Application Software

The user of the computer must have software program, which is ready to enable her to: Keep information of bookings, hold a data of cash paid out and in, preserve a database, retailer pictures and print them onto membership cards, create and edit letters, create and edit a menu and act as a number for the web site.

Application Software needed:

* Database software program i.e. Microsoft access

* Image creation & importation software program i.e. Microsoft picture editor

* Document creation software i.

e. Microsoft word

* Picture document creation software program i.e. Microsoft PowerPoint

* Website editor software i.e. Microsoft entrance page

Application of Risk Management Steps

Application of Risk Management

YieldMore is a small agricultural firm that produces and sells fertilizer products. The firm operates by way of its headquarters in a small city in Indiana. Outside its headquarters, there are two massive manufacturing facilities—one in Nebraska and one in Oklahoma. Furthermore, YieldMore employs sales force personnel in every state in the united states to serve its clients locally. The firm has three servers positioned at its headquarters—Active Directory Server, a Linux software server, and an Oracle database server.

The application server hosts YieldMore’s main software utility, which is proprietary program managing inventory, gross sales, supply-chain, and buyer information. The database server manages all information saved locally with direct hooked up storage. All three main websites use Ethernet cabled native space networks (LANs) to attach the users’ Windows Vista workstations via industry commonplace, managed switches. The remote manufacturing amenities connect with headquarters through routers T-1 (1.fifty four mbps telecomm circuit) LAN connections offered by an external Internet service providers (ISP) and share an Internet connection through a firewall at headquarters.

Individual gross sales personnel throughout the nation hook up with YieldMore’s network via virtual private network (VPN) software program by way of their individual Internet connections, typically in a house office. Task:

I would have to say the more than likely pairs of threat/vulnerability are location, gear failure, social engineering, Denial of Service (DOS), and Mal ware. These threats appear to be the most problematic for this company. The first one is location; the servers are all housed within the company headquarters where if a pure or artifical disaster would cripple the company’s infrastructure.

They need to distribute their servers to different areas. Another pair is gear failure; each server has its own specific perform that it handles and nothing else. It would assist mitigate a variety of the danger that might happen if each server handled their own problems. Social engineering is a problem as a result of it’s depending on the consumer which another person can hack the individual for data that could get access to the organizations system. DOS is an issue because the public techniques aren’t protected by firewalls and anti-virus program. This makes service availability a loss. The last drawback is malware which is caused by the dearth of anti-virus or out of date virus definitions. The impact of that is often the loss of server or information relying on what the virus was originally intended to do. There are six danger management steps you should use to guard your company:

1. Determining the aims of the organization,
2. Identifying exposures to loss
three. Measuring those same exposures,
four. Selecting alternatives,
5. Implementing an answer,
6. Monitoring the results.
I would counsel utilizing all six steps to insure that my firm is protected. The main objective of a company growth will decide its strategy for managing various risks. Identification and measurement of risks are comparatively straightforward concepts.

Application of the Neuman Systems

With issues of our day to day living we wouldn’t have enough time and price range to be choosy of the type of meals or the nutritional worth of it, what we consider these days is simply to have one thing to satisfy our hunger without contemplating the nutrients that our body wants every day. When we hear food regimen these days typically we see it as shedding weight by means of controlling food consumption, however the truth is diet may additionally imply consuming nutritious foods to supplement our body’s needs of nutrients and the kind of meals that we’re going to consume.

As statistics report show that in the United States as many as 20% of hospitalized patients are hypokalemic; nonetheless, hypokalemia is clinically significant in solely about 4-5% of these patients. Severe hypokalemia is relatively unusual. Up to 14% of outpatients who bear laboratory testing are discovered to be mildly hypokalemic .Approximately 80% of patients who’re receiving diuretics turn out to be hypokalemic. Sex Incidence is equal in women and men.

The researcher selected hypokalemia as a topic for a case research in acute grownup ailments given that hypokalemia is a fatal disease that’s often uncared for by the folks within the sense that folks does not know what the disease is all about. The researcher believes that by way of learning the entire course of sickness, insights and new data could be obtained in dealing with hypokalemia which could assist students, nurses and any researcher who would endeavor within the study of hypokalemia

Theoretical Framework

The researcher aimed to utilize Neuman Systems Model in a consumer with hypokalemia.

This principle holistically developed to satisfy or complement for the client’s needs the researcher desires to verify and to validate the idea by using it on an acute situation known as hypokalemia. The unique focus of the Neuman Systems Model is the wellness of the client/client system in relation to environmental stress and reactions to emphasize (Fawcett,1995).

In relation to its wholistic approach According to the Neuman Systems Model and systemic perspective normally, well being and wellness is defined because the coordination or the diploma of system stability, that’s, the situation in which all elements and subparts (variables) are in balance or concord with the entire of the client/client system (Neuman,2002)

Betty Neuman’s Systems Model is based on concepts associated to stress and reaction to stress. The Neuman Systems Model contains the physiological, psychological, sociocultural, developmental, and spiritual variables at all ranges of the system (Neuman, 2002). The physiological variable offers with psychological relationships and processes. The sociocultural variable deals with those functions of the system that contain social and cultural interactions and expectations. The developmental variable deals with developmental processes and desires that vary because the system matures. The religious variable deals with the system’s beliefs and their influence and is, according to Neuman, the least understood regardless of its importance (Frisch, 2006).

Basic Structure consists of common consumer survival components, as well as distinctive particular person characteristics. It represents the basic system vitality sources (Neuman, 2002). Client/client system a composite of variables (physiological, psychological, sociocultural, developmental, and spiritual), every of which is a subpart of all elements, types the entire of the client. The shopper as a system is composed of a core or primary structure of survival components and surrounding protective concentric rings.

The concentric rings are composed of similar elements, yet serve diversified and totally different purposes in either retention, attainment, or maintenance of system stability and integrity or mixture of these. The client is considered an open system in total interface with the environment. The client is considered as a system, and the time period can used interchangeably with the client/client system (Neuman, 2002). Content the variables of an individual in interaction with the interior and external setting comprise the entire shopper system (Neuman, 2002)

Degree of reaction the degree of reaction is the quantity of system instability resulting from stressor invasion of the normal lines of defense. Environment is defined as “all factors affecting and affected by the system” and is “all inner and exterior elements or influences surrounding the identified consumer or consumer system”. Neuman has recognized three relevant environments. The inside setting “ consists of all forces or interactive influences inside to or contained solely within the boundaries of the defined client/client system”. The exterior environment “ consists of all forces or interactive influences exterior to or current outside the defined client/client system” and is interpersonal and extrapersonal in nature(Neuman, 2002). Feedback the method within which matter, energy, and knowledge, as system output, provide feedback for corrective action to alter, improve or stabilize the system.

Flexible strains of protection is a protective buffer for the client’s regular or a steady state. Ideally, it prevents invasion of stressors and retains the shopper system free from stressor reactions or symptomatology (Fawcett, 1995). Goal the system aim is stability for the purpose of client survival and optimum wellness. Health a continuum of wellness to sickness, dynamic in nature, that’s continuously topic to change. Optimal wellness or stability signifies that complete system needs are being met. A lowered state of wellness is the results of unmet wants. The shopper is in a dynamic state either wellness or illness, in various levels, at any cut-off date. Input/Output the matter, power, and data exchanged between consumer and setting that is entering or leaving the system at any time limit. Lines of resistance comprise sure recognized and unknown internal and external useful resource factors that help the client’s fundamental construction and regular defense line thus protecting system integrity.

An example is the body’s mobilization of white blood cells or activation of immune system mechanisms. Effectiveness of the lines of resistance in reversing the reaction to stressors allows the system to reconstitute; ineffectiveness results in energy depletion (Neuman, 2002). Normal line of protection is the stable boundary line that encircles the broken inside traces of resistance. This line represents what the client has become, the state to which the consumer has developed over time, or the usual wellness stage. The normal defense line is a normal towards any deviancy from the usual wellness state can be decided (Neuman, 2002). Prevention as intervention typology or modes for nursing motion and determinants for entry of each client and nurse into the well being care system. Primary prevention: before a reaction to stressors occurs. Secondary prevention: treatment of symptoms following a reaction to stressors Tertiary prevention: maintenance of optimal wellness following remedy.

Reconstitution represents the return and maintenance of system stability, following remedy of stressor reaction, which can end in larger or decrease degree of wellness than beforehand. Stability a state of steadiness or concord requiring power exchanges because the consumer adequately copes with stressors to retain, attain, or preserve an optimal stage of well being, thus preserving system integrity. Stressors are environmental factors, intra-, inter-, extrapersonal factor in nature that have potential for disrupting system stability. A stress is any phenomenon that may penetrate both the flexible and normal lines of protection, resulting in either positive or unfavorable outcome (Neuman, 2002).

Intrapersonal stressors are inside the inside environment of the client/client system and embody such forces as conditioned and autoimmune responses. Interpersonal stressors are in the external environment. They occur at the boundary between the client/client system and the proximal exterior setting an embrace such forces as position expectations and communication patterns. Extrapersonal stressors also are within the exterior environment. They occur at the boundary of the client/client system and the distal external environment and embrace such forces as financial concerns or social policies (Fawcett, 1995).

Wellness/Illness wellness is the situation in which all system components and subparts are in concord with the whole system of the consumer. Wholeness is predicated on interrelationships of variables, which determine the amount of resistance a person has to any stressor. Illness signifies disharmony among the many elements and subparts of the client system. Wholistic a system is taken into account wholistic when any components or subparts can be organized into an interrelating complete. Wholistic group is one of preserving elements complete or stable of their intimate relationships; individuals are considered as wholes whose part elements are in dynamic interdependent interplay.

Research Design

The researcher on this research utilized the case research technique. The case research design includes an intensive exploration of a single unit of examine, such as an individual, very small number of subjects, household, group, group, or institution ( Burns & Grove, 2003).

Research locale

The study was performed in Cebu City Medical Center positioned at N. Bacalso Avenue,Cebu City. Cebu City Medical Center (CCMC) is a 300 bed capacity authorities hospital that caters all residents of Cebu City. The client was admitted on the stroke ward, third ground which accommodates clients with bodily complaints, classified beneath Internal Medicine (IM) as cardiovascular problems. It is a 10 mattress capacity ward which caters sufferers admitted with cardiovascular issues.

Research Instrument

The researcher utilized Gordons practical health pattern as a analysis instrument which is categorized in eleven domains specifically well being notion administration sample which explains of what the shopper perceives in her situation, nutritional-metabolic pattern explains for the food regimen of the consumer and regarding meals groups and the number of servings per day, elimination sample pertains to urinary and bowel patterns, exercise- exercise sample points out to the actions of every day residing of the shopper which also includes exercise, sleep-rest sample defines the number of hours the shopper sleeps or on what time of the day the consumer takes his rest/ both its continuous or disturbed, cognitive perceptual pattern refers again to the degree of cognitive maturation of the client, self-perception pattern means on how the client perceives or sees herself, role-relationship sample explains the role of the consumer in her family and society, sexuality-sexual functioning this domain explains if the consumer is sexually active or not and the number and age hole of the children the shopper has, coping-stress management pattern means on how the shopper would react to stress and what would the shopper do to resolve it , and values-belief system identifies the assumption or religion of the shopper and their non secular practices.

Data gathering procedure

A transmittal letter was despatched to the chief nurse of cebu city medical heart. The researcher selected a shopper which had an acute condition to be interviewed, previous to the interview the researcher explained to the shopper the purpose and the targets of the interview, wherein the shopper agreed together with her full consent and understanding. The researcher conducted a chart evaluation of the consumer adopted by doing a physical assessment and did an interview utilizing Gordon’s Health sample software.

Chapter 2
Results and Discussion

This chapter presents an appraisal utilizing the Neuman Systems Model in assessing and dealing with shoppers with hypokalemia. Situational Appraisal
The client is a 38-year old female, which currently resides at baranggay ylaya talamban Cebu City. She was born on march 10, 1975, she is a Roman Catholic by religion and is the youngest amongst two daughters of the second family her father had, and is now an orphan and a widow. She perceives her present condition as a payment for her sins, the client’s sister stated that the consumer had times the place she had epilepsy and sometimes with seizures however it disappeared later in time .She is presently unemployed and only works as an additional even though she had an unstable source of earnings she nonetheless managed to eat three instances day by day however with limitation of food consumption vegetable is the primary meals supply that they will afford and is only in a single meals group drinks water relying on her wants or if she is thirsty.

Elimination sample is each day or depending upon the urge. Her day by day exercise consists of waking up, sleeping, and goes to work which is considered as sedentary. Sleep and rest patterns are altered she sleeps 6-9 hours every day however is interrupted she wakes up at night and has difficulties in falling back to sleep. The client was a 3rd yr high school stage however it was not a hindrance to her to find a job. The shopper views herself as helpless and hopeless at some times because of her illness. She was the youngest daughter she sought all the attention of her dad and mom but she did not depend on them she worked onerous to be employed and he or she discovered a job as a manufacturing facility employee her elder sister was had a child and which she also liked as her personal, and later was married.

She was married however never had a baby however she acted as a mom to her sister’s son, in her present state she has no associate in life and is not sexually lively for her residing a single life freed from obligations is okay, following by the lack of each her parents she was on depressed and drowned herself in her work just to get over following her loss, it was additionally aggravated when her husband died in an accident which she had the hard time to simply accept and was depressed which made her let go of her job, probably the most depressed moment of her life where she resorted to the use of prohibited drugs occurred when her nephew died it was the most painful loss for her as a end result of she handled her nephew as her personal son. The only member of the family that’s left together with her is her elder sister all of her siblings on her father’s first household isn’t close to them. The shopper believed that her present condition is a punishment to her since she forgot her obligations in the church and thought being a creditor is a sin and he or she is paying for it.

Theory-Based Assessment

Physiological lack of system stability demonstrated in muscle weakness as seen in issue in respiration and incapability to ambulate
Psychological loss of system stability demonstrated in feelings of uselessness and helplessness

Sociocultural loss of system stability seen in lack of economic assist upon hospitalization and relative support
Developmental lack of system stability seen in unemployment, dependence, and a decrease in competency in present age bracket.
Spiritual lack of system stability in feelings of uselessness


The first is deficient consumption. Poor potassium consumption alone is an unusual explanation for hypokalemia however occasionally could be seen in very elderly individuals unable to cook dinner for themselves or unable to chew or swallow well. Over time, such individuals can accumulate a major potassium deficit. Another medical state of affairs the place hypokalemia could occur because of poor consumption is in patients receiving whole parenteral vitamin (TPN), the place potassium supplementation could additionally be insufficient for a protracted time frame. The second is elevated excretion. Increased excretion of potassium, particularly coupled with poor intake, is the commonest reason for hypokalemia. The most common mechanisms resulting in elevated renal potassium losses embody enhanced sodium delivery to the collecting duct, as with diuretics; mineralocorticoid extra, as with major or secondary hyperaldosteronism; or increased urine circulate, as with an osmotic diuresis.

Gastrointestinal losses, mostly from diarrhea, are also common causes of hypokalemia. Vomiting is a standard reason for hypokalemia, but the pathogenesis of the hypokalemia is complicated. Gastric fluid itself contains little potassium, roughly 10 mEq/L. However, vomiting produces quantity depletion and metabolic alkalosis. These 2 processes are accompanied by elevated renal potassium excretion. Volume depletion leads to secondary hyperaldosteronism, which, in flip, results in enhanced cortical collecting tubule secretion of potassium in response to enhanced sodium reabsorption. Metabolic alkalosis additionally increases collecting tubule potassium secretion because of the decreased availability of hydrogen ions for secretion in response to sodium reabsorption. The third is due to a shift from extracellular to intracellular house.

This pathogenetic mechanism also usually accompanies increased excretion, resulting in a potentiation of the hypokalemic impact of excessive loss. Intracellular shifts of potassium typically are episodic and incessantly are self-limited, for example, with acute insulin therapy for hyperglycemia. Regardless of the trigger, hypokalemia produces related indicators and symptoms. Because potassium is overwhelmingly an intracellular cation and since quite lots of components can regulate the precise serum potassium focus, a person can incur very substantial potassium losses with out exhibiting frank hypokalemia. Conversely, hypokalemia does not at all times replicate a true deficit in total body potassium shops.

Variance from wellness| Nursing intervention| Reconstitution| Weak extremitiesSubjective cues: “dili nako malihok ako mga tiil” as verbalized by the consumer.Objective cues: * Client lying on bed * Foot plantar flexed. * Weak muscle power and low muscle tone on extremities.Difficulty in breathingSubjective cues: “ usahay magazine lisod ko ug ginhawa” as verbalized by the clientObjective cues: * Enlarged chest cavity. * Use of accessory muscle tissue in respiratory * Fast deep breaths * Presence of nasal prongs on the bedside.Risks for muscle atrophy and foot droppingSubjective cues: mura ug ning gamay akong mga bati-is” as verbalized by the consumer.Objective cues: * Client is mendacity on mattress * Foot plantar flexed * Immobility of the decrease extremities

* No presence of foot board * No ROM workouts carried out.| * Promote ROM exercises to prevent muscle atrophy on the affected limb * Provide foot board to support the foot and keep away from plantarflexion which causes foot drop. * Encourage the consumer to eat a balanced food regimen paired with bananas for potassium alternative * Administer drugs as prescribed * Monitor the client for any complications * Position the consumer on semi-fowlers position. * Instruct client to do belly respiration or pursed lip respiratory. * Monitor for signs of hypoxia

* Administer oxygen prn as prescribed. * Promote ROM workout routines. * Provide foot board. * Encourage the S.O. to do sponge bathing to advertise circulation. * Encourage the client to move the and train the toes of the toes.| Goal: demonstrated strategies and way of life modifications to fulfill physiologic needs.Reconstitution: strains of resistance building.Goal: promoted strategies and exercises to satisfy physiologic needsReconstitution: traces of resistance buildingGoal: promoted techniques and workouts to forestall the prevalence of physiologic problemsReconstitution: lines of resistance building and strengthening the versatile traces of protection.

Response of the shopper on the Interventions Provided

The consumer was capable of see by way of herself on identifying and prioritizing the problems through based mostly on her judgment and of the researcher’s appraisal of her identified stressor the consumer was capable of recuperate in the treatment, the client was able to provide you with solutions on the issues that were most attainable and most essential to her which is attaining the optimum degree of functioning. The client was capable of gain a boosted vanity and a positive outlook in life, reconstitution of her traces of protection and strengthening each strains is in progress, via optimistic feedback the consumer was in a place to see through it all that the physiological body is not only the one factor in therapeutic however it should comprise the thoughts, the spirit, the society, and development to realize a wholistic and quicker restoration from sickness.

Conclusion and Recommendations

The Neuman Systems Model was efficient, efficient in providing a wholistic nursing care to the consumer with hypokalemia. The evaluation made was thorough and was primarily based on the what the consumer and the care supplier perceives thereby giving a collaborative and particular trace as to what the issue is wherein efficient options can be brought up. Though the system is type of difficult and challenging at some instances, it just wants apply in implementing the mannequin to be able to familiarize it.

The analysis concluded that the Neuman Systems Model is an efficient software which can improve the nurses critical and analytical pondering by the information gathered based mostly on the client’s initial response and the nurses judgment thereby minimizing the incidence of an error in figuring out problems and offering nursing care.


Based on the findings, observations and the conclusion using the Neuman Systems Model is efficient and wholistic sufficient within the method of a shopper with hypokalemia. The following are the researchers ideas and recommendations

nurse practitioners ought to do a radical assessment on their clients not only by figuring out the primary problems but in addition by assessing the particular person as a whole it could possibly be carried out via the usage of the Neuman Systems evaluation and analysis device.

Interventions differ from shopper to shopper others might range however there is not a such thing as a uniformed intervention thereby it is necessary for the nurse to assess for the needs of the client.


Burns and Grove (2003) Understanding Nursing analysis 3rd version W. B. Saunders,
Elsevier Company

Fawcett, Jacqueline (1995) Analysis and Evaluation of Conceptual Models of Nursing third ed. F.A. Davis Company

Frisch N., Frisch L. (2006) Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing third ed. Thomson Delmar Learning Company

Karch, Amy (2008) Lippincotts Nursing Drug Guide: Wolters Kluwer Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Company

Medical-Surgical Nursing Made Incredible Easy (2004). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Company Springhouse

Neuman, Betty and Fawcett, Jacqueline 2002 The Neuman Systems Model 4th edition Prentice Hall Company

Application for women”s safety and safety


In today’s world girls are less secure and have many points relating to their security purpose. So, for his or her safety and security purpose we’re make Application for women’s and this Application also use Citizen for Health and Emergency objective.


These days safety of peoples is essential thing in life, so the household want a complete observe of relations and monitor all of them time. This is bodily not potential so we introduce Woman and senior citizens tracking system which is useful for monitoring or monitoring on the earth.

Their security and safety objective we’re make Application for women’s and this Application also use Citizen for Health and Emergency function.

For the Senior residents one clicks medical doctors helps additionally obtainable.


  • Project Description
  • Project Profile
  • Hardware & Software Requirement


In today’s world girls are much less safe and have many issues concerning their safety purpose.

So, for their safety and security objective we are make Application for women’s and this Application additionally use Old people for Health and Emergency purpose.

Sometime old individuals miss their residence handle and they go far from their residence that point Old individuals use this software for safely go their home and also use for his or her health.

We try to contribute little efforts in the path of girls and old folks which is in a position to guarantee the protection and respect for them.


Android is a cellular working system (OS) first developed by a Silicon Valley company by the name of Android Inc.

A collaboration spearheaded by Google in 2007 via the Open Handset Alliance (OHA) gave Android an edge in delivering a complete software program set, which incorporates the primary OS, middleware and specific cellular software, or app.

Why Android?

Android is an open source project (led by Google however it doesn’t belong to them) called AOSP (Android Open Source Project). Google uses this project as a base to create its version of Android, which is then utilized by the other manufacturers.

As an OS, Android’s job is to act as a translator between you and your gadget.

Advantage Using Android

Multitasking –  Yups, Android telephones can run many functions, it means you can browse, Facebook whereas listened to the track.

Ease of Notification – Any SMS, Email, and even the newest articles from an RSS Reader, there will at all times be a notification on the Home Screen Android phone, don’t miss the LED indicator is blinking, so you’ll not miss a single SMS, Email and even Miscall. Easy access to hundreds of functions by way of the Google Android Android App Market. When you love to put in applications or video games, through Google’s Android App Market, Agan can download purposes for free. There are many 1000’s of applications and games which may be ready for obtain on Android telephones You.

Phone choices are numerous – Talk Android phone, it’ll feel “different” than the IOS, if the IOS is proscribed to the iPhone from Apple, then Android is on the market on mobile phones from varied producers. And each handset manufacturer also presents an Android telephone within the fashion of every, similar to Motorola with its Motoblur, Sony Ericsson with its Timescape. So You can freely select the Android phone in accordance with the “brand” favorite.

Can install a modified ROM – not glad with the standard view of Android, do not worry there are heaps of custom ROM that can be utilized in your mobile phones Android . Widget – absolutely right, with the widgets on the house display screen, you can simply entry a variety of settings rapidly and simply.

Google Maniac – If you are a loyal person of Google providers ranging from Gmail to Google Reader Android phone has built-in with Google companies, so you’ll have the ability to shortly verify e-mail from Gmail.

Architecture of Android


To make folks aware of this Application.

They use software is dangerous or not.

What kinds of characteristic on this application?

Which kinds of performance in Application?

In software engineering, an entity-relationship model (ER model for short) is an abstract and conceptual illustration of data. Entity-relationship modeling is a database modeling technique, used to provide a sort of conceptual schema or semantic data model of a system, often a relational database, and its requirements in a top-down fashion. Diagrams created by this course of are called entity-relationship diagrams or ER diagrams.

E-R Diagram mainly consists of:

  • Entity
  • Attributes
  • Relationships

An entity may be defined as a factor which is acknowledged as being able to an unbiased existence and which could be uniquely identified. An entity is an abstraction from the complexities of some domain. When we speak of an entity we normally communicate of some facet of the actual world which may be distinguished from different features of the real world.

An entity may be a physical object such as a house or a automotive, an event corresponding to a house sale or a automobile service, or an idea corresponding to a buyer transaction or order. Although the time period entity is the one mostly used, following Chen we should always actually distinguish between an entity and an entity-type. An entity-type is a category. An entity, strictly speaking, is an occasion of a given entity-type. There are usually many instances of an entity-type. Because the time period entity-type is considerably cumbersome, most individuals tend to use the time period entity as a synonym for this term.

A relationship captures how entities are related to one another. Relationships can be thought of as verbs, linking two or more nouns.


Data flow diagram is a graphical software used to explain and evaluation the movement of knowledge through a system-manual or automated together with the Processes shops the information, and delays within the system.

Data move diagrams are the central software and foundation from which other parts are developed.

The transformations of the data from enter to output via the Processes May be described logically and independently of the physical parts Associated with the system. They are termed logical information circulate diagrams.

In distinction, bodily data flow diagrams present the actual Implementation and the motion of knowledge between individuals departments and workstations.

The simple notations are simply understood by users and enterprise Persons who are part of the process being studied. Therefore, analysts can work With Users and actually involve them within the study of information move diagrams.

Users can make suggestions for modifications of the diagrams to More Accurately Described the enterprise activity. They can even look at the charts and spot Problems quickly so that they can be corrected before other design work begins. If issues usually are not found early in the improvement process they will be very difficult to right when they are observed. Avoiding mistakes early May even prevent system failure.

Data flow evaluation permits analysts to isolate areas of curiosity within the institution and research them by inspecting the information that enter the method and seeing how they are changed when they are modified after they depart the process. As analyst gather acts and particulars their increased understanding of the process leads them to ask questions about specifications of the process which results in still extra investigation as the world of investigation is damaged into successively decrease degree details until all the essential components and their interrelations could be understood.

Data move diagrams are utilized in the same way. They are developed and used progressively from the general to the precise for the system of interest. The data circulate diagram covers all the processes and data storage area, which takes place throughout any transaction within the system. The data move diagrams are functionally divided into Context degree (Zero level) and First stage information circulate diagrams.

Symbols used in DFDs:

  • Process: Here move of knowledge is transformed. E.g. Registering Student, and so on.
  • External Entity: A supply or vacation spot of knowledge which is exterior to the system. E.g. Principal Etc.
  • A data flow: It is packet of knowledge. It may be within the type of doc, letter etc.
  • Data store: Any retailer data but with no reference to the bodily method of storing.


A use case diagram within the Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a kind of behavioral diagram defined by and created from a Use-case analysis. Its purpose is to current a graphical overview of the functionality offered by a system when it comes to actors, their goals (represented as use cases), and any dependencies between those use circumstances.

*The main purpose of a use case diagram is to indicate what system features are performed for which actor. The roles of the actors in the system may be depicted.

*Interaction among actors isn’t shown on the use case diagram. If this interaction is essential to a coherent description of the desired behavior, perhaps the system or use case boundaries ought to be re-examined. Alternatively, interplay amongst actors can be part of the assumptions used within the use case.

Use cases

A use case describes a sequence of actions that present something of measurable value to an actor and is drawn as a horizontal ellipse.


An actor is a person, organization, or exterior system that plays a role in one or more interactions with the system.

System boundary boxes (optional)

A rectangle is drawn across the use instances, referred to as the system boundary field, to point the scope of system. Anything within the box represents functionality that’s in scope and something outdoors the box just isn’t.



  • Women and Citizen Get Quick assist from the Application.
  • They are straightforward care for about.
  • They are freely going any ware.
  • They are Get Quick assist from Doctor and Police.


  • If Network concern occur, they can’t ship present location.
  • If cell information off they can’t see location of Doctor and Police.


  • We are offering Emergency CALL Button on Lock display.
  • We are offering to ship low battery message to added Emergency Number.
  • We are providing to ship Emergency message near police Station.

Application Of GIS And Its Advantages Computer Science Essay

Geographic Information System ( GIS ) is a computer-based system designed to manage the data question, use, evaluation and infinite visible picture of spacial informations. Clapp et Al. ( 1997 ) described that geographic data systems ( GIS ) as a strong software to buy and pull strings huge sums of information on spacial relationships. Information depicted consists of in writing and attribute data ( Taher Buyong, 1990 ) . Development of computing machine engineering presents already solves many roles that are chiefly in process of hive awaying informations, analyse and present geographically data.

2.1.1 GIS Definition and Concept

Geographic Information System ( GIS ) was an information system designed that related with referenced informations both spacial or geographical co-ordinates ( Ruslan & A ; Noresah, 1998 ) . It in addition to is a system that’s environment friendly within the data direction subject that entails a mix of spacial and attributes informations saved in a particular person database. GIS can besides help in doing determinations based mostly on the results of the evaluation generated by the system. Harmonizing to Li et Al. ( 2003 ) in Heng et Al.

( 2005 ) , GIS can make the most of to manage each spacial and non-spatial informations on the identical time where its consequence will demo in its specific features in data course and integrating, informations question and analysis, and informations visible image.

However, Maguire ( 1991 ) stated that it was hard to specify GIS because there have been many ways to specify and kind the thing and succesful. Heng et Al. ( 2005 ) defined GIS is a system that combines spacial and non-spatial informations to assemble a thematic map which depicting a assortment of demographic data associating to inhabitants, lodging and financial activities so as assist to work out location jobs and present the implications in envisioned signifier.

Harmonizing to Clarke ( 1986 ) , GIS was computing machine assisted systems for the gaining control, storage, retrieval, evaluation and show of spacial informations. While, from Burrough ( 1986 ) definition, GIS was a powerful set of instruments to roll up, store, retrieve at will, altering or reworking and exposing spacial informations from the existent universe. Then, GIS was a database path system with a spacial point out where it can supply research staff with first-class management over spacial relationships as described by Clapp et Al. ( 1997 ) .

Based on the given definitions, it is clear that GIS is targeted on processing and analytical capablenesss in deliver forthing new utile information in understanding the relationship of infinite ( Ruslan & A ; Noresah, 1998 ) . By and enormous, GIS is a course aggregation of computing machine hardware, bundle, geographic informations and the establishments had been expeditiously designed to roll up, store, update, manipulate, analyze and expose all signifiers of data referred to geographical location ( Aronoff, 1989 ) . In order to perform effectivity and better stimulation, assorted GIS utility had been designed to run into and carry by way of usersaa‚¬a„? demands and limitless demands. Besides that, informations presented could be extra effectual, environment friendly and attractive with the conceptualisation of ocular and show.

2.1.2 GIS Components

Harmonizing to Abd. Majid et Al. ( 2000 ) , there are six chief constituents for Geographic Information System ( GIS ) as follows: –

I. ) Data

Data is the inputs enter into the system either spacial or non-spatial informations. Data entry proficient can be done via the keyboard, scanning, digitisation and movie taking. The quality of the information produced will be more precise, accurate and replace.

two. ) Software

Lumley ( 1984 ) stated that, bundle is a plan that permits computing machine to indicate or execute a particular endeavor via a set of directions that has enrolled as a computing machine plan. These instructions enable the operation or computation performed by the computing machine. Example of the working system package corresponding to Microsoft Windows 2007, database direction systems similar to Microsoft Access 2007 and ArcGIS as an illustration for package.

three. ) Hardware

Hardware is required in GIS for informations entry, informations processing, informations storing and exposing the knowledge info stored indoors.

four. ) Application

In common, GIS software could be categorized into three teams that are societal, financial and army. This survey is categorized underneath financial.

v. ) Peoples

Peoples are an indispensable constituent in using GIS. This is as a outcome of human as administrators and applied scientists to ensure that GIS is used in the activity.

six. ) Procedure

The processs utilized in GIS are informations entry, informations storage, informations processing, presentation, path and care system. These processs are done in making an effectual information system.

Therefore, these constituents might be coordinated so that enables the system to work swimmingly. These constituents will do the GIS a system which helps in bring forthing penalties faster and extra accurate if utilized in the existent property improvement.

2.2 GIS Application in Real Estate Development

Zhao & A ; Zhang ( 2009, pg1 ) indicated that, aa‚¬A“In recent old ages, related administrative Fieldss of existent estate have been developed into a batch of subdivision industries associated to existent estate as a end result of existent property creating quickly. Directly, it has been strengthened the trouble of the existent property Fieldss as a outcome of the associated administrative content and concern course of have been changed with it. Therefore, a engineering so called GIS was set up to help to run convenient and heighten the executive energy of existent property, and besides higher the on the job effectivity. The structure of GIS has realistic significance for normative pull offing existent property and advancing the development of existent estateaa‚¬A? .

Geographic Information System ( GIS ) engineering integrates frequent database operations corresponding to query and statistical analysis with the alone visual image and geographic analysis advantages supplied by maps. These talents distinguish GIS from different info methods and do it valuable to a broad scope of public and private corporations for explicating occasions, foretelling outcomes, and be aftering schemes ( www.gisdevelopment.internet ) . Real estate trade is buying more bold twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours because of the speedy growth today. Particularly in the existent estate development, it wants the superior engineering helps to do the best dedication so that may minimise or keep away from the hazard of failure for a undertaking growth may confronted by existent estate builders.

As we all know, GIS is a computing machine based mostly system which is used to digitally reproduce and analyze the traits current on the Earth surface and the events that take topographic point on it. In the visible radiation of the very fact, about 70 % of the knowledge has geographical mention as its denominator. It becomes crucial to underscore the significance of a system which can stand for the given informations geographically ( ) .

Harmonizing to Zheng & A ; Zhou ( 2001 ) , GIS is specifically designed to manage spacial informations and capableness to execute these tasks.GIS developed as a generic device with capablenesss to cowl with uncertainnesss the place it can be utilized to many Fieldss which involve optimum spacial willpower devising. G.i. can be utilized virtually to place to death solution for greatest attainable spacial determination devising within the existent property industry. In the interim, it is proven that existent estate builders want GIS as a database path tool to assist them in making the willpower devising. The structure of willpower doing assist system has many advantages because of it can be used to beef up and better existent property control and to advance the event of the market ( Yang & A ; Qiao,2009 ) .

2.2.1 GIS Application in Site Selection

GIS is a powerful computer-based software to include and analyse spacial informations from assorted beginnings. GIS permits geographically referenced data to be saved, edited, manipulated and analyzed to bring forth interpretative map and associated statistic related for determination devising. GIS can provide an effectual platform for custom-made spacial modeling ( Barnett and Okowura 1993 ; Conway and Lathrop 2005 ; Goodchild 2005 ; Li and others 2005 ; Longley and Batty 2003 ; Tu and others 2007 ; Sorrentino et al.,2008, pg four ) . Barnett & A ; Okoruwa ( 1993 ) indicated that there have been few surveies utilized GIS in be aftering land usage and presented how GIS might be applied in existent estate market evaluation. They demonstrated the application of GIS in market analysis where particularly in site selection and location analysis for residential growth every bit good as in highest and finest utilization analysis. In the discovering of site alternative, the siteaa‚¬a„?s specific bodily and geographic features must able to fulfill the practical aims of a peculiar land usage.

Heng et Al. ( 2005 ) defined that website selection was important portion when planning for a existent estate enterprise development the place it was the nucleus part of the preplanning stage so the undertaking life rhythm shall be Begins. Largely, developers need to prioritise or select sites for development is based on the figure of sites on manus which can be found for a enterprise improvement as a outcome of limited assets. Besides, they might look for and choose the best new site from attainable places for development.

Site alternative usually involves discovering a suited website for a debatable development. Therefore, a number of standards ought to be studied and researched to obtain the accurate consequences. Among the cardinal aspects to be studied in a selection operation via the sheathing method is the facet of land usage, incline, geology, handiness, installations, inhabitants denseness and others. All aspects of the informations are analyzed to find and place attainable nations and absent for a improvement.

2.2.2 GIS Application in Determine Property Selling Price

Harmonizing to Zhao & A ; Zhang ( 2009 ) , GIS can be used to tug off the essential information of existent estate and at the identical clip produced the statistical research where promoting belongings part can point out to it as a point out dedication when find the financial value for belongings and carry on to sell it.

Application of a Communicative Competence Skill


I will first describe the elements of Communicative Competence then the 4 spheres of Multiliteracies Pedagogy then conclude by making use of a talent.

Communicative Competence

Communicative Competence has 5 components:

1. Discourse Competence: The choice, sequencing, and association of words, structures and utterances to achieve a unified spoken or written text. Examples of Discourse Competence abilities:

A. Cohesion
B. Deixis
C. Coherence

2. Linguistic Competence: The primary components of language:
A. Syntax
B. Morphology
C. Lexicon
D. Phonology
E. Orthography

3. Actional Competence: Conveying and understanding speech acts.

Examples of Actional Competence abilities:
A. Interpersonal Exchange
B. Suasion
C. Problems

4. Sociocultural Competence: The information of how to communicate appropriately within the social and cultural context of communication. Examples of Sociocultural Competence skills:
A. Social Contextual Factors
B. Stylistic Appropriateness Factors
C. Cultural Factors

5. Strategic Competence: The information of communication methods and how to use them. Examples of Strategic Competence expertise:
A. Avoidance or discount strategies.
B. Achievement or compensatory methods.
C. Interactional strategies.

The Multiletracies Pedagogy model:

1. Situated Practice: It supplies immersion for college kids to develop familiarity for the activities and study by doing.

2. Overt Instruction: It offers direct info from the teacher to let the students be taught the important options of the training actions and give consideration to the construction (grammar) of the actions.

3. Discourse Analysis: It helps students analyze their activities and know the method to profit greatest from the materials.

4. Transformed Practice: it give an opportunity for school kids to make use of what they learned in new situations.

Applying the model

I selected service encounters to use to the multileteracies pedagogy model: 1.

Situated Practice: show the students a service encounter on how to order in a restaurant or guide a room in a resort by way of video or a role play.

2. Discourse Analysis: Let the students have a dialogue on tips on how to do service encounters nicely and how much language they should use.

3. Overt Instruction: Explain the buildings and expressions utilized in service encounters, for instance the utilization of “ I need …, please” and “How a lot …?”

4. Transformed apply: Have the scholars do a job play as employee at a travel agency and a consumer, or a waiter and a buyer. Student also can report a service encounter on the telephone or a digital recorder calling for a takeout meal or the mobile service company to file a complaint

Application And Principles For Encryption Computer Science Essay

Nowadays the place much of concern, intelligence, formal, casual and personal data and financial minutess are processed and carried out over the Internet, data encoding is really of import sing computing machine safety. HTTP, piece of email, FTP, and Microsoft Windows file-sharing could be accessed simple by cyberspace hacker or internet sniffer ( John Mallery, Jason Zann, Patrick Kelly, Wesley Noonan, Eric seagren, Paul Love, Rob Kraft, and Mark O’Neill, P. 258 ) .

As Jan L. Harrington states “ Encryption is one of the best technique for guaranting the privateness of a message ” .

Harmonizing to Barry Dorrans “ ASP.NET introduced a mannequin such as Authentication and Authorization utilizing informations encoding to find the individuality of authorized person and prevents unauthorised user to entree the content material ” . Data encoding defines a mathematical computations and algorithmic methods which convert plaintext into cyphertext which is non-readable to unauthorised parties.

Application for encoding

Presents in all electronic speaking there are a figure of individuals concerned similar to transmitter, receiving system, bearers ‘ service supplier and so on.

Data Encryption prevents hackers from listening in on personal communications. Even if anybody success to seize the message, they will merely see scrambled textual content because of encoding ( SpamLaws. No day of the month ) .

Encryption provides Secure Sockets Layer ( SSL ) which permits secure communications and user hallmark over unfastened and unbarred Internet similar to fiscal dealing. Nowadays a global radio safety criterion known as Wi-Fi

Protected Access ( WPA2 ) is being used to code informations transportation over wireless webs.

Digital telecasting offers manage their subscriber entree by coding picture and audio signals ( Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, 2006 ) .

Encoding is besides really indispensable for nationwide security of any state. Military communications use informations encoding so that terrorists and anti societal components can non tapped message.

Principles of Encoding

Encoding ever requires a cardinal which determines the end product of the algorithm. This secret is normally piece of information, used as a parametric amount in encoding algorithm. Encryption schemes are obtainable in two classs: symmetric and uneven ( Barry Dorrans, P.124 ) .

Symmetrical Encryption apart from known as single-key encoding is a sort of encoding the place a secret key’s being shared to code and decode data. A secret key is often a word, a character, or merely a twine of random letters. The transmitter and receiver both ought to cognize the secret key so as to recuperate or direct info. Popular symmetric-key encoding algorithms are Blowfish, RC2, RC4, AES, and IDEA etc. Most of these operations are based on changing and scrambling which suggests some bytes is changed with other bytes harmonizing to algorithm laws ( Encryption and Decryption, no day of the month ) . The.NET model supplies assorted symmetric algorithms that portion a typical characteristic – they are all block cyphers which encrypts informations by interrupting it down into blocks ( normally 64 spots ) .

As Barry Dorrans states “ Asymmetric Encryption was developed to extinguish the sharing of cardinal between transmitter and receiving system. Asymmetric Encryption usage two keys – 1 for coding ( known as the basic public key ) and one for decoding ( known as the private key ) ” . In.NET mannequin, there’s a ‘RSACryptoServiceProvider ‘ class which supports this sort of encoding. The cardinal measurement of this class is 1024 spots. When a person wants to ship on a file, they merely encrypt the knowledge adding receiver ‘s public key. Once the receiver receives the file they retrieve the data by using the non-public key ( Larryjf, 2004 ) . Asymmetrical Encryption works with digital signatures which allows receiver to formalize the entrance informations starting.

Comparison between

Symmetrical encoding and Asymmetric encoding

Symmetrical encoding is really environment friendly algorithm in hardware and bundle execution where Asymmetric encoding is on the order of 100-1000 times slower than symmetric encoding.

The shared key should be exchanged firmly between every brace of pass oning entities in symmetric encoding. Knowledge of the public key of an entity is sufficient to pass on firmly in uneven encoding.

In uneven encoding each entity needs to guard the secretiveness of its ain non-public key where the secretiveness of the necessary thing have to be protected in symmetric encoding as every secret is being shared at both entities ( Christos Douligeris, Dimitrios N. Serpanos, and 2007 P.472 ) .


Symmetrical encoding and Asymmetric encoding

To maximise the benefit of both types of encoding strategy is to make a random symmetric key which will code the data. Then it’ll code the cardinal unsymmetrically. After that it can be added to the encrypted message. After the receiving system receives the important thing, decrypts it utilizing the non-public key, and so uses it to decode the message. This sort of encoding is identified as intercrossed encoding. There are many protocols that makes use of intercrossed mode by uniting asymmetric and symmetric algorithms. Such as IPSec which provides unity, privateness providers for informations diagram and web hallmark ( Peter Thorsteinson, G. Gnana Arun Ganesh, P.107 ) .


Due to internet ‘s unfastened nature and the hazard of internet surfboarding, using informations encoding to the communicating medium such as instant messaging and emailing goes really well-liked presents. Without this encoding mechanism, anybody can straightforward seize and see the data, being transferred over the cyberspace. Especially knowledge encoding is good deserving prosecuting when sing offenses like individuality larceny are on the rise.

Application for a Space to Study MBA Program

I hereby write this letter to show my interest to use for a space to review MBA program International Business Administration offered at Estonian Entrepreneurship University of Applied Sciences (EUAS) which starting in February 2020. I graduated from Alytaus Kolegija University of Applied Sciences, Lithuania in 2017 as probably the greatest international students within the Business Management program. After commencement in June 2017, I took a job as a customer support, and later superior to the extent of an advisory in a enterprise consultancy in Warsaw, Poland however as a potential entrepreneur, I wish to develop my information of a enterprise creation, managerial, staff player and correct decision-making, also to acquire simpler skills for digital and new enterprise innovations with business methods that lead to success within the present global revolutionary and digital environment.

My focus to study MBA program International Business Administration is to learn and acquire effective innovation and digital expertise for the creation of recent businesses and guides on how to correctly manage the present ones each locally and worldwide with creativity.

Considering the alternatives ahead, I got here to understand that an MBA International Business is probably the most appropriate for my achieve my dreams and goals therefore I am much motivated to pursue it. My skilled goal is to become a profitable and one of the leading entrepreneurs and business consultants across the globe because I strongly value the modern globalization course of therefore I always wanted a career in entrepreneurship and marketing consultant.

Based on my enterprise administration qualification from Lithuania, earlier Three months internship in a Logistics firm in Poland, coupled with the present working expertise, I contemplate an MBA program International Business Administration to be ideal and highly useful to perform my profession and professional objectives.

During this study program, I am devoted to learning the means to develop innovative theories, ideas and ideas amidst proper organizational administration and management and to turn out to be a specialist in solution marketing consultant to awake present businesses undergoing disaster by speedily figuring out problems and implementing lasting solutions inside limited cut-off dates.

I intend to undergo a examine expertise in MBA program International Business Administration to accumulate knowledge that will convey me a extra sturdy sense of accomplishment and in flip creating extra opportunities for myself and the fashionable world at large by comprehensive training in new and modern business supporting information technologies and multi-media tools, strategic enterprise mannequin concepts and dynamics, empowers me to swiftly acknowledge interdisciplinary links and important business courses oriented on computer skill and ICT usage. I imagine my qualification would be a wonderful match to endure this course.

I look forward to your optimistic response. Thank you in your time and consideration.

Yours faithfully,

Oluwaseye Oladipupo Omojuwa

Application of Mendel’s Principles and Probability

11.2 Applying Mendel’s Principles Probability and Punnett Squares

1. What is probability? Probability is the chance that a certain event will occur.

2. In a mother or father pea plant with the allele pair Gg, what’s the probability that one gamete will comprise the G allele? ½ or 50%

3. Complete the graphic organizer to outline the traits of homozygous and heterozygous genotypes and phenotypes.

Homozygous Heterozygous Genotype

Both alleles are the same The alleles are different


The phenotype is dependent upon whether each alleles are recessive or dominant.

  The phenotype might be that produced by the dominant allele

4. The dominant allele for smooth pod form in peas is S. The recessive allele for constricted pod shape is s. In the Punnett square, present the results of crossing two heterozygous mother and father (Ss). Write the genotype and the phenotype of every sort of offspring within the space provided.

Genotype:SSPhenotype: SmoothGenotype:SsPhenotype: SmoothGenotype:SsPhenotype: SmoothGenotype:ssPhenotype: Constricted

For Questions 5–9, check with the Punnett square above.

5. What is the likelihood of a heterozygous offspring? Explain your reply.

Probability is 1/2

6. What is the likelihood of a homozygous offspring? Explain. 1/2

7. What is the probability of a homozygous recessive offspring? 1/4

8. What is the likelihood of a clean phenotype?3/4

9. What is the probability of a homozygous recessive particular person (ss) producing a gamete with a dominant allele (S)? Explain. ZERO because the individual did not inherit a dominant allele

Independent Assortment

10. State the principle of independent assortment under.Genes for various traits segregate independently during the formation of gametes

11. Using the principle of impartial assortment, complete the Punnett square to indicate the results of an F1 cross between two people heterozygous for each pod color (C = green and c = yellow) and pod form (S = smooth and s + constricted).

The gametes and a variety of the genotypes of the F2 offspring are given.

For Questions 12–15, discuss with the Punnett sq. above.

12. Which genotype belongs to an offspring that is homozygous recessive for each traits? What is the likelihood of that genotype? The genotype is ccss and the likelihood is 1/16

13. What is the phenotype of a person heterozygous for each traits? The phenotype is green pod shade and clean pod shape

14. What is the likelihood of an F2 offspring having the green pod colour and easy pod shape? Explain. (Note: Remember that a couple of genotype can produce this phenotype.) Th)e probability is 9/16 (the mixed chance of CCSS,CcSs, CCSs and CcSs

15. The Punnett sq. predicts a 9:3:three:1 ratio for phenotypes. Explain what that ratio means. It implies that the probability of an offspring that exhibits both dominant traits (green pod and smooth pod shape) is 9/16. The probability of one dominant and one recessive trait (either greed pod color and constricted form OR yellow pod and easy shape) is 3/16. The chance of both recessive traits exhibiting within the phenotype (yellow shade and constricted shape) is 1/16.

Summary of Mendel’s Principles

For Questions 16–20, complete each assertion by writing the correct word or words

16. The items that decide the inheritance of organic traits are genes.

17. A form of a gene is a(n)allele.

18. If two or more forms of a gene exist, some may be dominant and others could additionally be recessive. 19. The offspring of most sexually reproducing organisms have two copies of each gene. One came from each parent. 20. Alleles from totally different genes normally segregateindependently from one another when gametes form.

For Questions 21–25, match the time period with its description.E 21. Determine traits

A. parents

B 22. Can be two of those in one gene B. alleles

C 23. Allele that is expressed C. dominant

A 24. Where genes come from D. segregate

D 25. What genes do throughout gamete formation E. genes

26.Explain the significance of Thomas Hunt Morgan’s experiments with fruit flies. Why was his work an important addition to Mendel’s research? He experimented with fruit flies as a substitute of vegetation. He was the first to find that Mendel’s rules apply to organisms other than crops.

27.Four sisters begin attending your school. One has brown hair and brown eyes. Another has brown hair and blue eyes. The third additionally has blue eyes, but blond hair. The fourth has blond hair, too, however she has brown eyes. Explain how the principle of impartial segregation accounts for these sisters having four completely different phenotypes for two traits. If their dad and mom are heterozygous for each traits, the genes and alleles segregate independently, leading to all potential phenotypes combos: dominant-dominant, dominant-recessive, recessive-dominant, and recessive-recessive.

Application of Background Methodology

In addition, childhood obesity can adversely affect social and economic improvement and lead to adult obesity inflicting extra opposed well being circumstances. The prices of treating obesity within the United States are steadily increasing. Estimates present the direct and indirect costs related to treating obesity was near $139 billion in 2003 (Li, & Hooker, 2010).

The focus of this paper is to look at a peer-reviewed analysis article performed by Ji Li, PhD. and Neal Hooker PhD revealed in the Journal of School Health, to show how the application of background and methodology of the analysis process may be applied to problems in well being care.

By analyzing the purpose of the examine, the speculation, the variables employed, and the framework used to information the research, a better understanding of the analysis course of might be gained.

Study Purpose

Schools have been the subject of many research research relating to childhood obesity. Surveys have examined issues similar to race, ethnicity, and gender-specific differences relating to points such as how television viewing impacts weight acquire and how bodily activity effects educational achievement.

The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) School Breakfast Program (SBP) and have been the subject of many studies (Li, & Hooker, 2010). The studies examined meals decisions; comparing the dietary content material of program meals to other aggressive food choices available in the cafeteria. A totally different examine observed the effect of NSLP eligibility and meals insecurities on child welfare. The outcomes of the research indicated no proof of benefit associated with participation in the NSLP and youngster well-being (Li, & Hooker, 2010).

Past analysis, associating childhood weight problems and school-related applications and actions have been limited. The research did not differentiate between either public or private school sorts or were solely composed of public college findings. Moreover, past research research have employed solely limited perspectives on the issue. The objective of this article’s research is to delve further into the effects family, faculty, and neighborhood play on childhood weight problems in hopes of understanding better the correlation (Li, & Hooker, 2010).

By doing so administrators of health care might be higher outfitted to advise parents, educators, and policies makers of the significance of wellness and diet amongst school-aged kids.

Research Questions

Many questions are posed in this research. The major question asked is, what’s the correlation, if any, between college kind, bodily exercise, participation in the NSLP, and other independent variables on physique mass index (BMI) of youngsters dwelling within the United States? In addition, does the kind of faculty, public or private, make a distinction within the BMI of children?

Last, does the physical exercise level of the mother and father affect a child’s BMI (Li, & Hooker, 2010)? Hypotheses This hypothesis of the examine just isn’t clearly stated within the article although the reading suggests there are several. The study means that youngsters residing in decrease socioeconomic households and qualifying for the NSLP have greater likelihood of becoming overweight. Children who attend public schools are more susceptible to changing into obese than those who attend non-public schools. In addition, youngsters whose dad and mom are physically lively have less probability of becoming chubby.

Last, parental education ranges, smoking habits, and employment standing can have an result on a child’s weight (Li, & Hooker, 2010).

Study Variables

To analyze how varied components effect childhood weight problems, information was gathered concerning the children’s faculties, households, communities, and daily activities from the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH). These sociodemographic impartial variables embrace such information as the child’s age, gender, race, main spoken language, physical exercise level, television use, time spend playing computer video games, extracurricular ctivities, and participation in the free or reduced lunch program (Li, & Hooker, 2010). Information about parental activities corresponding to smoking practices, employment status, and education, economic, and exercise ranges had been additionally included. The dependent variable body BMI was used as the measure of obesity. BMI may be defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. This method of measurement is broadly used by well being suppliers to determine physical development (Li, & Hooker, 2010).

Conceptual Model or Theoretical Framework

The conceptual model used to know the results of the examine and to discover out its empirical and scientific effectiveness, research the relationships between childhood weight problems and factors that contribute to the problem. By contemplating the multidimensional perspectives surrounding the lives of children within the United States, the consequences on BMI as a measure of weight problems can prove possible correlations. This study first applied a nonlinear regression mannequin to survey information to look at important relationships.

Next, the research constructed three mannequin specifications to analyze the consequences of the NSLP (Li, & Hooker, 2010). Last, discoveries have been analyzed concerning the factors influencing the child’s probability for changing into obese (Li, & Hooker, 2010). The conceptual mannequin of the examine provides correlations between socioeconomic standing (SES) and different components and childhood weight problems by providing supporting information.

Review of Related Literature

A review of the literature cited helps the need for this study. Research by Ogden, Carroll, and Flegal (2008) proves the BMI of children and adolescents within the United States are rising steadily. A related study by Bouchard (1997) reveals the connection between childhood and grownup weight problems. In addition, the reference to Dietz (2004) shows that obesity could cause critical illness in kids similar to type 2 diabetes and heart disease. The excessive cost associated with treating obesity in the United States proves the need for further study into the problems related to childhood weight problems (Finkelstein, Ruhm, & Kosa, 2005).

Study Design

The research design employed was quantitative, consisting of data gathered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) 2003 and 2004 NSCH. The State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey Program was used to survey and examine the physical and psychological well being status of youngsters age delivery to 17 (Li, & Hooker, 2010). The households had been randomly selected with the screening question of the presence of children under age 18 within the family was used.

Observations of 62,880 kids from completely different households residing in the United States have been studied through the worth of BMI (Li, & Hooker, 2010).


The article from the Journal of School Health incorporates research collected from the NSCH conducted by the CDC to research the associations between youngsters attending public and private schools, scholar eligibility for the free or reduced-cost meal programs, and family SES on children’s BMI (Li, & Hooker, 2010).

Issues such as father or mother schooling and activity level along with youngster tv and video game use are noted as attainable associative factors which will result in childhood weight problems. The research additional illustrates the implications for college well being policy and its need for wellness curricula to advertise wholesome consuming and physical train (Li, & Hooker, 2010). By inspecting the background and methodology used within the creation of this research, one can see how the information was used to help formulate and prove the hypotheses giving a larger understanding of the analysis course of.

Android Application Development – Project Report


Mobile learning as an intersection of Mobile Computing and E-Learning providing assets that can be accessed anyplace has capability in an excellent looking system, rich interaction and full support in course of an efficient Learning and performance primarily based evaluation. In the fashionable world of mobile expertise and their rising availability and affordability, cell units notably Android platforms play an necessary role in the subject of communication, leisure and studying. It has tremendously modified the functioning of the world, even the training process.

Learning through mobile phones, abbreviated as Mobile Learning has turn out to be a part of the educative system. Mobile Learning or M-Learning is a specific kind of e-learning that gives educational supplies via cellphones. The objective of this research is to entry the learning materials, work together with faculties and consider different related documentations together with different services, by utilizing android based cell phone inside and out of doors the classroom. This may also determine the users’ prior information on the non-public and academic use and software of cellphones.

Our primary aim behind this whole project is to train a proper method to bring forth all the necessary elements a pupil or a trainer requires to hold out his job effectively. Our app named e-nlight will help the customers gain knowledge about their past records, with which they will improve their means of finding out and thus make the entire competition so much healthier and far more inspiring. Through this app, they will also entry all of the publicly available tutorial sources like books from any department.

As a end result, e-nlight will make positive the reach of schooling to each part of the institution regardless of any obstacles.


  • 2GB Hard-Disk

I3 processor


  • JAVA-> Java SE
  • Android SDK
  • Android Studio
  • SDK tools


In the development of this app, we’ve used the essential language of Android – Java, in addition to XML for establishing the UI properly. This app is built on Android Studio and has taken the assistance of Firebase because the back-end service. We additionally needed a number of libraries and permissions as well to make the very best end result of the built-in widgets. For additional rationalization of the logical implementation, snaps of code snippets have been connected with each characteristic.

Quick View of the Project


  • Java (Android version)
  • XML

Tools & Servers

  • Android Studio
  • Firebase
  • Authentication
  • Realtime Database
  • Storage
  • Crash Reporting
  • Analytics
  • Cloud Messaging
  • Google Play Services


We have used the following libraries to supply necessary functionalities to our m-learning app:

The main libraries are briefly mentioned beneath:

  • design: 25.three.1: This is the Android Design Support Library. Above SDK model 23 there are some new built-in design library for android app improvement. This is recognized as Material Design.
  • cardview-v7:25.three.1: This is a particular feature of the Material Design which permits the developer to make GridViews and ListViews with easy transitions and attractive edges.
  • palette-v7:25.three.1: This is a library from Android that can be used to extract distinguished colours from an image. It has helped us to get the best colors for the colourful look of our app.
  • customtabs-v7:25.3.1: This help library manages the initialization and use of custom tabs in the UI, especially for TabHosts and TabLayout.
  • design: 25.3.1: This library allows using varied essential UI supplies of Material Design for this app, like Navigation Drawer and nested tabs.
  • firebase-core: eleven.0.2: This is the most important library for this app because this and its branches present us a number of the Firebase providers. Firebase is a mobile backend service which takes care of the database, storage, analytics, crash stories, authentication and more for an app, built on Android, iOS or other platforms. We used its companies to keep observe of our authenticated users, sustaining person entry privilege and keeping an updated database and information storage in actual time.
  • com.firebaseui: firebase-ui: This is the Firebase UI library specifically developed for Android functions. It is in fact a set of open-source libraries from Google with Apache license, which lets the information in your app be up to date in real time based on the Firebase Database. It also lets the developer use other sites’ info for authentication such as Google, Facebook and Twitter.
  • com.prolificinteractive: material-calendarview: 1.four.3: We needed this library to make use of the customized calendar view, so that we are ready to mark the necessary events for school students and faculties with completely different colour codes.
  • com.jjoe64:graphview: 4.2.1 : To implement the outcomes graph, we needed this library which supplied us with line graph, bar graph and pie charts.


Here are the permissions our app requires from the user’s device to run this app.

The user might be prompted with an inventory of these permissions whereas installing and s/he can select to grant them.

  • android.permission.GET_ACCOUNTS: Since the minimum SDK our app permits is API 19, we want this permission to get any element about the user accounts within the Accounts Service. From API 23, this isn’t required anymore if the authenticator shares the signature with the one managing the account.
  • android.permission.READ_PROFILE: This permission is to carry out queries on the knowledge of the consumer who owns the gadget.
  • android.permission.INTERNET: This app cannot extract the database info and storage supplies from the cloud if no web is present. So this permission to use the web is important.
  • android.permission.READ_EXTERNAL_STORAGE: To upload recordsdata like paperwork and images from the exterior storage, we need this permission. This might be specifically useful to the college members.
  • android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE: To obtain the storage files into the external storage like microSD card, we need this permission. This will particularly be useful for the students.
  • android.permission.READ_CALENDAR: We want this permission to get the present date, day and time so as to display the right events within the Event Display part of our app.
  • android.permission.WRITE_CALENDAR: This permission helps us to add new info to the default calendar of the device and thus assist us to add necessary events to the calendar.
  • This permission is necessary to set alarms routinely in accordance with the event dates shown within the calendar. As soon as there’s a new occasion added in any of the assigned programs, this shall be used to set an alarm at 8am of the due date.


This is an overall step-by-step view of how the completely different elements of the app work:

Extracting information from establishment database and changing the dummy knowledge with it

For all users : Authenticate by

  • email and password
  • google signal in
  • specific consumer role

If user_role=student:

  • Student’s database initializes
  • Else if user_role=teacher:
  • Teacher’s database initializes

Navigation drawer clicked:

  • Header image, title and subtitle displaying consumer name and e mail.
  • Drawer part displaying present course titles and logout option.

Files ? storageReference.division.course.section

– accessed and displayed in Navigation Drawer Fragments

  • If user_role=student
  • Download all button’s visibility = ON
  • Upload button’s visibility = OFF
  • Else
  • Download all button’s visibility = OFF
  • Upload button’s visibility = ON

Dashboard clicked:

-Main options visible in a single screen

Data from accomplished programs:

  • Students Reference ? consumer email ? courses completed
  • semester
  • [newline]

  • course name

Current routine clicked:

  • if user_role=teacher Courses = teachers
  • Database.teachersEmail.assignedCourses

elseif user_role=students


xstudentsDatabase.studentsEmail.assignedCourses For each course in programs:

find course database reference from departmentsDatabase.departmentName.courseName

save it to courseRef?) courseNameTab.content material = couseRef.routine

f) Notification clicked: display any change to following branches.

Log out.


Full Manipulation of course supplies by teachers

Faculties of the respective institution can upload, obtain and edit the corresponding course materials via this app.

Downloading and selective importing of files by students

Students of the establishment can only have the total entry to obtain course supplies and sometimes upload submissions if allowed by the respective course instructor.

Specified consumer privileges

Not all customers are allowed all functionalities of this app. Their roles and privileges are specified acutely via Firebase guidelines.

Push notifications

Whenever a brand new document is uploaded in any assigned course or each time an necessary event is added, the users get push notifications via Firebase Cloud Messaging.

Online library of educational books and other documents

From Firebase Storage, all obtainable books and different academic paperwork of a department are made accessible through this app.

Working of the app



The first part entails the sign-in to the application, to allow their customized e-learning services. Sign-in could be done both by signing up through the required credentials or instantly by way of the google authentication.

An Application of Jean Watson’s Theory of Transpersonal Caring to Nursing Practice


Essentially, the Caring principle of Jean Watson is oriented in direction of human science and focuses on the humanitarian aspect of caring processes, occurrences and experiences. It also grounded on a unitary perspective and interconnectedness with parts such as an individual with its community. The caring concept embraces one-sided, philosophical and interpretative as properly as objective-empirical evaluation and integrates a quantity of epistemological approaches that medical and empirical but at the same time is open to other avenues of acquiring important info.

 (Watson, 1988, 1999).

On the theoretical framework, the caring theory of 1979 was founded on the ten carative factors.

These are primarily a formation of a Humanistic-altruistic system of values and cultivation of sensitivity to one’s self and to others. It has provisions for a supportive, protecting, and/or corrective mental, physical, societal, and spiritual setting. Lastly the basic core is grounded on each caring philosophy and science (Watson, 1999).

Some recommendations on unique carative factors into scientific caritas processes embody the formation of humanistic-altruistic value system becomes practice of loving-kindness, Instillation of faith-hope turns into authentically current.

Cultivation of sensitivity between the communities becomes going past ego self, Development of a human caring relationship turns into helping-trusting an authentic caring relationship, and Promotion and acceptance of the expression of constructive and adverse feelings turns into being supportive of the expression of positive and adverse emotions (Watson, 2006).

Main Components

Originally, Watson’s theory revolved around three major elements, namely the carative components, the transpersonal caring relationship,  and the caring moment. She stated ten carative factors that served as tips for the nursing follow and principally centered on the rules of caring.

The transpersonal caring relationship describes how the nurse goes past an objective evaluation, exhibiting considerations toward the person’s subjective and deeper that means relating to their own well being care state of affairs, whereas the caring moment is defined as the moment (focal point in space and time) when the nurse and another person come together in such a means that an event for human caring is created (Cara, 2003).

In this context, the 4 important concepts of nursing – particular person, environment, well being, and nursing – are encompassed within the theory. Being holistic in nature, the idea presents its framework as a congregation of all these concepts, centering on the particular person.

Watson regards an individual as an individual with distinctive qualities and unique wants. The individual is acknowledged as a being capable of speaking with another past bodily interaction. The individual is considered as entire and complete, regardless of illness of illness (Watson, 2006).

The surroundings is thought to be a therapeutic area, the place the person’s consciousness and consciousness can expand and promote mindbodyspirit wholeness and healing (Watson, 1999). Inevitably, the state of a patient’s environment can influence an individual’s state of well being. The physical setting can have an effect on how the particular person can connect and exist in the spiritual setting created by transpersonal caring relationships, and could have an effect on the effectiveness of the science of caring.

Health is known as the unity and harmony within the thoughts, physique and soul. It is a state of full bodily, psychological, and social well-being and functioning (Hagopian, 2007). The principle establishes that caring can promote a person’s health higher than the curative means of standard medication. Through caring, the care giver acknowledges the condition of the recipient at a deeper degree, enabling him/her to sympathize as needed, and provide the appropriate care needed by the patient. With this implies of understanding the affected person better, there is greater chance of addressing the patient’s wants, creating the needed steadiness in his/her bodily, mental, and social well-being (Watson, 1998).

Influence in My Delivery of Care

Watson defines nursing “as a human science of individuals and human well being – sickness experiences which are mediated by skilled, private, scientific, esthetic, and moral human care transactions” (Watson, 1988). The concept also emphasizes caring as central to nursing, and is essentially what the theory needs to realize. Nursing is not only about curing an sickness or illness – it’s beyond that.

It is about the nurse being ready to middle consciousness on the entire being of the opposite in order to detect his/her internal situation, and impart genuine concern via caring moments communicated via “movements, gestures, facial expressions, procedures, info, touch, sound, verbal expressions and different scientific, technical, aesthetic, and human technique of communication.” The function of consciousness is deemed significantly essential, as a outcome of then the nurse reveals commitment and sincere intention to connect with the patient at a deeper stage, thus changing into an effective aid in nursing the patient again to health, physically, emotionally, and spiritually (Watson, 2006).

I bear in mind having to offer care to a patient who’s suffering from a terminal illness and have been placed in ICU care. In this case, the patient was not capable of communicating as a end result of he was already in a coma – an utility of Jean Watson’s principle on this case would require me to treat not simply the affected person however his family members, holistically. That is, I don’t merely cease at attempting to address the wants of the affected person but additionally of those that encompass him. Concretely, I tried to build a humanistic-altruistic value system which is the core of Watson’s concept. I really have dealt with her family as real individuals who have real needs that have to be addressed.

For them to have the ability to address the situation, I actually have tried to show them empathy, as they categorical their emotions towards the condition of the patient. It could be very troublesome to have a dying liked one, but it’s a reality that we all must face at one point or the opposite.

Having someone by your aspect throughout such a time of grief is very consoling and shall help you thresh out your emotions and address the situation. I actually have proven this many occasions in opportunities to care for patients placed in intensive care. The growth of a caring relationship with the patient’s household helps them undergo the ordeal with applicable and well-expressed emotions, and even greater spiritual strength and maturity. I imagine that the nurse has a crucial position to play in such incidents.

Applicability of Theory to Modern Nursing Practice

The effectiveness of Watson’s principle has been validated with its use as a guide in a number of research centering on caring science. It has been “recommended as a guide to nursing sufferers with hypertension, as one technique of decreasing blood strain and increase in high quality of life,” in a examine made on its effectiveness on the standard of life and blood strain of patients with hypertension in Turkey (Erci, Sayan, Tortumluoglu, Kilic, Sahin, & Gungormus, 2003). In one other study on caring for old adults, it was established that the speculation was effective in bettering the standard of life and peace of mind, body, and soul of the older individuals, simply by caring and listening attentively to what they should say (Bernick, 2004).

The state of affairs of caring for a patient within the intensive care unit has a extra serious need for dedicated and focused care. Patients in intensive care within the intensive care unit (ICU) want more than mere therapy.  They need help for themselves and their household who need to hear excellent news and inspiring words concerning the patient’s recovery, info that’s not at all times quick in coming, if in any respect. In ICU situations, the affected person and, equally as necessary, the patient’s household desires to know the patient’s possibilities for survival; possibility of everlasting disability; and answers to their queries on the patient’s situation (Rafael, 2000). .

Although the attending doctor and nurses are one of the best sources for information to reply these questions, it’s not all the time possible for them to accurately predict affected person consequence, particularly in the first few hours or days of an ICU keep.  Like the patient and the patient’s household, the attending medical doctors and nurses are also awaiting the preliminary outcome. This means that everyone—attending physicians, attending nurses, family, associates and the patient him/herself are involved.

All can and do contribute to the final end result in one way or one other. On my finish, I attempt to reply all the questions that are posed to me by the patient’s family members to handle their expectations concerning the patient’s condition. And but, I do that with warning, since it is still the physician who has the authority to inform them of those. The end objective was to attempt to assist the affected person and his loved ones undergo the ordeal, addressing their physical, emotional and religious wants within the context of a caring relationship.


Overall, Jean Watson’s theory of transpersonal caring has very high utility in fashionable nursing follow. It has been proven to be strongly oriented in the path of human science and focuses on the humanitarian facet of caring processes, occurrences and experiences and has been capable of successfully encapsulate the science of arts and humanities. Moreover, it has been grounded on a unitary perspective and interconnectedness with elements corresponding to an individual with its neighborhood.

However, one limitation could also be its emphasis on being one-sided, philosophical and interpretative quite than on objective-empirical evaluation. Moreover, it consists of ontological, philosophical, moral, historical inquiry and research. Caring science is a new area that’s evolving currently within the nursing business and has truly evolved nursing theories and science and has contributed closely to health, schooling, and human service fields and professions.


Bernick, L. (2004). Caring for older adults: practice guided by Watson’s caring-healing model. Nursing Science Quarterly, 17(2):128-34.

Cara, C. (2003).  A pragmatic view of Jean Watson’s caring concept.  International Journal of Human Caring, 7(3), 51-61.

Erci, B., Sayan, A.,Tortumluoglu, G., Kilic, D., Sahin, O., & Gungormus Z. (2003). The effectiveness of Watson’s Caring Model on the quality of life and blood pressure of sufferers with hypertension. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41(2), 130–139.

Hagopian, G. (2007).  Nursing theorists.  Retrieved February eight, 2007 from

Rafael, AR. (2000). Watson’s philosophy, science, and theory of human caring as a conceptual framework for guiding group health nursing follow. ANS. Advances in Nursing Science, 23(2):34-49.

Watson, J. (1988). Nursing: Human science and human care. A theory of nursing (2nd printing). New York: National League for Nursing.

Watson, J. (1999). Postmodern nursing and past. Toronto, Canada: Churchill Livingstone.

Watson, J. (2006).  Dr. Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring.  Retrieved February 8, 2007 from

Ai Application On Human Computer Interaction Computer Science Essay

This time period paper accommodates the research associated to the applying of the unreal intelligence on the human-computer interplay. It explains in regards to the human-computer interplay and its starting. And apart from the current work and the lengthy run work of HCI.


Artificial Intelligence is a subdivision of the scientific self-discipline which offers with helping machines occurring options to complicated jobs in a extra human-like manner. It by and enormous entails borrowing options from the human intelligence, and using them as algorithms within the computing machine pleasant manner.

A kind of versatile or efficient attack could be taken depending on demands established, which influences how unreal the clever behaviour seems. We can apart from state that Artificial intelligence is an technology and scientific self-discipline of doing clever machines and particularly intelligent computing machine plans. The capacity to make the intelligent machines has intrigued worlds since the antediluvian instances and right now with the coming of the computing machine and many elderly ages of analysis into AI programming techniques, the dream of the good machines goes a world.

Research staff are making methods which can mime the human idea, perceive the tackle, beat the most effective human cheat participant, and numerous other efforts ne’er earlier than possible. AI has been the topic of optimism, nevertheless it has apart from suffered many reverses and, right now, has become really indispensable portion of the engineering trade, supplying the heavy lifting for most of the most exhausting jobs within the computing machine scientific discipline. Artificial intelligence analysis is extremely proficient and specialised.

It is profoundly divided into the subfields that regularly fail to pass on with one another. These subfields have grown up across the peculiar institutions, the work of the only analysis staff, the solution of the particular jobs, longstanding differences of sentiment about how Artificial intelligence must be done and utility of extensively differing tools. The cardinal jobs of Artificial intelligence consists of such traits as logical pondering, cognition, planning, acquisition, communicating, perceptual expertise and the ability to travel and pull strings objects. General intelligence is still among the many area ‘s long run ends. The possible applications of Artificial Intelligence are ample. They stretch from the armed forces for independent management and mark designation, to the amusement industry for computing machine games and robotic pets. It in addition to deals with immense sums of data corresponding to infirmaries, Bankss and insurances, which may utilize Artificial Intelligence to predict the consumer behaviour and observe the tendencies.

Human-Computer Interaction

Human-computer interaction is survey of interaction between the computing machines and customers. It regularly regards because the intersection of computing machine scientific discipline, design and several different Fieldss of survey. Interaction between the users and the computing machines occurs at the consumer interface, which includes both package and hardware. For illustration, the characters or the objects displayed by package deal on a private computing machine ‘s proctor, enter acquired from customers by way of hardware peripherals corresponding to keyboards and mice, and different consumer interactions with large-scale computerized systems such because the plane and the power workss.

The shortly developing area of Human-Computer Interaction ( HCI ) is aiding redefine the design procedure for package deal, person interfaces, and computing machine techniques. Over the last decennary, it has been instrumental in the displacement from a system centered design process to a consumer centered, or consumer involved design procedure. Many major universities now offer alumnus and undergraduate grades in HCI, and accordingly there are new and exciting calling chances expecting the alumnuss of those plans. With roots in cognitive psychological science, know-how, and human components, HCI has become an of import nation of focus in the field of Information Technology, and is principally altering the universe of calculating as we know it.

HCI is a multidisciplinary subject that focuses on analysing, planing, and implementing package and computing machine methods with a concentration on the interplay between the customers and the techniques. It draws upon guidelines from many different Fieldss, together with computing machine scientific self-discipline, biotechnologies, psychological science, and industrial design. The ultimate finish of HCI is to make package, methods, or interfaces that are utile, useable, and permit users execute essential actions and maps easy and with small analytical idea. A good designed interface or system can help users be more productive and effectual at their occupations, and minimize down clip and emphasis whereas executing it.

There are many job international locations in HCI Human-computer interplay where Artificial intelligence may be utilized. Human-computer interaction can revenue strongly from the formalism that Artificial intelligence offer, while AI might derive penetrations from profusion of interplay in the HCI sphere. Human-computer interaction HCI can apart from be a proving land for proving constructs in Artificial intelligence ; regularly techniques shall be carried out although the cognitive and the formal bases are non to the total developed.

Beginnings and Foundations

Although the field of Human-Computer Interaction did non genuinely emerge in its present signifier until the early 1980 ‘s, its roots may be traced again to the early portion of the century. At the beginning of the 1900 ‘s, the chief point of interest on machines and equipment was to amass them to work decently. Little or no concern was paid to how the individual operating or runing the machine interacted with it. Subsequently, as corporations realized that by concentrating on this very interaction between the user and the machine, greater efficiency and fruitfully might be achieved. The survey of the connection between machines and the operators lastly developed into a new field of survey. This new field was called Human Factors Engineering, and it centered on the cognitive yoke between customers and machines.

The area of Human Factors serves as the fundamental foundation for the newer area of Human-Computer Interaction. Besides know as Biotechnologies, Human Factors is the survey of how worlds behave physically and psychologically in relation to peculiar environments, merchandises, or companies. Most individuals working in this area have grades or preparation in Psychology, and utilize this cognition to assist firms make up one’s mind if new merchandises shall be accepted or deemed useable by shoppers. Although serviceability, the grade to which a merchandise is useable and utile, is a portion of Human Factors, its common point of interest is more on the reactions and penchants to ocular and different centripetal stimulations. HCI attracts upon these basic rules of Human Factors and applies them to the design and testing of computing machines and computing machines systems.

Psychology in addition to plays an of import operate within the area of HCI. Psychology is the survey of human behaviour and mental procedures. Psychologists give consideration to cognitive procedures ; how worlds assume, learn, retrieve, and floor. These countries are of import nations of focus in the design and execution of interfaces and computing machine techniques. HCI professionals are interested in customers ‘ mental theoretical accounts, their perceptual experience of a given assemble or thought, and how they react to or grok analogies and metaphors. Many computing machines or package deal interfaces draw upon mundane objects or thoughts and make the most of them as metaphors, and it is of import that these metaphors are relevant and apprehensible.

With the ultimate results of every HCI undertaking being a touchable, useable merchandise, the Fieldss of Computer Science and Design apart from plays of import capabilities in the area. Computer Science supplies the abstractions, methods, linguistic communications, and tools to turn to design issues, and later produce the touchable merchandise. Knowledge of which platform, bundle, or system the endeavor will be constructed for is a major consideration through the design process.

HCI takes the basic assemble of design and turns the focal point toward the person as opposed to merely planing an applicable answer for the job. Design can take many signifiers. A user-centered design process focuses on consumer and endeavor evaluation, planing for particular customers and the undertakings they are more doubtless to execute. A participatory design process really includes the users within the existent growth of the merchandise or package. An iterative design procedure makes use of a design-test-repeat rhythm till the coveted penalties are achieved. Most undertakings use one these design methods, or a combination of several of them to run into the ends of the enterprise.

Areas of Focus in HCI

When folks take into consideration the sector of HCI, the commonest affiliation they make is in the country of serviceability. While there are many definitions for serviceability, the International Organization for Standardization offers essentially the most complete and accepted one. The ISO defines serviceability as ‘the effectivity, effectivity, and satisfaction with which specified customers obtain specified ends in peculiar environments. ‘ Effectiveness is outlined as the reality and completeness with which specified users can accomplish specified ends in peculiar environments. Efficiency is defined because the resources expended in relation to the truth and completeness of ends achieved. Satisfaction is outlined because the consolation and acceptableness of the work system to its users and other individuals affected by its utilization.

Achieving the degree of serviceability set Forth by the ISO may be achieved in portion via assorted types of user proving. User proving can take many signifiers. Card sorting is a signifier of serviceability proving that takes topographic point through the pre-design process. It entails holding customers sort and arrange tonss of cards into significant classs or hierarchies, and is used to assist specify pilotage and terminology for a undertaking. Scenario-Based proving includes exhibiting customers with actually specific state of affairss, and so measuring how they reply and act to and toward these state of affairss. The most complete signifier of usability testing is the heuristic score. This procedure lets users ab initio work together or navigate a system on their ain and so provide feedback on their expertise. They could so be asked to execute particular undertakings ( sometimes scenarios ) to show the functionally of the full system. The heuristic rating procedure is extremely effectual in fleshing out jobs or points with the new system.

While serviceability is the umbrella concern of HCI, there are more specific design jobs that are references, such as planing user interfaces. A user interface is what customers actually see and work together with when using package deal or computing machine methods. It is the conduit between person and the implicit in system bundle. Therefore, it must be designed from the beginning with customers and their intended undertakings in head. No affair how good they’re crafted, the interface will be a failure if the underlying system does n’t make what the person demands, in a manner that the consumer finds appropriate. In different words, the system has to suit the customers ‘ undertakings. Once designed, interfaces are normally examined using the the heurisitc rating technique.

HCI Today

There has ne’er been a larger point of interest on the field of HCI than there’s right now. The software of HCI guidelines over the last decennary has led to better and extra useable package deal and has been instrumental is turning the focus of package growth toward the consumer and off from the system. HCI is enjoying a critical operate in the context of the emerging Information Society, as citizens expertise engineering through their contact with the consumer interfaces of synergistic merchandises, applications and providers. Therefore, it’s of import to ensure that person interfaces provide entree and quality in usage to all potential users, in all potential of contexts of utilization, and thru a assortment of technological platforms.

Many prime universities now have HCI undergraduate and alumnus grades, and plenty of of these schools apart from have established research labs that dressed ore on the sphere of HCI. Those prosecuting grades in HCI will happen assorted calling possibilities ready for them after they graduate. HCI pupils study now to construct and implement person interfaces, how to use design rules to package deal inventive activity, and tips on how to show and polish bundle into consumer pleasant merchandises. Current occupations rubrics in the area embrace Usability Expert, Information Architect, and User Interface Designer. Usability Experts focal point on the general usability issue of a undertaking or merchandise. They might develop low and high fidelity paradigms, and conduct assorted types of serviceability proving. Information Architects development content and informations right into a useable and significant format. User Interface Designers create, assemble, and test person interfaces with a focal point on the interplay and serviceability of the package.


Human computing machine interplay has many application varieties like Pulling plans, Text Editing, Spreadsheets, HyperText, Computer Aided Design ( CAD ) , Video Games. There are apart from some approaching countries like Gesture Recognition, Multi-Media, 3-D, Virtual Reality and “ Augmented World ” , Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Natural linguistic communication and tackle. Few different illustrations of purposes of multimodal methods are listed beneath:

aˆ? Smart Video Conferencing

aˆ? Intelligent Homes/Office

aˆ? Driver Monitoring

aˆ? Intelligent Games

aˆ? E-commerce

aˆ? Helping Peoples with Disabilities

HCI Tomorrow

The subject of Human-Computer Interaction will go on to germinate as computing machines and engineering as a complete evolve. The field of HCI will necessitate to accommodate to new types of engineerings and interfaces, and respond to future progresss in calculating corresponding to:

Decreasing hardware prices taking to bigger recollections and faster systems.


Miniaturization of hardware taking to portability.

Decrease in energy demands taking to portability.

New present engineerings taking to the packaging of computational devices in new signifiers.

Assimilation of calculation into the surroundings ( e.g. , VCRs, microwave ovens, telecastings ) .

Specialized hardware taking to new maps ( e.g. , fast text hunt ) .

Increased development of net communicating and distributed laptop science.

Increasingly widespread usage of computing machines, particularly by people who find themselves exterior of the calculating profession.

As new engineering and package deal are released, HCI professionals will necessitate to entree and reaccess their usablity methods and patterns to ensure the same grade of serviceability is achieved as it’s with current tecnnology and bundle.


Human-Computer Interaction is an of import portion of techniques design. Quality of system depends on how it’s represented and used by users. Therefore, large sum of attending has been paid to higher designs of HCI. Over the last decennary Human-Computer Interaction has emerged as a valid and of import subject of survey. Software, interfaces, and computing machine systems are being invariably improved because of the affect of HCI and HCI professionals.

They are going easier to utilize as a direct consequence of HCI design processes such as card sorting, participatory design, and heuristic rating. Universities at the second are providing grades in HCI, and several of the taking colleges in addition to have analysis labs that are reaching working to do new additions in the field. With engineering and calculating doing progresss on a regular basis, HCI will go on to be an of import portion of the package deal and engineering growth process.

A Travel Agency Application System Computer Science Essay

The literature reappraisal stage is the 1 of the chief phase that we have to consider, up to now the phase explains the chief purposes of the system and the way the system is touring to run and the advantage of the system over surroundings.

First, Travel agent resort providers will maintain method in to the journey agent extranet system to lade room rates and allocations, alternatively of maintaining price and allocation contract manually.

The journey bureau utility system is a web-based system that which let purchasers to do their reserve comfortably from anyplace.

That ‘s All clients should have the flexibility to method in the bureau providers information 24 hours a twenty-four hours.

2.2 About on-line reserve system

Because of the rapid unfold of the cyberspace, the hotel adopted a reserve system that could additionally be a highly effective issue to derive new gross revenues. The travel bureau began to show their ain on-line reserve system. The travel bureau gived some lodge with reserve techniques that may often wish to the assorted plans and specific presents which provides to their capability to seize the travel and leisure market.

These are some program that the online travel bureaus and travel agents can non accomplish because of the restriction of their providers. However, this technique in addition to feels drawbacks. Most of the resort websites do non let for simple monetary worth comparing, some will merely guide reserves on the hotel which have the site. ( Kearney & A ; Robinson, 2004 ) .

2.three Why on-line reserve system

As a industrial medium, the Web offers a figure of advantages for all of the client and companies.

From the shopper level of position, using the web alternatively of a conventional attack name for tickets or journey to a journey bureau means method in to a greater sum of knowledge and in addition to more flexibleness in taking, analysing and evaluating the provides.

Having more picks with merely a click away helps clients find a higher commerce, in potential much less clip.

For the businesses, the usage of Web means lessening costs for info processing, decreased costs to suppliers, the potential for edifice stronger client relationships by holding purchasers work together straight with the website online, the potential for making consumer profiles for use in promoting development and in addition to a simple method of information partnership, affecting the cooperation between totally different companies. Travel Agent Reservation System to enhanceA effectivity in maintaining resort catching room and allocation updated in real-time mode.

2.4 Online Travel Agency

There are many conventional travel bureaus which are runing on-line, but merely deficient are identified by the riders. The dealing between the travel brokers and resorts is through the committee base. However, due to the direct engagement of different riders the committee footing is slow reducing and so they have to fee the shoppers for the service fee. The usual provides they provide be contingent on their scheme and advertizement and non portion of the resorts ( Kearney & A ; Robinson, 2004 ) .

2.5 Guda Travel Agency Application System Services

The journey bureau on-line software service will necessitate the person ‘s metropolis of finish, desired hotel high quality, check-in day of the month, and check-out day of the month. It will departure the hotels that match the standards, and besides return the hotel name, reference, check-in clip, check-out clip, value per darkish, and entire price of the size of keep. Travel Simplified has its ain database with the hotels and cost. It in addition to has a Java software to hold the motels and charges. The Web service will necessitate to make the most of the instruments in Application Developer Integration Edition to make a service from the application in order that users can search resorts for their travels each time they need.

2.6 Reservation techniques analysis

Internet presence and on-line application are the 2 concern theoretical accounts most often used by the travel reserve methods we studied. The providers offered within the two theoretical accounts are related: in Internet presence, the clients find information about the service ; some illustrations are examine resort in Internet presence and book resort.

There are besides two completely different companies, details about specific presents in Internet presence and the possibility to salvage the paths already outlined in online store an itinerary consists of a lodge, usually round trip and perchance of a reserved room in one or more hotels.

2.7 User value theoretical account of a Guda Travel Agency Application System

Landvogt ( 2004 ) explained on-line reserving engines as tools to hive away, print and update the dynamic informations handiness and monetary values, and furthermore supply the users with a regular reserve procedure. A specific feature of the guda journey bureau utility system is that users can do and see the alterations in reserve position on-line.

But customers can merely see descriptions and pictures of resorts, sometimes rates but they may non look into handiness and do engagements online. This signifies that all concern theoretical accounts which offer the possibility for an onlineA engagement electronic engagement service, electronic journey agent, electronic market topographic point, and versatile evaluating purchasing services are suitable with above talked about definition of website quality.

2.eight Customer demands

One of the chief importance ‘s in creating this software system for Guda Travel Agency utility system is to meet the shopper calls for. One must retrieve that digital commercialism has to vie with the real-life strategies of doing reserve and finishing client minutess. Customers can take between totally different reserves strategies electronic or real-life and they’re going to ever prefer the one which best gratify their demand.

2.8.1 Customer demands presentation

In the occasion of on-line reserve techniques we recognized six chief of import client demands:

Lack of trouble

system position information

mistake tolerance and system stableness

iˆ query polish for carrying out consumer ‘s end

iˆ shopper profiles

2.eight.1.1 Lack of trouble

Lack of troubles is likely one of the main jobs for purchasers. The person interface of the on-line techniques ought to be designed in such a manner that all providers are straightforward to grasp and utilize. It can frequently go on that shoppers may desire to make the most of a service, however they do n’t cognize tips on how to make it or the person interface does non let them to make so. It is the occasion of the enrollment procedure when utilizing on-line journey reserves. This system Guda Travel Agency Application system permit timetable audience merely after registering which may take somewhat a batch of clip, or they allow viewers however there isn’t any monetary value info earlier than enrollment.

System place info and provender frontward

The position of the system are accessing database, calculating solutions have to be ever indicated to the client. Different mechanisms must be employed to offer clear feedback to the consumer, for mistake messages, informations enter required, no options found, etc. When possible, the messages ought to incorporate accounts and provide suggestions for future actions e.g. no solution was discovered, consumer has to hunt to enlarge the spheres for his journey restraints: day of the months, hotel, and clip.

2.eight.1.three Error tolerance and system stableness

An simple and efficient method out should be offered in instance of mistakes. This makes shoppers expertise extra confident and at easiness. In the instance of a consumer error, it’s of import that the reserve procedure is restarted from a degree close to to the 1 the place the error was generated, the consumer ought to n’t be despatched again to the beginning.

Query polish for carrying out shopper ‘s end

It regularly happens that clients are non glad with the first solutions they get from the on-line lodge reserve system. In this occasion, a lot of the current techniques allow purchasers to hunt for lodge following twenty-four hours, or on a freshly outlined twenty-four hours. If they’re nonetheless non pleased with what they get, they will come again to the query definition and alter their input informations. This manner of interaction is quite heavy and time-consuming, utilizing a batch of the system and shopper resources.

In the 2nd portion of our paper, I propose a new interplay theoretical account in which the shoppers can modify their preliminary questions straight within the consequence tabular array. It is simpler for shoppers to occur exactly what they need or to happen out if what they need exists or non, get downing from possible bing options.

Customer profiles

The utilization of client profiles in on-line reserve methods is linked to the enrollment procedure. The similar inquiry arises, when is the most effective minute to inquire clients to register and/or to make their ain profiles. The techniques I studied have totally different attacks, however most of them go away the profile inventive activity at purchasers ‘ control, they will make it when and if they want. The consumer profiles are presently utilized in the same manner by all the techniques, but every system has its ain profile execution, which makes onerous a potential speaking and informations interchange. A future betterment in on-line travel industry can be a standard personalization technique to be adopted by all on-line methods supplying in this method both effectivity and interoperability.

2.9 PROCEDUREs for digital commercialism

Commerce within the existent universe is a very rich set of interaction processs with a very complex set of restraints. The protocols utilized in electronic commercialism methods must esteem at least some of the existent universe theoretical accounts and add apart from new interaction methods. Flexibility combined with easiness of usage and apprehensions are major demands, as stiff and restricted protocols result in defeat for each customers and builders.

2.10 Customers application PROCEDURE

All bing online travel techniques provide consumer application course of. The consumer should interact straight with the system so as to have penalties for his question. A general theoretical account for the protocols supplied by the on-line travel systems for booking hotel is the undermentioned: “ [ registry ] – enter informations ( journey restraints ) – see penalties – measure – guide ” The enrollment measure could be sometimes avoided clients have the likelihood to make the most of the system as invitees or to register merely in the occasion that they wish to do a engagement. Adriana Jurca, Adriana Jurca Dmt-isr – 1999

scheduling ‘s and strategies for developing the system

Php is an extensively used all-purpose scripting linguistic communication that was initially designed for internet development to deliver forth dynamic internet pages. For this intent, php codification is embedded direct to the HTML beginning papers and interpreted by an online waiter with a php processor school, which generates the web page papers. As a particular scheduling linguistic communication, php codification is processed by an translator software in command-line method executing desired working system operations and produce forthing plan finish product on its criterion end product channel. It apart from map as a graphical software. Php is bing as a processor for many modern internet waiters and as standalone translator on most runing techniques and calculating platforms.

2.11.1 History of PHP

Php was originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1995A and has been in uninterrupted improvement of all time since. The chief execution of PHP is now produced by the php chinks and serves as the de facto criterion for PHP as there is not any formal specification. Php is free package launched under the php License.

In different to used php they is need for primary understanding the next these are bellow:


2. Java Scrip

2.eleven.2 USES of php.

Php is a basic chief scripting linguistic communication that is particularly suited to server-side internet improvement the place php by and large runs on an online waiter.

Any php codification in a requested file is executed by the php runtime, normally to make dynamic net page content material. It can besides be used for bid line scripting and client-side GUI purposes. Php could be deployed on most net waiters, many runing techniques and platforms, and can be utilized with many relational database path systems.

It is out there freed from cost, and the php clicks supplies the whole starting codification for customers to assemble, custom-make and widen for his or her ain utilization.

Php chiefly current as a filter, taking enter from a file or watercourse incorporating textual content and/php instructions and outputs another watercourse of informations ; most usually the tip product will be html.

2.eleven.3 FEATURES OF PHP

Access Logging – With the style in logging capablenesss of php, users can hold their ain hit numeration and logging. It does n’t utilize the system ‘s cardinal entree log files in any method, and it supplies real-time entree monitoring. The Log Viewer Script offers a speedy sum-up of the manner in to a set of pages owned by an single person.

Access Control – A develop in internet primarily based constellation display handles entree management constellation. It is possible to make scene rules for some net pages owned by a sure individual which place assorted limitations on who can see these pages and the way they are going to be considered. The Pages could be password protected, wholly restricted, logging handicapped and more based mostly on the client ‘s sphere, browser, e-mail reference or even the mentioning papers.

SQL Support -the php helps implanting SQL questions straight in.html information.

File Upload Support -And It lets customers upload information to an online waiter and offers the existent Mime decryption to do that work and in addition to supplies the extra model to make one thing utile with the uploaded file once it has been received.

HTTP based mostly hallmark management – the php can be used to make custom-made hypertext transfer protocols based mostly hallmark mechanisms for the Apache web waiter.

Variables, Arrays, Associative Arrays -the php helps typed variables, arrays and even Perl-like associatory arrays. And with these can all be handed from one internet web page to a different utilizing either GET or POST methodology signifiers.

Conditionals, While Loops -the php supports a full featured C like scripting linguistic communication. You can hold if/then/elseif/else/endif circumstances each bit good as whereas cringles and change or instance statements to steer the logical move of how the html web page must be displayed.

Extended Regular Expressions – Regular seems are freely used for sample matching, sample permutations and general twine use. And so the php helps all widespread common look operations.

HTTP Header Control – The capability to hold internet pages send custom-made hypertext switch protocol headings primarily based on some status is indispensable for high-ranking web site design. A often usage is to direct a Location URL heading to airt the naming shopper to another URL. It can apart from be used to turn off hoarding or pull strings the final replace heading of pages.

ISP Safe Mode assist – php supports a alone Safe Mode which makes it safe to hold multiple customers run php books on the identical waiter.

2.11.four Advantages of php

You can develop net functions in php as compile and nexus is eradicated in php scripting linguistic communication.

The Php functions are actually steady and do non depend on the browser engineerings unlike JavaScript functions which depend upon browsers.

Php has first-class database connectivity to all SQL database waiters.

php has partial assist for Object oriented characteristics

Php runs on all UNIX ‘s, Linux, Windows 95/NT/2000 and is more highly effective than ASP, JSP and others.

The Php has a very huge user base and developer base.


Php and html interact a batch as a result of the php has the ability to bring forth hypertext markup language and the hypertext markup language has the flexibility to go through the knowledge to php

my sql

MySQL is a relational database path system ( RDBMS ) that runs as a waiter supplying multi-user entree to a figure of databases.

Advantages of MySQL


MySQL is a well-liked database with Web builders. Its velocity and little size make it ideal for a Web site.

It ‘s quick. The chief purpose of the parents who developed MySQL was speed.

Therefore, the bundle was designed from the start with velocity in head.

It ‘s Cheap. MySQL is free under the unfastened starting GPL licence, and the monetary worth for a business licence is sensible.

It ‘s Easy to make the most of. And so you probably can construct and work together with a MySQL database by using a few simple statements in the SQL linguistic communication, which is the standard linguistic communication for cross oning with RDBMSs.

How MySQL and PHP work together

2.12.1 The Main Features of MySQL

Is written in C and C++

It straightforward uses a number of CPUs if they’re obtainable.

Provides transactional and non transactional storage engines.

Relatively easy to add another storage engine. This is utile if you want to add an SQL interface to an in home database.

A actually quick yarn based memory allotment system.

Very fast joins using an optimized one-sweep multi articulation.

In reminiscence hash tabular arraies that are used as impermanent tabular arraies.

SQL maps are carried out utilizing a extremely optimized class library and must be every bit quick as possible.

The waiter is out there as a separate plan for usage in a client/server networked setting.

Tested with a large scope of dii¬ˆerent compilers.

Plants on many deferent platforms

2.13 What Is a Web Server

Web waiter is a package deal utility that listens for consumer connexion a particular internet port. When a connexion is made, the Web waiter so waits petition from the client utility. The client is generally a Web browser, nevertheless it might be a Web web site indexing public-service corporation, or presumably an synergistic telnetA session. The sources request, usually a petition to direct the contents of a file saved on the waiter, is a phrased in some model of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol ( HTTP )

Although the Web waiter ‘s main intent is to administer info from a cardinal computing machine, trendy Web waiters perform different undertakings as good. Before the file transportation, most trendy Web waiters send descriptive details about the requested useful resource, educating the consumer how to construe or arrange the useful resource.

2.13.1 Features of web sever

Many Web waiters carry out consumer hallmark and informations encoding to allow purposes like online recognition card buying.

Another common attribute of Web waiters is that they supply database entree on behalf of the shopper, extinguishing the demand for the client to make the most of a full-featured database shopper application. Apache offers all of these characteristics

2.thirteen.2 Apache hypertext switch protocol sever of this undertaking

The Apache HTTP Server Project is an try to develop and hold an open-source hypertext switch protocol waiter for contemporary runing systems including Windows 7. The chief objective of this enterprise is to produce a safe, environment friendly and extensile waiter that gives hypertext switch protocol companies in sync with the current hypertext transfer protocol criterions.

2.13.three THE APACHE hypertext switch protocol waiter

Apache is a strong, versatile, http compliant web waiter

Its Implements the most recent protocols, together with hypertext transfer protocol

Its extraordinarily configurable and extensile with third-party faculties

It provides full starting codification and comes with an unrestrictive licence

It runs on Windows NT/9x, Netware 5.x and supra, OS/2, and most variations of Unix, each bit good as several other runing systems

is actively being developed

it encourages consumer feedback via new thoughts, bug research and spots

it implements many typically requested characteristics

2.thirteen.4 Features of Apache waiter

DBM databases for hallmark:

Normally allows you to simple put up watchword protected pages with super Numberss of authorised customers, with out bogging down the waiter.

Customized responses to mistakes and jobs:

Allows you to put up recordsdata, and even CGI books, which are returned by the waiter in response to errors and jobs, e.g. setup a book to interceptA 500 Server Errors and it execute on-the-fly nosologies for both users and your self.

Multiple Directory Index directives

Allows you to sayA Directory index.html index, which allows the waiter to both direct backA index.htmlA or runA index when a directory URL is requested, whichever it finds in the listing.

Unlimited versatile URL revising and aliasing

The Apache has no fastened bound on the Numberss of Aliass and Redirects which may be declared in the config files. And so In add-on, a robust rewriting engine can be utilized to work out most URL use jobs.

Contented dialogue

the capacity to mechanically operate purchasers of changing edification and HTML diploma conformity, with paperss which provide the best representation of information that the consumer is capable of accepting.

Virtual Hosts

This permits the waiter to separate between petitions made to different IP references or names mapped to the identical machine. And is in addition to provides dynamically configurable mass sensible hosting.

Configurable Reliable Piped Logs

You can configure Apache to deliver forth logs within the format that you want. Apache can direct log recordsdata to a pipe, leting for log rotary movement, hit filtering, real-time splitting of a quantity of hosts into separate logs,

Tools require for implementing the system


Adobe Dreamweaver is a web improvement software created by Macromedia, and is now developed by Adobe Systems, which acquired Macromedia in 2005.

The Dreamweaver is out there for each Mac and Windows runing methods. The Recent versions

have integrated help for internet engineerings such as CSS, JavaScript, and assorted

server-side scripting linguistic communications and fashions together with ASP, ColdFusion, and PHP.

Adobe Flash

Adobe Flash is a multimedia platform acquired by Macromedia and presently developed and distributed by Adobe Systems. Since 1996 flash has turn out to be a popular method for including life and interactivity to internet pages. The Flash is generally used to make life, advertizements, and assorted internet page Flash constituents, to incorporate image into web pages, and more late, to develop rich Internet functions. And the Flash may be manipulated vector and raster artworks, and supports bidirectional cyclosis of sound and movie. And It contains a scripting linguistic communication known as Action Script.

A Adobe Photoshop

The Adobe Photoshop is a graphics redacting plan developed and Published by Adobe System. And it is the current market chief for industrial digital picture and picture use bundle, and is the flagship merchandise of Adobe Systems. And It has been described as “ an trade criterion for artworks professionals and was one of the early “ slayer purposes ” on the Macintosh, subsequently besides for MS Windows.


A SURVEY ON APPLICATION OF BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY BEYOND CRYPTOCURRENCY ABSTRACT- Blockchain(BC),The know-how behind the Bitcoin Crypto-currency system is taken into account to be each alluring and critical for ensuring enhanced safety and privacy for various applications in many different Domians including within the Internet-of-Things eco-system. Crypto-currency functions of Distributed ledger methods such as blockchain at the second are properly established, But their implications for more general topics are just beginning to be appreciated. The Financial Technology (FinTech) sector sees excessive potential value in cryptocurrency blockchain protocol or Distributed-ledger technology(DLT).

While initially conceived as a system for cryptocurrency transactions validation among untrusted events, Blockchain expertise has gained momentum as a device that can theoretically be utilized to many domains beyond the meant one. Among these domains one of the largest and most promising within the Internet-of-Things. As an rising decentralized structure and distributed computing paradigm underlying Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, Blockchain has attracted intensive consideration in each analysis and applications in latest times.

In this paper, We offered a survey of utility of blockchain expertise past the cryptocurrency. INTRODUCTIONThe objective of this research paper is to summarise the literature of the Blockchain techniques in numerous other domains beyond its application to crypto-currency and to draw acceptable conclusions. Blockchain is the basic expertise underlying the emerging crypto-currencies including bitcoin. The key benefit of blockchain is broadly thought-about to be decentralization and it could help establish disintermediary peer-to-peer transactions , co-ordination, and co0operation in distributed techniques without mutual trust and centralized control amongst particular person nodes , primarily based on such techniques as knowledge encryption , time-stamping ,distributed consensus algorithm, and financial incentive mechanisms.

The fast rising pattern of Blockchain has attracted a large spectrum of interest from governments, financial establishments, high-technology enterprise and likewise the capital markets. Furthermore , each bitcoin is associated with a pair of keys, and if someone desires to deals with transactions on completely different units, they should keep the copies of the non-public keys for each bitcoin handle on each devices overall although bitcoin and different crypto-currencies have attracted significant consideration and influenced the entire world, These has not been a safe and efficient key administration mechanism to faultlessly bridge the hole between the limited memory of people and the complex key structures of cryptp-currencies. Therefore proposing an effective and safe blockchain presently is the key facet in making crypto-currency extra relevant to every day funds by people. APPLICATION1.Financial Services ApplicationMany of the industry’s processes are overdue for an improve or in some cases complete substitute so as to stand up to new volumes, hacks and safety threats. Blockchain is much firmer and recoverable as non centralized model of this data exists. Blockchain could make these transfers visible securely immediately, which different expertise can’t. Blockchain may even enable further disruption of the traditional banks by monetary expertise and non-bank technology gamers. New entrants, free of legacy issues, could utilize blockchain to create a radically cheaper platform for innovation. Banks want to start work with blockchain know-how now in order not to be disintermediated by new entrants. Blockchain is a database, a large community, often identified as a distributed ledger, which data ownership and worth, and allows anyone with access to view and take part. A community is up to date and verified via consensus of all the parties concerned. The validated block of transactions is then time stamped and added to a series in a linear, chronological order. New blocks of validated transactions are linked to older blocks, making a chain of blocks that present each transaction made in the history of that blockchain. The complete chain is regularly updated so that every ledger within the network is the same, giving every member the ability to prove who owns what at any given time. It is also important to know that all individuals within a network can have their own identical copy of the ledger. Any adjustments to the ledger are reflected in all copies, just like a Google doc. It is an excellent option to retains information of digital transactions. Blockchain networks could be non-public with restricted membership just like an intranet, or public, like the Internet, accessible to any person in the world.2. Smart Contract (Property) ApplicationsAutonomy ” You’re the one making the settlement; there’s no must rely on a dealer, lawyer or other intermediaries to substantiate. Incidentally, this additionally knocks out the danger of manipulation by a third celebration, since execution is managed mechanically by the network, somewhat than by one or more, possibly biased, people who may error.Trust ” Your paperwork are encrypted on a shared ledger. There’s no means that someone can say they misplaced it.Backup ” Imagine if your financial institution misplaced your financial savings account. On the blockchain, each one of your mates has your back. Your documents are duplicated many times over.Safety ” Cryptography, the encryption of websites, retains your documents safe. There isn’t any hacking. In fact, it will take an abnormally good hacker to crack the code and infiltrate.Speed ” You’d ordinarily have to spend chunks of time and paperwork to manually course of documents. Smart contracts use software program code to automate duties, thereby shaving hours off a range of business processes.Savings ” Smart contracts save you money since they knock out the presence of an middleman. You would, as an example, need to pay a notary to witness your transaction.Accuracy ” Automated contracts usually are not solely faster and cheaper but additionally avoid the errors that come from manually filling out heaps of types. 3.Internet-of-things ApplicationsWe think about a typical good house setting the place a person, Alice has geared up her home with a quantity of IoT gadgets including a wise thermostat, smart bulbs, an IP digicam and several other sensors. The proposed architecture includes three tiers, namely the smart home (or extra typically the native network), the overlay network, and the cloud storage. We consider information retailer and access use instances: Alice should be able to access the info from her sensible home, e.g., the present temperature in her bedroom, remotely. Moreover, sensible devices should be capable of retailer information on storages to be used by a third celebration (e.g., the sensible thermostat provider) to avail of some services. Prior to discussing the details of the proposed structure, we briefly introduce the community tiers: Smart Home: The good house is comprised of the following three parts: Devices: All smart units situated in the home. Local BC: A safe and personal BC that is mined and saved by one (or more) resource-capable device(s), which is all the time online.Overlay Network : The overlay network is akin to the peer-to-peer network in Bitcoin. The constituent nodes could presumably be good house miners, other high resource gadgets within the house, or the user’s smartphone or private laptop. Each node uses Tor [10] to join with overlay network for extra anonymity at IP-layer. A specific consumer might have multiple node in the overlay community. To decrease network overhead and delay, nodes within the overlay network are grouped in clusters and every cluster elects a Cluster Head (CH).Cloud Storage : In some instances, devices in the good home (e.g. a smart thermostat) might want to retailer their knowledge within the cloud storage, so that a third get together Service Provider (SP) can entry the stored information and provide sure smart companies (e.g. intelligent temperature adjustment). The cloud storage groups user’s data in identical blocks associated with a novel block-number. Block quantity and hash of saved data are used by the consumer for authentication. If the storage can successfully find knowledge with given block-number and hash, then the person is authenticated. four. Government ApplicationsThere are very key uses of blockchain in governments and listed right here are a few of the situations during which the technology could be applied to make things higher. Blockchain can be used to facilitate authorized enforcementGovernments can use data from public blockchains to track the monetary dealings much like how fiat cash transactions are monitored to ensure that the system doesn’t facilitate unlawful dealings. The implementation of blockchain for a authorities can be a key device in the direction of ensuring that financial transactions in the digital area remain legal. Fixing the taxation problemTaxation can be one of the major points which were heavily talked about in phrases of cryptocurrencies particularly due to using digital currencies to keep away from taxation. While that may be controlled by way of the use of public blockchains and non-private coins, Blockchain may help governments to take issues a notch greater. Blockchain could presumably be the long-awaited resolution for fixing double taxation. Governments can use blockchain to protect important authorities infrastructureBlockchain purposes within the public sector might help governments to make sure better safety over their important infrastructure, thus maintaining cyber attacks at bay. Most of the important systems used by governments all over the world to facilitate service supply are connected to the web. This stresses the importance of security for critical techniques and since blockchain can’t be hacked, then it is doubtlessly the best answer. Blockchain expertise can be utilized to spice up the effectivity of welfare distributionDecentralized ledger technology can considerably improve the metho
d of registration as properly as payment thus permitting governments to handle matters related to welfare with extra efficiency. Blockchain can, therefore, be used to deploy sooner service supply allowing citizens to profit directly. CONCLUSIONThe software of the Blockchain idea and technology has grown beyond its use for Bitcoin generation and transactions. The properties of its safety, privacy, traceability, inherent knowledge provenance and time-stamping has seen its adoption beyond its preliminary software areas. The Blockchain itself and its variants are now used to secure any type of transactions, whether it’s human-to-human communications or machine-to-machine. Its adoption seems to be safe especially with the global emergence of the Internet-of-Things. Its decentralized software throughout the already established international Internet is also very appealing in terms of ensuring knowledge redundancy and hence survivability. The Blockchain has been particularly identified to be suitable in creating nations the place ensuring belief is of a major concern. Thus the invention of the Blockchain could be seen to be an important and far wanted extra element of the Internet that was lacking in safety and trust earlier than. BC technology still has not reached its maturity with a prediction of five years as novel applications proceed to be implemented globally.REFERENCES[1] Ashiq Anjum ; Manu Sporny ; Alan Sill Blockchain Standards for Compliance and Trust IEEE Cloud ComputingYear:2017 , Volume:4 , Issue: four Page s: eighty four ” ninety Cited by: IEEE Journals & Magazines. [2] Ittay Eyal Blockchain Technology: Transforming Libertarian CryptocurrencyDreams to Finance and Banking Realities Computer Year: 2017 , Volume: 50 , Issue: 9 Page s: 38 ” forty nine Cited by: Papers (4)IEEE Journals & Magazines.[3] Alessio Meloni ; Syam Madanapalli ; Sanil Kumar Divakaran ; Steven F. Browdy ; Ambika Paranthaman ; Ajay Jasti ; Nishant Krishna ; Deepak Kumar Exploiting the IoT Potential of Blockchain within the IEEE P1931.1 ROOF Standard IEEE Communications Standards Magazine Year: 2018 , Volume: 2 , Issue: three Page s: 38 ” forty four IEEE Journals & Magazines.[4] Yong Yuan ; Fei-Yue Wang IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems Blockchain and Cryptocurrencies: Model, Techniques, and Applications Year: 2018 , Volume: 48 , Issue: 9 Page s: 1421 ” 1428 Cited by: Papers (4) IEEE Journals & Magazines.[5] Shuangyu He ; Qianhong Wu ; Xizhao Luo ; Zhi Liang ; Dawei Li ; Hanwen Feng ; Haibin Zheng ; Yanan Li IEEE Access A Social-Network-Based Cryptocurrency Wallet-Management Scheme Year: 2018Volume:Page s: 7654 ” 7663 IEEE Journals & Magazines.

A Rich Internet Application Computer Science Essay

Rich Internet Application ( RIA ) essentially is a sort of net purposes that portion the identical attribute as desktop software however alternatively of present it in Windowss signifier, it runs on any net browsers and it besides platform unbiased which imply it capable of run on any operating system. It combines the most effective of desktop software, net software and speaking together to arrange new platforms. ( IDC, 2003 )

RIA non merely synergistic and good wanting, they in addition to presenting a rich cyberspace experience without page refresh or waiter postbacks.

Java, flash and Microsoft Silverlight are the most common platforms available on the World Wide Web. For illustration, Google hunt engine textbox utilizing the automotive full from AJAX, Sony Ericson web site are largely design using Adobe flash, Microsoft web site image are load using Silverlight and lots of extra. ( Wikipedia, 2010 )

RIA has existed lengthy clip in the past such as Rich Web Application, Java applets, Macromedia Shockwave, Microsoft Remote Scripting and omnipresent Flash format, but today there are many new web criterions available however most of them are using the identical guidelines because the RIAs.

( Wikipedia, 2010 )

In order to determine a RIA application, users must put in a kind of package called bundle mannequin corresponding to Adobe Flash Player, Microsoft Silverlight, Java runtime setting ( JRE ) and so on. This is the chief distinction between RIA and Ajax ( Asynchronous JavaScript and XML ) , Ajax required no putting in of any package model in any respect and it makes use of the map or traits which would possibly be build-in in the internet browser.

History of RIA

The time period Rich Internet Application or RIA was launched in a Macromedia whitepaper in March 2002, although this construct had been around for old ages however under different names similar to:

Java applets, by Sun, 1995

Remote Scripting, by Microsoft, Circa 1998

Ten Internet, by Forrester Research, October 2000

Rich ( WEB ) Clients

Rich Web Application

No 1 truly is aware of exactly what is that this RIA engineering actually is and developed by whom.

The developers merely cognize how to use this type of engineering into their web application. Many instances, when particular person says RIA, they really means JavaScript, Flash, CSS or AJAX.

Rich Internet Application Frameworks

Adobe AIR ( Adobe Integrated Runtime )

The first version of AIR 1.0 was released in March 2008, current model is Adobe AIR 2 which are in a position to utilize totally different engineering similar to JavaScript, HTML codification, Flash, and even ActionScript to assemble web utility that able to run on different internet browser and even as a standalone software. This engineering allows the inside decorator and developer to utilize their creativeness to develop the applying for different devices and platforms utilizing the consistent, versatile and ocular improvement environment provided by Adobe.

The AIR apart from have many sweetening from the old version of AIR similar to, improve maximal window dimension, public presentation betterment, faster JavaScript engine, security betterment, cross-platform vector printing and so on. ( Adobe, 2010 )

Microsoft Silverlight

Microsoft Silverlight is a type of net utility that mixes all the in writing, life, multimedia and interactivity in a single runtime environment. A Silverlight utility work by naming the HTML ( Hyper Text Markup Language ) and so lade the XAML file which include the Canvas object that act as the container for other components. The earliest version of Silverlight is Silverlight which is released in 2007 comprise merely core presentation mannequin that used to handle the user interface, interactivity and person input, fundamental UI management, in writing and life, multimedia playback, Digital rights course ( DRM ) and in addition to ROM integrating. The latest version of Silverlight is version 4 that was launched in April 2010. The traits of Silverlight are similar to Adobe Flash. ( Microsoft, 2010 )

Google Gears

Google Gears is an unfastened beginning application that allows the person to add extra traits to their bing web browsers. It uses their home brew API to synchronise the knowledge and us the SQLite to hive away all the information. Gears besides need an area waiter host to host the content so that the person can entree the content offline. It besides use JavaScript to heighten the public presentation. ( Google, 2010 )

Yttrium! BrowserPlus

BrowserPlus is a engineering that allowed builders to make wealthy internet utility with the capableness just like these desktop purposes utilizing net browser. The singularity of the BroserPlus is the power to replace and add new services to the browser without restart the browser or recharge the web page. ( Yahoo, 2010 )

Mozilla Prism

Mozilla Prism is an utility that permits the customers to divide the web applications from their internet browser and run it on their desktop. The user in addition to able to add their favourite net utility to their desktop setting.

Figure 3.0

Beginning: & lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // & gt ;

Prism is n’t a brand new platform, it ‘s merely the online platform built-in into the desktop expertise. Web developers do n’t hold to aim it individually, because any utility that may run in a modern standards-compliant net browser can run in Prism. Prism is built on Firefox, so it supports rich our on-line world engineerings like HTML, JavaScript, CSS, and & lt ; canvas & gt ; and runs on Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. ( Bread, 2007 )


The HTML 5 presently is still underneath improvement, and it is the following HTML criterion. This new HTML 5 nonetheless inherits all the traits from its predecessors and add-on some new traits like Semantic Markup, Form Enhancement, Drag and Drop, Audio and Video playback, editable content material and so forth without trusting on any browser circuit board or JavaScript like its predecessors. Meaning it can make all of the rendition and processing inside the browser itself. HTML 5 besides capable of handle mistaken sentence structure so that older variations of the online browsers in addition to in a position to run the most recent HTML 5 codification development. ( W3C, 2009 )

Characteristic of Rich Internet Application

The connexion between hunt engine handiness and web handiness is as a substitute weak. For illustration it took over a decennary from release for Adobe Flash to be universally searchable. ( impact-work, 2010 )

Advanced communications with again uping waiters can better the consumer experience, for illustration by utilizing optimized net protocols, asynchronous I/O and pre-fetching informations ( eg Youtube picture ) . Likewise, these kind of engineering required dependable broadband connections.A ( impact-work, 2010 )

The beforehand solution and complexness of RIA makes it harder for the web developer to plan, develop, deploy and debug so the traditional net application however often is easier than utility package. ( impact-work, 2010 )

Consistency of consumer interface and expertise could be managed across operating systems. Performance monitoring and mistake diagnosing generally could be disputing and exhausting.

Circuit boards, sandboxes or sensible machines installing and care is a must however for a few of the smaller utility, they will maintain it update set to automatic by its builders. The putting in process is usually sooner than the appliance package deal however slower than the traditional conventional internet purposes. ( impact-work, 2010 )

By working in offline ( or intranet ) , it capable of hold the province locally on the consumer machine however there are in addition to other net criterion such paradigm in Google Gears in addition to has this characteristics enabled within the native net purposes. ( impact-work, 2010 )

The safety of RIA web application is improved compared to native internet utility but decrease comparison to software bundle with assistance from the sandboxes and automatic updates however the extensions of the online utility are succesful to exposure and entree is more than likely a lot greater comparison to native internet application. ( impact-work, 2010 )

Depending on the application and the online function used, the overall net application public presentation can be improved. For illustration, the appliance can keep away from latency of round-trips to the waiter by treating it locally without postback to server, by making so, the general process is quicker comparison to the other traditional web utility that ship it process petition to server and await waiter to deal with it and return the consequence. Besides that, offloading work to client machine in addition to able to higher waiter public presentation due to this fact the resources demand could be converse allow for smaller, embedded and nomadic gadgets to be usage. ( impact-work, 2010 )

The profusion of the RIA is non supported by conventional web browser similar to video gaining control ( e.g. Adobe Flash ) . ( impact-work, 2010 )

Benefits of utilizing Rich Internet Applications

RIA uses the benefits from the consumer CPU to help the online waiter to render or deal with the interface, so RIA in a place to provide a real-time user-interface which is about impossible to make with normal HTML website. The wealthy our on-line world map offered by RIA may included anything that can be carried out within the system in used on shopper facet such as using skidder to alter the place, retarding drive and bead map, rapid climb in and rapid climb out for image, computation that go on on client and do non necessitate to be send back to the waiter.

Rich Assetss

The elementary between conventional website and trendy rich cyberspace application is different. Traditional website online in made up wholly of text possibly with some image, whether it use inactive HTML, Java or.Net, it nonetheless Text-based website online.

Unlike traditional website online, RIA has extra assets to cowl with, corresponding to Audio, Graphic, Video, State, Transition, and Effect. The content material of RIA is interaction-based which imply is dynamic and the content is change from clip to instances. ( Bryan, 2009 )

Rich Experience

The profusion of RIA means rich user experience. It is type of paradigm displacement fromA what we can supply moreA toA how we can help users acquire extra.

Due to the profusion of the RIA and it interaction-based theoretical account, a nicely design and assemble web application using RIA regularly provide it person new expertise. ( Bryan, 2009 )

Rich Functionality

By utilised the newest and trendy net engineering like Adobe Flex/Flash/AIR, AJAX, or Mircrosoft Silverlight, an RIA able to supply maps manner past the normal web site. For illustration, the PhotoShop ExpressA or Google Docs, the style they is more or less silimar to desktop application which is unimaginable within the yesteryear. ( Bryan, 2009 )

Rich Clients

In conventional internet utility, it regularly puts heavy work load to the waiter whether it ‘s platforms is Java, .Net or PHP, the web waiter had to make all sort of processing similar to maintain the user session, process the person petition and procedure the consequence and direct again to the user. While on the shopper aspect, it web browser merely medium to reveal the consequence of the petition earlier.

On the opposite, RIA leverages the turning power of client machine. It installs a runtime ( corresponding to browser circuit board ) on the client side, and executes most of maps locally.

On the opposite, RIA relies on the shopper machine treating energy to make most of the rendition and processing. In order to make so, it had to put within the browser circuit board so that RIA able to put to demise it maps locally. ( Bryan, 2009 )

Rich Communicationss

The conventional method to run an internet application is like:

Click a button

Wait for the respond from waiter

Click another button or select other action

Whenever users ask for one thing, the browser has to direct a HTTP petition to the waiter, delay for the response back from the waiter, and evaluate the web page. ThisA synchronousA communicating method necessarily creates unfavorable impact on serviceability.

While RIA often usesA AsynchronousA communicating methodology. It allows the appliance to amass the knowledge from the waiter with out the web page reload. It makes the appliance sooner and extra user-friendly. ( Bryan, 2009 )

Search Engine Optimization

This is one other large problem faced by RIA. Today ‘s major hunt engines are nonetheless Text-Driven. They have hassle to to the full index the content inside compiled file, corresponding to Adobe Flash File ( .swf ) .

On the opposite manus, as a result of RIA is working independentlyA on its ain browser circuit board, it is troublesome for the browse to capture the appliance province. For illustration, the URL keeps the same regardless of content material alterations. This causes jobs with Bookmark, Page History, Back Button, and Search Engine Index.

Of class, the major RIA sellers are good cognizant of this problem. For illustration, Adobe actively cooperates with Google and Yahoo to higher the hunt consequences. It apart from offers Deep Link capableness to again up URL based pilotage in the browser. ( Bryan, 2009 )

Restriction of regular web-based application

The regular web-based software can hike their performance/response by implementing RIA into their system. RIA is required because there are many restrictions in normal web base software. They endure from the inability to adequately visually characterize the complexnesss required in right now ‘s functions. ( IDC, 2003 )

Some of the complexnesss in regular internet functions are:

Procedure complexness

Process complexness mean the net application need a couple of stairss, procedure and even options to complete a endeavor. Due to the restrictions of interactivity of HTML, the customers really necessitate to travel via many stairss or procedures to see their penalties. This entire process is really troublesome, clip consuming and someday thwarting to the person.

The best sample is to face for the advanced procedures in less complicated or additive work circulate and minimize down the determine of stairss or procedure and let high grade of interactivity within user interface. A extraordinarily interactivity interface able to work out the complex procedures multi stairss or additive workflow more straight and intuitively. ( IDC, 2003 )

Data Complexity

Checking, go throughing or having informations or info illustrates data complexness. E.g. HR part and Accounting part frequently use the interior web to accumulate the knowledge wanted however sometime there are excessively a lot of informations need to be procedure, as a consequence the public presentation is in addition to being affected.

Therefore some type of tools is needed to visualise the informations wanted in order that customers in a position to voyage via and analysis the informations and perceive it higher. This sort of tools allow them to reveal the data in a fashion that is simple for the consumer to know such as chart or graph in order that they able to see it in subdivisions due to this fact provide better apprehension.

When user capable of voyage and pull strings the informations, informations complexness is decreased and more understanding and compelling by the simpleness of the ocular presentation. ( IDC, 2003 )

Configuration Complexity

Presents there are still exist some web site that are nonetheless utilizing text to stand for the criteria-based or parametric hunt which mean they are unable to indicate the ocular picture of the terminal consequence of the merchandise.

Example, there are numerous Web functions that enable their customers to put or configure their merchandise from something each bit cheap as a cloth to something expensive as a Personal computer or auto.

It is difficult because the application needs to expose the consequence of multiple or even more to the customers as a consequence the addition the complexness of symbolize the legitimate combination of merchandise possibility.

Configure these merchandises is non a simple enterprise and sometime is quite troublesome. Representing this complexness consists of indicating needed components, bespeaking both valid and invalid mixtures, bespeaking chosen problem doing parts and their proper declaration, supplying cost info for each single choice and apart from the whole value, within the terminal enabling the customers to see the consequence. If the appliance in a position to make this so the figure of users who abandon their attempt portion method through the process will be significantly reduce down. ( IDC, 2003 )

Scale complexness

Most of the our on-line world applications are able to entree to the informations that was antecedently available with assistance from new techniques to hunt and compare informations. For illustration, criteria-based merchandise looking for attribute that enables the user to screen out the purpose he/she need out of hundred or thousand of it. Most of right now web sites are using these sort of hunt technique with textual and port of the image will demo beside.

First, the person will are available his or her standards, Lashkar-e-Taiba ‘s state the person extensive space community to hunt a computing machine that swimsuit them, so the standards could be processor, RAM measurement, HDD measurement, GPU and etc. After that the site will return the consequence with fiting computing machine that meet with the standards that the user had enter earlier than.

Another type of looking for method is using image or some kind of visible picture help to help with the looking. This method in a place to cut down the complexness of the hunt infinite and subsequently supplying more direct, dynamic ocular feedback of the hunt filter. It started by supplying an inventory of picture incorporating all of the computing machines picture shown on the page.

As the user selects filter requirements utilizing cheque packing containers or skidders or informations entry Fieldss, the site will mechanically take all the miss lucifer computing machine about instantly and go forthing merely these computing machine that match the standards. The consequence is a radically totally different experience, of contracting the focus from zero if no requirements matched to few computing machines that fit the standards or probably one that nearer to the user ‘s existent bodily universe buying expertise.

Leting customers to visually extinguish the invalid options or filtered penalties removes complexness and increases consumer assurance. ( IDC, 2003 )

Thing or requirements that wanted on Internet Applications

Based on the rising possibilities offered in IDC analysis, it’s clear that the impression of Internet utility will go on to increase on total concern particularly when the companies needs to work extra closely with it clients, suppliers and internally it ‘s staffs. ( IDC, 2003 )

To work out the jobs that incessantly occur within the Web utility, it is in a position to:

Use a omnipresent client

Able to run on cross platforms and multiple different hardware

Work good on low or high bandwidth connexions

Restore treating power ( non merely rendering capablenesss ) to the client

Deliver prosecuting consumer interfaces with excessive grades of interactivity

Represent procedure, information constellation, graduated desk and feedback complexness

Utilize sound, picture, pictures and text in a seamless mode

Support the nomadic work flow by leting customers to work on- and off-line

Allow the shopper to search out for itself what content or data to entree and when ( Asynchronous content material retrieval )

Access multiple heart grade services and backend informations shops

Supply a dynamic and powerful front terminal for the germinating Web Services primarily based web using criterions corresponding to XML and SOAP

Integrate with bequest applications and systems

Allow for the incremental add-on of recent maps to bing Web functions and environments to accumulate probably the most out of bing Web utility investings

By make the most of these engineering into their solutions, the restrictions of traditional internet application might be overcome in order that the person able to see so new types of prosecuting, advanced consumer experiences and functions.

Why Companies should see implement RIA of their Internet Application

Internet application capable of help corporations to hyperlink straight with their possibilities, shoppers and apart from their concern spouses. But a lot of the companies incessantly complaint that they did non to the full use the cyberspace engineering to assist them derive concern advantages. While Rich Internet Applications apply across a large lattice of industries and utilizations, considered one of their chief aims is to let firm to cut down the complexnesss that appear in between the modern and traditional Web software. With the aid of RIA, corporations able to purchase nearer to their vision of application, their clients, and in addition to to the priority impression that they have imagine within the Internet might hold accomplished for their overall concern. This is expressed most clearly in what RIAs have allowed or enabled companies to make. ( IDC, 2003 )

Companies have considered and chosen RIAs as a result of they believed they may:

Develop new sorts of purposes with traits or capablenesss that may be extremely onerous or impossible for a developer to make using traditional Web engineerings.

Engage, usher and hearken to their shoppers on-line more carefully or extra closely to how they’d make it in individual to increase trueness, higher service, intensify the consumer relationship, separate the company, or steer merchandise growth.

Create compelling, enticing Web sites using sound, image, text and artworks that generate leads, addition gross revenues, simplify communicating and make a alone online expertise price returning to.

Simplify sometimes complicated procedures like enrollment, constellation or shopping for taking to elevated leads, gross revenues, engagements, clip on the positioning and repetition visits.

Present info to their workers, path and spouses in clear, superior, intuitive and effectual methods to extend productiveness, info sharing, decision-making and competitory advantage.

Supply an enticing, extraordinarily synergistic presentation bed to underlying Web Services.

Reduce bandwidth prices related to frequent web page refresh for top site visitors websites.

Dramatically increase gross revenues of their merchandises and companies by way of their Internet channel.

Build an attractive, extremely synergistic Web web site or software at a decreased cost compared to utilizing alternate Web engineerings.

These are the grounds why firms ought to see a Rich Internet Application for his or her concern.

Linkage to concluding twelvemonth undertaking

The intent of making this topic is to let me to derive extra cognition on wealthy our on-line world utility, how it works, benefits of implement it, and why ought to we implement it in our net utility.

Rich cyberspace application non merely let me to get the better of the restriction of normal HTML web utility, but I apart from in a place to higher my Courier System GUI to much more friendlier, more dynamic and even to the total use the map on RIA.

For illustration, by using Silverlight, I able to make more interesting and even prettier consumer interface. These interfaces non merely look easy, however besides simple to utilize comparison to that bequest HTML interface that sometime confuse the consumer as a outcome of it complex design.

Besides that, by utilizing AJAX engineering, I will be in a position to enhance my system public presentation. Because AJAX let me to make the most of automobile full characteristic to hunt for country station by using the country name as requirements. Then the car full will search via the database with fiting prefix of the twine with out the person to come in the whole country name. I besides will utilize the updatepane on this system in order that some of the map that can be done in client side might be process at client facet without directing postback to server and even evaluation the web page.


Critical rating

For this research, I had look although many sources to garner info that I wanted to finish my seminar examine. Due to the deficiency of merchandise info in article or diary that I read, I needed to seek for more data in a few of the research written by different organisation.

Through all the sources I used, the white paper ready by IDC ( International Data Corporation ) , is the most resourceful amongst all of the resorts I obtained in manus. The floor is the knowledge inside this white paper had supplied a lot of the info I wanted including instance survey that had done by them sing the impact about RIA to totally different sort of concern web purposes. This type of info is basically utile for me to cognize how RIA will impact different type of concern nature and apart from how RIA helps them derive net incomes. Not merely has that, they besides capable of supply clear overview on the current market, attribute and restrictions, definitions, advantages summary, and so forth.

Besides the white paper ready by IDC, W3C web site apart from considered one of my beginnings of knowledge. Although many of the info provided on this web site is in proficient portion, nevertheless it a great starting of data to cognize how it actually work, the alteration log from older model to current version, what are the betterment and so on. But sometime the knowledge is excessively “ proficient ” that it is difficult to be perceive even when the individual that studying it are experience in web utility growth. The floor is the information consist more coding so apprehensible information. That why if normal people that read the data with out or deficiency of HTML or net creating background might be confused or non perceive it in any respect.

I apart from gather some of my information from assorted main RIA builders corresponding to Macromedia/Adobe, Microsoft, Google, Yahoo and and so on. With this, I in a position to detect many different platforms developed by different builders. Thou most of them are explicating their ain model and platforms, but at that place besides exclusion such as Adobe and Microsoft whereby there besides explicating a variety of the primary RIA assemble and a few brief info. Not merely that, Adobe managed to province out some great benefits of utilizing RIA in net application and in addition to supply a variety of the analysis statistic carried out by other analysis workers.


As a choice, non merely RIA in a position to get the better of the restriction of the HTML website or internet application however apart from provided some extra traits to intensify the online application public presentation. If the RIA – primarily based software is proper designed by the developer, it may even outstand the desktop application and non merely that, it apart from can increase the priority competitory while minimize downing the event price and improvement clip.

These sorts of engineerings in a position to simplify the event, direction and the attempt of incorporating or replacing the bing system with out take the old internet utility. With this, firms capable of higher their gross revenues, more effectual consumer services and client support and apart from selling schemes. Because they’re ready to expose the knowledge, data, or merchandises in additional additive and tidy methods and as a consequence addition a distinguishable competitory benefits over the other rivals.

RIA primarily based software have many benefits over the traditional net application, there no floor why companies should non alter their old/traditional net software to RIA based software. RIA based mostly utility capable of help them derive extra gross and besides in a place to assist them to tug some attainable shoppers.

A Job Application Letter

Paragraph One tells the place you found the job opportunity and what the job title is. I am writing in response to your advertisement within the January sixteen Philadelphia Inquirer. I believe that my academic coaching at Drexel University in Electrical Engineering, together with my expertise with RCA Advanced Technology Laboratory, would qualify me for the place of programmer. Paragraph Two particulars your training credentials. Make particular notice of those expertise the employer has mentioned in the job advert. My training at Drexel University has given me a robust background in laptop hardware and system design.

I even have focused on digital and pc functions, growing and designing pc and signal-processing hardware in two graduate-level engineering courses.

For my senior-design project, I am working with four other undergraduates in using OO programming techniques to boost the path-planning software program for an infrared night-vision robotics application. Paragraph Three contains your work expertise. Again, notice abilities the employer desires in an worker. While working at RCA, I utilized my pc experience to the sphere of the VLSI design.

In one project I used my background in LISP to develop and test new LISP software used in the automated production of VLSI normal cell family databooks. In one other project, I used CAD software program on a VAX to judge IC designs.

The last paragraph gives your telephone number, e mail, and time you may be reached. Also, make point out of your resume. The enclosed resume supplies an outline of my schooling and expertise. I would like to meet with you at your comfort to debate my skills for this position.

Please write to me on the above handle or go away a message anytime at (215) 555-5876.

2013 – 2014 AICE application

The University of Cambridge program of research (AICE/Pre-AICE) offers a high quality training that not solely ensures data, but in addition cultivates virtues of honesty, integrity, and perseverance. Of these virtues, honor and integrity are essential to the full train of academic freedom. At the core of the Cambridge Honor Code is the idea that every student has the best to pursue an education free from the ills caused by any type of mental dishonesty.

The Code exists to uphold and reinforce values central to the mission of the Cambridge AICE Program, the Fleming Island High custom of excellence, and to stop violations of those values.

While understanding that the Cambridge AICE program is rigorous and difficult, moral conduct is anticipated always. Acts of educational dishonesty are considered serious offenses that compromise the inspiration of trust and honesty upon which an educational group rests. Violations of the Cambridge ACADEMIC HONOR CODE encompass the following:

CHEATING AND PLAGIARISM Receiving or giving unauthorized solutions on exams, quizzes, essays, research or tasks Using any form of “cheat sheet” on exams / quizzes Obtaining or giving copies of check or quiz questions prior to test time Copying one other student’s work or homework without trainer permission Guidance from parents or others that clearly is of undue influence (as evidenced by a comparison of day-to-day achievement of the student) Submitting the same academic work in a couple of course without prior permission.

Intentionally copying words or ideas of authors or sources (including the internet) with out giving credit to the particular supply or any illustration of another’s work as one’s own Fabricating info, sources, or citations Unauthorized use of computers Students who see or learn about acts of educational dishonesty are honor sure to take actions to stop such violations.

Such actions include speaking on to the offender, or talking privately to a instructor or other grownup. Failure to act implies that the student condones inappropriate behavior.

CONSEQUENCES of violations of the Honor Code: 1st Offense: At a minimal student will obtain a “0” for the assignment; dad and mom might be notified of the incident. Incident shall be recorded within the AICE office 2nd Offense: At a minimum student will obtain a “0” for the project, scholar will receive a written reprimand, parents and an administrator will obtain written notification of the incident adopted by a conference, the incident will be recorded within the AICE office third Offense: At a minimal pupil will receive a “0” for the assignment and dismissal from the program.

The Honor Code will embody ALL lessons and offenses might be cumulative during the time the student attends FIHS. In addition, all violations of the Honor Code might be forwarded to the sponsors of the National Honor Society. ACADEMIC STANDING AND PROBATION The University of Cambridge program of examine (AICE/Pre-AICE) is a program that requires focus and commitment as it’s a rigorous and challenging course of examine. The intent of the academic standing and probation coverage is to ensure that Fleming Island High AICE college students are sustaining acceptable and constant give consideration to tutorial study.

The academic probation period permits a student time to refocus and seek assist with academic problems. Violations of the Cambridge ACADEMIC STANDING POLICY encompass the next: GRADES Receiving two C’s or lower on a report card in Pre-AICE lessons Juniors who have obtained two C’s on the report card in an individual AICE class ATTENDANCE School attendance plays an important function in tutorial standing. Pre-AICE and AICE classes are rigorous, fast-paced courses. It will be tough to take care of acceptable grades when you don’t have good attendance.

Attendance might be part of finish of semester analysis. If a scholar has violated the educational standing requirements parents shall be contacted. The dad and mom ought to at that time discuss homework preparations and research timelines with the scholar so as to establish attainable improvements in tutorial achievement. CONSEQUENCES of violations of ACADEMIC STANDING: Students in 9th or tenth grade will be faraway from the program if there are not any enhancements in grades through the academic probation interval. Students will have been counseled by the AICE Coordinator and their academic lecturers and parents.

Parents could have been notified and given the opportunity to fulfill with academics and counselors earlier than a scholar is taken out of the program. Students in 11th grade could additionally be faraway from the AICE program at semester if first and second quarter grades point out that a scholar is not going to be successful on the corresponding AICE examination. HONOR CODE AND ACADEMIC STANDING ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I consider and acknowledge that tutorial honesty and integrity are essential to the existence and progress of any educational group.

I imagine and acknowledge that with out maintaining high standards of honesty, integrity, and conduct the status of the educational group at Fleming Island High School and the Cambridge AICE program is compromised and society is poorly served. I believe that upholding my tutorial standing is integral to my success in the AICE program. Therefore, as a pupil in AICE / Pre-AICE, I comply with make a commitment to uphold and assist the Honor System and the Academic Standing coverage. I hereby resolve to uphold the Honor Code of the Cambridge AICE Program at Fleming Island High School.

I shall refrain from all types of educational dishonesty together with dishonest, plagiarism, and all deceitful means of obtaining good grades. I conform to report all private data of Honor Code violations to a instructor, administrator, parent or the AICE Office. I perceive the implications of breaches of the Honor Code and Academic Standing Policy and that upon violation I will be faraway from the program. Please perceive that there could also be rare cases where a scholar has been misplaced within the AICE program and it turns into apparent to teachers and parents before the Academic Standing two grading period coverage has expired.

Parents and lecturers, with administrator permission, could determine before then to move the coed to a extra acceptable educational setting Fleming Island High AICE Film and Literature Permission Form Please remember that novels, performs, and poetry collections used in Pre-AICE and AICE English and Literature courses are determined by Cambridge University, not Fleming Island High School. In a given year, every scholar enrolled within the AICE program around the globe is required to learn the identical “set texts”. Every book or play chosen by Cambridge has literary merit, however on uncommon occasions a mother or father or student might object to a given literary work.

Making accommodations in a non-AICE course is tough however not inconceivable; however, AICE students have few options as a result of they’re tested only on these particular literary works that are designated “set texts” for a particular syllabus yr. Please perceive that being accepted into the AICE Program indicates that your youngster has demonstrated tutorial potential and mental maturity and will have the ability to handle the difficult texts set by the program. In addition to literary works, we sometimes use movies to further enhance the student’s understanding of the literary work.

These movies are for tutorial purposes solely. Videos will not be rated PG. A listing of literary works is supplied with individual course syllabi. By signing this form, you give your youngster permission to learn and consider literary materials which would possibly be integral to the AICE program. Fleming Island High AICE Technology Awareness I perceive the importance of laptop access for AICE Program students and that college students will have to have access to a pc with Internet entry, word processing capabilities, and a working printer both at home or of their neighborhood.

It is essential that college students download (free) Adobe Reader or a comparable program in order to have the ability to view or obtain pdf recordsdata. Students could discover it useful to have a flash drive of their own to retailer copies of AICE classwork/homework, or tasks in case of a printer or pc failure. If an assignment or project is late due to technological problems at home the instructor might require a signed notice from the parent to confirm the issue. Clay County at present makes use of Blackboard to host instructor and group pages the place students and fogeys could view and print assignments and bulletins.

Some AICE teachers use this web site for classes. Students and parents might be given instructions on utilizing Blackboard firstly of the freshman year and shall be anticipated to entry Blackboard for assignments when asked to take action by a trainer. Some teachers have web sites which students might want to entry. There is an AICE Program web site as well. Parents of Clay County students have the ability to entry FOCUS, which is the online grading program utilized by Fleming Island High. This entry permits you to view your child’s grades at any time. Instructions for registering to make use of FOCUS are on the Clay County Public faculties web site at www.

clayschools. internet . AICE parents might be expected to register for this access as soon as potential in the course of the freshman year and to examine their child’s grades frequently if needed. The AICE coordinator will need to have an e-mail tackle on file for every AICE pupil so as to contact mother and father with essential announcements. Parents need to verify this e mail inbox often for AICE bulletins. Student signature________________________________________ Date__________________ Parent signature_________________________________________ Date__________________ Fleming Island High School.

AICE Program Teacher Recommendation Form To be completed by grade 8 lecturers: Language Arts, Algebra/Geometry, Science, Social Studies Student name: ______________________________ Current School: ______________________ Subject: ________________________ Teacher: _______________________________ Student’s grades: First Qtr. _______Second Qtr. _______ In order to better accommodate this student’s wants, have any of the following modifications been made? Check all that apply: ____504 ____IEP ____Other Additional comments: Please rate the student within the following categories based on the following scale:

4=Excellent 3=Above Average 2=Average 1=Below Average Excellent Above Average Average Below Average Intellect Study habits Motivation Homework Maturity Personal Conduct Independence How has the coed achieved good grades in your class? Check all that apply: ____by consistent exhausting work ____by grade consciousness ____by virtue of reminiscence ____by brilliance of mind ____other Additional comments: Do you consider this student is a good candidate for the AICE Program? ____Highly suggest ____Recommend ____Do not recommend Signature of trainer _______________________________________________________

This is a confidential document and won’t be part of the student’s data Please complete this form and return it to: Gina Davis, Fleming Island High School, 2233 Village Square Parkway, Orange Park, FL 32003 Clay County teachers may prefer to ship this kind by way of county mail. The deadline is Jan. 27, 2014. Fleming Island High School AICE Program Teacher Recommendation Form To be completed by grade eight academics: Language Arts, Algebra/Geometry, Science, Social Studies Student name: ______________________________ Current School: ______________________

Subject: ________________________ Teacher: _______________________________ Student’s grades: First Qtr. _______Second Qtr. _______ In order to higher accommodate this student’s wants, have any of the following modifications been made? Check all that apply: ____504 ____IEP ____Other Additional comments: Please fee the student within the following categories in accordance with the next scale: 4=Excellent 3=Above Average 2=Average 1=Below Average Excellent Above Average Average Below Average Intellect Study habits Motivation Homework Maturity Personal Conduct Independence How has the coed achieved good grades in your class?

Check all that apply: ____by consistent hard work ____by grade consciousness ____by advantage of memory ____by brilliance of thoughts ____other Additional comments: Do you consider this pupil is a good candidate for the AICE Program? ____Highly advocate ____Recommend ____Do not suggest Signature of teacher _______________________________________________________ This is a confidential doc and will not be part of the student’s information Gina Davis, Fleming Island High School, 2233 Village Square Parkway, Orange Park, FL 32003 Clay County teachers might favor to ship this type by way of county mail.

The deadline is Jan. 27, 2014. Fleming Island High School AICE Program Teacher Recommendation Form To be completed by grade eight teachers: Language Arts, Algebra/Geometry, Science, Social Studies Student name: ______________________________ Current School: ______________________ Subject: ________________________ Teacher: _______________________________ Student’s grades: First Qtr. _______Second Qtr. _______ In order to better accommodate this student’s wants, have any of the next modifications been made? Check all that apply: ____504 ____IEP ____Other Additional feedback:

Please rate the coed in the following classes according to the following scale: 4=Excellent 3=Above Average 2=Average 1=Below Average Excellent Above Average Average Below Average Intellect Study habits Motivation Homework Maturity Personal Conduct Independence How has the student achieved good grades in your class? Check all that apply: ____by constant exhausting work ____by grade consciousness ____by advantage of reminiscence ____by brilliance of thoughts ____other Additional feedback: Do you consider this scholar is an effective candidate for the AICE Program? ____Highly recommend ____Recommend ____Do not advocate.

Signature of teacher _______________________________________________________ This is a confidential doc and gained’t be part of the student’s records Please full this form and return it to: Gina Davis, Fleming Island High School, 2233 Village Square Parkway, Orange Park, FL 32003 Clay County teachers may prefer to send this form through county mail. The deadline is Jan. 27, 2014. Fleming Island High School AICE Program Teacher Recommendation Form To be accomplished by grade eight lecturers: Language Arts, Algebra/Geometry, Science, Social Studies Student name: ______________________________ Current School: ______________________

Subject: ________________________ Teacher: _______________________________ Student’s grades: First Qtr. _______Second Qtr. _______ In order to better accommodate this student’s needs, have any of the next modifications been made? Check all that apply: ____504 ____IEP ____Other Additional comments: Please price the scholar in the following categories according to the next scale: 4=Excellent 3=Above Average 2=Average 1=Below Average Excellent Above Average Average Below Average Intellect Study habits Motivation Homework Maturity Personal Conduct Independence How has the scholar achieved good grades in your class?

Check all that apply: ____by constant exhausting work ____by grade consciousness ____by advantage of reminiscence ____by brilliance of thoughts ____other Additional comments: Do you consider this pupil is an effective candidate for the AICE Program? ____Highly advocate ____Recommend ____Do not suggest Signature of teacher _______________________________________________________ This is a confidential document and will not be part of the student’s records Please complete this kind and return it to: Gina Davis, Fleming Island High School, 2233 Village Square Parkway, Orange Park, FL 32003 Clay County lecturers could favor to send this form by way of county mail.

The deadline is Jan. 27, 2014. The writing portion of this utility is an important a half of our evaluation process. Cambridge curriculum requires students to be able to write successfully. Our college students will be writing at a complicated high school stage starting in ninth grade and will take faculty degree exams in tenth by way of twelfth grades which are essay solely exams. While writing instruction will occur in all grades it is necessary that students have sturdy abilities on which to construct. Writing distinguishes our program from different accelerated programs and is a half of what makes our graduates higher prepared to succeed at university degree.

Some hints to help you succeed with the writing portion: If you are requested to put in writing a paragraph, do not write a two or three sentence reply. You are given three sheets to write the essay for a purpose. When writing formal essays do not use a conversational style. For instance, don’t begin sentences with “Well, ….. ” Handwriting is essential. Not everyone has great handwriting however you should make each effort to put in writing legibly. If your handwriting nonetheless seems prefer it did in elementary school you might want to follow writing on school dominated paper to be taught to write down smaller, neater sentences.

Basic writing conventions are important. Write a tough draft and then edit. If your spelling leaves something to be desired, sort a tough draft into a word processing program after which check your spelling with spell check. Let another person learn your essay and offer you feedback. Do not submit an essay which seems like a rough draft! Write in blue or black ink. DO NOT TYPE!!! We need to see your handwriting. DO NOT PUT THE WRITING PORTION OF THE APPLICATION OFF UNTIL THE NIGHT BEFORE THE APPLICATION IS DUE. AICE Application Short response questions Student.

Name___________________________________________________________________ 1. A principle belief at Fleming Island High is that a well-rounded schooling consists of academics and extracurricular activities. What one extracurricular activity do you’re feeling it is important for you to participate in and why? 2. Successful college students are sometimes highly motivated, very organized, and in a place to handle their time effectively. How do you incorporate these qualities into your instructional goals? Fleming Island High School AICE Program Extended Response Essay Read the following essay prompt and compose the essay.

It must be between 500-600 phrases. A newspaper invitations you to contribute to an everyday characteristic called “Don’t Get Me Started! ” In it you express your opinions about on a regular basis things that annoy you. Write the article. Fleming Island High School AICE Program Application Who are you? A picture is worth a thousand words! Use this web page to add pictures which can show us who you’re. There are not any tips besides to do not neglect that that is part of an application so remember that you are forming an impression. There ought to be no much less than one latest photograph included.

letter of application

I am writing to you to express my interest in undertaking a placement as a copywriter at your organization. In 2008, I was very honoured to be one of the only four students in Danang who received a MOE (Ministry of Education) scholarship to study in Singapore for four years. I have just graduated from Raffles Junior College which is the best and most reputable junior college in Singapore.

I am currently waiting for my A-level result to be released next year. I will be an invaluable asset to your organization in many ways. My capabilities as an intelligent leader, proficient communicator and cooperative team player have evolved during my 4-year learning journey in Singapore. Having the privilege to be under one of the best education systems in the world over the past four years, I have had the opportunity to develop holistically and acquire necessary life skills and interpersonal skills. Moreover, I believe that my English skills are well qualified for this job as I have been using English on a daily basis in Singapore over the past 4 years. What makes me most appropriate for employment within your Institution is my personal qualities of integrity, reliability and commitment.

I would like to further develop these skills and experiences by working for your organization and look forward to making a positive contribution to your organization. I am available at your convenience for an interview to support my application. Thank you for taking the time to view my application. I look forward with enthusiasm to hearing from you soon. Yours sincerely,

Letter of application

Though there are many formats, full block format with open punctuation marks is the most popularly used forms in today’s business communication. Full block format means, aligning all the parts of the letters in the left margin without indenting. One line space has to be left between the parts. Open punctuation refers to using punctuation marks only in the main body of the letter in order to ensure clear comprehension and omitting punctuation marks like commas and full stops in all other parts (date, address, salutation, subscription, etc.)

How to Write an Effective Cover Letter?

An effective cover letter must convince the employer that the candidate possesses the requisite skills for the job and ensure him that he is the suitable person for the post. So the cover letter should highlight the most relevant skills/achievements/performance, needed for the job. The cover letter is usually written in three or four small paragraphs with enough white space in between.

In the first paragraph,
(i) mention the subject and reference. In other words, the name of the post you are applying and the source of information (name of the newspaper and the date) are to be mentioned. In case of some other sources like personal contacts, due acknowledgement has to be made. (ii) Express the reason to apply for the post or your willingness to be considered as a candidate. Some sample openings:

1. Your advertisement for the post of Software Engineer in the June 25, 2008 issue of The Times of India interested me as I am confident that I possess the requisite qualification and skills. I wish to be considered as a candidate for the same. 2. I understand from Mr. Rajgopal, one of your faculty that there is an opening in your esteemed organization for the post of Marketing Executive.. 3. I was very interested to see your advertisement for the post Software Engineer in The Hindu of 29.06.2008. I have been seeking for such an opportunity as this, and I think my background and your requirements may be a good match. I am very much interested in working as a Software Engineer in your esteemed concern.

In the second paragraph,
(i) highlight your academic and professional skills which are more relevant for the post you are applying now. (ii) Give specific and the most important details of your achievements and inform the employer that your resume is enclosed for the other details of your qualification and experience. Some samples:

1. As my enclosed resume indicates, I have a B.E in Electronics and Communication Engineering. I was a University rank holder and was awarded a merit scholarship by the University. I did my internship at Reliance, Bangalore, during the summer vacation. My project work has helped me acquire a wide variety of skills that would benefit your company.

2. My education includes a B.E .in Electrical Engineering from National Institute of Technology, Tiruchi and an MBA from IGNOU, New Delhi.
During my undergraduation, I did a summer project in Network Security, at BSNL, Coimbatore. and received a letter of appreciation for my vision and ability to multitask. I wish to begin my career with Polexcel and I believe that my employment with you would be highly beneficial to your company and also add value to my career.

In the third paragraph/concluding paragraph,
(i) motivate the employer for taking action, i.e., calling for an interview (ii) express your convenience to attend the interview.

Some Sample Closings:
1. I look forward to the opportunity of attending an interview when I can provide additional details. 2. I would like to meet you and discuss the employment possibilities at your company. I expect your reply and appreciate your consideration. 3. I shall be pleased to provide any further information you may need and hope I may be given an opportunity of an interview. 4. I wish to begin my career with SR Industries and I believe that my employment with you would be highly beneficial to your company and also add value to my career. 5. I have been looking for an opening like this one, which provides a fast moving, dynamic work environment and accelerated and challenging growth opportunities. (ii) RESUME

A resume is a selective record of a candidate’s academic, professional and personal background. It is basically, a professional employment seeking document that presents the summary of an individual’s education, professional training, experience, skills, abilities, achievements and references. The length of the resume should be between 1 and 2 pages long.


There is no specific format for writing a resume. The resume should have an effective design with a focus on readability and adaptation to the expectations of the prospective employer. Though the parts and the format of a resume differ from person to person and company to company, the standard parts of a resume include the following:

1. heading,
2. position sought,
3. career objective,
4. education,
5. work experience,
6. special skills,
7. achievements,
8. activities, and interests
9. references.

Some sample objectives
1. To work as a System Manager in a leading IT company where I will have opportunities to use my knowledge in VB, ASP, NET, XML and SQL server. 2. To be a part of a fast growing multinational company that will enable me to use my analytical, interpersonal and communication skills. 3. Entry level position is design and development of microprocessor circuitry; eventual advancement to positions as Technical Manager or Project Leader.

Resume Style
There are three acceptable resume styles: Chronological, Functional and Hybrid (a combination of both) Chronological Resume: This is the most commonly used resume style. It focuses on education and experience and the details are arranged in reverse chronological order. Functional Resume: Functional resumes highlight accomplishments and emphasise skills. The requisite skills are demonstrated by means of the experience the candidate possesses. Combination Resume: As the name suggests, it combines the best features of chronological and functional resumes. This style is very rarely used.

In short, the style of the resume depends on the nature of the job and the skills and qualification of the candidate.

Points to Remember in Writing a Resume

Make the design and format readable with main sections noticeable and the individual components distinct, separate and clear. Give well defined headings
Leave enough white space between the parts.
Align everything to the left
Leave at least one inch margin
Use standard font, preferably, Ariel or Times New Roman with 10 or 12 font size. Be specific, factual and objective.
Edit carefully for grammar, vocabulary and spelling errors.
Avoid punctuation as much as possible.
Avoid columns, vertical, horizontal lines, or boxes.
Avoid decorative designs, and typography
Make the resume computer-friendly.

Thus the success of employment search largely depends on a candidate’s ability to design an effective cover letter and a persuasive resume.


In response to your advertisement in The Times of India of 29.06.2008, I wish to apply for the post of Software Engineer in your reputed concern.

My academic record reflects my sincerity and strong determination. I graduated with a B.Tech in Information Technology from Anna University, Coimbatore with distinction in May 2008. I received the Chief Minister Merit Scholarship during 2006-2007 for my academic performance. As a dynamic and extroverted student, I took active interest and participation in many extra curricular and co-curricular activities and won prizes. I have enclosed my resume for the details of my qualification for your perusal.

As I have a sound academic background, good oral and written communication skills, proficiency in computers and high degree of commitment, I would be able to contribute to the growth and expansion of your company. I look forward to having the opportunity to further discuss my qualifications for the post of Software Engineer at your firm.

To obtain a challenging position as a Software Engineer in an innovative software company where I will have opportunities to utilize my computer proficiency, communication and interpersonal skills to contribute to the growth of the company and also enhance my career prospects.

Anna University, Coimbatore
B.Tech. in Information Technology, May, 2008.

SH Senior Secondary School, Chennai passed Higher Secondary, April, 2004


Programming Languages: C, C++, JAVA, PERL
Technologies: HTML, Java Security, JDBC Operating Systems: Linux, Unix, Windows 95/09/NT, DOS


Won Chief Minister Merit Scholarship for academic proficiency in III tear Won First prize in Inter – University elocution contest, in 2007. Secured Second position in Debugging’ contest, held at IIT, Chennai.


Was the Student Secretary for the Society of Information Technologists Had been a member of National Cadet Corps for three years during my school Have participated in many extra – curricular activities and won prizes


Age & Date of Birth 21 years &
14.08. 1987

Marital Status: Single

Languages Known: Tamil, English, Hindi, German

Interests: Reading fiction, Web designing and Listening to Carnatic

REFERENCES 1. Dr. V.Thanuvalingam
Dean (Academic) Anna University Coimbatore

2. Dr.K.Viswanathan Professor& Head Department of Information Technology Anna University Coimbatore


Assume that you have completed your degree and draft a letter of application to be sent to your dream company. Prepare your own resume to be enclosed along with the cover letter.


Letter of application

A letter of application is one’s first introduction to his/her prospective employer. It is a persuasive message that sells the applicant’s talents to the employer. In that case, it should be similar to that of a sales letter in attracting and impressing the reader and motivating him to take action. Job application letter, usually, has two parts: (i) Cover letter and (ii) Resume.


The cover letter is not just a forwarding letter. The purpose of writing a cover letter is to persuade the employer to read the resume enclosed. It should be tactfully written and carefully organized, so that it gains attention and builds interest and motivates the employer to take action.


Though there are many formats, full block format with open punctuation marks is the most popularly used forms in today’s business communication. Full block format means, aligning all the parts of the letters in the left margin without indenting. One line space has to be left between the parts. Open punctuation refers to using punctuation marks only in the main body of the letter in order to ensure clear comprehension and omitting punctuation marks like commas and full stops in all other parts (date, address, salutation, subscription, etc.)

How to Write an Effective Cover Letter?

An effective cover letter must convince the employer that the candidate possesses the requisite skills for the job and ensure him that he is the suitable person for the post. So the cover letter should highlight the most relevant skills/achievements/performance, needed for the job. The cover letter is usually written in three or four small paragraphs with enough white space in between.

In the first paragraph, (i) mention the subject and reference. In other words, the name of the post you are applying and the source of information (name of the newspaper and the date) are to be mentioned. In case of some other sources like personal contacts, due acknowledgement has to be made. (ii) Express the reason to apply for the post or your willingness to be considered as a candidate. Some sample openings:

1. Your advertisement for the post of Software Engineer in the June 25, 2008 issue of The Times of India interested me as I am confident that I possess the requisite qualification and skills. I wish to be considered as a candidate for the same. 2. I understand from Mr. Rajgopal, one of your faculty that there is an opening in your esteemed organization for the post of Marketing Executive..

3. I was very interested to see your advertisement for the post Software Engineer in The Hindu of 29.06.2008. I have been seeking for such an opportunity as this, and I think my background and your requirements may be a good match. I am very much interested in working as a Software Engineer in your esteemed concern.

In the second paragraph,
(i) highlight your academic and professional skills which are more relevant for the post you are applying now. (ii) Give specific and the most important details of your achievements and inform the employer that your resume is enclosed for the other details of your qualification and experience. Some samples:

1. As my enclosed resume indicates, I have a B.E in Electronics and Communication Engineering. I was a University rank holder and was awarded a merit scholarship by the University. I did my internship at Reliance, Bangalore, during the summer vacation. My project work has helped me acquire a wide variety of skills that would benefit your company.

2. My education includes a B.E .in Electrical Engineering from National Institute of Technology, Tiruchi and an MBA from IGNOU, New Delhi.
During my undergraduation, I did a summer project in Network Security, at BSNL, Coimbatore. and received a letter of appreciation for my vision and ability to multitask. I wish to begin my career with Polexcel and I believe that my employment with you would be highly beneficial to your company and also add value to my career.

In the third paragraph/concluding paragraph,
(i) motivate the employer for taking action, i.e., calling for an interview (ii) express your convenience to attend the interview.

Some Sample Closings:
1. I look forward to the opportunity of attending an interview when I can provide additional details.

2. I would like to meet you and discuss the employment possibilities at your company. I expect your reply and appreciate your consideration.

3. I shall be pleased to provide any further information you may need and hope I may be given an opportunity of an interview.

4. I wish to begin my career with SR Industries and I believe that my employment with you would be highly beneficial to your company and also add value to my career.

5. I have been looking for an opening like this one, which provides a fast moving, dynamic work environment and accelerated and challenging growth opportunities. (ii) RESUME

A resume is a selective record of a candidate’s academic, professional and personal background. It is basically, a professional employment seeking document that presents the summary of an individual’s education, professional training, experience, skills, abilities, achievements and references. The length of the resume should be between 1 and 2 pages long.


There is no specific format for writing a resume. The resume should have an effective design with a focus on readability and adaptation to the expectations of the prospective employer. Though the parts and the format of a resume differ from person to person and company to company, the standard parts of a resume include the following:

1. heading,
2. position sought,
3. career objective,
4. education,
5. work experience,
6. special skills,
7. achievements,
8. activities, and interests
9. references.

Some sample objectives
1. To work as a System Manager in a leading IT company where I will have opportunities to use my knowledge in VB, ASP, NET, XML and SQL server. 2. To be a part of a fast growing multinational company that will enable me to use my analytical, interpersonal and communication skills. 3. Entry level position is design and development of microprocessor circuitry; eventual advancement to positions as Technical Manager or Project Leader.

Resume Style
There are three acceptable resume styles: Chronological, Functional and Hybrid (a combination of both) Chronological Resume: This is the most commonly used resume style. It focuses on education and experience and the details are arranged in reverse chronological order. Functional Resume: Functional resumes highlight accomplishments and emphasise skills.

The requisite skills are demonstrated by means of the experience the candidate possesses. Combination Resume: As the name suggests, it combines the best features of chronological and functional resumes. This style is very rarely used.

In short, the style of the resume depends on the nature of the job and the skills and qualification of the candidate.

Points to Remember in Writing a Resume

Make the design and format readable with main sections noticeable and the individual components distinct, separate and clear. Give well defined headings
Leave enough white space between the parts.
Align everything to the left
Leave at least one inch margin
Use standard font, preferably, Ariel or Times New Roman with 10 or 12 font size. Be specific, factual and objective.
Edit carefully for grammar, vocabulary and spelling errors.
Avoid punctuation as much as possible.
Avoid columns, vertical, horizontal lines, or boxes.
Avoid decorative designs, and typography
Make the resume computer-friendly.

Thus the success of employment search largely depends on a candidate’s ability to design an effective cover letter and a persuasive resume.




25/186, Fourth Avenue
Jeeva Nagar
Chennai – 600 045

The General Manager
Human Resources Division
Infitech Solutions
Chennai – 103

Dear Sir

In response to your advertisement in The Times of India of 29.06.2008, I wish to apply for the post of Software Engineer in your reputed concern.

My academic record reflects my sincerity and strong determination. I graduated with a B.Tech in Information Technology from Anna University, Coimbatore with distinction in May 2008. I received the Chief Minister Merit Scholarship during 2006-2007 for my academic performance. As a dynamic and extroverted student, I took active interest and participation in many extra curricular and co-curricular activities and won prizes. I have enclosed my resume for the details of my qualification for your perusal.

As I have a sound academic background, good oral and written communication skills, proficiency in computers and high degree of commitment, I would be able to contribute to the growth and expansion of your company. I look forward to having the opportunity to further discuss my qualifications for the post of Software Engineer at your firm.

Thanking you in anticipation

Yours faithfully,

Enc: Resume



Address: 25/186, Fourth Avenue
Jeeva Nagar
Chennai – 600 045
Phone: 044 – 2239 4657
Mobile: 98764 95342
E mail: [email protected]

To obtain a challenging position as a Software Engineer in an innovative software company where I will have opportunities to utilize my computer proficiency, communication and interpersonal skills to contribute to the growth of the company and also enhance my career prospects.

Anna University, Coimbatore
B.Tech. in Information Technology, May, 2008.

SH Senior Secondary School, Chennai passed Higher Secondary, April, 2004


Programming Languages: C, C++, JAVA, PERL
Technologies: HTML, Java Security, JDBC Operating Systems: Linux, Unix, Windows 95/09/NT, DOS


Won Chief Minister Merit Scholarship for academic proficiency in III tear Won First prize in Inter – University elocution contest, in 2007. Secured Second position in Debugging’ contest, held at IIT, Chennai.


Was the Student Secretary for the Society of Information Technologists Had been a member of National Cadet Corps for three years during my school Have participated in many extra – curricular activities and won prizes


Age & Date of Birth 21 years &
14.08. 1987

Marital Status: Single

Languages Known: Tamil, English, Hindi, German

Interests: Reading fiction, Web designing and Listening to Carnatic

REFERENCES 1. Dr. V.Thanuvalingam
Dean (Academic) Anna University Coimbatore

2. Dr.K.Viswanathan Professor& Head Department of Information Technology Anna University Coimbatore


Assume that you have completed your degree and draft a letter of application to be sent to your dream company. Prepare your own resume to be enclosed along with the cover letter.

Example of application letter

I’m writing to express my interest in the Web Content Specialist position listed on I have experience building large, consumer-focused health-based content sites. While much of my experience has been in the business world, I understand the social value of the non-profit sector and my business experience will be an asset to your organization. My responsibilities included the development and management of the site’s editorial voice and style, the editorial calendar, and the daily content programming and production of the web site.

I worked closely with health care professionals and medical editors to help them provide the best possible information to a consumer audience of patients. In addition, I helped physicians learn to utilize their medical content to write user-friendly, readily comprehensible text. Experience has taught me how to build strong relationships with all departments at an organization. I have the ability to work within a team as well as cross-team. I can work with web engineers to resolve technical issues and implement technical enhancements, work with the development department to implement design and functional enhancements, and monitor site statistics and conduct search engine optimization. Thank you for your consideration.


First Name Last Name

Sample Resume

I am looking for a position at This Company where I can maximize my programming skills, project management, leadership skills, and create new and exciting tools.

I have had 3 years experience in web design and development. I am fimilar with a lot of the languages and software used in creating projects for the web. Futhermore, I have great project management skills and also work well either alone or with a group. I have also worked on small projects and large public releases for large companies.

Design Media
College Humor, Seattle, WA
Graduated: January 2008
Grade: College

Employment History
December 2007 – Present: Web Designer
Company: ComStream
Seattle, Washington
Worked as team lead on many different client projects.

Professional Skills
Adobe Photoshop – Expert
Adobe Illustrator – Expert
Adobe Dreamweaver – Advanced
Php – Advanced

January 2006: New Media Design
Organization: School of Technology
San Fransico
Czech – Beginner
Vietnamese – Conversational

Immigration / Work Status
December 2041 – Permanent Resident – United States

Solicited Application Letter

In the January 31 issue of the Chapel Hill Post, your ad mentioned “proven skills”, I believe I have what you are looking for in an administration assistant. In addition to experience in a variety of office settings, I am familiar with the computer software used in your office.

I recently completed a three-course sequence at Hamilton College on Microsoft Word and PowerPoint. I learned how to apply those programs to speed up letter and report-writing tasks. A workshop on “Writing and Editing with the Unix Processor” gave me experience with other valuable applications such as composing and formatting sales letters, financial reports and presentation slides.

These skills have been invaluable to me as assistant to the chief nutritionist at our campus cafeteria (please refer to my resume). I’m particularly proud of the order-confirmation system I designed, which has sharply reduced the problems of late shipment and depleted inventories.

Because “proven skills” are best explained in person, I would appreciate an interview with you. Please phone me any afternoon between 3 and 5 p.m. at (919) 220-6139 to let me know the day and time most convenient for you.

Kenneth Sawyer

2 Kanduli Street
Bonuan Blue Beach Subdivision
Dagupan City
March 5, 2008

The personnel Manager
Toyota Quezon Avenue, Inc.
728 Quezon Avenue, Quezon City


If fluency in written and spoken English and expertise in the use of Lotus computers are the immediate needs of your firm, then I think I am the woman for the job which you advertised in the March 3 issue of the Manila Bulletin. Here are my reasons for believing that I can be help to your company.

I hold a degree in Secretarial Administration which I earned at the University of Sto. Tomas last November. As part of the general education component of my course, I finished computer data processing and programming with hands-on experiences on the Lotus. A year before graduation, I got my first job as secretary to the Guidance Counselor of the Department of Secretarial Science in the University. I worked full time in the office and studied in the evening. My job and my studies did not hinder me from actively joining such campus organizations as the glee club, the dramatics guild and the debating team – an experience which greatly enhanced my keenness in English.

I am single and with pleasing personality. I enjoy working in the trade business.

May I have the privilege of an interview at your most convenient time so that I can demonstrate the value of my services to your firm? Please call me up collect at telephone number ###-##-##.

Very truly yours,

Ms. Ma. Reta Rely

Unsolicited Application Letter:

1254 Main Street
Council Bluffs. IA 51505
June 16, 2008

Ms. Patricia Downings, Store Manager
840 South Oak
Iowa Falls, IA 50126

Dear Ms. Downings:

You want retail clerks and managers who are accurate, enthusiastic, and experienced. You want someone who cares about customer service, who understands merchandising, and who can work with others to get the job done. When you’re ready to hire a manager trainee or a clerk who is willing to work toward promotion, please consider me for the job.

Working as a clerk and then as an assistant department manager in a large department store has taught me how challenging a career in retailing can be. Moreover, my AA degree in retailing (including work in such courses as retailing, marketing, and business information systems) will provide your store with a well-rounded associate. Most important, I can offer Wal-Mart’s Iowa Falls store more than my two years of study and filed experience. You’ll find that I’m interested in every facet of retailing, eager to take on responsibility, an willing to continue learning throughout my career. Please look over my resume to see how my skills can benefit your store.

I understand that Wal-Mart prefers to promote its managers from within the company, and I would be pleased to start out with an entry-level position until I gain the necessary experience. Do you have any associate position opening up soon? Could we discuss my qualifications? I will phone your early next Wednesday to arrange a meeting at your convenience.


Glenda Jones

January 12, 2007

Reymart Gonzales
Personnel Manager
Freeport Corporation
Pasay City, Manila

Dear Mr. Gonzales:

I would like to apply for the position of Assistant Personnel of the Personnel Division of your corporation. I am twenty one years old, single, and in good health. I finished Bachelor of Science in Psychology from the University of the Santo Tomas in 1985. At present, I am connected with East Asia College as Guidance Counselor. This position which requires the proper approach for effective counseling exposes me to different kinds of people. For further information as to my qualifications and character, I refer you by permission to the following:

Anna Maria France
School Administrator
East Asia College
Metro Manila

Rose Mary Austria
Dean – Science Department
University of Santo Tomas
Metro Manila

Should you desire to have me for a personal interview, I am very willing to see you at your most convenient time. Very truly yours, Annika Sanchez
15 April 2004

The Principal
Interplay Languages
77 bd Saint Germain
75006 PARIS

Dear Madam:

I am interested in working as Director of Studies for your organisation. I am an EFL language instructor with nearly 10 years’ experience to offer you. I enclose my resume as a first step in exploring the possibilities of employment with Interplay Languages.

My most recent experience was implementing English through Drama workshops for use with corporate clients. I was responsible for the overall pedagogical content, including the student coursebook. In addition, I developed the first draft of the teacher’s handbook.

As Director of Studies with your organisation, I would bring a focus on quality and effectiveness to your syllabus design. Furthermore, I work well with others, and I am experienced in course planning.

I would appreciate your keeping this enquiry confidential. I will call you in a few days to arrange an interview at a time convenient to you. Thank you for your consideration. Yours faithfully, Ivan Dimitrov

Bsp Eagle Scout Application Form

BOY SCOUTS OF THE PHILIPPINES __________________________ Council APPLICATION FOR EAGLE SCOUT RANK (To be submitted to the Regional Office) Date: _____________________ The National Court of Honor Boy Scouts of the Philippines Manila Sir and Madam:

Please consider me as a candidate for the Eagle Scout Rank. In addition to meeting the necessary requirements for the previous advancement badges (Tenderfoot, Second Class, Explorer, First Class, Pathfinder, Outdoorsman, and Venturer), I have now qualified for the minimum number of Merit Badges required for the Eagle Scout Rank. I state on My Honor that I have as a true Scout lived up to the Scout Oath and Law and promoted the Scout Spirit among the Scouts. I also have conscientiously did my best to develop my leadership ability while helping other boys to become better Scouts. I respectfully submit my registration and advancement records for your consideration, as follows: __________________________ Applicant’s Signature __________________________ Full Name in Print Age: _____________________ _________________________ Date of Birth

Registered as Boy/Senior Scout in Troop/Outfit No. _________, Sponsored by the ___________________________________________________ Position in the Unit: _______________ No. of Years as a Boy/Senior Scout ________________ No. of Years as a KAB Scout ________________ Became an Outdoorsman Badge holder on _______________________ Became an Venturer Badge holder on _______________________ (Date Certificate Issued) (Date Certificate Issued) Merit Badge Earned: (Corresponding approved application for these Merit Badges are attached)


SPECIFIC SUBJECT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.




Date _________________

As a result of our personal knowledge and observation, we the undersigned, hereby certify that the applicant has proved himself to be a true and worthy Scout by living up to the ideals of the Scouting Movement. ______________________________________ Parent’s/Guardian’s Signature ______________________________________ Religious Adviser’s Signature ACTION OF COUNCIL COMMITTEE ON ADVANCEMENT We hereby certify that they applicant has furnished the Committee satisfactory and concrete evidence that: 1. He has maintained an active registered relationship to Scouting for more than _________ since he became a Venturer Badge holder; 2. He has made a satisfactory effort to develop and demonstrate leadership ability; and 3. He has satisfactorily put into practice the ideals and Principles of the Scouting Movement. The Committee on Advancement, therefore, recommends approval of this application. ______________________________________ Chairman, Committee on Advancement ACTION OF LOCAL COUNCIL OFFICE Respectfully endorsed to the Regional Office, BSP, with the recommendation that the Special Board of Review be held as follows: Date: ____________________ Time: ____________________ Place: _____________________________________ ______________________________________ Name and Signature of Council Scout Executive/OIC

_______________________________________ Troop Leader/Outfit Advisor’s Signature ______________________________________ Teacher’s/Employer’s Signature

______________________________________ Commissioner for Advancement and Activities

ACTION OF THE SPECIAL BOARD OF REVIEW This is to certify that the applicant appeared before the Board on _____________________________ (Date) located at
_____________________________________ and has satisfied the Board that he is qualified for the Eagle Scout Rank.

ACTION OF THE REGIONAL OFFICE Processed: _________________________________ Board constituted: ____________________________ RECOMMENDING APPROVAL ___________________________________________ Regional Scout Director ACTION OF NATIONAL OFFICE APPROVED: __________ (Date) _________________________________ Secretary General

____________________ Chairman ____________________ (Member) ____________________ (Member) ____________________ (Member) ____________________ (Member)

Certificate/Badge Issued: ___________________________ Medal Issued: __________ No. ______________________ Posted/Recorded: _________________________________

IMPORTANT: This form must be accomplished and submitted to the Regional Office, BSP, in quadruplicate. If approved, original copy is retained at the National Office, BSP, the duplicate copy is sent to the Regional Office, triplicate and quadruplicate copies sent to the Local Council Office and to the applicant Scout.

Financial managing application


I am making a budget plan and am going to recommend financial managing application for the business as a business manager. The company is named Houzit Pty Ltd, it is a retailer for home wares. It is a growing business. It has 15 stores in Brisbane area. It has 150 staff members. It is registered with ASIC. As per the review of financial structure of this company the report below has been made.

1. The statutory requirements for tax compliances are listed below: * 9% of wages and salaries is to be calculated as superannuation for every quarter * 4.75% is payroll tax of wages and salaries for every quarter * Worker compensation is 2% of salaries and wages for every quarter * For every quarter the company tax is 30% of net profit before taxes.

Current Liabilities:
GST: Goods and service tax is a value added tax of 10% in most services and goods, it is imposed on most of the transactions but refunded later with certain process. Fringe benefit tax: this tax is applied to most non cash benefits that an employed provides. It is imposed on the employer. Payroll tax: it is a tax paid by employers to government. It is calculated as per the wages and salaries. It is different in different states in Australia. PAYG Withholding: pay as you go withholding is a way of paying ones tax in a year should one be an employee. Income tax: it’s a most important revenue
stream in Australia. Income tax is imposed in earnings. 2.

* Company must be registered as per the corporation Act 2001 * Tax must be paid regularly 13% of total income.
* Auditing should be done.
* Financial reporting to ASIC.

3. The name of software is arrow business software creators features are user experience with standard and dynamic menus dock able panels and seamless integration to Microsoft office application. * MYOB

* Quick books

Both these software are impressive at what they do. But both have similar strengths and weaknesses. But after being sophisticated in the accounts of business there can be few criticisms made in one of these products as for houzit. Quick books is not supported in Apple Macs, MYOB allows multiplication inventory where as quick books fades in this character. MYOB also allows multiple entities at a time but quick book does not. Hence, after looking at all this advantages and disadvantages, I’d recommend MYOB for Houzit.

4. Matching principle : the business that adopt matching principle can accurately evaluate their pin point financial performance and profitability for a certain time by cancelling the difference in the accounting entry timings. Account groups : assets, liabilities, owners equity, revenue and expenses makes up all of the statement of financial position and statement of financial performance. They show us the budgets and also the profit/ loss. Time period : to make a sound economic and financial decision we need time period. A business needs a timely decision in today’s world. The accounting period is the period of time over which

5. The implication of probity when revising and preparing budgets is financial probity. It involves insuring that there is full accountabilities with the funds management whether or not it is transaction related or in a
form of an advice. It is also important that all of it is lawfully met as far as financial responsibility is concerned.

6. The dates are listed below:
* Loan of $100000 on 31 dec
* Advertisement budged increased by $70000 over 2010/11
* Salaries and wages rise $172500 in 2010/11
7. The items that are recommended for inclusion in budget sheets are listed below * Water bill
* Transportation
* Staff amenities
* Office expenses
8. The modified internal controls that could improve risk management for the company are:

* We need to follow rules and regulations
* Also we have to apply and implement all the procedures
* The time sheets and operating hours should be noted too

The reason for the past profit and losses could be the problem of the financial management software. As per the given care study, the software that has been used was not able to provide sufficient analysis of the generated revenue and the expenses which has made poor estimates about future profits and decision making. The growing of the customer base has helping loyalty sales and also new references of upcoming customers. This has reduced the advertisement cost. However the new software system is to be used to catch up for the company’s progression more efficiently. Mathematics:

CGS = 16971237 – 7297632 = 963760

Application Letter

I am writing to apply for the job of camp monitor at your residential summer camp advertised on your website. As requested I am enclosing my C.V. and all the certifications and references.

I am a language student at the Official Language School (EOI) of Gandia. I have a good level of English, both written and spoken, therefore I can speak English very fluently. I also speak Spanish as my first language and German at Basic level.

As you will see from my CV I have some relevant experience working with children as I have worked as a manager in a youth football team for two years, I also have worked teaching children how to swim, so I am used to work with them and prepare physical activities or games specially for them.

I believe I would be suitable for the job advertised as, apart from my experience, I am a cheerful person who gets on well with children and enjoys working with them, I am very good working in a team and not only I can teach them how to swim, play football, and other sports or games, I also know some useful survival skills I can teach in an entertaining way, so they can learn while having fun.

I attach a full CV, and if you require any further information, I would be happy to provide it. I can be reached anytime via email at [email protected]

Design, Fabrication and Application of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (Mql) Setup in Machining

July 2013

This is to certify that Mr. Saurav Chakraborty, student of B.Tech (Mechanical Engg.) 3rd Year, IIT Bhubaneswar, has done his project under my guidance during the period 16 May-11 July, 2013 (8 weeks). He has worked on the project titled, “Design, Fabrication and Application of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) Setup in Machining” at the Machine Tool and Metrology Laboratories, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi He has abided by the rules of the institute and has finished all tasks assigned to him to my satisfaction.

Dr. Sudarsan Ghosh
Associate Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016

Abstract Environmental concerns call for the reduced use of cutting fluids in metal cutting practice. Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) machining is one of the promising solutions to the requirement for decrease in cutting fluid consumption. This paper reports the results of an experimental work to investigate the effect of a well-designed MQL set up on machining constraints like tool forces and surface finish. It was found that machining with the MQL set up produced better results in terms of lesser cutting forces and better surface finish in comparison to dry and wet machining.

Keywords: MQL machining, Nozzle design, cutting force, Surface finish

Acknowledgement This work has been completed under the guidance of the following members of IIT Delhi: Faculty Members 1. Dr. Sudarsan Ghosh (Mechanical Dept.) Email: [email protected] 2. Dr. Sitikantha Roy (Applied Mechanics Dept.) Email: [email protected] 3. Dr. Sawan Suman (Applied Mechanics Dept.) Email: [email protected] 3. Manoj Sinha 2. Dinesh Setti Ph.D. Research Scholars 1. Bikash Ch. Behera

I would also like to thank Mr. Subhash Sanwal (Tech. Superintendent, Metrology Lab.) for his effortful help in manufacturing the MQL frame stand.

Contents Title 1. Introduction 2. Principle of MQL Machining 3. Advantages of MQL Machining 4. Setup Design of MQL Machining 5. Machining using MQL Setup 6. Results 7. Conclusion Page No 6 8 8 9 20 23 26

List of Figures

1. Sectional view of the nozzle 2. Solid view of the nozzle 3. Sectional view of internal nozzle 4. Solid View of internal nozzle 5. Solid view of external nozzle 6. Sectional view of external nozzle 7. Sectional view of the cap 8. Solid view of the cap 9. Block diagram of MQL setup 10. Images of MQL set up 11. Parts of the nozzle used in MQL machining 12. Assembled nozzle engaged in machining List of Tables

1. Geometric dimensions of internal nozzle 2. Geometric dimensions of external nozzle 3. Geometric dimensions of the cap 4. Components and parameters of MQL machining 5. Nominal Composition of the Bearing Steel used in the Experiments

1. Introduction
Machining is the process of removing material in the form of chips by means of a wedge shaped tool. The need to manufacture high precision items and to machine difficult-to-cut materials economically leads to the development of improved machining processes. The feasibility of dry cutting in the manufacturing industries has received much attention due to high cost of cutting fluids, estimated at about 17% of the total manufacturing cost which is about twice the tooling cost itself [1].

Cutting fluid waste needs to be treated prior to disposal and furthermore, prolonged exposure to them is hazardous to the machine operators due to risk of skin cancer and breathing difficulties [2]. Dry cutting is desirable because not only it reduces manufacturing cost but also eliminates all the adverse negative effects associated with the usage of cutting fluids for cooling and lubricating purposes. In spite of the noble idea to implement the process of dry machining as mentioned above, the usage of cutting fluids in machining several types of materials which are difficult to machine (like super alloys, etc.) offers several important advantages, especially to increase productivity and surface quality of the machined work piece and hence cannot be totally eliminated as of now. This is because cutting fluid allows cutting processes to be carried out at much higher speed, higher feed rate and greater cutting depth [3] due to increased lubricity and cooling at the chip-tool and chip-workpiece interface. When used effectively, cutting fluids not only improve surface finish and dimensional accuracy, but also decrease the amount of power consumptions [4].

Furthermore, cutting fluid also helps transport the excessive heat and chips produced during the cutting processes away from the cutting area, thus longer tool life may be achieved [5]. Cutting fluid related costs and health concerns associated with exposure to cutting fluid mist and a growing desire to achieve environmental sustainability in manufacturing have caused industry and academia to re-examine the role of these fluids and quantify their benefits. In developed countries like USA stricter legislations have been enforced to minimize the use of cutting fluids in machining [6]. Hence some of the noble approaches taken in this direction without compromising with the benefits achieved from flood application of cutting fluids are mentioned below:

1) Proper selection of cutting fluids is a very important, although complicated process as it includes various aspects of machining conditions and parameters. There has been a gradual shift from straight oils to soluble oils and further to vegetable and synthetic oils due to better  cooling and lubricating properties and more importantly due to much safer handling and disposal as they are eco-friendly [7-9].

2) Proper application of cutting fluids is also an important aspect because in most cases, majority of the fluid applied goes waste without any benefit to the machining process. Thus areas like nozzle design, its placement, supply system and other machining conditions have to be considered effectively.

3) Cutting fluids also need to be managed meticulously after use to reduce their health and environmental effect and also to cut down disposal costs.

4) Gradual reduction of cutting fluid usage by increasing the use of near-dry and dry machining is the most promising step taken in this regard. Since past few decades many efforts are being undertaken to develop advanced machining processes using less or no cutting fluid. Although machining without the use of cutting fluids has become a popular avenue for eliminating the problems associated with their management and other advantages, but it has its associated drawbacks. The advantages of dry machining are obvious: cleaner parts, no waste generation, reduced cost of machining, reduced cost of chip recycling (no residual oil), etc.

However, these advantages do come at a cost. The most prohibitive part of switching to dry machining is the large capital expenditure required to start a dry machining operation. Machines and tools designed for cutting fluids cannot be readily adapted for dry cutting [10]. New, more powerful machines must be purchased, and special tooling is often needed to withstand the high temperatures generated in dry cutting. The quality of machined parts may be affected significantly as the properties of the machined surface are significantly altered by dry machining in terms of its metallurgical properties and residual machining stresses. High cutting forces and temperatures in dry machining may cause the distortion of parts during machining. Moreover, parts are often rather hot after dry machining so their handling, inspection gauging, etc., may present a number of problems. Near-dry machining (NDM), also known as minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) machining, is in the process of development to provide at least partial solutions to the listed problems with dry machining.

2. Principle of MQL Machining
In MQL machining, very small quantity of cutting fluid (CF) is supplied to the machining zone in very small (atomized) droplet size with high velocity. The amount of oil used is generally in the range of 10-100 ml/hr, which is about 1000 times smaller than that used in conventional flood application of oil. It was developed as an alternative to flood and internal high pressure coolant supply to reduce the CF consumption. The media is supplied as a mixture of air and oil in the form of an aerosol (often referred to as mist) with precise control over amount of oil and direction of spray to the cutting zone.

3. Advantages of MQL Machining
The reason for the shifting trend towards MQL machining is that it is supposed to give the combined advantages of dry and conventional flood machining in an eco-friendly manner. The amount of oil used is so less that parts engaged in metal removal are practically dry, although the high velocity air jet carries the small but sufficient amount of oil precisely to the machining zone so as to provide the necessary cooling and lubrication, besides removal of the chips by the compressed air. Many research papers have been published which goes to show that MQL application involves much better machining parameters than dry machining which are also on a par or in some cases better than flood application of oil. Ueda et al. [11] found that temperature reduction in MQL turning is approximately 5%, while in MQL end milling it is 10–15% and in MQL drilling it is 20–25% compared to the temperature in dry cutting. Khan and Dhar [12] found that MQL with vegetable oil reduced the cutting forces by about 5–15% from that in dry cutting. The axial force decreased more predominantly than the power force.

They attributed this reduction as well as the improved tool life and finish of the machined surface to reduction of the cutting zone temperature as the major reason for the improved performance of machining operations. Similar results were obtained in machining 1040 steel [13]. Li and Liang [14] found cutting forces in machining 1045 steel lower in MQL compared with dry cutting. They also attributed this reduction to the cutting temperature difference. Other groups of researches have compared MQL with wet machining. Dhar et al. studied the effect of MQL in tuning of 4340 steel using external nozzle and aerosol supply to the tool [15]. They found that the temperature at the tool–chip interface reduced by 5–10% (depending upon the particular combination of the cutting speed and feed) in MQL compared

to wet machining. As a result, tool life and finish of the machined surface improved by 15– 20%. Filipovic and Stephenson [16] found similarity in tool life in gun-drilling and cross-hole drilling of crankshafts between wet machining and MQL. Using MQL and a diamond-coated tool in the drilling of aluminium–silicon alloys, Braga et al. [17]showed that the performance of the MQL process (in terms of forces, tool wear and quality of machined holes) was very similar to that obtained when using a large amount of water-soluble oil, with both coated and uncoated drills. Studying turning of brasses, Davim et al. [18]concluded that, with proper selection of the MQL system, results similar to flood lubricant condition can be achieved. Although many research papers have attempted to give explanation for the distinctive results of MQL machining no direct conclusive evidence of most are provided due to the topic analysis being extremely difficult onto it.

One of the most feasible and sound explanation is provided by V.P.Astakhov in one of his literatures [19] which accredits the reason to the embrittlement action of the cutting fluid, which reduces the strain at facture of the work material. This action is based on the Rebinder effect, directly concerned with the metal cutting process. He suggests that atomized oil possesses greater ability to enhance the embrittlement of the layer being removed and thus to reduce the work of plastic deformation done in the transformation of the layer being removed into the chip.

4. Set up Design of MQL Machining
Aerosols used in MQL are generated using a process called atomization, which is the conversion of bulk liquid into a spray or mist (i.e., collection of tiny droplets), by passing the oil carried by pressurised air through a nozzle. The design of the atomizer is critical in MQL as it determines the concentration of the aerosol and the size of droplets. A distinction is drawn in the MQL technique between external supply via nozzles fitted separately in the machine area and internal supply of the medium via channels built into the tool. Each of these systems has specialized individual areas of application. In applications involving external supply, which is the aim of the current work in CNC turning, the aerosol is sprayed onto the tool from outside via a nozzle fitted close to the machining zone. This technique is used in sawing, end and face milling, and turning operations. Besides a well-designed nozzle, which is the primary inspiration for the current work and will be addressed soon, other equipments needed for the MQL set up in CNC turning are listed below: i. A compressor for sending pressurized air.


A pressure gauge fitted close to the nozzle for measuring pressure of incoming air to the nozzle.


A pump and oil reservoir for sending oil continuously to the nozzle in minute quantity.

iv. v.

A stopper for checking and measuring oil flow rate. A frame stand for supporting all the above in a convenient manner.

4.1 Design of Nozzle As also stated earlier the nozzle has the following tasks to accomplish in the current application: • • It should provide proper mixing of oil with air so that so that the oil gets atomized into fine droplets by the action of compressed air. The transition of oil through the nozzle to its outlet should be smooth and continuous and also with a high enough velocity to properly penetrate the machining interfaces. Keeping the above points in mind, an internally mixed air assisted atomizer has been designed as shown in fig.1 and

2. It basically consists of an internal nozzle for introducing a very high velocity jet of air at its exit which is fitted into an external nozzle having a fine orifice for oil inlet very close to the exit point of internal nozzle. The internal and external nozzles are fitted together with the help of a cap tightened by screwed bolts. Some of the design parameters which are not so important in the current field of study have been kept in consistency with locally available designs which are easier to fabricate.

Figure 1: Sectional view of the nozzle

Figure 2: Solid view of the nozzle

4.1.1. Internal Nozzle The inspiration for design of internal nozzle has been taken from a few fundamental books and other materials on fluid mechanics [20-22]. It has been stated in a few papers [23] that higher the air jet velocity higher will be its penetration capacity in the difficult-to-reach plastic area of contact between chip and tool which is the most challenging task in metal machining. Hence equipped with this knowledge, the design criterion of nozzle was studied thoroughly with an aim to achieve a very high velocity of air jet, comparable to or greater than the speed of a pressure wave (like sound) in air. It was observed that a simple converging nozzle could increase the velocity of the air jet at most to a value equal to speed of sound under the prevailing temperature condition, which is also referred to as a speed of Mach 1.

Even if the mass flow rate of air is kept on increasing, the speed at the outlet does not increase further, which is referred to as choked condition. But a nozzle having an initial converging section followed by a diverging section and separated by a minimum cross-section throat (also referred to as converging-diverging nozzle) has the capacity to increase the air jet velocity at exit to a value way above Mach1. Depending on the inlet pressure and temperature conditions, mass flow rate of air and crosssectional area at the throat and exit, the air jet takes a speed of Mach 1 at the throat and further increases to higher values which give rise to a shock wave (due to an abrupt change in pressure and temperature conditions) at any particular cross section of the diverging section. If all the parameters are controlled carefully then the shock wave occurs just at the exit of the nozzle. This will favourably cause turbulence
in that region, where the cutting fluid will also

enter from the orifice in the exterior nozzle and this turbulent high speed air jet will have better capacity to finely atomize the oil particles. Following is a summary of the equations used in the determination of the throat and exit cross-sectional areas of the internal nozzle, considering the flow behaviour of the air stream to be in an idealized adiabatic condition. This approximation is quite valid because the fluid flow speed is considerably high. The inlet air stream is considered to be stagnant, i.e. with zero velocity. Let the inlet or stagnation properties be defined by the subscript zero, the throat properties by subscript‘t’, and exit properties by subscript‘e’ and other symbols have usual meanings. • h 0 = h t + (v2/2) — Steady Flow Energy Equation (SFEE) Treating air as a perfect gas, we may also write, C p T 0 = C p T t + (v t 2/2) But, C p = (γ*R/(γ-1)), hence (T 0 /T t ) = 1+ ((γ-1)/2)*M t 2, where M t = Mach No. at throat = v t /(γRT t )0.5 • • (P 0/ P t ) = (T 0 /T t )(γ/γ-1) and (ρ 0/ ρ t ) = (T 0 /T t )(1/γ-1) —- adiabatic relations For air, γ = 1.4, hence for achieving Mach 1 at the throat, we have (T 0 /T t ) = 1.2 (P 0/ P t ) = 1.893 (ρ 0/ ρ t ) = 1.577 • Mass flow rate of air is given by m = ρ t A t v t where A t is the cross-sectional area at the throat or m = (γ/RT 0 )0.5 * (P 0 A t /((γ+1)/2)^( (γ+1)/2(γ-1))) •

Using SFEE and adiabatic relations between throat and exit similarly, we have (T e /T t ) = ((γ+1)/2)/(1+( (γ-1)/2)* M e 2) = (1.2T e /T 0 ) (P 0/ P e ) = (T 0 /T e )(γ/γ-1) (ρ 0/ ρ e ) = (T 0 /T e )(1/γ-1) V e = (γRT e )0.5 * M e m = ρeAeve where A e is the cross-sectional area at the throat

Calculation It is desired that at exit of internal nozzle a Mach. No. of 1.5 is achieved. Hence, the throat will invariably have air speed equal to Mach 1. Considering inlet conditions as follows: P 0 = 6 bar, T 0 = 27oC = 300K and Diameter at the throat, d t = 1mm (for convenience of fabricating), we have m = 1.1 g/s v e = 432.5 m/s and, diameter at the throat, d e =1.5 mm approximately Due to unavoidable factors of irreversibility the flow will not be perfectly adiabatic and there will be some energy loss from air flowing through the nozzle which is expected to show up as a loss in the kinetic energy, thereby decreasing the velocity at the exit than the desired one. Considering this factor and also the ease of fabrication, the diameter at the nozzle exit has been slightly increased from the one calculated above. The new adopted value is, d e = 2 mm All the other dimensions as shown in fig.3and table.1 are considered from the viewpoints of strength of material used, ease of fabrication and the locally available standards.

Figure 3: Sectional view of internal nozzle

Figure 4: Solid View of internal nozzle

Table 1: Geometric dimensions of internal nozzle Internal dia (ID) at inlet ID at throat ID at exit Length of converging part Length of diverging part Thickness of the nozzle Φ 4mm Φ 1mm Φ 2mm L=15mm L=7mm t=2mm

4.1.2. External Nozzle Basically the design concept of the external nozzle has been taken from the standard ones available in the market with some modifications to meet the requirements of the current work. It has the following important tasks to perform: • • • It should properly enclose the internal nozzle from the ambient to provide better chances of an adiabatic flow of air within the internal nozzle. It should have a well-designed orifice for inlet of oil near the exit mouth of the internal nozzle. It should provide a proper mixing section of oil with the supersonic air followed by a near streamline converging flow towards its exit.

With the above considerations, the external nozzle was designed as shown in fig.5and 6.

Figure 5: Solid view of external nozzle

Figure 6: Sectional view of external nozzle

Table 2: Geometric dimensions of external nozzle Internal dia (ID) at inlet ID at exit Length of converging section Φ 18mm Φ 2mm L=15mm

Length of straight section at exit Length of straight section at inlet Thickness of the nozzle ID of oil inlet orifice Distance between exit of internal nozzle and start of converging section

L=10mm L=28mm t=8mm Φ 1mm L=3mm

Calculations for the velocity of the aerosol at the exit of the external nozzle To find the velocity with which the aerosol is expected to come out from the exit of the external nozzle, we consider the following criteria with some suitable approximations: • • • • Mass flow rate of oil, m o = 60ml/hr = 1ml/min=1g/min, as the density of the water soluble oil used is almost equal to that of water. Earlier it was calculated that mass flow rate of air, m= 1.1 g/s Hence, total mass flow rate, m t = m+ m o = 1.116 g/s Now, at the exit, atmospheric condition prevails, hence pressure and temperature are P= 1bar and T= 270C = 300K and hence the density is calculated to be ρ = (P/RT) = 1.16kg/m3. • • The diameter at the exit of the nozzle has been taken as Φ = 2mm. Hence, using the continuity equation, m t = ρAv at the nozzle exit, it is found that v=306m/s This is a pretty high enough velocity, comparable to a speed of Mach 1.

4.1.3. Cap The cap has been designed such that it precisely connects the external and internal nozzles and convenient enough for engaging and disengaging the two as and when required. The internal nozzle is made to tight fit within the cap which is further fitted into the external nozzle with the help of threaded nuts. Its design is shown in fig. 7 and 8.


Φ 23.95

Figure 7: Sectional view of the cap

Figure 8: Solid view of the cap

Table 3: Geometric dimensions of the cap External dia Internal dia No. of
bolts used Size of bolts used Φ 40mm Φ 8mm 3 M4

4.2 Selection of Material for the nozzle The reliability, durability, performance and wear life of the nozzle depends on proper material selection. Hence this is a very important aspect that should be considered with proper attention. Among other factors the most important in determining the selection of the material are corrosion and erosion resistance, apart from being economical too. It should also have good strength to weight ratio and have the ability to handle low temperature fluid without any shape distortion, because the temperature of the air stream inside the nozzle can go as low as -500C. With the above considerations, it was found that Brass has a very good combination of the desirable properties. It has good strength and ductility combined with excellent corrosion resistance and superb machinability. It is also available in a very wide variety of product forms and sizes to allow minimum machining to finished dimensions.

4.3 Measurement of Strength of Nozzle The yield strength of brass varies within a wide range, although for safety purpose we can consider the minimum value which is around 124 MPa. The nozzle may be considered to be of cylindrical shape with insignificant deviation for the calculation of hoop stress, which is the most important aspect in the consideration of its strength against failure. The Circumferential stress (or hoop stress) in the nozzle is given by σ h = pD/2t where p is the air pressure, D is the internal diameter of the nozzle and t is the thickness of the nozzle. The maximum pressure expected by the nozzle to encounter, p= 8bar = 8*105 Pa. After air expands in the internal nozzle, pressure will decrease in the annular space of external nozzle. So it is sufficient to check the material strength of the interior nozzle at the section having maximum external diameter, D= 8mm.

The thickness is same throughout, t= 2mm. Hence, the maximum hoop stress inside the nozzle is determined to be σ h = 1.6 MPa As the hoop stress is much lesser than the yield stress of brass, hence the design is in safe mode from the viewpoint of failure against tensile stress.

4.4 Manufacturing of the Nozzle Assembly The entire parts of the nozzle were manufactured by an industry in New Delhi, equipped with many modern sophisticated machines. The accuracy of the dimensions could be achieved up to the micron scale.

4.5 Set up of MQL system As discussed earlier, several components make up the complete MQL system. For a convenient simple setup the following have been chosen: • Fluid supply system – a burette for oil storage, a small pump for continuously supplying oil from the burette and an IV set for maintaining oil level in the infusion set at a particular height throughout so as to overcome the back pressure from the oil inlet to the nozzle by means of gravitational head. This ensures continuous oil supply to the nozzle at the desired small quantity which is also simultaneously measured by a control valve. • Air supply system – a compressor of maximum capacity of 8 bar and a pressure gauge fitted close to the air inlet to the nozzle to measure the delivery pressure to the nozzle connected by hose pipes. The schematic of the whole setup is shown in fig.9 below.


Pressure Gauge

Figure 9: Block diagram of MQL setup

The components were conveniently set up on a light-weight aluminium frame as shown in fig.10 below:

Infusion set


Pressure Gauge

Air Inlet to nozzle

Air Pipe from compressor


Open/ Close valve

Flow Control valve

Oil Inlet

Air Inlet


Figure 10: Images of MQL set up

5. Machining using MQL Setup
The components and parameters adopted in the analysis of MQL machining are as shown below in table 4. Table 4: Components and parameters of MQL machining Sl. No. 1 2 Component/parameter Workpiece Cutting Tool Description Bearing Steel Coated carbide insert Kennametal – CNMG120408MS 3 4 Tool holder Machine Tool PCLNL 2020 K12 CNC Lathe Machine Leadwell-Fanuc Series Oi Mate-TD 5 6 Cutting Fluid Nozzle Water Soluble Oil (1: 80 of oil by volume) Internally mixed micro-nozzle with twin fluid atomization 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Oil flow rate Air pressure Cutting velocity Feed Depth of cut Dynamometer Surface roughness Pump 250 ml/hr 3 bar 60, 80, 100 m/min 0.14, 0.18, 0.22 mm/rev 0.5 mm KISTLER dynoWare (model no.-9129AA). Talysurf (Taylor Hobson) Solenoid operated diaphragm dosing pump

5.1 Workpiece Bearing steel was chosen as the workpiece for the current experiment primarily because of its high hardness (greater than 58 RC) and hence posing difficulty in machining. The objective is to achieve better machinability of the material by using Minimum Quantity Lubrication as compared to dry machining and also preferably wet machining with flood application of lubricant. Bearing Steel also has very high fatigue and
bending strength but low corrosion resistance generally. Its chemical composition by %wt. is shown below in table 5.

Table 5: Nominal Composition of the Bearing Steel used in the Experiments C 0.55-1.1 Mn 0.1-1.15 Si 0.15-2.0 P and S Less than 0.03 Cr 0.5-2

5.2 Tool Insert The insert was chosen based upon compatibility with the mechanical properties of the workpiece. It is a fine grained tungsten carbide (WC) insert with a single layer of Ti-Al-N (PVD) coating bonded by 6% Co substrate. The insert is highly wear resistant and can withstand integrity under high temperature conditions. It also has good toughness and deformation resistance and is suitable for medium speed machining. The edge is sharp with a nose radius of 0.8mm, a negative rake angle (-6o) and double sided chip breakers.

5.3 Cutting Parameters The cutting parameters were decided based on the general recommendations of the tool-work combination. The turning operation was done for all combinations of 3 different values of speed (V) and feed (f), keeping the depth of cut (d) constant in dry, wet and MQL machining. The values of V, f and d are given in table 3. In MQL machining, the oil flow rate was kept fixed at 250 ml/hr to get a continuous flow of oil to the cutting zone through the nozzle. Also the air inlet pressure to the nozzle was maintained at 3 bar, as an increase in it was posing hindrance to the continuous flow of oil through the oil inlet orifice by giving a back pressure and thereby causing oil leakage from sideways of the nozzle and connecting pipes.

5.4 Nozzle and Cutting Fluid The nozzle designed for the current experiment was found to have several manufacturing defects. Most importantly, its oil inlet orifice was not fabricated properly and also misplaced from the originally designed location. Hence it was causing oil leakage from the surrounding of the orifice and even after several attempts of minor adjustments, the leakage failed to stop completely. This lead to a discontinuous flow of oil to the cutting zone and consequently failed to serve the purpose of the current work. Following all these problems with the newly fabricated nozzle, another available nozzle (fig.11) similar to it was used to verify the effect of MQL machining as compared to dry and wet machining. The primary difference between the two nozzles is in the design of its internal

nozzle used for obtaining a high velocity jet of air. Contrary to the nozzle deigned for the current work which has a convergent-divergent type of internal nozzle (sec 4.1.1), the older nozzle finally used in MQL machining has a simple convergent type of internal nozzle. It was able to provide a continuous flow of oil to the cutting zone. A water-soluble oil with excellent cooling property but low lubrication property was selected as the media for MQL machining. The factors behind this choice are its easy availability and low cost, thus keeping the process economical and simple.

Figure 11: Parts of the nozzle used in MQL machining

Figure 12: Assembled nozzle engaged in machining

6. Results The cutting forces were measured and recorded in all three Cartesian coordinate directions for each combination of cutting velocity and feed with a constant depth of cut throughout maintained and performed for dry, wet and MQL machining serially. The cylindrical

workpiece, 200mm long and 50mm diameter, was first skin turned to a diameter of 49.5 mm using a worn out tool to remove the surface defects that may have been present. There were a total of 27 machining operations performed (9 each in dry, wet and MQL) each on a cutting length of 5 mm. The main cutting force (F c ) (in direction of cutting velocity) shows the following trend (graph.1 and 2) with change of feed (f) and cutting velocity (V c ) respectively in all 3 types of machining. 350 300 250 Cutting Force (N) 200 150 100 50 0 0.14 0.18 0.22 Feed (mm/rev) Dry Wet MQL

Graph 1: Variation of Fc with f keeping constant value of Vc=60m/min and depth of cut=0.5mm. 350 300 Cutting Force (N) 250 200 150 100 50 0 60 80 100 Cutting Velocity (m/min) Dry Wet MQL

Graph 2: Variation of Fc with Vc keeping constant value of f =0.22mm/rev and depth of cut=0.5mm. From the graphs shown above, it is observed that the cutting force maintains an increasing trend with an increasing feed and a decreasing trend with an increase in cutting velocity in all 3 types of machining conducted, but the lowest values have been obtained with the MQL setup. An average reduction of about 13% from dry machining and about 6% from wet machining has been achieved in the cutting force with respect to MQL machining.

This  verifies the reduction in cutting force with MQL machining compared to dry and wet machining as has already been found in several experiments conducted till date [12-15]. The surface roughness of the workpiece was also examined for all the machined surfaces under a Talysurf. The average roughness parameter (R a ) shows the following trend (graph.3 and 4) with change of feed (f) and cutting velocity (V c ) respectively in all 3 types of machining. 2.5 2 1.5 Ra (µm) 1 0.5 0 0.14 0.18 Feed (mm/rev) 0.22 Dry Wet MQL

Graph 3: Variation of Ra with f keeping constant value of Vc=80m/min and depth of cut=0.5mm. 2.5 2 1.5 Ra (µm) 1 0.5 0 60 80 100 Cutting Velocity (m/min) Dry Wet MQL

Graph 4: Variation of Ra with Vc keeping constant value of f =0.22mm/rev and depth of cut=0.5mm. The graphs shown above reveal that surface finish shows a deteriorating trend with an increase in feed and an improving trend with an increase in cutting velocity and the best results have been achieved for both dry and MQL machining, which are almost similar and quite better than with wet machining. This verifies that the MQL setup has been successful in providing a good surface finish to the workpiece as compared to the conventional methods of wet and dry machining which is in agreement with several experiments conducted till date [12,15,24,25].

7. Conclusion
In the course of the current work, a nozzle was designed for the purpose of application in MQL machining with an intention of getting better results in terms of less tool forces, improved surface roughness of workpiece, etc. Unfortunately the newly designed nozzle suffered from some manufacturing defects and hence posed some problems during application and consequently the machining experiments had to be conducted with a different nozzle which was already available. Nevertheless, machining with the other nozzle in the MQL setup produced very desirable results in accordance with many recent literatures in the field of MQL machining.

A substantial decrease in cutting force was achieved with the MQL setup compared to dry and wet machining. Also the surface finish was best with MQL machining which was quite close to dry but much better than wet machining. It may be concluded that the utility of Minimum Quantity Lubrication in machining has been verified, although much better results can be achieved by properly optimising all the parameters related to machining conditions like cutting velocity, feed, oil composition and its consumption rate, inlet pressure of compressed air and so on, which has been skipped in the current work due to paucity of time.

Academic Monitoring System using Android application


The portability, open source nature of smart phones and android OS for PC on android development platform has made the development of application software for various environments as handy. In this application are resulted in paper less work, easy to use and time saving in nature. The wireless communication technology of smart phone enables the information transfer from the current client to remote database server, where ever the network range is available. The Academic Monitoring System is a mobile computing software application, which focuses on an activity or function, which is based on management information system of academic institutions. Overall the system is acting as an effective tool, in assisting the smooth functions of the academic activities of an educational institution. The entire system development is proposed with Android development platform. Keywords: Academic Monitoring System, Mobile Computing, Android based Software Systems, Online Database Management System, Web Technology.


The nature of portability and handy use of smart phone led them in use of various applications where ever the personal computer is applied today. This project is about “Academic Activity Monitoring System (AAMS)” (every faculties posting attendance details can be easily traced out).The system will include the information about the attendance of the students credit system to keep a their performance record. This automation system is embedded into android application which runs in android OS for PC. In present system, every faculty posting attendance details can be easily traced out. The whole session is stored in the database and at the end of the semester or session report will be generated. The existing system is not user-friendly because the computer based attendance management and monitoring activities are handled with the help of manual and keying data to the database. The existing system functions with intranet and internet capability with off time data entry into the database. The problem of real time data entry is proposed in this project work. The inter-related databases and tables provide a flexibility of none maintenance of specific records and avoids manual calculations. This monitoring system helps the management to handle their management activities with efficiency. More secured by means of information than traditional academic activity monitoring system.


Mobile Computing & PC Computing
Distributed Computing


The faculty activities and functionalities are monitored in manual with the help of human. Collecting all attendance details of particular hour on real time is impossible task, when it is handled manual or semi computerized. Updating the database with the help of PC based computation is not a real time activity.


Lack of in-availability of information in real time.
Time delay in data updating to the database.
Consume large volume of paper work.
Manual work


The entire system development is proposed with mobile computing concepts. The proposed system will easily handle all the data and the processes handled by this system is similar to the existing system with one variant as mobile computation instead of PC computation. The monitoring system proposed here is basically an integrated web project. The proposed project can be implemented using android. It allows the user to interact with the system in a graphical user friendly way. This system eliminates the drawbacks of the existing system and provides real time availability of information in the form of reports. Portability is one of the major key factors in this project. In this system fully online data server based application.

Easily check whether for attendance post or not based on real time. The top level and middle management persons can monitor their management activities from their place and no need of manual or human physical monitoring. Per day attendance details are available to the management personals on his desktop. Time saving.

It is user friendly.

4.1. Modules:
User Module – Administrator
Attendance Posting Module – Faculty
Update Database Module – Attendance
Internet Connectivity Module – Android Client to Web Server based Online Database, PHP Scripts
4.2. Design & Development:
User Module – Administrator
Frontend: Android Design
Backend: PHP Scripts Deployment in Web Server, Online Database Design Attendance Posting Module – Class Attendance Details with Time and Date (Theory & Laboratory)
Update Database Module – Posting Attendance Details with Time and Date, Number of Students Present and Absent. Internet Connectivity Module – Android Client Connection with Campus WIFI, Retrieving the data to online database through webserver and PHP scripts


This project will help the professor to post attendance or not time and calculations required to update the attendance manually. Administrator to identify for faculty activities in during class hour through web services. `


As soon as every faculty to posting attendance details such as class hall number, subject code, staff name, number of students present and absent details easily traced out. So easily monitoring every class details and staff activities through web server.



In my opinion Windows Vista is a one or the most lack OS when compared to Windows 7. All desktops connect to an industry standard switch via an Ethernet cable. While this can be a risk, it is not a major risk. The two large production facilities are connected to the headquarters via an external ISP. Even with the firewalls in place, there is no accountability if the connection they contract is in use by anyone else. I would advise contacting the ISP and verifying if the connection is shared with other users and take further action depending on their answer. The sales personnel connect via VPN software, but use their individual internet connection, usually out of their home office. This can be very dangerous as they do not fall under the blanket of protection offered by the bigger offices and their terminals are at greater risk to be infected by a malicious user. The core idea of preventing risk is to safeguard the information stored on the database server.

The workers and customers of the company have private information stored there and the loss or leak of the data could be disaster to the company. I suggest the changes to be made to mitigate the risk of any unwanted personnel to gaining access to the network. There is not a lot of information given about the entirety of the network, so much of this may not be necessary or already in place. I will use the mitigation risk technique for the Desktops/local LAN. Since the network is maintained via Active Directory, the company should implement workgroups/user groups and control what workers have access to; if a program, file, or other application is not part of a workers job, they have no reason to be able to access that file/application/etc. At the same time the workers should go through annual (if not bi-annual) information security training; that understands how to protect their workstations, understand security policies and why they are in place.

The company should also ensure that their switches, routers, and firewalls are always up to date on the latest patches. Another risk that the company has is the External ISP Line, since the company is relying on an outside source to provide network connection between the production facilities and their headquarters; the best way to approach this risk is also with the mitigation technique. I understand the company is small and if they can’t front the cost of their own line, they should be absolutely sure that no other users are gaining access to the line that is being provided for them. On top of that they should alter the technical environment by adding intrusion detection systems and ensuring all security features are always up to date. If possible I would suggest investing into a private line that they control to ensure security between the three sites, however outside of the initial investment there would also need to be maintenance costs. As long as the company can ensure the line they’re currently using is secure, I’d recommend continue use as it is the less cost intensive. Another risk to look at is the Remote Users / Home Offices. This risk is critical as they are the most likely to be targeted for an attack. Just like the previous two risks, I’d recommend a mitigation technique to lower this risk.

The remote users only use software to connect to the company’s VPN, on their own ISP connection, in their home office. To start I would recommend a two-factor authentication to successfully log on to the VPN; so even if the computer is stolen or infected, it’s still relatively safe. At the same time since these are sales associates, I would recommend using a hard drive lock; just like the previous reason, if the computer is stolen, the ability to glean information would be hampered. If the company can handle the expense they should look into purchasing a secure VPN from each sales associates ISP, this would help ensure that there wouldn’t be any outside eyes gleaning information from the sales associate connecting to the company. Using Active Directory, the sales associates terminal should be scanned to make sure all security implements are current and if not, they should be updated before being allowed to connect to the company network. This can help prevent malicious code being introduced to the company network. One thing that caught my attention is that there are three servers at Headquarters with very few uses. One thing that worries me is the possibility of no redundancy. If the Active Directory Server went down, no one would be able to access the network.

Each server role should have redundancy to fill in if the primary server is to fail, this will help ensure the company is running efficiently, even during a server problem. This should be kept in mind as the company has sales representatives in all fifty states while the headquarters are in Indiana. So even in a standard eight hour day (9AM – 5PM), there is still three hours of work to people on the west coast. If the servers were to go down, those sales reps would not be able to work effectively. On top of redundancy the company should look into some sort of backup. They have a lot of information and while it’s important to protect it, it’s also important to make sure it’s not lost. For a backup, I’d recommend a transfer technique. There are many backups’ services available at an affordable price. To go with the backup I would recommend backing up the information at least once a week to ensure if work is lost, the company does not fall too far behind.

Teambuilding – Meredith Belbin framework and application

In the Hotel and Tourism Industry, many activities are carried out in project teams. Hence, the Shandrani Resorts and Spa.
Hotel actively encourages its employees’ group training and team development. This report examines a group of 15 permanent workers including their manager, who, currently work full time for the same large Hotel. They were commencing their first year of training, on 6 days’ working approach. In the first two months of the training, they attended two five-day residentials, at the local hotel.

Teams are the primary unit of improving organisational performance by bringing together individuals with a variety skills, experience and knowledge to perform work and solve problems. The urgency to understand team functioning is at the forefront of business today as it is not practical for individual managers to make decisions in isolation (Proehl, 1997).

By defining and understanding the roles of managers within the team, an organisation can structure, compose or realign teams to improve individual, team and business performance. Furthermore, by improving the alignment of an individual’s personal characteristics, such as psychological type and natural team role, to their formal team role, the effectiveness and efficiency of the team can be enhanced (Belbin, 1996).

Management is the process of “control, coordination and development of economic activities, encompassing operational (internal) and external (strategic) domains” or simply “management is generally defined as the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organised groups

Organisations develop management structures to support the organization’s direction. The lines of managers range from Front Line to Senior Managers and are defined as follow:

Front Line Managers

Middle Managers
Senior Managers

Many people find managerial positions challenging due to the broad and extensive range of skills required to be an effective manager. The personal characteristics and traits of the manager will contribute to the approach adopted in working towards the completion of tasks. These skills are defined below.

Technical Skills

Computer Skills

Analytical skills

Human Relation Skills

Decision-Making Skills

Communication Skills
Conceptual Skills


During the 1980’s Belbin studied management teams and developed a theory which endeavored to draw logical conclusions about what constitutes a successful and effective team. Belbin’s work in this area has made a significant contribution as most prior research focused on individual managers rather than teams. Belbin’s research was one of the most rigorous and extensive studies completed on team building and the model has become one of the most widely used approaches in forming teams today. The study looked at the personality characteristics and critical thinking abilities of members in order to compare successful and unsuccessful teams.

The Belbin Model is a robust and highly effective concept on teamwork that is the product of many years of research. British psychologist Dr Meredith Belbin has worked to achieve a coherent and accurate system that explains individual behaviour and its influence on team success. Belbin’s nine defined team roles for developing a successful and effective team are described in detail below:

Plant (PL)

Monitor Evaluator (ME)

Resource Investigator (RI)

Team Worker (TW)

Co-ordinator (CO)

Implementer (IMP)

Shaper (SH)

Completer Finisher (CF)

Specialist (SP)


Advancing new ideas and strategies with special attention to major issues and looking for possible breaks in approach to the problem that the group is confronting. The title Plant was conceived when it was found that one of the best ways to improve the performance of an ineffective and uninspired team was to ‘plant’ a person of this type in it. The Plant can also be thought of as the team role that scatters the seeds which the others nourish until they bear fruit.

The danger with the Plant is that he or she will devote too much of their creative energy to ideas which may catch their fancy but do not fall in with the team’s needs or contribute to its objectives. They may be bad at accepting criticism of their own ideas and quick to take offence and sulk if their ideas are dissected or rejected

Strengths of the Plant

Creativity, ideas, good at problem-solving. This can help the management to create new methods of re-arranging the working method, in terms of: inventing new recipes, doing work in a wonderful manner and taking certain decisions on the spot.

Allowable weaknesses
Communicating ideas and sticking to the objectives – can have a butterfly mind that flits from one idea to another.

Think/discussion point

 Consider those you work with.
 Is there a Plant among them?
 How does this person(s) manifest the role’s strengths
and allowable weaknesses?


Exploring and reporting on ideas, developments and resources outside the group, creating external contacts that may be useful to the team and conducting negotiations. Probably the first team member to fill up their Filofax and the one who is uncomfortable if parted from their mobile telephone or Internet connection. The Resource Investigator is probably the most immediately likeable member of the team. Resource investigators are relaxed, sociable and gregarious, with an interest that is easily aroused. Their responses tend to be positive and enthusiastic, though they are prone to put things down as quickly as they pick them up.

Strengths of the resource investigator
Gregarious, has many contacts, enthusiastic, good communication skills. The RI will successfully liaise with any problems arising from the part of their clients and assuring them of the good image of the hotel thanks to their influential contacts.

Allowable weaknesses
Easily bored

Think/discussion point
Consider those you work with.
 Is there a Resource investigator among them?
 How does this person(s) manifest the role’s strengths and allowable weaknesses?


Controlling the way in which the team moves forward towards the group objectives by making the best use of team resources; recognizing where the team’s strengths and weaknesses lie and ensuring the best use is made of each members potential.

Strengths of the Co-ordinator

Mature, confident, clarifies goals, and uses available talents. The coordinator shall make a good trainer say, for the fresh staff, and hence better communicate goals to them.

A tendency to be manipulative

Consider those you work with.

Is there a Co-ordinator among them?
How does this person(s) manifest the role’s strengths and allowable weaknesses?


Shaping the way in which the team effort is applied, directing attention generally to the setting of objectives and priorities and seeking to impose some shape or pattern on group discussion and on the outcome of group activities.

Strengths of the Shaper

Dynamic, outgoing, challenging, tenacious. They even make friends easily and can know clients’ views and proposals upon the hotel’s service being offered including development prospects.

Prone to bursts of temper, insensitive

Consider those you work with.

Is there a Shaper among them?
How does this person(s) manifest the role’s strengths and allowable weaknesses?


Analysing problems, evaluating ideas and suggestions so that the team is better placed to take balanced decisions.
Strengths of the Monitor-Evaluator

Shrewd and objective. They make sure that they do whatever jobs they are told to do.

May be seen as boring and lacking drive.

Consider those you work with.

Is there a Monitor-Evaluator among them?
How does this person(s) manifest the role’s strengths and allowable


Supporting members in their strengths; e.g. Building on suggestions, underpinning members in their shortcomings, improving communications between members and fostering team spirit generally

Strengths of the Team Worker

Makes excellent relationships, accommodating, and
non-threatening. They learn the work easily.

Can be indecisive.

Consider those you work with.Is there a Team Worker among them?
How does this person(s) manifest the role’s strengths and allowable weaknesses?


Turning concepts and ideas into practical working procedures; carrying out agreed plans systematically and efficiently.

Strengths of the implementer
Disciplined, reliable and efficient. They can be trustworthy and can keep confidential information.


Consider those you work with.
Is there an Implementer among them?
How does this person(s) manifest the role’s strengths and allowable weaknesses?


Ensuring the team is protected as far as possible from mistakes of both commission and omission; actively searching for aspects of work that need a more than usual degree of attention; and maintaining a sense of urgency within the team.

Strengths of the Completer-Finisher
Attention to detail, meets deadlines and make sure that they meet targets.

Worries and can become over anxious and bogged down in detail.

Consider those you work with.

Is there a Completer-Finisher among them?
How does this person(s) manifest the role’s strengths and allowable weaknesses?


Feeding technical information into the group. Translating from general into technical terms. Contributing a professional viewpoint on the subject under discussion.

Strengths of the Specialist
Single-minded, knowledgeable in his or her own field.

Can contribute on only it narrow front.

Consider those you work with.

Is there a Specialist among them?
How does this person(s) manifest the role’s strengths and allowable weaknesses?

The team role concept has been validated in both academic and organisational trials across the globe. When used in organisations, team role profiling has confirmed the special advantages of a full and balanced team.

Based on what you have read above, what do you think y our natural primary and secondary team roles are?
• Are there any roles that you are not equipped for

Belbin also suggests that people ask questions of themselves when they join a group:
1.Who am I in this group? What is my occupational role here? What are the role expectations of me? Am I here to listen or to lead? Am I a representative or present in my own right? Who is judging me on my role performance?

2. What is the influence pattern? Who has the power? What kind of power is it? Do I want to change the influence pattern? If so, how do I do it? 3. What are my needs and objectives? Are they in line with the group? Should they be? What do I do about them if they are not? If one of these needs is to be liked and accepted, how important is that for me?

Forming, storming, norming, performing

Groups mature and develop. Like individuals they have a fairly clearly defined growth cycle. This has been categorised as having four successive stages:

The group is not yet a group but a set of individuals. This stage is characterized by talk about the purpose of the group.
Most groups go through a conflict stage when the preliminary, and often false, consensus on purposes, on leadership and other roles, on norms of work and behavior, is challenged and re-established.

The group needs to establish norms and practices. When and how it should work, how it should take decisions, what type of behaviour, what level of work, what degree of openness, trust and confidence is appropriate.


Only when the three previous stages have been success fully completed will the group be at full maturity and be able to be fully and sensibly productive.

Insight to Belbin’s Theory

Belbin’s team role theory has become one of the most commonly used team building theories in business. The nine years of research supporting the theory provides organisations with confidence that is a valid and reliable instrument. From the extensive research conducted, Belbin has determined five key factors that are necessary to create an effective team and produce consistently good results. These are: • Each member works towards the achievement of goals and objectives by carrying out a functional

• A favorable equilibrium in a functional role and team role is needed although this is somewhat dependent on the goals and tasks;
• Team effectiveness is reliant on each member’s ability to accurately recognise and modify their contribution to the team;

• Personality and mental abilities of members may limit their chances of fulfilling various team roles; and
• A team can use its technical resources to full advantage only when it has the right balance and mix of team roles (Dulewicz, 1995).

It is important for organisations to recognise that:
– The composition of a team may need to differ as the organizations’ objectives will vary;

– Reorganizing long established management teams doesn’t happen overnight; and

– The introduction of team role evaluation in an organisation can take time with already established teams, although it may add instant value in creating project teams (Jay, 1980). Belbin’s research gave consideration to the development, training, qualifications and experience needed by teams to ensure that the strengths of individuals are optimised. His research provides organisations with an ability to review and assess the psychological, motivational, composition and behaviours needed by members to foster effective team work and hence improve operational performance (Jay, 1980).

Hospitality Managers categorised by Belbin’s Team Roles

In all, Hospitality staff surveyed responded to the study thus showing a response rate of 91.7%. Of these 23.4% were categorised as Company Worker’s (CW), followed by Shaper’s (SH) 18.0%, Completer Finisher’s (CF) 13.5% and Chairman (CH) 12.6%. The Plant (PL) demonstrated low representation amongst the senior management teams with only 2.7% of respondents fulfilling this important role. The Belbin Team Roles portrayed by the cohort are reflective of a typical hospitality management team which are generally composed of operational managers who are primarily focused on the front line functioning of the hotel.

The need to recruit employees who acquire the skills to efficiently and effectively service the needs and wants of their guests demonstrates why the majority of the training were classified as Company Workers (CW) (23.4%), Complete Finishers (CF) (13.5%) and Team Workers (TW) (11.7%) within Belbin’s team role model:

Belbin’s Team Roles and dimensions influencing them

Criticisms of the Belbin Team Role Model

Initially, Furnham and his colleagues understood Belbin’s theory as one in which the various team roles that individuals fulfil in a team and the team’s ability to function effectively is dependent on the team’s composition (Furnham et al, 1993). Furnham et al (1993) subsequently carried out three studies to verify the psychometric properties of Belbin’s questionnaire as they harboured uncertainty about its reliability and validity. From their study, Furnham et al (1993) arrived at three conclusions with regard to the Belbin.

These are:

The test was impassive (forced choice answer questionnaire which skews the respondent’s choices in answering the questions);

The sequence in which the questions were asked was too broad therefore losing specific focus on groups, and

The measure was neither theoretically nor empirically

limitations to using the Belbin Team Role Assessment:

1. Specifically designed for teams

2. Designed to be used in a work setting

3. Measures behaviors, not personality

4. Has a Cultural Bias

The last and most significant criticism is that in research were the authors do link the BTRSPI with observation of a team’s behaviour, the research
participants are not real decision makers from an organisation. It seems that the use of university undergraduate students is the primary source of research participants in the field of group processes and decision making in teams. This drawback is sometimes mentioned by the authors themselves, e.g. Fisher & Macrosson (1995: 14) and Leonard, Scholl & Kowalski (1999: 419).

The honorable exception to this criticism is Senior & Swailes (1998).However, in this research the observation was done by peer review and not by an objective third part. Personal emotions or other organisational elements such as the positions the members hold could therefore get in the way of an objective observation.