age in the U.S. be lowered to 18? Are 18 year olds able to purchase and consume alcohol responsibly? 2. Should birth control be available to teenagers without parental consent? Would access to birth control prevent or lower the rate of unwanted teen pregnancies? I believe that this study presents many important aspects of the similarities and differences between adolescents and adults when it comes to making a decision and being perceived as vulnerable to a risk. I agree that individuals have a misconstrued awareness of one’s vulnerability to risks in comparison to friends, family members and strangers. Based on personal experience, I believe I was more inclined to be impulsive and irrational as an adolescent compared to my current age.

Advantages and Disadvantages of the HPV Vaccine in Adolescent Girls: An Ethical

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a group of more than 40 types of viruses that infect the genital areas, throats (recurrent respiratory papillomatosis), and mouths of males and females and is the number one most common sexually transmitted disease (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2009). It is spread by genital contact. It is most easily spread by vaginal and anal sex, but also through oral sex and even just genital-to-genital (skin-to-skin). In 90% of people that contract HPV, their own immune system clears it up within two years, most never even developing any symptoms from it (CDC, 2009). Out of the many types of HPV types, most end up causing warts on one of the above-mentioned areas, while a certain few are known to cause cervical cancer. Lockwood-Rayermann & McIntyre (2009) state that “[t]he most common oncogenic/high-risk virus types worldwide and in the United States are Types 16, 18, 31, 45, and 52; 11% of invasive cervical cancers in the United States are caused by Types 16 and 18 (55% by Type 16 and 22% by type 18).

HPV Types 31, 45, and 52 comprise another 8% of all cases.” Cervical cancer is usually not detected until it is quite advanced, which is why women should get screened for cervical cancer regularly. There is also another precaution women can take. The Food and Drug Administration approved the very first vaccine to prevent cervical cancer by the types of HPV that cause it in June of 2006 (Thomas, 2008). This vaccine, being new, and therein little is known about its long term effects, has caused ethical debates about the use of it, particularly in adolescent girls.

Thomas (2008) mentions that the CDC recommended, by a unanimous vote, that girls aged 11 to 12 years old receive this new HPV vaccine. This may seem young, but in order for the vaccine to be effective, it must be administered before a person has been exposed to HPV, which happens during sexual encounters. Since few girls are sexually active at this age, most of whom haven’t gone through puberty yet, this is an ideal age to have them be vaccinated (Thomas, 2008). Thomas (2008) also goes on to say that this vaccine has been administered to 11,000 girls around the world with no serious side effects. Their ages ranged from 9 to 26 years old.

This vaccine is given by a series of three shots over the course of six months and it’s important that they get all three to be effective, since little is known about the effectiveness of people who only receive one or two (2008). But is it ethical for a girl as young as nine years old to be receiving such an invasive procedure in order to avoid a sexually transmitted disease? After all, what nine year old is even thinking about sex and STDs? That is why this issue is one that is left for the parents to decide, and opinions are unsurprisingly mixed.

One of the main arguments against vaccinating young girls with the HPV vaccine is cost. Thomas (2008) lists the total cost of this vaccine, for all three shots, as around three hundred dollars, relatively inexpensive considering the detrimental consequences of contracting one of the types that are known to cause cancer. There is another issue to take into consideration, though, when accounting for the price of this vaccination; the effects for protection are only estimated to be four or five years (2008). If a young girl were to be vaccinated at nine years old, and again at ages twelve, sixteen, and twenty, you are looking at close to one thousand dollars in total.

How are parents with poor health insurance coverage or none at all supposed to protect their daughters for this virus that can cause cervical cancer? A parent can also anticipate losing a day’s pay to take their child to the doctor’s office or the clinic on three different occasions to receive all three shots. Because of the cost, and the limited duration of effectiveness, a lot of women decide not to get vaccinated and not to vaccinate their daughters, hoping that a better, longer lasting, and less expensive alternative will “arrive on the pharmaceutical market” at some point in the near future (2008).

Another popular argument against HPV vaccination is that some parents view it as a green light for their daughters to behave promiscuously (Thomas, 2008). Much like condom distribution at high schools, there are those that view HPV vaccination as another way to promote, and cause a rise in irresponsible sexual behavior (2008). Thomas (2008) goes on to describe a conservative political group called the Traditional Values Coalition and how they have publicly denounced the HPV vaccine and claim that genital warts, cervical cancer, etc. are not a national health concern, and “that HPV can be prevented through abstinence and marital fidelity.” This group attributes “monetary gain” by pharmaceutical companies as a motive for the mandate for HPV vaccination.

Like most every ethical or moral dilemma going on in this country, this issue rests in the parents’ religious and personal beliefs. Studies have shown that despite abstinence programs, teenagers still engage in sex, proving that something as insignificant as a vaccine is not going to encourage kids to have sex—they are having it anyway. Thomas (2008) cited a study that showed that 90% of teens are using condoms when they engage in sexual intercourse, but condoms alone cannot protect you from HPV, making the vaccine all that more important for young girls to receive. If a parents cannot set aside their religious and personal beliefs long enough to acknowledge that this vaccine has the potential to save their daughter’s life, then they may require a lot more than just education.

Each year 6.2 million new cases of HPV come about and currently, 20 million people in this country are infected with HPV. The vaccine that is available has the potential to save 70% of the people it would otherwise infect from cervical cancer in young women (Thomas, 2008). “In 2008, an estimated 11,070 women in the United States will be diagnosed with cervical cancer, and 3, 870 women will die from the disease” (Lockwood-Raverrmann &McIntyre, 2009). Lockwood-Raverrmann & McIntyre (2009) go on to explain that the prevalence of HPV in peaks in women in their early twenties, and also go on to say that even younger women, i.e. teenagers, are more susceptible to the virus. They describe one possible explanation for this is because in younger women, it “could be the changing histology of the cervix following the commencement of puberty.” They go to say that “during this period of time, large populations of cells are undergoing maturation and are more susceptible to the development of an HPV infection” (2009).

With all of this statistical data, it is confusing to think that some little girl’s parent’s are prepared to deprive her of a vaccine that could potentially save her life should the opportunity arise and she chooses to have sex. Again, said girl wouldn’t even have to have vaginal intercourse to contract Type 16 HPV, which would years later cause cervical cancer in which she could quite realistically die from. It is a frustrating and infuriating thought—that this girl could die because of her parent’s ignorance and/or their undyin

Young and Invincible Adolescent Participation in Reckless Behaviour

Most teenagers in their adolescent stage often push the boundaries of tolerable behaviour. Some engage in extremely reckless behaviour such as drug abuse and dangerous driving. Although it is paramount for parents to support and show love to their teens, they should advise their children on the dangers and effects of reckless behaviour. Shader (2004) writes that adolescence bears a heightened reckless potential in comparison to other periods of development and the tenacity of the potential varies with culture and time. While there have been several studied on the various forms of reckless behavior, the efforts to determine the underlying factors to all reckless behaviour variation and its prevalence only among the adolescence have been limited.

The conclusion of the data was based on the information from questionnaires used in sampling youths in various social settings such as school, family, peers and community. In addition to dispersion and central tendency measure, the research assessed variability and normality in data. Furthermore, correlational analysis of multiple variables was conducted based on the model of the theoretical framework. The results of the correlation analysis were then used to make conclusions on existing patterns. The research tested a structural model of equation to assess the degree of how the theoretical framework fits the data.

Research Question

Are adolescents, within a higher than average Indigenous populated community, participating in reckless behavior?

Significance of the Study

(The aim of the study is to increase the possible effectiveness of intervention approaches)

Today dynamic society lacks guidance necessary for adolescents to pursue their goals. It is therefore important to analyze the risks associated with adolescent reckless behaviours as regard goal attainment. The study aims to increase the possible effectiveness of intervention development, by determining which risks are being taken and by whom, which would deter reckless behaviour participation and promote beneficial development.

The interventions necessary for modern adolescents may include a combination of traditional disciplinary interventions and multidimensional adolescent development issues. This may possibly bridge the gap between research, theory and actual practice through a detailed evaluation and analysis of current empirical trends of adolescent reckless behaviours and by incorporating the intervention approaches.

Although more research is needed, the study aims to serve as a stepping stone on determining the relationships that support viable framework, thus providing a platform for the development of additional efficacious interventions.

Problem Statement

(The community is responsible for supporting adolescents in their transition to adulthood)Regardless of the social and economic circumstances, adolescents need assistance, discipline, instruction, pastoral care and support as they transcend to adulthood. The help comes from various stakeholders such as good schools, safe and supportive neighborhoods, solid families and the culture surrounding.

Statement of Purpose

(To determine the extent to which Indigenous adolescents participate in reckless behaviour)The purpose of this study is analyzing the relationships associated with reckless behaviors among adolescents. It was hypothesized that the problems lie within adolescent behaviour in relation to the individual, school, family and peer groups. The study is consistent with development science, empirical and theoretical works on reckless behaviour which has emerged as a highly multivariate, multidisciplinary, process focused and person-centered topic.

The dynamics of reckless behaviour of adolescents is discussed through theoretical models. The study examines adolescents associated with reported risk behaviours and the degree to which contextual factors influence risk behaviours. Therefore, this research seeks to determine if Indigenous adolescents participate in reckless behaviour.

Study Limitations

(Focus on a single environment and use of computer aided techniques were the sources of limitation)

Cross-sectional studies are less expensive and less likely to manifest participant attrition as compared to longitudinal studies (Fagan, 2004). However, the use of data from cross-sectional studies limits the extents to which deductive subjects can be interpreted due to its variable measurements. Ideally, these limiting effects hinder efficient evaluation of the subjects. The effectiveness of the study was compromised since the study considered a section of subjects in a single environment which are likely to differ from other adolescent cohorts. Teese and Bradley, (2008) highlight that assessment issues are likely to be problematic in research on reckless adolescent behaviours. The report from the adolescents themselves had no possibility for biasness because of their tendency to underrate or exaggerate their reckless activities. Computer-aided study techniques of interviews often produce inaccurate responses.

(Types of reckless behaviour)

Previous studies have employed various terms in an attempt to describe potentially dangerous activities, including criminal, problematic, risky, and delinquent (Teese & Bradley, 2008). The ideal descriptive term is reckless behaviour since it bears stronger connotations of potentially negative consequences. Thus, numerous conclusions have asserted that reckless behaviour ranges from minor criminal activities, drug abuse, irresponsible sexual behaviour and alcohol consumption. These reckless behaviours lead to serious personal injuries, legal system arrest and conviction, unwanted pregnancies and death in extreme circumstances. Additional risks common among older adolescent groups include gambling and economic calculations where the risk is based on loss or gain of monetary benefits (i.e. sports tipping, unsecured monetary loans, credit cards, etc.).

(Definition of reckless behaviour)

Although the definition of reckless behaviour is a gray area, the considerations in this paper intend to apply to reckless behavior that may hinder adolescents in becoming well-adjusted members of society. Recklessness may be defined as seeking thrill activities that may result in adrenaline rush. Rafting and parachute jumping are recreational activities accepted by society but still present potential extreme consequences, such as injury and death. The danger present in these circumstances is recognized but minimised deliberately. There has been a slight difference as a result of reckless behavior, such as illicit drug use and criminal activity, foreseeable risks are not taken into consideration (Steinberg, 2007).

(Causes of reckless behaviour)

According to Shader (2004) it is difficult to determine the exact number of adolescents affected by mental or physical health disability. However, research evidence (Arnett, 2007) provides that Indigenous adolescent groups, especially young people, are likely to suffer of exclusion, discrimination and stigmatization. Furthermore, the society singles out Indigenous adolescents as passive victims and as a result, this population suffers shame and guilt and may become less stable within society. Studies on health behaviour models suggest that stigmatization and discriminations trigger decisions to engage in reckless behaviour among Indigenous adolescents. Consistent with other behaviour models (Pearson, 2001); poor emotional health and stress may lead to reckless behaviours.Theoretical Rationale

Scholars have presented well-articulated theories to explain reckless behaviour among the adolescent groups (Erikson, 1968; Jessor, 1994; Price & Dalgleish, 2013). The models incorporate numerous factors and are based on the developmental theory that states that adolescent behavior is the result of the person and their environment. For example, some behaviors, such as sexual activities and alcohol consumption, are socially legal for adults, but are considered unhealthy and illegal for adolescents. As established by Price and Dalgleish, (2013) an adolescent will engage in illicit behaviour because one wishes to attain an adult status. The theory posits that some of the reckless behaviours, such as excessive alcohol consumption and truancy, cease after adolescence.

(Adolescents engage in reckless behaviour to acquire adult status)

Price and Dalgleish’s (2013) theory was tested using a longitudinal study of college and high school students on numerous social, environmental and personality variables in association with five types of irresponsible behaviour. These were sexual activity, problem drinking, use of marijuana, drug use and general deviance such as stealing and vandalism. According to the study, these activities were considered a syndrome rather than having occurred in isolation.

Parental ideology and control were also incorporated into the model to recognize broad and narrow socialization ideas (Price & Dalgleish, 2013). The model, in contrast to the developmental theory, argues that problem initiation of adolescence reckless behaviour plays a developmental role on the desire to be an adult. It makes sense when adolescents engage in alcohol consumption and sexual activity when they are approved for adults but proscribed for adolescents. Thus, the desire to indulge in such activities signifies the adolescent’s wishing to attain adulthood. However, stealing, lying and vandalism that also form part of the syndrome of reckless behaviour are socially unacceptable for adults. (Sigmund Freud’s assertion that reckless behaviour is triggered by biological instincts)

Furthermore, Shader, (2004) observes that the psychological theories pioneered by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) recognize childhood as the most formative period in human development. Sigmund believed that personality dynamics strongly depend on the superego, sexual instinct identification and the ego. Central to the theory, it assumes that human beings possess powerful drives that must be satisfied. Freud believed that human beings are biological creatures with the drive to serve and satisfy their motives (Tyson & Tyson, 1984).

Contrastingly, the society dictates that most of these drives are undesirable and must be controlled. Also, Freud asserts that individuals are unaware that the biological instincts are the driving forces behind behaviours (Tyson & Tyson, 1984). In a developmental analysis, Anna Freud (1895-1982) added that adolescence signifies an important life period of turbulence due to the prevailing sexual conflicts from puberty (Sandler, 1980). However, critics argue that this theory focuses too much on sexuality and oblivion which are part of the causes of reckless behaviours.

Method

Collecting data through quantitative questionnaires is a popular methodology because they are practical, cost effective, allow for the ability to reach out to a large group of people, and the results can be analysed more scientifically and objectively as compared to other forms of research (Sarantakos, 1993, p. 158). Previous researchers of adolescent behaviour (Teese & Bradley, 2006; Fagan, 2004; Birleson, 1980; and Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, 2014) have succeeded in using self-administered, close-ended questionnaires to collect relevant data.

The dynamic and rapid technological advancements have made it possible to administer web-based questionnaires through services such as Survey Monkey and Survey Gizmo, eliminating paper and limiting contact with participants. A web-based questionnaire may be a cost-effective tool for obtaining survey responses (BUSM, 2010). Between 2003 and 2007, when Boston University first offered the option of completing a web questionnaire, the proportion of respondents who chose to complete a web questionnaire doubled (BUSM, 2010).

Participants

60 Students from an independent college ranging in age from 15-18 years old (males and females) will voluntarily participate in this study. Consent will be obtains from all students and parents. Final numbers will be based on disposition to participate.

Materials

The materials for this study include an information sheet, consent form, and a web-based questionnaire to measure variables. These variables will be measured by a modified adaption of Achenbach and Rescorla’s (2001) Youth Self-Report for Ages 11-18 (YSR). The instrument is made up of 38 close-ended questions instead of the original 112 mixed response. The questionnaire was modified from its original format, which requested names and parental information, to maintain the participants’ anonymity. The adapted instrument will be scored on a five-point Likert scale (1=Never, 2 = Not Often, 3 = Sometimes, 4 = Often, 5 = Always) instead of the original three-point scale to offer more detailed answers.

The Youth Self Report (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) is a prominent and widely used measurement for the assessment of emotional and behavioural problems among youth ages 11 to 18. It has been validated by Harvard University for use in social research (Ebesutani, C., Bernstein, A., Martinez, J.I., Chorpita, B. F., & Weisz, J.R., 2011, p. 338).

Moderators

In addition to the above measurements, three secondary moderators will be considered. In this study, moderators of age, gender, and cultural identity will be included. Participants will be asked if they would like to identify themselves as Indigenous. This is an important section because the data received has the potential to contribute to the future development of gender and culturally competent intervention programs. It is expected that there will be a high number of responses for cultural identity because the college has a large number of Indigenous students. However, this is a limitation because participation is voluntary and there is no way to ensure the participant’s response is truthful.

Procedure

Research Design

The proposed study employs an ex-post facto (after the fact) research design, which is a systematic empirical inquiry, in which the primary investigator does not have control of the variables because their manifestations have already occurred (Sarantakos, 1993, p. 8).

The study plan will involve the gathering of information on behaviour and characteristics among adolescents. There will be no manipulation of the variables by the researcher; instead any determined correlations will be ex post facto in nature in that they will originate from similarities in results in the measurement scores.

An on-line questionnaire will be available to a sample of the adolescent population. Information sheets and consent forms in sealed envelopes will be given to the select school to be handed out during period 1 the following day by classroom teachers. The primary investigator will have no contact with the participants.

Adolescents who agree to participate (with parental consent) will have a link to the questionnaire on the information sheet. The questionnaire may be completed at each student’s convenience, within a 14-day period from the date of distribution. The questionnaire will take approximately 10 mins and will pose a series of statements about social interactions/relationships, aggression, emotions, academic achievement, reckless behaviour, and additional questions that were adapted from the Youth Self-Report for Ages 11-18 (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001). As the questionnaires are submitted, the web-based program automatically collects and stores the data in a secure environment.

Data Analysis

Interferential analyses are proposed for this study:

Correlations will be conducted to determine if there is a relationship between characteristics and reckless behaviour.

Chi-square analyses will be conducted to determine if there are common characteristics among participants who are taking part in reckless behaviour.

Discussion

The research was conducted in order to establish the ability of using web questionnaires as a quantitative method in analysing adolescent behaviours as opposed to the traditional use of support-administered questionnaires. For data gathering purposes with focus on adolescent behaviours, the research utilized the use of web questionnaires as quantitative approach with a tally of 60 students consisting of both males and females in the age bracket of 15-18 years old from an independent college. The students that have been selected in this study filled out a web-based questionnaire to evaluate survey responses to adolescent behaviours.

The variables of the survey were determined using the Youth Self-Report Ages 11 -18 then scored on a five-point Likert scale (1= Never, 2 = Rarely, 3 = Sometimes, 4 = Often, 5 = Always) which included an extension of two additional points as opposed to the original three-point scale ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Flesch</Author><Year>1951</Year><RecNum>1</RecNum><IDText>How to test Readability</IDText><DisplayText>(Flesch, 1951)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”v2wravw5fezpf8eweeu5pzeg9e5s5xf2w0a0″ timestamp=”1413939135″>1</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Flesch, R.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>How to test Readability</title></titles><dates><year>1951</year></dates><pub-location>New York </pub-location><publisher>Harper &amp; Brothers </publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Flesch, 1951). The collected data was then correlated to find a distinct relationship between the characteristics of the Youth Self-Report for Ages 11-18 and reckless behaviour in adolescents with express emphasis on chi-square analyses.

The credibility of the findings and conclusions is dependent on the research design quality, data collection and management and the final analysis of the data collected. In justifying the means in which the study results were to be obtained, discussed in the subsequent chapters are the procedures and methods used based on description of data obtained, how the data obtained is to be processed/analysed, its interpretation and final correlation of collected data to come up with a credible conclusion. The research will cover; research design to be utilized and methods, data collection materials, respondents to be analysed and the data analysis process.

Data was collected in the form of an online web-based questionnaire and was analysed after a cumulated period of 14 days after administration of online questionnaires to individual students. No contact was made between the primary investigator and the students, but they were rather handed sealed envelopes containing consent forms for their parents by their teachers. Those who were inclined to participate after acquisition of parental consent were to use a link provided in the information sheet sealed in the envelope that guided them to the online questionnaire platform ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Grills</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>2</RecNum><IDText>Multiple informant agreement and the anxiety disorders interview schedule for parents and children.</IDText><DisplayText>(Grills &amp; Ollendick, 2003)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>2</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”v2wravw5fezpf8eweeu5pzeg9e5s5xf2w0a0″ timestamp=”1413939135″>2</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Grills, A. E.,</author><author>Ollendick, T. H. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Multiple informant agreement and the anxiety disorders interview schedule for parents and children.</title><secondary-title>Journal of the American Academy of Child &amp; Adolescent Psychiatry</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of the American Academy of Child &amp; Adolescent Psychiatry</full-title></periodical><pages>30-40</pages><dates><year>2003</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Grills & Ollendick, 2003). The platform was designed to give a 14 day open window for questionnaire completion since distribution date with an approximated questions estimated to take around 10 minutes that included a series of variables; emotions, aggression, reckless behaviour, academic achievements and other questions adapted from the Youth Self-Report for Ages 11-18.

The questionnaire interface is designed in such a way that upon submission of data by a student, there is automatic collection of the information for storage in a secure memory bank. As opposed to the original Achenbach and Rescorla’s (2001) Youth Self-Report for Ages 11-18 containing 112 questions, this study encompassed only 38 closed ended questions ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Achenbach</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>3</RecNum><IDText>The Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms &amp; Profiles.</IDText><DisplayText>(Achenbach &amp; Rescorla, 2001)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>3</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”v2wravw5fezpf8eweeu5pzeg9e5s5xf2w0a0″ timestamp=”1413939135″>3</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Achenbach, T.</author><author>Rescorla, L. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms &amp; Profiles.</title></titles><dates><year>2001</year></dates><pub-location>Burlington</pub-location><publisher>University of Vermont, Research Centre for Children, Youth and Families </publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001). The adapted variables were then scored on the five point Likert scale on the basis of (1=Never, 2 = Not Often, 3 = Sometimes, 4 = Often, 5 = Always). Inclusive in the study, a total number of three secondary moderators namely; age, gender and cultural identity were considered for the main purpose of future intervention programs. No definite number of students analysed is available although originally, a total of 60 students between the ages 15-18 years old consisting of both males and females were voluntarily involved in the study.

Chapter 2: Review of Literature

The widespread reckless behavior among adolescent groups is troubling because these behaviors can have long-term consequences on development, including underemployment, long-term substance abuse, school dropout’s unplanned parenthood and sexually transmitted infections (Lipsey & Derzon, 1998). A large number of youths in the adolescent stage are negatively affected by reckless behavior with elevated variations such as life expectancy, successful transition to adulthood, physical health and psychological adjustment.This chapter illustrates the variations of reckless behaviors in adolescents through literature that examines the factors influencing multiple types of reckless behavior and provides specific development variation. The data presented suggest that prevention policies and programs focused on risk reduction for recess behaviors should limit the multiple types of reckless behaviors of adolescent.

Literature Risk and Adolescents

The course and initiation of reckless behaviors vary across questioned behavior. For example, on average, delinquent behavior involvement increases in the early stages of adolescent, peaks at 17 and rapid decline is observed thereafter (Lipsey & Derzon, 1998). Substance use sharply elevates through adolescence and arrive peak level amid 18 and 24. For example, in the United States, first sexual intercourse is averagely estimated at 16 years for females and 17 years for males (Gullone, Moore, Moss, & Boyd, 2000).

(First order factor cannot account for varying reckless behaviour)

Essentially, reckless behaviour is less prevalent in late childhood and increases towards adolescence (Bradley &Wildman, 2002). A longitudinal study of the adolescence in different societies, Kauffman, Bradbury and Owings, (1992) examined the deviant behaviour and structural nature of marijuana use, alcohol consumption, trouble at school and the use of illicit drugs among children of 11 – 12 ages. The research provided evidence that numerous reckless behaviour- delinquency, school troubles and substance use could not be accounted for using the first order factor.

(Different view about the propensity of reckless behaviours across age)

While Kauffman et al., (1992), argue that reckless behaviours strengthen as the youth age from 8 to 12 years, Keeping et al., (1989) suggests that the reckless behaviour may become less correlated and heterogeneous as the adolescent groups’ transit to adulthood. Lau & Yuen (2013) contrast the argument by Kauffman et al., by arguing that reckless behaviour syndrome remains intact into adulthood.

(Reckless behaviour equally contributed to irresponsible behaviour in both early and late adolescence)

According to the results from the longitudinal study on the covariance at ages of four and from early adolescence to adulthood, academic orientation, drug use and social nonconformity were noted among early adolescents (Kauffman et al., 1992). On the other hand, sexual involvement, drug use, social non-conformity, academic orientation and criminal activities were noted among late adolescent. Thus the most commonly defined factor in adolescence is social non-conformity. However, early adulthood and late adolescence, sexual involvement and drug use were the strongly related reckless behaviour factors. Finally, drug use was the strongly related factor of reckless behaviour in adulthood, then social non-conformity, criminal behaviour and number of sexual partners.

(Reckless behaviours in adolescence later externalize into adult behaviour)

The probable reason for the variation in reckless behaviour in adolescents may be due to reckless behaviour sequencing and pattern of development. According to the cascade model of development (Dodge, Malone, Lansford, Miller, Petit, & Bates, 2009), reckless behaviours in one domain are likely to cascade into other types of problems in a bidirectional association.

The model illustrates this assertion by explaining that reckless behaviours in adolescence is a prediction of future academic problems, that later externalizes in adult behaviour (Dodge et al., 2009; Doolan, Najman, Mills, Cherney, Strathearn, 2012). In conclusion, reckless behavior highly contributes to academic problems in the present and later life of an adolescent.

As explained by Jessor’s (1994) theory of reckless behaviour, the primary cause of external problems in the adolescent stage is non-conformity which takes place in the personality of youths and social environment in the adolescent stage. The theory posits that non-conformed individuals are particularly tolerant to deviance and less associated to religious and educational institutions.

Unconventional environment is defined as a large number of persons sharing similar attitudes; which places a high adolescent association with a variety of reckless behaviours (Lipsey & Derzon, 1998). Jessor’s presents perceived environment, personality, social environment, genetics/biology as the five domains necessary in explaining adolescent reckless behaviour.

Common vs. Specific Risk Factors

This section examines key reckless behaviour contributors during adolescence across family, peer groups, community and school.

Domains of Risk

Peer Risk

(Individuals with inability to control impulses are more likely to engage in reckless behaviour)

The inability to control impulses due to immaturity is one of the factors that explain risk taking in adolescent groups. According to Fletcher, (2011) the association underlying antisocial behaviour, substance dependence and conduct disorder is genetically mediated along the externalizing spectrum. Additionally, vulnerability of traits to lack of restrains manifests as poor control of impulse. The framework posits that individuals with inadequate ability to control their impulses are highly expected to engage in reckless behaviour.Pearl, (1972) explains that, peer group is a common salient social context in adolescence. The significance of adolescence peer groups is that it enhances multiple processes, including duration individuals spend with peers. The stated susceptibility and significance of peer relationships provides that deviant peers are more likely to commit reckless behaviours than youths without deviant peers. However, Indigenous adolescents often suffer from shame and guilt, thus are less likely to involve in peer risks. Adolescents who are overprotected by their family peers are likely to follow the course of the family members.

Familial Risk

(Family history strongly predicts subsequent reckless behaviour during adolescence)The characteristics of a family may influence reckless adolescent behaviour. Scholars argue that if an individual is raised in a reckless-behaving family, he will grow up into the same as a response to adapt to a hostile environment (Ellis, Shirtcliff, Boyce, Deardorff & Essex, 2011). Inadequate parental and low maternal involvement expectations are associated with the use of drugs, sexual debut and delinquency.

Essentially, adolescents with lenient parents exhibit elevated levels of reckless behaviour. Moreover, youths whose parents condone violent behaviour, drug use, and smoking are most likely to follow suit. In essence, family history strongly predicts subsequent reckless behaviour during adolescence and some of the risks may be genetically instigated.

School Risk(Less association with educational institutions contributes to reckless behaviour)

Youths spend considerable time in school settings and their performance and perception in school provides significant implications of reckless behaviour. Edmonds (1979) states that poor performance in school predicts drug use, early sexual activity and delinquent behavior. Youths with problems of conduct are likely to perform poorly at school which may lead to reckless behaviour.

Contrastingly, attachment and success in school are related to reducing involvement in reckless behaviour, providing that strong bonds with school may protect against various behavioural characteristics. Indigenous adolescents suffer from guilt and shame and are more likely to drop out of school. As elaborated by Edmonds, (1979) less association with educational institutions contributes to reckless behaviour such as drug use and irresponsible sexual behaviour.

Community Risk

(Community disorganization exposes adolescents to reckless behaviours)

The low socio-economic and disorganization of neighborhoods in the community influences various types of reckless behaviour. Low socioeconomic indicators such as poor housing, poverty and overcrowding are related to drug use, delinquency and risky sexual behaviour. However, no research has provided a clear relationship between disadvantaged socioeconomic status and reckless behaviour. Subsequently, disorganized neighborhoods associated with dense population, physical deterioration and residential mobility expose adolescent groups to high risks of illegal drug trafficking and high crime rates (Matthews, 2000).

Matthews further explains that models of health behaviour assert that psychological problems expose Indigenous adolescents to violence, sexual activities and drug use. This is due to discrimination and stigmatization in the society which influences their perceptions and vulnerability. Thus, they are likely to engage in problem behaviour as predicted by their health cognition.

Relation among Developmental Variation, Risk Domain and Cumulative Risk(Risk factors affect development variations in reckless behaviour)

Family environment and genetics seek to provide etiological explanations of reckless behaviour unquestionably and generalize the multiple pathways and complexity of adolescent behaviour. Risk factors affect behaviour problem in multiple ways. For instance, positive perceptions on sexual activities may precede and affect sexual debut directly.

Likewise, deviant peers association have a direct impact on one’s behaviour as risk factors indirectly impact reckless behaviour. For example, disorganization of the community provides transition difficulties of pro-social values from families to offspring (Fagan, 2004). Thus, residing in disorganized neighborhoods results in poor family management which is a precursor for reckless adolescent behaviour.

Conclusion(Ensure research collaborations focus on various domains of reckless behaviour)

The greatest potential health complications of adolescent results from behaviours they willingly engage in such as delinquency, reckless driving, risky sexual behaviour and substance use. The literature discussed provides evidence on how these reckless behaviours develop during adolescence. Consequently, there is strong evidence associating multiple risk factors to reckless behaviour. Though not all, risk factors such as disadvantaged socioeconomic status may result in reckless behaviours.

Unfortunately, practice and research has treated adolescent reckless behaviours as independent, with minimal consideration of their interconnections. Perhaps, the absolute danger is that problem behavior research is classified into several domains. Thus, these classifications do not provide in depth details on the interrelationship between these risk factors and reckless behavior. In conclusion, there is urgent need to ensure research collaborations focus on various domains of reckless behaviour and promote positive adolescent development.

Chapter 3: Research Design Method

Protection of Human Subjects

All research activities involving human subjects within this project were reviewed and approved by the Charles Sturt University Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC). Charles Sturt University subscribes to the basic ethical principles in the conduct of research involving human subjects as set forth by the Australian Research Council. The HREC ensures the protection of human subjects in research. The HREC has the responsibility and authority to review, approve, disapprove, or require changes in research activities involving human subjects. This policy applies to all research studies conducted at Charles Sturt University, regardless of whether the project is funded externally, internally, or receives no funding support.

Instruments Used in Data Collection

The study adapted Achenbach and Rescorla’s (2001) Youth Self-Report for Ages 11-18 to assess the adolescent behaviour in students aged between 15-18 years ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Achenbach</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>3</RecNum><IDText>The Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms &amp; Profiles.</IDText><DisplayText>(Achenbach &amp; Rescorla, 2001)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>3</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”v2wravw5fezpf8eweeu5pzeg9e5s5xf2w0a0″ timestamp=”1413939135″>3</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Achenbach, T.</author><author>Rescorla, L. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms &amp; Profiles.</title></titles><dates><year>2001</year></dates><pub-location>Burlington</pub-location><publisher>University of Vermont, Research Centre for Children, Youth and Families </publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001). The YSR Report is a commonly used self-report measure for the youth which is utilized for the assessment of behavioural and emotional problems between the ages 11 to 18 thus making it accurate in this study case. In the study’s case the YSR Report utilized three forms of measurement i.e. social interactions and relationships, aggressive behaviour, emotional behaviour, academic engagement and reckless behaviour.

Each of the 38 close ended questions were scored on a five-point Likert scale (interpreted as 1=Never, 2 = Rarely, 3 = Sometimes, 4 = Often, 5 = Always) for each of the categories assessing adolescent behaviours in students between the ages of 15 and 18 ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Vreugdenhil</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>4</RecNum><IDText>The ability of YSR scales to predict DSM/DISC-C psychiatric disorders among incarcerated adolescents</IDText><DisplayText>(Vreugdenhil, van den Brink, Ferdinand, Wouters, &amp; Doreleijers, 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>4</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”v2wravw5fezpf8eweeu5pzeg9e5s5xf2w0a0″ timestamp=”1413939135″>4</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Vreugdenhil, C.,</author><author>van den Brink, W.</author><author>Ferdinand, R</author><author>Wouters, L</author><author>Doreleijers, T.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The ability of YSR scales to predict DSM/DISC-C psychiatric disorders among incarcerated adolescents</title><secondary-title>European Child &amp; Adolescent Psychiatry</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>European Child &amp; Adolescent Psychiatry</full-title></periodical><pages>88-96</pages><dates><year>2006</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Vreugdenhil, van den Brink, Ferdinand, Wouters, & Doreleijers, 2006). A combination of the total scores obtained from responses and the 38 close ended questions of the web-based questionnaire to come up with a standardized score demonstrating that high scores illustrated high risks for deteriorated adolescent behaviour.

Social interactions and relationship experience were demonstrated as responding to ‘sometimes’ at a base of 3 on the Likert scale to the question “I hang around with kids who get into trouble and I get teased a lot.” Aggressive behaviour were defined at a score of 5 on the Likert scale as getting into many fights, students being mean to others and destroying things that belong to others.

In terms of emotional behaviour a minimal number scored a 5 with a majority being clustered at point 3 on the Likert scale in terms of feeling lonely, feeling confused and feeling guilty. Coming to academic engagement, very few students scored a 5 with reference to cheating in academics, not finishing the work they started and having difficulty paying attention. Most of the scored responded on a scare of 2 to the above considerations.

When it came to analysis of reckless behaviour credibility of collected results was questionable as most of the answers analysed scored 1 on the Likert scale with a response to experimentation with drugs, breaking of rules both at home and school and finally drinking alcohol without parental approval. Social demographic variables that included age, gender and cultural identity were instrumental in establishing perceived outcome of behaviour in a student with specified emphasis on the cultural identity of a student to have a link with how they tackle situations.

The idea of risk ought to imply probability, not certainty. There should be at least a chance that risk will not materialize, that the undesirable behaviour or outcome will not occur. In respect to youth behaviour, the fact that an individual may display problems, does not mean the event has already happened, nor a certainty about the future course of events in a person’s life.

References

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Child and adolescent health

The two most important factors influencing adolescent’s developments are psychological and environmental factors. As they grow, they are influenced by environmental factors such as religion, culture, Schools and religion. The psychological factors that influence their development includes cognitive and emotional factors (Hall & Braverman, 2014).

In the western society, what is missing that would benefit health promotion for the adolescents is a focused attention on the diseases most adolescents experience, and the risk factors with their root causes. Moreover, another missing factor in the western society is emphasis on prevention since mostly they concentrate on curing or treatment than prevention, yet prevention is cost effective (Merrick, 2014).

The health problems faced by the adolescents impact their health and wellness in several ways in their lifetime. An adolescent who uses tobacco, has unhealthy eating behavior, uses alcohol and other drugs, has inadequate exercise or engages in sexual behaviors that may result to sexually transmitted infections’ and unwanted pregnancy may negatively impact their lives (Hall & Braverman, 2014). Some of the effects of the health problems faced by the adolescents which may impact their health and wellness include lung cancer, obesity or underweight, high blood pressure, and even contracting the incurable HIV virus or being early mothers.

There are several areas that must be addressed when taking sexual history of adolescents. According to Hal & Braverman, (2014), “5 Ps” are used as a general guide for taking the sexual history of adolescents.

Partners- questions should ask the sex, number and concurrency, sex partners of the adolescents

Practices-the nurse should explore sexual activity types that the adolescent pained engages in such as oral, anal and anal sex

Protection- the questions should ask about the teenager’s use condoms and the circumstances making it easier or harder to use he condoms

Past history of STD-the nurse should ask about the STD history of the teenager. These includes whether the teens has ever contracted the STDs in Pregnancy.

Prevention-lastly, the nurse should ask the teenager whether they want to be pregnant and discuss the future and current contraceptives (Hall & Braverman, 2014).

In conclusion, psychological and environmental factors are the two most important factors that influence adolescent’s developments. Focused attention on the diseases experienced by the adolescents and emphasis on prevention is lacking in the western society. Moreover, there are several health problems adolescents face that impact their health and wellness in several ways in their lifetime. Lastly, when taking sexual history, one need to consider the partners, practice, and protection, past history of STD and prevention.

References

Hall, C., & Braverman, P. K. (2014). Hot topics in adolescent health. man, P. K. (2014). Hot topics in adolescent health.

Merrick, J. (2014). Child and adolescent health yearbook 2013.

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Adolescent Sexuality in Teens

Adolescent sexuality and the resulting consequences have always been a concern to many societies across numerous generations. Teenage pregnancy, teenage parenthood and teenage infections with sexually transmitted diseases brings with it unique burdens not only to the adolescent affected, but also the society as a whole.

In North America, every year more than 45000 teenagers aged 19 and below become pregnant (Martin, Park, & Sutton, 2002). These rates have dropped compared to their recent peak in 1990, with the decline said to be a result increased use of contraceptives amongst the youth. Nevertheless, these adolescent pregnancy rates range from about 50 percent to 550 percent more than the rates in other European societies (Darroch, Singh, & Frost, 2001). Every year 1 in every four sexually experienced teens (3 million teens) contract sexually transmitted disease and the teen pregnancy result in over two hundred thousand abortions each year. For those who carry their pregnancy to term, Eighty-three percent occur out of wedlock. Even in controlled studies adolescent mothers have been found to have lower education attainment levels.

The most disturbing thing, however, is the evidence that the burden of adolescent parenthood accrues the greatest impact to members of the next generation. Problems normally start at birth: Documented evidence have shown that pregnant adolescents risk giving birth weight baby and these children of adolescent mothers are more likely to exhibit poor cognitive functioning and school adjustment than children born to older mothers. In adolescents, researchers have found massive delinquency, failure and risk for early parenthood amongst children of adolescent mothers.

Teen Sexuality and Pregnancy Prevention amongst Adolescents

              If sexuality is a lightning rod in the community, then adolescent sexuality reflects that point where the charges are highest and most unstable. There is tension within societies around the meaning of adolescent sexuality either as a marker or moral decay or as a normal, healthy and natural growth process. The culture revolving around adolescent sexuality has relied heavily on sex education as a preventive measure. There are two opposing line of theory that had been developed earlier. One perspective stated that on a simple empirical basis, a sizeable percentage of adolescents become sexually active before reaching 18 years. It further states that educating them about the nature of sexual and its consequences would be one of the most effective means of curbing teenage pregnancies. In this perspective, teenage pregnancy is best prevented by accepting a role for teenage sexual activity as healthy, but certainly requiring direct and open discussions, accompanied by moral prescriptions.

The other view posits that any educative activity that was based on the assumption that adolescents may become sexually active as teens cannot help but implicitly support such behavior. Thus, “ explicit” sex education that includes teaching in topics such as birth control would lead to an increase in the view of adolescents on sexual activity as a viable option. Even though, explicit sex education programs might not necessarily encourage such behaviors, they were perceived as at least providing a “nod” suggesting that it is expected. Explicit sex education was see at worst as suggesting that sexual activity is a normative behavior to naïve teenagers who would have otherwise not considered it. At a minimum, educational programs have been seen as reducing the teenager’s sense that sexual activity is universally seen by adults as inappropriate before marriage or adulthood. In either case, programs like these were seen as likely to increase the levels of teenage sexual activity, with a very likely chance that these increases would lead to higher rates of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancies as well.

Prevention Programs that work- Common elements

              There has been one approach to sexual education programs that have been effective. It combines educational material with a notable amount of skills that revolve around assertive and sexual behaviors. For example, skill based prevention measures against HIV have been implemented in Colorado schools and has been shown to lead to contribute to increasing the use of condoms reduce number of multiple sexual partners. Similarly, a successful HIV prevention study in which the education program used included training in social skills was compared to education only approach, and found the latter clearly superior.

Research has also shown that combining of information-based programs with other development oriented programs did much better than interventions that focused on information alone in reducing irresponsible sexual behavior and teenage pregnancy rates. Interventions that seek to develop skills in self-efficacy together with the provision of information did much better than programs that provide information alone. Programs that teach about safe sex, while placing a lot of emphasis on responsibility and pride in decision making also seem to do better than programs that only teach safer sex behaviors (Jemmott & Fong, 1998). Finally, programs that narrowly focus on abstinence only are yet to yield any findings. The interpretation of these findings is that emotional and social development components of these prevention programs function as catalysts that help leverage the impact of abstinence or education-based approaches.

The idea of preventing adolescent pregnancies, repeat pregnancies, or failures in parenting, by focusing on something else other than sexual behavior may at first seem to be avoidant, foolish or hopelessly indirect. However, on a closer look of research done on adolescent sexual behavior show that this approach may yield much better results than programs that focus solely on sexual behaviors. It has long been recognized that irresponsible sexual activity tends not to happen in isolation, to occur together with higher levels of substance abuse. This approach states that it makes less sense to view a single behavioral problem in isolation; rather, the problem should be seen as part of a unified syndrome that has an underlying risk manifesting itself in many different forms (Bell, 1986). This approach is thought to apply to patterns of delinquent behavior even in adulthood and starts to shed some light into the research findings discussed above.

The impact of programmatic interventions on behaviors such as adolescent sexuality, start to be more plausible if we understand teenage sexual behavior as reflecting underlying problems that might lead to the emergence of a host of other problematic behaviors. In short, seeing an adolescent as a “whole person” may be fundamental in solving the problem.

A lot can be learned from this programs and research that address teenage sexual behavior. The first is that adolescent pregnancy prevention is possible byways that may seem to be very indirect routes. A lot of evidence has emerged showing that by assisting teenagers to achieve educational success and be in control of their fertility, we are preventing teenage pregnancy in the coming generation. The most important implication is that currently there are several tools that can be used to prevent negative consequence of teenager’s sexual behavior.

It may make little sense to think that giving extensive sex education will lower teenage pregnancy rates; it seems equally not viable that focusing on abstinence without looking at the broader aspects of social development will have an effect. Long-term interventions can help by helping the youth to have a higher sense of connection to the larger community, for example, by increasing their sense of self-efficacy, assertiveness, their impulse control and their hope about the future. Teens who are craving for a sense of connection and intimacy are more likely to engage in sexual behavior for which they are not ready for (Allen, 2002). The use of the nutritional model may be particularly appropriate here as these teenagers may be starving for a place within the social world and a sense of connection to the broader society.

In short, when we focus on the development of a teenager as a whole person may precisely target those behaviors and developmental factors that are directly connected to preventing risky sexual behavior and its consequences. These programs are likely to build the capacity of youth and can greatly increase their motivation and skill at avoiding risky sexual behavior (Kirby & Coyle, 1997) even if they may not be addressing sexual behavior directly. By giving the youth opportunity to talk about their feelings, interests and concerns about sexuality, as well as practice negotiation and decision making skills, we will be enabling them to develop their moral framework about sexuality.

References

Allen, J. P. (2002). Observed Autonomy And Connection With Parents And Peers As Predictors Of Early Adolescent Sexual Adaptation. Paper presented at the Biennial Meetings of the Society for Research in Adolescence, New Orleans, LA.

Bell, R. Q. (1986). Age Specific Manifestations in Changing Psychosocial Risk. In D. C. Farran & J. D. McKinney (Eds.), The concept of risk in intellectual and psychosocial development. New York: Academic Press.

Darroch, J. E., Singh, S., & Frost, J. J. (2001). Differences in teenage pregnancy rates among five developed countries: the roles of sexual activity and contraceptive use. Family Planning Perspectives, 33(6), 244-250.

Jemmott, J. B., III, Jemmott, L. S., & Fong, G. T. (1998). Abstinence and safer sex HIV risk-reduction interventions for African American adolescents. Jama: Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(19), 1529-1536.

Kirby, D., & Coyle, K. (1997). School-based programs to reduce sexual risk-taking behavior. Children & Youth Services Review, 19(5-6), 415-436.

Martin, J. A., Park, M. M., & Sutton, P. D. (2002). Births: Preliminary Data for 2001. National Vital Statistics Reports, 50, Number 10.

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Understanding adolescence: Current developments in adolescent psychology

Children and young people in their life development pass through various stages that have mental problems. Some of these problems result from self-assessment about life. When one finds that the kind of life that he or she is living, is rather below her expectation tend to be faced by depression emotions that they seek to eliminate. In case from their thoughts one thinks that he or she is leading a life that is higher relatively to his or her friends, there is the likelihood of the person to grow to be proud. Mostly, the problems that affect family at a large in the children result from negative feelings about themselves. Some of the behaviours that young people develop through these development stages are such as disobedience, drug abuse, delayed duties, poor academic performances, and low self-esteem amongst other emotional problems (Freeman, 1985, p. 321).

From the case study, Ben is encountered undergoing psychological problem that have caused an alarm to the whole family. These problems are far from external causes, they are problems that he has built for himself through thought. He is pessimistic about the future and this has brought to him much stress, he sees no need to work hard in class work, he is engaged in drug and substance abuse and disobedient. Bad peer influence has contributed a lot in the behavioural changes of ben. The only remedy to ben’s problems is counsel him I an effort to input positive thought in his mind.

Systematic approach of tackling families and their children problems involve family based approach such as parent training. Parents could be trained on how to approach their children to realize their emotional problems they may be undergoing and try to reach them as per their capacity. The problem of drug abuse could be dealt with by parents’ commitment to free their children from drug abuse (Adams, 1968, p. 67). Parents create drug-free environment if they act as role models by not engaging in drug abuse. It will be very hard to convince a young person to refrain from drugs if you abuse drugs. In the case of Ben, his parents need to embrace a systematic psychology therapy to make him avoid being involved in drug abuse by acting as role models to him.

Central to the cognitive view of people is the idea that they are actively trying to make sense of their environment by imposing order and meaning in the things they encounter. Cognitive explanations of the behaviour are found within the ways in which Ben organise and process information that is relevant to the particular methods of acting. In the case study, we could only recognise the fate of Ben by engaging in efforts to study the causes of what make him behave in a differently way. The idea that Ben is born by old couple contributes and in addition, very busy parents, contributes to a lack of parental love.

Ben’s situation could also be analysed through creative approach. Creative approach in working with young people to build coherent intervention entails an analytical examination of the problems and gathering of various ideas about solving it. The ideas on how to solve the emotional problems could come from experience of the parent. The outcome of a particular psychological problem that Ben has ever been exposed to could guide his parents in solving a related matter at hand (Myers, 2004, p.266).

Integrating creative, cognitive behaviour and systematic approach comprises of merging all these three techniques of solving emotional problems, to a strong design of solving psychological problems. This model may take several routes in efforts to make it realistic. The very first plan in integration of different psychological approaches is common factors. The common factors plan of integration tries to judge the core elements that different approaches have in common.

The merit of common factors approach is that, it emphasis on therapeutic actions that have been demonstrated to be the most effective. This helps to analyse Ben’s emotional problem based on common elements found in all the three methods, therefore, more efficient model in working with Ben to build a coherent intervention (Neenam & Palmer, 2012, p. 56). Young people are taught in a way to conduct. By showing Ben on what is right and wrong, you build on his character. A good character is a great contribution to the society. Young people create the potential future generation and influencing a young person positively adds value in the generation to come.

The other method to psychological approach integration is through technical eclecticism. Through technical eclecticism, Ben’s parents are guided to picking what has worked best for others previously. In solving a mental problem, Ben’s parents would try to look at the past instances of a similar case and adopt the same model of resolution that was past adopted. The model could be improved if the latter situation is more complicated than the previous situation.

The improvement on the design of solving mental problems could be through buying more ideas from every psychological approach. The situation of poor academic performance by ben because of lack of positive attitude could be solving through both systematic and cognitive behavioural approach. Through cognitive behavioural approach, the parent would put himself in the standards of ben and class work through critically obtaining real facts from him, this would help to guide the parent come up with viable ideas about the problem resolution (Mclean & woody, 2001, p.671).

Theoretical integration focuses on merging all small elements of theories in each of the approach and tries to come up with one deep level design. This model arrived at, bears all material facts from all the methods and, therefore, more effective in solving emotional problems. It is believed to be effective than constituent therapies alone. Assimilative integration is another route in integrating different psychological approaches and therapies.

Assimilative integration is a model that would a view from either of the approach to deal with the current problem on the table. It is constructed by assimilating different ideas from different methods in one design that can solve a specific psychological problem.

Parental love enables children to grow healthy emotionally. It helps them avoid emotional worries about their love security. Any child, who grows up in an environment that lacks the touch of love, is likely to improve inhumane behaviours. Some of inhumane behaviour that a person may develop because of lack of parental love is such as misconduct for duty of care, high negligence and immoral behaviours.

Parental control to a child is very essential in the child’s development. Parental control contributes to instil moral virtues in a child, which he grows to mature while to recognize. From a research, psychologists argue that children that grow up under high control are more intelligent than those that grow in a less disciplined environment. This is true because disciplined children rarely waste time in unconstructive engagements; hence, they are more constructive in nature (Ginsberg, 1964, p.551).Ben is found in a family where he is the only child in their family. This has exposed ben to a lonely life. Because of the loneliness that he is undergoing, he suffers from increased mental thinking due to lack of business of friends to share with.

A lot of thought and quietness without a person to share with may amount to stress. A stressed person is prone to some illnesses such as low self-esteem; lack of appetite and poor performing habits is no someone to motivate him (Oxington, 2005, p.99). Systematic dealing of Ben’s loneliness life could help him. The remedy to a lonely life could be by providing a person with an interactive environment. Interactive environment social groups such as ball clubs, study groups, religious groups amongst the others. It is the responsibility of his parents to ensure that Ben interact with a peer group that impact positively to his life (Bierman, 2004, p. 178).

By integrating the cognitive behaviour, systematic and creative approaches in working with Ben, reliable model of solving psychological problem is realized. A model to solving a problem is said to be effective if it achieves its purpose in a way that it leaves no harm. A model also is said to be effective if it can achieve the target on which is set for without many struggles. An effective model is complex enough to reach all forms of psychological problems. From the case study we are provided with, parents to Ben think of visiting a psychiatrist to help them, solve the problem affecting their son. Ben bears the information that a psychiatrist would use to help Ben from his psychological problems. The parents can perform what the psychiatrist would perform only that they need technological skills to conduct it. Through systematic approach of psychology, parents ought to be trained on how to face and solve psychological problems facing Ben. Parental training is a systematic approach psychological treatment of problem solving techniques.

An integrated psychological model covers the whole range of therapeutic models and professionalism. Psychological treatment provision is a multi-professional and multi-agency endeavour. Psychiatrist, psychotherapists, psychologists, counsellors, nurses, social workers and many other organizations are involved all of whom need to communicate and coordinate effectively with one another. Psychological therapies are fundamental to primary mental health care and can make a highly significant contribution to the user satisfaction. Its recommendations are based on the range of well-established scientific evidence but also on professional consensus and views of service users (Feinstem & Kuumba, 2006, p. 249).

It would be a good idea to visit a psychiatrist on a psychological problem. One of the main characteristics of a managed counselling service is that it can be proactive in helping the psychological counselling and testing to conduct health needs assessments and implement the changes to services required, as a result of it (Hearley, 2012, p.107). In other words, if counselling is in the system it can be effective both clinically and organizationally.

However, paradoxically, if there is a lack of counselling services not even an embryonic condition for such, there is often an absence of knowledge at the strategic level about the basic principles of treatment. Psychology and counselling are different professions. Counselling service managers can equally lead the provision of integrated psychological therapy services in primary care or remain in parallel arm (Dorfman & hersen, 2001, p. 455). Although, there is professional difference between psychology and counselling, their main goal is almost the same. Psychiatrists are psychology professionals that help one restore his or her normal state of performance and perception of various issues.

It is important to note that Ben has engaged in some practices because of the impact from peers. Some practices such as drugs and substance abuse are adopted due to influence from other people. Ben has engaged in drug abuse to keep in touch with his friends, keeping away from them and not supporting would mean, unfriending them. Friends fill up the lives with joy, acceptability and self-confidence.

Friends are the source of motivation and power to lead a happy life, nevertheless friendship at time may be running. Ben and his friends engage themselves in drug abuse as a way of passing their leisure time. This bad practice results from efforts to keep friends. It is the mandate of the parents to observe the company of friends that Ben interact with and pass to him a word of advice if necessary. If the friendship is constructive, show parental support on it, if the friendship behaves kind it is destructive, the parents should immediately discourage it (Granot, 2005, p. 115).

By integrating different psychological methods, a design that is cost effective is achieved. The model is said to be cost effective if it is considerate in nature. Both the Ben’s parent and psychiatrist that are using the model should experience a mutual benefit from it. No party, either that seeks to help or the one that utilise the model to support should be in the worse side. The design is flexible enough if it is able to reach all the parties efficiently at their standards. Any matters arising during problem solving, should as well have their appropriate way of dealing with them. This is all that comprises of an efficient model (Cain, 1969, p.23).

Creativity borrows a lot from psychology. Cognitive psychologist tries to build up cognitive models of the information processing that goes on inside people’s mind. A cognitive model of the memory system would suggest that it has two main components, one for dealing with the information that we need to process now. This brain based psychology where psychiatrist tries to measure your brain level of adopting things. It is after this critical brain analysis that the psychologist gets to know how to approach Ben in different brain dealings (Sigston, 1996, p 103).

A clear strength of the cognitive behavioural therapy approach to depression is its grounding in cognitive theory of depression that has been subject to extensive empirical testing over several decades. This has brought the original theory into focus and led to important elaborations and changes (Luxmoore, 2006. P. 17). The cognitive model of depression that contextualizes cognitive behavioural therapy exemplifies the diathesis, stress approach to psychopathology. This is one of the best methods in dealing with stress, as searches for the reason of depression in an individual. Cognitive model tries to examine the sources of the stress to an individual after which it gathers information about on various solutions to the stress.

In the case study, Ben is face within a situation full of depression. The pressure on ben is because of the parental requirement from him that he struggles to reach. Another source of depression comes in where he tries to impress his friends at the expense of his morality. That does not close the list of Ben in terms of being stressed up; Ben is in a depression following poor academic performance in the class. Poor academic performance is caused by being not very serious with his class duties due to engagement in some unproductive activities. Cognitive behavioural approach would guide his parent to try to create a positive attitude in ben that would enable him have a positive attitude toward his undertakings.

Unhealthy social conduct amounts to a psychological problem. This could be dealt with by integrating the three approaches to psychology. An integrated model has all the appropriate ways in ensuring a well Ben’s psychological environment is maintained. By adopting an integrated model that combines the three approaches to solving psychological problems affecting Ben, an efficient way of tackling with social misconducts is realized. It is very vital to note that for a goal to be achieved effort must be made. In solving Ben’s psychological problem, it is very important to create a conducive environment for implementing measures to solve the problem.

Creation of a good environment is achieved by equipping oneself with the entire facts amount to the source of psychological problems. It is also appropriate to approach Ben wisely. Every person does not want be seen as problematic even he or she is in a problem. One best method of creating a conducive environment in Ben is by showing him how importance he is. Once Ben is told about his necessity in the society, it becomes very easily to attack him. By attacking Ben, it means to put effort in counselling or executing the most appropriate measure in solving the psychological problem affecting Ben. For an objective to be achieved, there is should a mechanism to achieve the goal. This mechanism comprises of the method to follow in reaching the solution of the problem.

By integrating approaches to understanding psychological matters, it creates effective models in solving psychological problems that affect Ben. It is easy to approach Ben for correction than an adult. Young people are quick learners and hence, they grasp things at a higher level as compared to the older ones. When it comes to parental guidance, use of disciplinary measures that are fierce is also encouraged; some children and young people are very naughty to change from a bad behaviour. In such a situation, a parent is advice to put into measures things as punishment in controlling the behaviour of their children (Morgan, 1991, p.113). Through correcting children by punishment, they learn faster on how to avoid such a mistake again, unlike just by a mere word of mouth. Due to fear of undergoing punishment, it would very hard for Ben to repeat the same mistake.

The usefulness of integrating cognitive behavioural, systematic and creative approaches in working with Ben to build a coherent intervention has a great contribution in improving his life. It tries to come up with different and effective approaches to deal with psychological problems affecting Ben. Nevertheless, improved models of dealing with psychological problems may fail at times; this is because some psychological problems have some source in biological development of a person. As a young person develops, especially in adolescent, he may develop another psychological problem such as pride that is very hard to deal within integrated cognitive behavioural, systematic and creative approaches.

The growth of cognitive behavioural perspective reflects the impact of a more generally cognitive view of psychology. The cognitive approach focuses on how our behaviour is affect, by the way, in which we take in, mentally represent, process, and store information. Psychologists who take a cognitive approach suggest that there be several ways, in which children learn to be aggressive. Children may see others being reward for acting aggressively and then might be rewarded themselves for doing the same.

Aggressiveness might also be more likely if a child constantly hears that other people can be dangerous and that aggression is the only way to deal with threats, disagreements and another conflict situation. In dealing with the emotional problems affecting Ben, it will be vital to try to examine his logical understanding of the issues; this would help to try change Ben’s way of perceiving an understanding some life aggregate issues (Ashworth, 2000, p.253).

Cognitive approach in solving a mental problem has a significant contribution in decision. It could help Ben change a negative mentality to a positive and composed mind. Psychologist who takes a cognitive approach suggests that mental processes help us to understand many kinds of individual and social behaviours, from decision-making and problem solving to interpersonal attraction and intelligence. The cognitive approach is especially important in the field of cognitive science, in which researchers from psychology and philosophy study intelligent systems in the human (Gallagler, 2011, p 13). Generally, cognitive approach refers to those therapeutic techniques aiming to change or modify Ben’s thoughts or beliefs. Beliefs are assumptions about life values that a person creates.

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