Precision Agriculture

Today vitality sources have turn out to be scarcer and so further valuable. In conjunction with the expansion during the last century, the necessity for finding new, further economical, and property methods of agricultural cultivation and food manufacturing has turn into further crucial. To facilitate this method, we are designing, constructing, and evaluating a system for exactness agriculture that gives farmers with helpful data regarding the crop prediction based on NPK values of soil, the water offer, and additionally, the final data of the diseases in a user_friendly, simply accessible manner.

Our system aims to create cultivation and irrigation extra economical as a outcome of the farmer is prepared to make higher informed choices and so save time and sources. The variety of location and environmental condition results upon agricultural cultivation, together with different environmental parameters over time makes the farmer’s call making technique extra refined and wishes further empirical data. Applying wi-fi sensing element networks for statement climate parameters and mixing this data with a user-customized service may modify farmers to make use of their knowledge in associate diploma economical manner in order to extract the only outcomes from their agricultural cultivation.

The system will scale supported each farmer’s demands and additionally the ensuing ensemble of collected data may characterize a priceless useful resource for future use, additionally to its use for real-time choice creating. The look of the precision agriculture system incorporates a model resolution concerning the sensing factor platform and a customizable service which may be used in numerousKeywords”K-Nearest-Neighbour, Farmland, NPK sensor.

INTRODUCTION

As the world is trending into new technologies and implementations it’s a necessary goal to development up agriculture additionally. Several research has been wiped out the sector of agriculture. Most of comes signify using wi-fi sensor community gather information from completely totally different sensors deployed at diversified nodes and ship it by way of the wi-fi protocol. The collected knowledge provides knowledge concerning the numerous environmental elements such as NPK values of soil etc. Monitoring the environmental elements isn’t the entire answer to extend the yield of crops. There is vary of other factors that decrease productivity to a larger extent. In Republic of India around eightieth of individuals rely on farming. Sensible Agriculture is one among the solutions to the present draw back. To highlight options of this project includes NPK value of soil, water level, forecasting, canal dominant in each automatic affiliate degreed manual modes and each one these information is hold on and displayed in an exceedingly cell application. By dominant of those operations by a cellular that’s linked to the online and it’ll give greater performed by interfacing sensors, native area network, and so forth. consists of Machine Learning algorithm for crop prediction based mostly on NPK value.

PROPOSED SYSTEM

This project is implemented utilizing Arduino Micro-controller. Here we have a tendency for using Hardware like moisture sensor and Motor On and off switch. Here we’ve dynamically monitored agriculture parameters using IoT. The projected system consists of the Soil moisture sensor, Temperature sensor, fire detector, humidity sensor and NPK detector, Bluetooth module and Field telephone to store the information acquired from the farm. All the sensors are interfaced to Arduino. This system displays and records the values of temperature, soil moisture, Fire and moisturize level of the soil of the natural environment which are constantly updated so as to optimize them to realize most plant progress and prevention from illness. All this information is distributed via Bluetooth module to the sphere cell where we’ve designed android APP to monitor the parameters. This subject cell acts as a server. The user will continuously monitor and control the parameters as per his want. The Sensors are mounted on plywood where NPK detector is mounted contained in the soil and held beneath the bottom level. The NPK sensor will examine nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium quantity within the soil and based mostly on that the system can predict which crop is beneficial. The moisture system is held which is prepared to sense the moisture level and switch the motor on and off consequently. Firing device is used to sense the fire existence within the area if the hearth gets exist the buzzer will constantly make noisy. The disease prediction will be analyzed based mostly on evaluation of the parameters comes from the sensor consequently.

ADVANTAGES

It protects the crops by notifying the farmer regarding weather adjustments and the probabilities of disease assaults. The system can facilitate the farmer to get info on fire exist within the field. The system can predict the profitable crop based mostly on NPK Water Conservation “Weather predictions and soil moisture sensors enable for water use solely when needed. Remote Monitoring “Local and industrial farmers will monitor a quantity of fields in a quantity of areas across the globe from a web connection. selections are made in real-time and from anyplace.

ALGORITHM USED

A.DefinitionK nearest neighbors is simplest algorithm which shops all functonal knowledge points and classifies a brand new sample primarily based on a similarity measure (eg.Euclidean distance functions). Its a non-parametric algorithm used to foretell the classification of the new pattern level. Classification is done by a majority vote to its neighbors. The data is assigned to the category which has essentially the most closest neighbors. As you enhance the number of nearest neighbors, the value of k, accuracy would possibly increaseB.Algorithm steps Let m be the number of coaching information samples. Let p be an unknown level. 1. Store the training samples in an array of knowledge factors arr[], this implies every factor of this array represents a tuple (x, y). 2. for i=0 to m: Calculate Euclidean distance d(arr[i], p). 3. Make set S of K smallest distances obtained. Each of these distances correspond to an already categorised information point. Return the bulk label among S.C.Pseudo Code1. Load the training and test data 2. Choose the value of K 3. For each level in check information: – discover the Euclidean distance to all coaching information points – store the Euclidean distances in a list and type it – select the first k factors – assign a class to the check level primarily based on the overwhelming majority of courses present in the chosen points4. EndD.Mathematical Model S2={s, e, X, Y, F} Where,s = Initial State: Input information set without classificatione = End State: Classified datasetX = Input to the system. Here it is coaching and testing knowledge set in any suitable file format similar to XLS, CSV, ARFF, class attribute with the defined class Y = Output. Classified dataset as per outlined class F = Algorithm/Function used in this system. E. Algorithmic AnalysisWe have successfully completed the comparative analysis of varied algorithms and primarily based on that we have used the KNN(K-Nearest-Neighbors) algorithm for crop prediction using NPK values of soil. In Algorithmic Analysis we got KNN algorithm Accuracy as ninety one.8% i.e highest accuracy, So we have implemented a KNN algorithm in or project.

DATASET AND RESULTS

The dataset contains soil attributes together with macronutrients (N, P, K)A.datasetTable 1: Labelled Dataset(crop )Id Name nitrogen phosperous potassium1 Rice 10 20 02 Wheat 12 26 183 Maize 18 0 a hundred and forty four Sugarcane 20 10 55 Potato 8 18 266 Mustured a hundred 30 157 Jowar a hundred and twenty 60 08 Cotton 15 15 159 G-Hisrsutum 75 30 010 Groundnut 15 15 1511 Onion 15 15 1512 Banana 15 15 1513 Tomato 15 15 1514 Leafy Veg 15 15 1515 Redgram 4 2 1Table 2: Labelled Dataset(crop calendar)id crop season from to period1 Maize Kharif June(Beg) Dec(Beg) sowing2 Maize Rabi Jan(Beg) Jan (Beg) Harvesting three Wheat Rabi Oct (Beg) Dec (End) Sowing4 Wheat Rabi Feb (Beg) March(End) Harvesting5 Rice kharif May(Beg) Nov (Mid) Sowing 6 Rice Rabi Dec(Beg) Jan (Beg) Harvesting7 Redgram Kharif June(Beg) Dec(Beg) Sowing eight Redgram Kharif July(Beg) July (End) Sowing 9 Sugarcane Rabi Nov(Beg) Dec(End) Sowing 19 Sugarcane Rabi Oct(Beg) April(End) HarvestingB. Results We got the crop suitable for the soil depending on NPK values and crop calendar. The period can be related to it for sowing or harvesting of the crop. There are Various functionalities like the Fire sensor is alerted when fire is caught, Temperature and Humidity sensors for offering precautions and options for the diseases of various crops. VII. CONCLUSIONIn the suggest, a fully unique System Enabled: IoT based mostly mostly on Live observance Soil moisture has been deliberate utilizing Arduino. The sensors have high potency and accuracy in engaging the live knowledge of soil moisture. The system permits efficient soil, water, moisture, parameters have been observance and change utilizing IOT. This permits efficient crop prediction based mostly on NPK value, soil maintenance, and disease prevention mechanism. This overcomes the manual operations wanted to watch and preserve the agricultural farms. The system permits the farmer to go looking regarding the various maladies. Our goal is to develop a farmer-friendly agricultural system. Earlier, the farmer had to keep tons of vigil on his fields nevertheless with this project the time wasted in monitoring the fields has been lowered with the help of sensors and alert techniques which have been enforced therefore, the project has been created preserving both the farmer’s but as the setting in thoughts.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors wish to categorical and acknowledge honest because of Dr. J. S. Umale Sir and our seminar information Prof. S. R. Vispute Madam for assist and steerage for the useful ideas on totally different topics on a number of occasions.

REFERENCES

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As the world progresses and the inhabitants will increase Agriculture becomes more prominent

As the world progresses and the inhabitants will increase. Agriculture becomes extra prominent across the globe. By applying GIS in agriculture, it can profit these involved in farming. Making the industry increase and have many years of periodic growth. Before there was any type of farming, societies needed to gather crops and hunt. If the assets ever diminished they needed to proceed moving into new locations. But with the cultivation of land, it facilitated the situation making it attainable for people to settle in a single place.

The technology supplied can help many societies develop sooner food productivity for the required goods available on the market. This will prove essential because with the rise of the populace which is projected to grow to eleven billion by 2100. The growing demand for agricultural merchandise is being pushed, along with the issue of climate change, agriculture should be all the time distinguished to feed the planet, and GIS has the rights instruments for the job. Helping to increase higher productiveness of crops, decreasing using fertilizer, pesticides and water which in flip retains costs down.

With automation turning into more enhance as time passes changing into more quicker and more environment friendly. Farmers are adapting to this, and are utilizing machinery like drones, contour mapping, and sensors. They all let a farmer see what crops are more distinguished and are capable of see this as a outcome of the expertise permits a farmer to view how crops are capable of take up or mirror wavelengths of sunlight. Sensors on drones capture knowledge that helps agriculturists extra efficiently know what crops must be watered.

The same sensors can be put to the likes of tractors that the job to fertilize soil and it’ll allow them to see what crops are going to require nitrogen. Helping make decisions about what to plant, when to fertilize, and how a lot to irrigate. While sensors in the ground, which would possibly be in-field water detectors can better help agronomists pinpoint essentially the most outstanding time and rates for sectors of irrigation. GPS locators and self-steer applications allows tractors and implements to be more precise and less wasteful in the use of fertilizers, fuel and seeds. Which is a mixture of house and land based mostly info to find out the precise positions of data. This will permit to supply maps which will be useful for choice making. With this fields can be scouted for a wide selection of pests, and determination tools may be utilized on a website particular basis. Completely changing how ranchers oversee their farmland and animals as nicely. Satellites can identify nutrients and water in soil, like by no means done before. With additional enhancements in it, the equipment will ultimately be in a position to tailor choices on a meter to meter foundation. Sensors combine with genome figuring out units will give rise to a generation of intelligent farming that can be able to reply to its environment, to have the power to maximize their meals production and on the identical time diminishing the unfavorable results that might happen.Since these technologies require little or no human labor, farms at the moment are in a position to cultivate more acres of land with far much less labor; which means they will minimize costs even more in the lengthy term by applying it to their fields. GIS makes the process simpler, with production and time at all times being crucial, it helps every little thing to be delivered to shoppers in time. GIS is very useful in conventional map making, to plot issues like hearth hydrants along a road, or to draw boundaries, like the area of various crop fields on a farm. The real energy of it, lies in its capability to investigate multiple knowledge layers. This is the place it’s rising in want for various functions, similar to agriculture. It is a subject that might be a vital component available within the market and due to this fact need GIS functions. Examples of layers within the realm of agriculture would be a map exhibiting the variety of farm injuries by county, or the number of crop acres lost to flood by tax map parcel. But these are merely simple conditions. More complex spatial analyses for agriculture may compare variables like soil sort, flood, rainfall amount, illness, elevation to assist crop management, web site suitability, erosion, and topography. GIS might help a farmer adapt to these totally different variables, maximize crop manufacturing and monitor the health of particular person crops. Geographic Information Systems are extremely helpful in with the flexibility to map and project current and future fluctuation in precipitation as nicely. By mapping each geologic and geographic features, farmland scientists and farmers can work collectively to create more effective and environment friendly farming strategies; this might increaser food manufacturing in elements of the world which are struggling to supply sufficient for the individuals round them. It can also analyze soil data to determine out where crops ought to be planted, which are the best, and what are the most effective circumstances for soil to best profit plants. USDA is a free public useful resource that has applied GIS systems. It uses many variations in every of its sectors to best capture what a division specializes in. The USDA exhibits the amount, type and placement of crops within the United States. By using land use and primary food crop statistics, along with knowledge collected by satellites and cellular devices to establish areas in want and underlying causes of food insecurity. It helps protect crops, clear up problems, and provides farmers the data that they need.Drones, and satellites are used for remote sensing, which is the gathering of information about the earth’s floor by scanning the land from high altitudes. An example of a satellite tv for pc that does distant sensing is the Landsat eight, it captures 9 bands of the visible gentle spectrum which can be used to calculate components like insect infestation, nutrient deficiencies, and plant disease. In addition, it captures thermal infrared radiation. Depending on the surface temperature, the wavelengths emitted by several types of vegetation differ. The knowledge is transformed to seen digital imagery and may be utilized to general aims like plant disease detection and managing water. Remote sensing may additionally be applied to very specific goals like evaluating maturity of fruits. One of the best benefits of distant sensing is that it’s not invasive and doesn’t influence adverse the world being observed. The highly effective analytical capabilities of GIS offer an array of choices for visualizing farming circumstances, as nicely as measuring and monitoring the results of farm administration practices. Combined with distant sensing technology, GIS can be used to precisely decide and control inputs, saving preventive expense and lowering the quantity of harm to the soil. Simplifying what was once time consuming multistep processes.Due to fast advancements in technology many farms have gotten extra trendy, therefore utilizing computer systems for extra work. GIS has a crucial role in the automated field operations, or satellite tv for pc farming. Because of the knowledge that was gathered from remote sensors, and from sensors mounted directly on farm gear, farmers have bettered in the abilities to make decisions and in arranging their cultivation. Harvesters geared up with GPS monitoring items can measure crop yields together with crop high quality values like plant water content and chlorophyll ranges in actual time and at the actual location in the area from which they are harvested. They can map not solely topography and crop well being but assist clear up wider economic points in municipalities and concrete facilities which will stem from rural farming practices. Modern know-how might help remove pests and target agricultural chemical substances better will scale back the general injury to wildlife, decrease resistance and reduce costs. Farmers can access the GIS data on their lands; a program known as VegSpace and another called CropSpace, it permits farmers to interact with the information with out having GIS themselves, ask questions and interact with the information in addition to provide valuable on ground data that can’t be gathered through satellite.The future implications of GIS are incredible and immense in scope. Farming is getting smarter with the supply of superior applied sciences like precision gear, satellites, drones, sensors, geo-positioning techniques. By moving to a more technological geographic primarily based agricultural system people can make crop manufacturing significantly extra environment friendly and more sustainable. With using expertise within the global tradition at present it’s possible that in a couple of years GIS might be a precedence use for rural farmers in the growing world to raised help them grow crops, produce a great amount of food, and feed their households. A wider range of crops will be grown to meet the growing demand and will assist each in the subject and regulate crop storage. In addition, creating more environment friendly outdoor elevating to fulfill regulatory necessities and better welfare. This will assist meet the requirements of the market, that is finally pushed by shoppers and different buying and selling circumstances. More and extra farmers would be succesful of predict what various sorts of weathers could do to their crops, and therefore act upon it and transfer to raised locations. Learning how to irrigate primarily based on certain weather patterns and the out there resources. GIS has many uses, it continues to expand and grow in plenty of fields. It has built-in to many feature
s of the fashionable world. No strategy of financial reform can succeed and not utilizing a sustained and broad based agricultural improvement, which is critical for raising dwelling standards, assuring meals security and assuaging poverty; making a considerable contribution to the nationwide financial progress. The future growth in agriculture should come from the new technologies, and GIS will proceed to make innovations to benefit peoples’ day by day lives. By making use of GIS technology to their operations, agricultural operations can handle resources and duties extra effectively, devise knowledge portals that disseminate vast amounts of agricultural information and interactive maps, and assist farming communities.

Agriculture Sector in India: Trends, Issues and Challenges

Introduction

Agriculture is a critical sector of the Indian economic system. Though manufacturing and repair sector industries gained attention over the past couple of decades, agriculture remains to be an important contributor of development in India. Nearly two-thirds of India’s population depends instantly on agriculture for its livelihood. It meets the food necessities of the folks and produces several uncooked materials for industries.

From agricultural viewpoint, India has huge expanse of level land, wild climatic variations fitted to numerous types of crops, rich soils, plentiful sunshine and a long harvesting season (rabi and kharif).

Approximately, 140-145 million hectares of land is underneath agriculture. Post Independence, massive areas in India have been brought beneath irrigation however only one-third of the cropped area is definitely irrigated. There are many reasons answerable for the low productiveness of agriculture. Farming depends primarily upon monsoon rain and farmers own small pieces of land and grow crops primarily for consumption. Another cause for low productivity of agriculture is inadequate storage facilities for crop yield.

About one-third of land holdings are very small and fewer than one hectare in dimension. Due to small dimension of land holdings, fashionable method of cultivation can’t be used. Even today the farmers are using very old strategies, tools and implements for farming. Artificial ways of cultivation aren’t implemented in India. Because of various reasons like lack of awareness, most farmers do not use better quality of seeds, fertilizers and pesticides. There is lot of exploitation of marginal farmers.

There can also be low productiveness due to growing pressure on land and absence of financial institution credit score.

Agriculture contributes in foreign trade of our nation. India exports agricultural merchandise and earns foreign foreign money. Agricultural exports have helped India in earning valuable foreign trade and thereby enhancing economic development.

Objective

India is an emerging market and the objective of this project is to study the important position that the agricultural sector will play in the economic growth in India. Though greater than 70% of the population depends on the Indian agriculture, the productivity has decreased post independence space. Lot of emphasis is given on the service sector which has shown super progress in the earlier couple of years. It’s time now that insurance policies are launched to care for the different issues and challenges within the Agricultural sector.

Performance of agriculture sector in india

The agriculture sector in India has undergone significant adjustments within the form of decrease in share of GDP from 30 % in 1990-91 to 14.5 percent in 2010-11 indicating a shift from the traditional agrarian financial system towards a service dominated one. The identical is mirrored from the beneath Figure 1. This lower in agriculture’s contribution to GDP has not been accompanied by a matching discount within the share of agriculture in employment. About 52% of the total workforce continues to be employed by the farm sector which makes more than half of the Indian population dependant on agriculture for sustenance. However, non-farm actions additionally contributed to the expansion from rural economy.

Source: CSO
Figure 1: Sectoral Composition of GDP

“The average size of operational holdings in India has diminished progressively from 2.28 ha in 1970-71 to 1.55 ha in 1990-91 to 1.23 ha in 2005-06 (Figure 2). As per Agriculture Census 2005-06, the proportion of marginal holdings (area lower than 1 ha) has elevated from 61.6 % in 1995-96 to 64.eight p.c in 2005-06. This is followed by about 18 percent small holdings (1-2 ha.), about sixteen percent medium holdings (more than 2 to less than 10 ha.) and less than 1 p.c giant holdings (10 ha. and above).”(Reference #3)

Source: Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Agricultural Census Division, Ministry of Agriculture. Figure 2: Average dimension (ha) of holdings as per totally different Agriculture Census Because of increasing population, land fragmentation is increasing which is lowering availability of cultivated land space per household. Added to this, as a outcome of rising challenges in agriculture sector, this stays to be least contributor of employment alternatives in rural areas. Because of this additional employment alternatives in the non-farm and manufacturing sector (especially in agro based rural industries) need to be created. Because of this, individuals have to enhance their abilities in corresponding sectors to achieve employment. This means, increasingly employment opportunities could be created which shall be useful in making agriculture practical in a sustainable manner.

Figure three: Farms in rural India. Most farms in India are small plots such as in this image. “The growth performance of the agriculture sector has been fluctuating across the plan periods (Fig 4). It witnessed a growth fee of 4.8 per cent through the Eighth plan period (1992–97). However, the agrarian scenario noticed a downturn in the direction of the beginning of the Ninth plan interval (1997–2002) and the Tenth plan interval (2002–07), when the agricultural development fee got here all the way down to 2.5 p.c and a pair of.4 p.c respectively.

This crippling development price of 2.4 p.c in agriculture as in opposition to a robust annual average overall development fee of seven.6 per cent for the economic system during the tenth plan period was clearly a cause for concern. The trend fee of development in the course of the interval 1992-93 to 2010-11 is 2.8 % whereas the typical annual rate of development in agriculture & allied sectors-GDP throughout the identical interval is three.2 p.c.”(Reference 3).

Source: CSO
Figure four: Growth Rates: GDP (overall) and GDP (Agriculture & Allied Sectors)

Note: Figures are at 2004-05 costs.
Source: CSO.

Figure 5: Comparative Performance of Growth of GDP and Agri-GDP Government insurance policies in agriculture sector

The Indian authorities has employed a number of steps to enhance the situation of agriculture sector in the country.

Land Reforms:

Land reforms had been introduced. The government has inspired consolidation of land holdings to advertise use of recent farm machines. The government took lands of huge land homeowners away and redistributed to landless laborers. The authorities abolished the Zamindari System.

Public funding:

Modern methods of cultivation have been introduced in the nation. The government has improved on offering infrastructure facilities corresponding to irrigation, electrical energy and transportation. Agricultural gear similar to pesticides, pump harvesters, tractors, fertilizers were made obtainable to farmers. Constructing irrigation reservoirs has helped in supplying water for irrigation within the areas of water shortage. To guarantee a significant growth on this sector, the government is taking steps to provide the required infrastructure in terms of chilly storage, food grain storage, meals processing, refrigerated transported as the trade is estimated to be shedding 20% of its produce because of poor storage facilities. The governments have allowed international equity participation of as a lot as 51% in cold chain tasks.

Major policies

* The government has launched vital modifications in Incentive insurance policies and Input subsidies. Getting finance from banks was made simpler for the farmers. * The crop insurance was another step to guard the farmers towards losses brought on by crop failure on account of pure calamities like flood cyclone, drought etc. * High-yielding varieties of seeds, fertilizers and irrigation gave birth to Green Revolution. All these led to tremendous enhance within the manufacturing of crops.

Output subsidies
* Procurement-cum-distribution policies
* Minimum support prices announced by Commission for Agricultural Costs & Prices
* (CACP) during sowing
* Food Corporation of India (FCI) buys all of the grains supplied for sale at these prices

(Above factors are from class PPTs)

suggestions–new policy measure to assist agriculture sector

* The Eleventh Five Year Plan has highlighted such a holistic framework and suggested the following technique to lift agricultural output. * Rate of growth of irrigated space has to be doubled

* Water management, watershed improvement and rain water harvesting has to be improved * Degraded land to be reclaimed and focusing on soil high quality * Reducing the information gap by organizing awareness camps * Diversification of excessive worth outputs like fruits, vegetables, flowers however with sufficient measures to make sure meals security * Animal husbandry and fishery to be promoted

* Reforms in enhancing the incentive structure and functioning of markets * Provide quick access to credit score at reasonably priced rates

* Agriculture can impression poverty alleviation and rural growth with far reaching capacity. There are several areas of significance for the agriculture sector growth. These embody, increasing public sector investment in research, efficient transfer of expertise along with institutional reforms in the analysis set as much as make it more accountable and geared towards conservation of land, water and organic resources, the development of rain fed agriculture, supply, the event of minor irrigation, timely and adequate availability of inputs, help for advertising infrastructure, a rise in circulate of credit notably to the small and marginal farmers.

* Achievement of meals and diet security and alleviation of poverty and unemployment on a sustainable foundation rely upon the efficient and considered use of pure assets (land/soil, water, agri-biodiversity and climate). Inefficient use and mismanagement of productive assets, especially land, water, vitality and agro-chemicals has vastly decreased fertility and damaged to the bodily, chemical and biological properties of the soil. The limitation on availability of agricultural land has already reached. We have continuous didn’t utilize the non-renewable natural resources and this can have serious implications.

* Three fourths of total investments in agriculture are by personal investments. These are the primary drivers of transition from conventional to excessive value agriculture. To guarantee easy transition from traditional to high value agriculture, government ought to help personal investments by the use of providing larger investments in R&D, public irrigation, roads and other infrastructural amenities. * A strategic imaginative and prescient for agriculture should consider three necessary elements: (a) India’s comparative benefit; (b) efficient markets at home and freer commerce; and (c) environmental sustainability. There is a lot of scope for major reforms, from advertising to funding and institutional change, particularly in water administration, new applied sciences, land markets and creation of efficient worth chains.

Conclusion

The country on an average has sufficient in stock to fulfill the meals requirements of its citizens. There is a big improve within the productiveness of the land through the years, however there’s nonetheless a huge gap between the present productivity and international productivity ranges. Indian agriculture is quite diversified into varied sectors and contributes largely to the nation’s economy. But the approaching years pose a lot of challenge on this area with an estimated outburst of inhabitants that may attain to roughly 1500million. This would require an enormous amount of food grains along with non-food grains. India has to use its huge potential of agriculture in a systematic and planned method together with reforms in export and import policies of agricultural merchandise.

Indian agriculture sector stays to be one of the most fascinated topics for academicians around the globe. Nobel Memorial prize winner, Prof. Gunar Myrdal of Stockholm University, has rightly remarked, “It is the agricultural sector that the battle for long run financial growth of India will be won or lost.” In reality the prosperity of agriculture is the prosperity of Indian economy. We mustn’t construct industries at the price of agricultural land.

References
1. http://nicsr.in/?p=1241
2. Reserve Bank Of India – http://www.rbi.org.in/scripts/AnnualPublications.aspx?head=Handbook%20of%20Statistics%20on%20Indian%20Economy 3. http://agricoop.nic.in/SIA111213312.pdf

Agriculture Scientific Sources

Summary of all: These articles are all about problems having in the agriculture world, issues that individuals suppose which would possibly be destroying our world. Also, I think people are freaking out for no cause this sort of belongings you need in your life, meat on the table, milk in a cup. All that want has to do with agriculture. The 7 sources I discovered were farmers having a tough time rising crops, Animal testing, Manure contaminating water, how manure helps the farmers, How animals have change from again then to now.

All this stuff have to do with problems with agriculture, and how people are against everything farmers do.

#1 Secondary useful resource: Agriculture is having a giant drawback on the earth proper now. The authorities is increasing in the agriculture world, the result’s completely different than assumed. In the business, the alternative situations happen. In service sector there exists a relentless. The increase of temperature within the atmosphere many of the crops are on the verge of extinction.

Many areas of Bangladesh are being inundated because of the enhance of temperature. The result of last few years, the agricultural development of Bangladesh just isn’t satisfying at all. The Flood, drought, seasonal unemployment, excessive value of seed, irrigation problem, lack of government help, little knowledge of modern cultivation and so on. They made this case worse and resulted in a high financial growth.

#2 Primary resource: Animal testing on the earth individuals pondering it’s either proper or incorrect to be testing on the poor animals.

But having these concepts and new issues come our way would possibly spark the longer term, which could make animals extra like people. They also breed these animals to produce offspring, they’re in search of the traits that might be extra resistant to disease/disorder. By having these amazing method to take a look at things we are ready to take a look at them on animals earlier than they use on humans, to see if there working proper.

#3 Primary resource: All the animals being examined together with mice, rats, birds, fish, rabbits, guinea pigs, farm animals, canines and cats. Animal testing is a thing if we did testing humans it will be extra incorrect than testing on animals. Testing animals that’s how we take a look at all of our new medication and new issues that we to test for brand spanking new product and we have to see if they work earlier than utilizing it on humans. There is lots of animal product which have been examined on animals.

#4 Primary resource: Diesel monkey and human testing, this may be a check that has been tested in Germany which is exhaust cleaning technology.Which they are making an attempt to say that diesel fumes are harmless and don’t destroy anything. Which people were saying that utilizing animals for this testing is not proper. Which the scientist were making an attempt to prove that it doesn’t do something to the cash or human.

#5 Primary useful resource: life on the farm reuse many issues and one was manure. This is likely considered one of the things that dairy farmers reuse as a end result of it’s good for the crops and making them develop faster and stronger. But in this article folks say that the manure is letting off fumes into the setting, which in that case we are respiration in the air which there saying it makes us sick. The fumes which may be being launched from these dairy farms persons are saying that it’s harming the surroundings. Many of these farmers can’t control the fumes.

#6 Primary resource: individuals think that this is a drawback and the manure is contaminating the water and making them sick. Which that means that is resulting in an extreme quantity of cow manure being utilized, which is contaminating the water and people assume that it’s going to hurt them and making them sick. I even have a robust feeling about this because I grew up in a farm, which i really feel like individuals are simply making an attempt to do away with all of the farms. But what folks don’t realize is that we want farms to stay. It’s not contaminating anything you simply think that it’s harming your physique.

#7 Tertiary useful resource: How animals have change from then to now. There is a giant distinction in our animals today. Our mammals have been changing from the start of time the dinosaurs were first from there on we got mammals. With the dinosaurs and other massive animals, mammals had been the only one who grew in size. It was additionally speaking about how the local weather change affected the dinosaurs and mammals had to adapt to new weather and the humidity and the heat which all of the animals had to adapted.

Agriculture, Solution to Nigerian economy

Agriculture is one of Nigeria’s most powerful instruments in addressing its targets of making extra employment, better public well being, and greater economic development. The transformation of agriculture would stimulate small- and medium-sized industries that are in fact the engine of economic growth. The have to concentrate on agriculture stems from the fact that the sector accounts for 70 per cent of the folks within the rural areas, the growing demand for food and, extra importantly, the about forty four per cent contribution of agriculture to Nigeria’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

In order to attain financial transformation, it might require extra investments in agricultural analysis and improvement and the development of infrastructure. Nigeria must build its defence against organic threats to crops just as is being carried out for the navy. Agriculture in Nigeria in latest a long time has been a uncared for sector and the positive aspects have been constrained by weak establishments and insufficient infrastructure.

These constraints are well-known, much less recognized are the limited utility of applied sciences, the low ability base within the sector, and its aging inhabitants.

The young are fleeing rural areas and the production facet of the sector. Similarly, monetary establishments view the agricultural sector as risky addressing and so it receives a really small portion of business credit. Getting the younger excited about agriculture and developing a supportive monetary system to facilitate the entry of farmers, merchants, and processors to credit might go a good distance in a quantity of nationwide needs. Effort must be made in Nigeria to rely less on growth companions, to maneuver from comparative agricultural manufacturing to aggressive manufacturing, to enhance human capital, and to faucet into the vast human assets obtainable – the youths – for development.

Government should also make efforts in repositioning agriculture as a major mover for Nigeria’s growth and improvement. The transformation of agriculture would convey many advantages to the nation. Such advantages may embody the reduction in the stage of unemployment and conservation of overseas exchange, among others.

Agriculture in India

Since way back, agriculture has been associated with the production of primary meals crops. At current agriculture, besides farming contains forestry, fruit cultivation, dairy, poultry, mushroom, bee preserving, arbitrary, and so on. Today, advertising, processing, distribution of agricultural products and so on. are all accepted as part of modern agriculture. Agriculture performs an important function within the life of an financial system. It is the spine of our economic system. The following facts clearly spotlight the importance of INDIA. 1. Source of Livelihood:

In India the main occupation of our working inhabitants is agriculture.

About 70 per cent of our population is instantly engaged in agriculture. 2. Contribution to National Income:
Agriculture is the premier source of our national revenue. According to National Income Committee, in:- 1960-61, 52% national revenue was contributed.
see more:non farming activities in indian villages

1976-77, contributed 42.2 per cent
1981-82, its contribution was forty one.8 per cent.
2001-02, it contributed round 32.four per cent
2006-07, 22%
2012-13, thirteen.7%
three. Supply of Food and Fodder:
Agriculture sector additionally offers fodder for livestock.

Moreover, it also meets the food requirements of the people. 4. Importance in International Trade:
Agricultural products like tea, sugar, rice, tobacco, spices and so on. represent the primary items of exports of India. 6. Source of Raw Material:
Agriculture has been the supply of raw materials to the main industries like cotton and jute textiles, sugar, tobacco, edible and non-edible oils and so on. All these rely instantly on agriculture.

9. Vast Employment Opportunities:
With the quick growing inhabitants and excessive incidence of unemployment the agricultural sector is critical as it provides greater employment opportunities within the construction of irrigation tasks, drainage system and different such activities.

13. Basis of Economic Development:

The development of agriculture supplies needed capital for the event of other sectors like trade, transport and international trade. TYPES OF FARMING
PRIMITIVE FARMING
It is also generally referred to as ‘slash and burn agriculture’. It is utilized in areas where Soil has low nutrient ranges. An area for cultivation is chosen after which it is burned so that the required vitamins for the crop to develop are maintained and biomass is transformed to helpful inorganic ash. Then nth chosen crops are sown. Then the land is given a interval of rest known as ’fallow’. Then the identical process continues till the land is wearied of nutrients(i.e. about 5-6 yrs). This kind of farming normally is decided by the type of soil, rain and most importantly climatic conditions. It is completed utilizing primitive instruments like hoe, hull, dagger, dao, etc. and requires lots of labour. Such crops are not produced in a large amount and farmers grow crops only to maintain their household with little or no intention of promoting them. The famer does not use chemical fertilizers or fashionable inputs, thus the production is low. TRADITIONAL FARMING

Traditional farming represents the original technique of farming. This type of farming makes use of in depth local data and natural assets so that no hurt is brought on to biodiversity. Such farmers preserve soil fertility and stop erosion of topsoil. There are many strategies of traditional farming specifically:- Nomadic Pastoralism

It is the apply of elevating domesticated animals like goat, sheep, cattle, and so on. All people training this methodology stay off completely on animal merchandise like fats, meat, milk, and so forth. These persons are continuously in use of new grounds for their animals to feed. Mixed Sustenance Farming

This can provide a really stable farming platform, the place crops and animals work collectively to assist each other. The plant waste that can’t be used by humans is used as fodder for animals and their waste acts as natural manure. This type of farming is usually the best and sustainable in comparability with another sort. COMMERCIAL FARMING

It is a sort of large-scale farming of crops to promote them to wholesalers or retailers. Crops corresponding to wheat, maize, rice, tea, and so on. are harvested and sold worldwide in international markets. Due to its intensive nature trendy machines and use of chemical fertilizers is required thus increasing the capital. Due to its massive capital, it is mainly practiced by giant companies or rich farmers. Yield in addition to profit is high as a result of using fashionable techniques and hybrid kinds of seeds. Commercial farming started with the advent of the Green Revolution and manufacturing in India elevated by 50% through the years 1970-1990. In today’s world Hybridization is essential to extend the yield of crops. Many varieties of hybrid seeds are actually available which are illness resistant, healthier and give more yields.

FIVE YEAR PLANS
First Plan (1951-1956)
The First Five-year Plan was launched in 1951 which primarily focused in development of the agricultural. The whole deliberate budget of Rs.2069 crore was allotted to seven areas: irrigation and power (27.2%), agriculture17.4%), transport and communications (24%), business (8.4%), social providers (16.40%), land rehabilitation (4.1%), and for other sectors (2.5%). The monsoon was good and there have been comparatively excessive crop yields.

Second Plan (1956-1961)
The Second Plan stressed on the event of the sector. Hydroelectric initiatives and 5 metal plants at Bhilai, Durgapur, and Rourkela were established. The total quantity allocated underneath the Second Five-Year Plan in India was Rs.forty eight billion. This amount was allotted amongst numerous sectors: power and irrigation, social providers, communications and transport, and really less quantity was allocated in course of agriculture as a outcome of different increasing issues.

Third Plan (1961–1966)
The Third Five-year Plan confused on agriculture and enchancment in the manufacturing of wheat, but the Sino-Indian War of 1962 led to weak spot in the
financial system and the plan careworn on the defense industry of India though equal priority was given to agriculture and industrial sector. PROBLEMS FACED

The main problems confronted by the Indian agriculture are as follows (a) Population Pressure:
India has a huge inhabitants of over one billion and it’s growing at a really quick fee. According to 2012census figures the overall density of inhabitants is 3264 persons per sq. km. Every little bit of land has been used up for construction of commercial websites. (b) Small and Fragmented Land Holdings:

Dividing a small plot of land as a outcome of increasing population has resulted in a small piece of land getting fragmented further. The small measurement of such holdings makes farming activity uneconomical and leads to much less productivity and finally less earnings. (c) Inadequate Irrigation Facilities:

In India irrigation services are not adequate in any respect. Almost all fields, owned by poor farmers, are left to get naturally irrigated by the monsoons(except those owned by rich farmers and companies). (d) Depleted Soils:

Farming has been a convention of India for over a thousand years which has resulted in the lower in fertility of soil and deforestation has led to erosion of the fertile soil giving much less productivity. (e) Storage of meals grains:

Storage of plentiful food grains is a big problem faced by Indians. Almost 10-12% of our harvest of meals grains goes waste due to no correct storage. (f) Farm Implements:
In some components of the country mechanization of farming has taken place, but many of the farmers are poor and can’t afford to purchase and use fashionable instruments. This hampers agriculture.

Forests-86.1…Non agriculture-21.8…barren/Uncultivable-20.1…Permanent pasture/grazing-12…Fallow-24..Cropped area-142.5(Food grain-123.5; Rainfed-89)

Multiple cropping
In agriculture, multiple cropping is the follow of rising two or extra crops in the identical field during a single sowing season. There are many forms of a quantity of cropping schemes that the federal government has introduced in India. They are:- Double-cropping, in which a second crop is planted after the primary has been harvested. This helps in restoring the vitamins which have been used up by the plant. Relay cropping, by which a second crop is started amidst the primary crop earlier than it has been harvested. This ensures bountiful harvest as nicely as keeps crops healthy. Intercropping, the place an additional crop is planted in the areas out there between the primary crop. This helps in maintaining away pests.

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION
Intensive agriculture space program(1964)
The primary goal of the IAAP was that “greater emphasis ought to be given to scientific agriculture in an intensive manner in areas with high manufacturing potentials”. The emphasis was on important crops such as Wheat, Rice, cotton, and so forth. High yielding variety program(1966)

The major motive of the program was to extend the productivity of food grains by adopting new excessive yielding sorts of improved seeds. The HYVP introduced :-High-yielding kinds of seeds, elevated use of fertilizers, increased irrigation. These three are collectively known as the Green Revolution. National agricultural innovation project(2006)

The NAIP is contributing to the transformation of the agricultural sector to extra of a market to do away with poverty and enhance revenue. The major purpose is to make people aware about how agriculture can be taken to an international stage by way of technological improvements.

SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION
WATER
Some Major River Valley Projects
Bhakra Nangal Project
On Sutlej in Punjab. Highest in India.Ht. 226m. Reservoir is identified as Gobind Sagar Lake. Chambal Valley Project
On Chambal in MP & Rajasthan, three dams are there:- Gandhi Sagar Dam, Rana Pratap Sagar Dam and Jawahar Sagar Dam Damodar Valley Project
On Damodar in Bihar, Based on Tennessee Valley Project USA
Hirakud Project
On Mahanadi in Orrisa, World’s Longest Dam: 4801m
Kosi Project
On Kosi in N.Bihar
Tugabhadra Project
On Tugabhadra in Andhra Pradesh & Karnataka
Sardar Sarovar Project
On Narmada, Gujarat/MP.

Due to the magnitude of floods in 1978, a project of flood prone rivers was started to prevent additional casualties. SOIL
During the seventh five 12 months plan, the government decided to take cautious measures in the course of soil conservation. The scheme of reclamation of alkali soil in Punjab, Haryana, and U.P. took place. During the 9th plan this scheme was accredited and being practiced in all states. It aimed toward enhancing situations of alkali soils for better manufacturing of crops. GREEN REVOLUTION

Well-known agronomist, Dr. M S Swaminathan led the Green Revolution in India. India was in the midst of a meals crisis within the mid 60’s. The food economy was falling down very fast. The home production of wheat had gone down to about solely 12 million tons(from 23 million tons) as a result of inflation. About the same needed to be imported from the US.

The introduction of high-yielding kinds of wheat like Lerma Rojo and Sonora 64 through the mid-’60s with farm know-how and chemical fertilizers introduced about the green revolution.

Agriculture and the Doha Round

Majority of nations have economically necessary and huge sectors of agriculture which are sometimes protected fiercely internationally. However, within the European Union, agriculture contributes a small percentage of the entire worth of earnings. This figure stands at 1.7 %.

The determine is even lower in the United States, standing at around one %. Despite its marginal value in these two industrial giants, agriculture is heavily protected and sponsored. Even though the United States has vowed to remove all trade obstacles, this has been subject to political pressure from varied teams such because the cotton farmers  who plays vital political function with regard to voting patterns.

In distinction to those Northern countries, the growing countries rely upon agriculture as the major supply of sustenance. As a result, they pushed exhausting to make certain that their interests are acknowledged in the Doha Development Round. They also held that they are entitled to ‘special and differential treatment’ to be able to strengthen their retarded trading positions.

There can additionally be the group referred to as advanced creating countries that possess massive and environment friendly techniques of agriculture.

Among the members of this category is Brazil, which, with other nations of the same category pushed for extra liberalization in order that they might make of their aggressive advantages.

The Agricultural negotiations within the Doha Development spherical may be fragmented into 4 major themes. These included export competitors, market access, growth points and domestic helps.  Export competitors included export subsidies and food assist issues like disposing of Northern agricultural surpluses in poor nations.

Market access then again included import tariff reductions, rules for delicate and special products and a safeguard mechanism that protects the poor countries from main dips in world prices and surges in imports that are likely to threaten food safety.

Development points have been those who acknowledged the decreased agricultural functionality of poor countries therefore the necessity for flexibility and SDT. Domestic support was largely involved with subsidy payment to farmers. This had been classified by the World Trade Organization into classes representing completely different levels of trade distorting monetary supports.

European Agricultural Policies and the Collapse of the Doha Rounds

The major impediment to the progress of the Doha talks was the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policies. The major focus of the policy when it was established over forty years ago was internal worth help. This was meant to facilitate and promote within the member states food self-sufficiency. As such, the coverage protects European Union farmers from exterior competition.

This is achieved by way of market entry management and offering home help and export subsidies. The result’s that European Union agricultural producers obtain greater and steady costs above the international ranges. With high prices, farmers enhance manufacturing whereas on the other hand, consumption and imports are discouraged by excessive shopper costs.

The Common Agricultural Policy affects exporters and agricultural producers in other nations by decreasing worldwide prices for unprocessed agricultural products. The surplus items are also sold very cheaply into specific markets which undercut native producers. These items most probably find their way to the poor countries thereby making the native farmers to suffer.

Agricultural Revolution for Sustainable Agriculture

Back in the early years, folks have their very personal way to survive in this world. They went for hunting edible animals in the juggle or gather in a village or place in order that they may acquire meals provides. Could we think about how tough it was for these folks merely to get meals for dwelling, in order that they may continue their life and protect the continuation of human being? But thankfully it modified in 1700s when individuals began to make agricultural revolution, by meaning folks domesticated crops and animals so that they may sustain their life by having food shares that they preserved.

Although there were group of hunters that still looking during that time, the agricultural revolution has impacted many or should I say most people on this world. They began to make their own land into agriculture subject where they might use it for farming and animal’s production. During this stage, often the manufacturing of food supply and the crops yield just sufficient for their own family provides and it was not for commercial purpose.

When it got here to a different stage of Agricultural revolution, where this revolution introduced a very significant influence in civilization and economic improvement; during which the period was referred to as by the dawn of civilization. The Agricultural Revolution resulted in a food surplus, not not like the original agricultural revolution which allowed civilization to develop. The agricultural revolution was a period of agricultural improvement between the 18th century and the top of the nineteenth century, which we could describe as one of vast and speedy enhance in agricultural productivity and drastic enhancements in farm technology.

This thought of Agricultural revolution can be proved, as extra experimental farmers has developed good and healthy seeds, cross breeding animals that potentially enhance their life and prevent any illnesses, nutritious soil or dust, efficient fertilizers, a good and environment friendly system of drainage and fencing. In addition, these enhancements of science have fairly produced an environment friendly fertilizer thus it was considered one of major elements that increased the productivity of soil. Lastly, there have been also multitude of great innovations such as seed drills, plow, moldboard and many more.

These machines or innovations have made the farmer’s work turned simpler than it ever was and it also elevated the productivity of crops and animals. I found a quote from certainly one of my readings and it successfully associated to agricultural revolution, “Thus not only will the identical quantity of land be succesful of feed extra individuals; but each of them, with less labor, will be employed more productively and can have the ability to fulfill his needs higher.” (Condorcet, 1793) There have been numerous the components that triggered the concept of agricultural revolution and new farming technique in that particular of time, in which clearly as a end result of the dearth of meals provides whereas on the identical time they also have been facing overpopulation. Furthermore, folks were desperately trying to beat this deficient issue and got here up with the ideas to increase the manufacturing of food by planting on their own. Apart from that, the industrial revolution also played a crucial role for agricultural revolution to rise. Both of these revolutions have been closely associated due to the idea of having higher residing and civilization.

In fact, it is unimaginable for industrial revolution to happen with out agricultural revolution. Besides, agricultural revolution also was triggered by the advance of transportation technique similar to roads, railroads, refrigerated railroad, cars and trucks. By utilizing this enchancment of transportation expertise, the farmer might improve the amount of crops yield being introduced to the market hence maximize their revenue. According to my professor, Deborah Symonds has said “the adjustments in farming that made fortunes for some, and left others anxious and evicted from their farms.” Based on that assertion, we can inform that there were chance of pros and cons from the agricultural revolution phenomenon. However, I strongly imagine that the pros outweigh the cons because the influence of agricultural revolution in path of the society extremely important. As we all know, the development of science has created an improved quality of fertilizer that finally impacted more productive land. As we know, productive land would produce vast productions of crops and animals.

This would result in a fair and steady population growth and contribution of meals provides, in which it grew to become a key factor to the overcoming of famine downside. Apart from that, the elevated of the inhabitants had produced a larger demand from the people for items corresponding to clothing. It is alleged that agricultural revolution had been the stepping stone to the Industrial Revolution. This has resulted in additional development of business factories therefore increased the work opportunity for the individuals. On the other hand, the cons of agricultural revolution was that it included the reallocation of land possession. When the land occurred to be extra productive, it elevated in worth. It attracted these capitalists to be buyers for meals plantation and domestic farmers to buy the land in a big scale in order that they may put it to use to provide large crops and huge manufacturing of animals.

The consequence affected these small farm homeowners, or people who started with small space of land found themselves left out. It led to the eviction of small farming family from their own land for instance the Highland Clearance in Scotland. In conclusion, Agricultural revolution had played a really vital position in shaping our fashionable day. I personally imagine that we could not reside as fashionable appropriately without agricultural revolution in fact I imagine that we may nonetheless go for hunting for meals provides just for the matter of survival. It made me think that this revolution has overcome world’s greatest downside, the poor food and kept us away from famine. The Agricultural revolution was certainly a crucial phenomenon that ever occurred in development of civilization.

The Effects of Trade and Agriculture Advancements in Ancient Civilizations

In the earliest civilizations agriculture and trade had fantastic effects on everyday life. The Mesopotamians and Egyptians paved the way for modern day nations to thrive. Irrigation and soil quality had a lot to do with the earliest civilizations crop success or failure (Perry, Chase, Jacob, Jacob & Von Laue, 2009). The beginning of trade routes and paths with safe travel helped the civilizations to become quite wealthy (Perry, et. al, 2009). Altogether, the beginning of all civilization began, simply, with growing crops and trading them.

The growing of crops in Mesopotamia took place near the rivers surrounding it: the Tigris and Euphrates. The area is now known as the “fertile crescent,” and can support a variety of crops (Rayment, 2012). Because the main outcome of Mesopotamia’s toil was crops, they relied heavily on trade to support the people (Perry, et. al, 2009). What helped Mesopotamia to succeed most was the fact that they were able to exercise private enterprise (Perry, et. al, 2009). Of course, laws had to be established to ensure the fairness and safety of trade (Perry, et. al, 2009). If such laws and standards had not been established by a stable government early on, the entire operation of trade throughout the early civilizations would have crumbled.

In Ancient Egypt agriculture began quite easily using “the gift of the Nile,” which was the extremely rich and fertile soil produced by irrigation near the Nile (Perry, et. al, 2009, p. 14). The Egyptians were blessed in other areas, too, such as their precious metals and other natural resources (Perry, et. al, 2009). Because of the overabundance of the crops and the various other treasures the land had to offer, the Egyptians thrived. Trade routes were established stretching from Egypt to Persia, and even overseas (Perry, et. al, 2009). Had the Egyptians not been blessed with such great land they may not have succeeded so greatly. Though a very intelligent and capable people, the land surrounding the Nile River greatly supported the people of Ancient Egypt. Trade would never have been possible without the ingenuity of ancient peoples.

In conclusion, the agriculture and trade of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt has shaped the nations existing today. Thankfully, God gave the people of the earliest civilizations minds to think and hand to plow! What an amazing testimony of God’s love in the earliest civilizations. In no way would the world be the same as it is today without the strong, intelligent people of the ancient world.
Perry, M., Chase, M., Jacob, J., Jacob, M., & Von Laue, T. (2009). Western civilization: Ideas, politics, and society. (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth. Rayment, W. J. (2012). Mesopotamia: First civilization. Retrieved from http://www.indepthinfo.com/history-ancient/mesopotamia.htm

Agriculture in India

Since long ago, agriculture has been associated with the production of basic food crops. At present agriculture, besides farming includes forestry, fruit cultivation, dairy, poultry, mushroom, bee keeping, arbitrary, etc. Today, marketing, processing, distribution of agricultural products etc. are all accepted as a part of modern agriculture. Agriculture plays a crucial role in the life of an economy. It is the backbone of our economic system. The following facts clearly highlight the importance of INDIA. 1. Source of Livelihood:

In India the main occupation of our working population is agriculture. About 70 per cent of our population is directly engaged in agriculture. 2. Contribution to National Income:
Agriculture is the premier source of our national income. According to National Income Committee, in:- 1960-61, 52% national income was contributed.
1976-77, contributed 42.2 per cent
1981-82, its contribution was 41.8 per cent.
2001-02, it contributed around 32.4 per cent
2006-07, 22%
2012-13, 13.7%
3. Supply of Food and Fodder:
Agriculture sector also provides fodder for livestock. Moreover, it also meets the food requirements of the people. 4. Importance in International Trade:
Agricultural products like tea, sugar, rice, tobacco, spices etc. constitute the main items of exports of India. 6. Source of Raw Material:
Agriculture has been the source of raw materials to the leading industries like cotton and jute textiles, sugar, tobacco, edible and non-edible oils etc. All these depend directly on agriculture.

9. Vast Employment Opportunities:
With the fast growing population and high incidence of unemployment the agricultural sector is significant as it provides greater employment opportunities in the construction of irrigation projects, drainage system and other such activities. 13. Basis of Economic Development:

The development of agriculture provides necessary capital for the development of other sectors like industry, transport and foreign trade. TYPES OF FARMING
PRIMITIVE FARMING
It is also commonly called ‘slash and burn agriculture’. It is used in areas where Soil has low nutrient levels. An area for cultivation is selected and then it is burned so that the required nutrients for the crop to grow are maintained and biomass is converted to useful inorganic ash. Then nth chosen crops are sown. Then the land is given a period of rest called ’fallow’. Then the same process continues until the land is wearied of nutrients(i.e. about 5-6 yrs). This type of farming usually depends on the type of soil, rain and most importantly climatic conditions. It is done using primitive tools like hoe, hull, dagger, dao, etc. and requires a lot of labour. Such crops are not produced in a large quantity and farmers grow crops only to sustain their family with little or no intention of selling them. The famer does not use chemical fertilizers or modern inputs, thus the production is low. TRADITIONAL FARMING

Traditional farming represents the original method of farming. This type of farming uses extensive local knowledge and natural resources so that no harm is caused to biodiversity. Such farmers maintain soil fertility and prevent erosion of topsoil. There are many methods of traditional farming namely:- Nomadic Pastoralism

It is the practice of raising domesticated animals like goat, sheep, cattle, etc. All humans practicing this method live off entirely on animal products like fat, meat, milk, etc. These people are constantly in use of new grounds for their animals to feed. Mixed Sustenance Farming

This can provide a very stable farming platform, where plants and animals work together to support each other. The plant waste that cannot be used by humans is used as fodder for animals and their waste acts as natural manure. This type of farming is usually the most productive and sustainable compared to any other type. COMMERCIAL FARMING

It is a type of large-scale farming of crops to sell them to wholesalers or retailers. Crops such as wheat, maize, rice, tea, etc. are harvested and sold worldwide in international markets. Due to its extensive nature modern machines and use of chemical fertilizers is required thus increasing the capital. Due to its large capital, it is mainly practiced by large companies or rich farmers. Yield as well as profit is high due to the use of modern techniques and hybrid varieties of seeds. Commercial farming started with the advent of the Green Revolution and production in India increased by 50% during the years 1970-1990. In today’s world Hybridization is very important to increase the yield of crops. Many varieties of hybrid seeds are now available which are disease resistant, healthier and give more yields.

FIVE YEAR PLANS
First Plan (1951-1956)
The First Five-year Plan was launched in 1951 which mainly focused in development of the agricultural. The total planned budget of Rs.2069 crore was allocated to seven areas: irrigation and energy (27.2%), agriculture17.4%), transport and communications (24%), industry (8.4%), social services (16.40%), land rehabilitation (4.1%), and for other sectors (2.5%). The monsoon was good and there were relatively high crop yields.

Second Plan (1956-1961)
The Second Plan stressed on the development of the sector. Hydroelectric projects and five steel plants at Bhilai, Durgapur, and Rourkela were established. The total amount allocated under the Second Five-Year Plan in India was Rs.48 billion. This amount was allocated among various sectors: power and irrigation, social services, communications and transport, and very less amount was allocated towards agriculture due to the other increasing problems.

Third Plan (1961–1966)
The Third Five-year Plan stressed on agriculture and improvement in the production of wheat, but the Sino-Indian War of 1962 led to weakness in the
economy and the plan stressed on the defense industry of India although equal priority was given to agriculture and industrial sector. PROBLEMS FACED

The major problems confronted by the Indian agriculture are as follows (a) Population Pressure:
India has a huge population of over one billion and it is increasing at a very fast rate. According to 2012census figures the overall density of population is 3264 persons per sq. km. Every bit of land has been used up for construction of commercial sites. (b) Small and Fragmented Land Holdings:

Dividing a small plot of land due to increasing population has resulted in a small piece of land getting fragmented further. The small size of such holdings makes farming activity uneconomical and leads to less productivity and eventually less income. (c) Inadequate Irrigation Facilities:

In India irrigation facilities are not adequate at all. Almost all fields, owned by poor farmers, are left to get naturally irrigated by the monsoons(except those owned by rich farmers and companies). (d) Depleted Soils:

Farming has been a tradition of India for over 1000 years which has resulted in the decrease in fertility of soil and deforestation has led to erosion of the fertile soil giving less productivity. (e) Storage of food grains:

Storage of abundant food grains is a huge problem faced by Indians. Almost 10-12% of our harvest of food grains goes waste due to no proper storage. (f) Farm Implements:
In some parts of the country mechanization of farming has taken place, but most of the farmers are poor and cannot afford to purchase and use modern tools. This hampers agriculture.

Forests-86.1…Non agriculture-21.8…barren/Uncultivable-20.1…Permanent pasture/grazing-12…Fallow-24..Cropped area-142.5(Food grain-123.5; Rainfed-89)

Multiple cropping
In agriculture, multiple cropping is the practice of growing two or more crops in the same field during a single sowing season. There are many types of multiple cropping schemes that the government has introduced in India. They are:- Double-cropping, in which a second crop is planted after the first has been harvested. This helps in restoring the nutrients that have been used up by the plant. Relay cropping, in which a second crop is started amidst the first crop before it has been harvested. This ensures bountiful harvest as well as keeps crops healthy. Intercropping, where an additional crop is planted in the spaces available between the main crop. This helps in keeping away pests.

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION
Intensive agriculture area program(1964)
The main objective of the IAAP was that “greater emphasis should be given to scientific agriculture in an intensive manner in areas with high production potentials”. The emphasis was on important crops such as Wheat, Rice, cotton, etc. High yielding variety program(1966)

The main motive of the program was to increase the productivity of food grains by adopting new high yielding varieties of improved seeds. The HYVP introduced :-High-yielding varieties of seeds, increased use of fertilizers, increased irrigation. These three are collectively known as the Green Revolution. National agricultural innovation project(2006)

The NAIP is contributing to the transformation of the agricultural sector to more of a market to get rid of poverty and improve income. The main aim is to make people aware about how agriculture can be taken to an international level through technological innovations.

SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION
WATER
Some Major River Valley Projects
Bhakra Nangal Project
On Sutlej in Punjab. Highest in India.Ht. 226m. Reservoir is called Gobind Sagar Lake. Chambal Valley Project
On Chambal in MP & Rajasthan, 3 dams are there:- Gandhi Sagar Dam, Rana Pratap Sagar Dam and Jawahar Sagar Dam Damodar Valley Project
On Damodar in Bihar, Based on Tennessee Valley Project USA
Hirakud Project
On Mahanadi in Orrisa, World’s Longest Dam: 4801m
Kosi Project
On Kosi in N.Bihar
Tugabhadra Project
On Tugabhadra in Andhra Pradesh & Karnataka
Sardar Sarovar Project
On Narmada, Gujarat/MP.

Due to the magnitude of floods in 1978, a project of flood prone rivers was started to prevent further casualties. SOIL
During the 7th five year plan, the government decided to take careful measures towards soil conservation. The scheme of reclamation of alkali soil in Punjab, Haryana, and U.P. took place. During the 9th plan this scheme was approved and being practiced in all states. It aimed at improving conditions of alkali soils for better production of crops. GREEN REVOLUTION

Well-known agronomist, Dr. M S Swaminathan led the Green Revolution in India. India was in the middle of a food crisis in the mid 60’s. The food economy was falling down very fast. The domestic production of wheat had gone down to about only 12 million tons(from 23 million tons) due to inflation. About the same had to be imported from the US.

The introduction of high-yielding varieties of wheat like Lerma Rojo and Sonora 64 during the mid-’60s with farm technology and chemical fertilizers brought about the green revolution.

Aztec Food and Agriculture Informative Speech

Informative Speech Outline

I. Introduction of cultural component:

How does it reflect the culture as a whole? Food is considered to be an important part of Aztec society since the Aztecs had no type of currency for their economy. According to allabouthistory.org, the Aztecs had a barter system, basically a trading system where they used foods, primarily cacao beans to trade one another for items such as clothing, eggs, and etc. for daily use. The amount of beans traded would vary from item to item depending on its value.

Central Idea:
How food influences the culture.

Preview Main Points:

1. Diet
2. Agriculture
3. Influence on foods today

Transition to Body:

II.Body
Main Point #1

The Aztecs only ate two meals a day, unlike people today. Since the ancient Aztecs had no access to livestock such as cows and pigs, which were later introduced to them by the Spanish, their main diet consisted of vegetables and fruits such as corn, squash, beans, tomatoes, avocados, and etc. Though they did have domesticated turkeys, ducks, and dogs for food, they only played a minor contribution to the diet. According to foodtimeline.org, the Aztecs also hunted and ate fish, insects, iguanas, and deer but these sources were also very limited like the turkeys and dogs.

The Aztecs’ number one staple food was corn, specifically a type of corn called maize. It came in various shapes, sizes and colors and was eaten by all classes of the Aztec people. Maize is so important to Aztec society that it played a large part in their mythology and religion and was considered as precious as their flesh and bones. It is like the rice in Asia and the wheat in Europe. A meal would not be called a meal unless they had corn in it. There are various ways to eat corn such as corn tortillas, tamales, corn soup also called pozole, and many other ways. One particular method of preparing maize is called nixtamalization where a salty flavor and aroma is added to maize. Apart from maize, other staple foods would be beans and squash. To help add flavor into the food, they would be mixed with tomatoes, fruits, and spices such as chilies and herbs. That way, the food would be nutritionally satisfying and there will be no need for animal protein. The Aztecs also had a very special drink made from cacao, you could say that the origin of chocolate came from the Aztecs. This chocolate drink was spicy unlike the hot chocolate we have today and was intended only for the warriors and nobles of the empire.

Main Point #2

Because the lands that the Aztecs lived in were not suitable and fertile enough for farming, they had to invent new methods and use them to increase productivity of foods and crops. That led to a very special way of farming. The Aztecs invented and built Chinampas also called raised fields, which were floating agricultural gardens where they produced their crops. These Chinampas used to be swamps that were turned into highly productive fields for farming. Building Chinampas was a lot more complex than growing their crops because it uses many advanced techniques and methods never seen before during the pre-contact New World period. Other than the Chinampas, they also built irrigation systems for fields of land where water or rainfall could not reach and used fertilizers on fields that didn’t have enough nutrients.

According to foodtimeline.org , a Chinampa is built by first finding a swamp/lake near a town or city. Then ditches are dug through the marshes and swamps to drain excess water from the soon to be Chinampas, these ditches will also become the canals where the Aztecs will be traveling through to get from Chinampa to Chinampa. After that, the mud and muck from the ditches
and vegetation will be placed on mats, which were made from weeds and straw between the ditches where they will become long artificial islands for farming purposes. The Aztecs would then drive wooden stakes/fences down into the lake to hold the field together. Then trees would be planted in the corners of the island to help stabilize the Chinampa. Once that is done, the Chinampa will be ready to be used for farming corn, squash, beans, etc. The muck and vegetation would act as fertilizer for the crops while the mats would be piled high enough to prevent the roots of the crops from being waterlogged. Fertility is easily maintained by periodically adding more muck and fertilizer to the fields. Since these floating gardens were very productive, they always led to a surplus of crops that would be stored and used during hard times.

Main Point #3: Influence on foods today

The foods that the Aztecs grew and ate are still used in traditional Mexican food today. Maize, the key ingredient of ancient Aztec food also became the most important ingredient to Mexican food. Other food ingredients in the Mexican diet today would also include beans, squash, chilies and tomatoes that the Aztecs also ate. The Aztec tacos for example, were filled with acocil, a type of crayfish but now, the tacos we have are filled with beef instead. Nixtamalization, is another influence that came from the Aztecs that is still used today. According to threestonehearth.com, what nixtamalization does is that it cooks and steeps dried corn kernels in an alkaline solution then they are cooked until tender. That way, it can be mashed and be made into a dough-like substance where it can be made into tortilla, tortilla chips, tamales, and many other items. Aztec food culture also expanded into many other countries because cacao beans which were the main ingredient of chocolate were brought over to Europe thanks to the Spanish quickly became a delicacy everywhere.

III.Conclusion
Review Main Points:

Overall, the Aztec diet consisted of mainly corn. Without corn, the meal wouldn’t be considered as a meal. Agriculture techniques was recreated with the invention of the Chinampa. With the newly invented Chinampa, Aztecs were able to dramatically increase the amount of crops they could grow unlike how they were struggling with growing crops on the unfertile lands. The Aztec food culture had inspired many countries today. Look at how chocolate, once a hot and spicy drink, was made into a global phenomenon.