Autism Observation Paper

Autism is a physical condition linked to irregular biology and chemistry within the brain. Even although the causes for these abnormalities are unknown, there been a quantity of potential methods to have autism. For example the mothers food regimen whereas being pregnant, digestive observe modifications, mercury poisoning (which is considered one of the most well-known reasonings), the body’s inability to properly use vitamins and minerals, or vaccine sensitivity.

Many dad and mom fear that giving their child a vaccine could lead as much as them having autism, and being that a toddler can seem normal up to eighteen months, parents typically would somewhat wait till the child’s older to offer them shots.

However it’s essential to consider your child’s risks of not having the vaccination. All routine childhood vaccines can be found in single-dose varieties that do not comprise added mercury. Studies have shown that autism effect’s extra boys on the earth then girls.

Some medical doctors believe’s the rise incidence of autism is from learning new definitions of autism.

For example a toddler that’s diagnosed with high-functioning autism today, was most likely looked at as odd or strange thirty years ago. Some symptoms parents begin to discover round eighteen months is while fake play, social interactions or verbal or non-verbal communications. Some kids seem normal up to age two after which start to regress, lose language and social abilities they’ve gained, which known as regressive autism.

Some examples are sensitivity to sight, hearing, contact, scent, or taste. Have unusual misery, repeats physique actions, or exhibits unusual attachments to things.

Some symptoms can moderate to extreme like speaking with gestures as an alternative of words, can’t start a dialog, speaks slow or not at all or repeats words that they’ve remembered from before. Children with autism usually don’t make associates, reveals lack of empathy, could treat individuals like objects, or is withdrawn. Some act up, have quick attention spans, or gets stuck on single topics.

A child with autism can’t precisely go through a day like a normal baby, but with assist from others, they can positively attempt to. They are very sensible youngsters, simply could have a more durable time understanding and doing issues. For my website visit, I visited an after faculty program name “The Ymywaha” which is owned privately. In the classroom I visited the kids have been twos and threes. There were about fifteen children within the class together with two autistic boys around three years old. There was one main instructor, and assistant trainer and a helper for the 2 boys.

I visited this class from three-thirty pm to around four-forty 5 pm. When I arrived the youngsters have been coming in from playing on the playground. They got here in washed their palms and obtained prepared to take a seat and speak about the butterflies they had been rising in school. At this point, their butterflies had been still in cacoons. Not solely did they’ve butterflies within the classroom they had child chicks. The children were well behaved and cooperated with the academics. Except for one little boy, he was one that’s autistic.

When the trainer gathered the kids to speak about their butterflies, he needed to play with the infant chicks. He rotated ignored the category and stared on the child chicks. A little lengthy after, he picked up one of many chicks and held on to it actually tight. His helper requested him to place the chick back, however he refused, she requested once more and he refused, She then explained that they’re speaking concerning the butterflies proper now and after then had been accomplished then he can play with the child chicks.

He dropped the chick and ran out the classroom. The helper instructor ran after him and spoke to him out in the hall. He walked again in calmly and sat along with his different children. When I asked, I was told he was very rebellious. Quickly he received concerned with the butterflies and forgot about eager to play with the infant chicks. Meanwhile the other little boy with autism in the identical class was more withdrawn from everyone. He was very quite and didn’t say or wish to do a lot. He didn’t really interact with the other youngsters.

When I asked about him, the lecturers explained that he doesn’t speak very properly, but he’s very sensible. It would take him some time to get things done however he does a great job. During the day at daycare he had speech lessons to help his improvement in language. I enjoyed my visit. It taught me not one however, about two kinds of autism and helped me perceive it somewhat higher. I received to witness an autistic youngster act-up and see how a instructor would deal with that baby. I additionally benefit from the children within the class. I couldn’t believe how sensible those little persons are.

Autism Spectrum Disorder – ASD

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a situation related to brain development that impacts how a person perceives and socializes with others, causing problems in social interplay and communication. The disorder also includes restricted and repetitive patterns of habits. In 2020 the CDC determined that roughly 1 in fifty four kids is identified with an autism spectrum dysfunction. Boys are extra doubtless to be recognized with autism spectrum than women. ASD could be diagnosed by the age of two, however can still be recognized by the age of 4.

Some signs of ASD is obsessive movement, which implies that somebody that has the disorder shakes things continuously or would rock forwards and backwards in place.

A day to day life for an individual with ASD encompass any other regular day for a person with out ASD. People with the disorder learn slower than the common particular person. Was of a child being born with ASD are from older dad and mom having a child, a fragile X syndrome, low start weight, genetic mutations, and having one other family member with autism.

There is not any recognized supply of treatment for ASD, however when the kid with ASD is family centered, social interplay skills superior. (Impact of Family-Centered Early Intervention in Infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Single-Subject Design, retrieved 3/03/2020).

There has been lots of analysis about autism spectrum dysfunction. The research is from the Department of Occupational Therapy, Seoul Metropolitan Children’s Hospital, and Republic of Korea and Department of Occupational Therapy, Yonsei University, Republic of Korea. The analysis began on January 7, 2018 and ended 14 weeks in a while April 15, 2018.

The research occurred on the three totally different properties of the participants. The research was used to discover what occurs with the children with ASD undergo and to see what occurs when the child socially interacts. (Impact of Family-Centered Early Intervention in Infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Single-Subject Design, retrieved 3/03/2020).

The researchers posted an commercial on an internet neighborhood website for applicants to take part within the research. The researchers appeared for kids beneath the age of two to be individuals in the research. There had been three participants within the research who all have ASD. The participants where three infants and their ages are 29 months, 25 months, and 24 months. All three participants are male and have no other diagnoses in addition to ASD. (Impact of Family-Centered Early Intervention in Infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Single-Subject Design, retrieved 3/03/2020). The research had completely different levels and phases.

The first section was the recruitment, where they would select which candidates could be part of the examine. The subsequent part for the study is called the baseline phase. This phase happened three times per week where one of many researchers would go to the participants’ house and watch the toddler play with their care giver. While the infant would play, the researcher video report for ten minutes. The researcher would report in order that they may discover a useful means for the infant to play to assist with the ASD. After the baseline section, the following part is intervention section.

The intervention section occurred 12 instances over a six week period. This phase consisted of suggestions from the researcher to the parent/ care giver. The researcher would give the parent/ care giver methods of playing that would assist with the infants social interaction skills. The final phase is the observe up part the place follow up checks can be performed using the checks free play, M-CHATR/F, and ESI. The M-CHATR/F test was used to judge the infants with ASD and ESI is an epidural steroid injection. The researcher would recommend modifications in the infant’s daily life to accommodate the toddler having ASD. (Impact of Family-Centered Early Intervention in Infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Single-Subject Design, retrieved 3/03/2020).

The results present that kids with the autism spectrum disorder are inclined to turn into higher at social interplay when working towards social interplay. Since this study the individuals improved on speech and social interplay. Participant three did present probably the most enchancment, but the other two participants showed improvement as nicely since the beginning. Since the study started the ASD in the three individuals was less then what it was at the beginning of the examine.

Autism as a developmental disorder

Abstract

Artificial Neural networks assist us to diagnose ASD and AI-assisted intervention applied sciences such as contemporary computer-aided techniques (CAS), laptop vision assisted technologies (CVAT), and digital actuality (VR) helps autistic people to speak and learn as it is troublesome for them to make communication with different human beings. To diagnose ASD in people, ASD checks are developed under the study of ASD Diagnosis  with Artificial Neural Network. The ANN model exhibits an correct diagnosis of ASD based on the evaluation of check outcomes.

The survey of AI-assisted intervention applied sciences reveals that these applied sciences are useful as autistic folks favor machine communication over humans.

I found this subject fascinating as a end result of films like Extinction and I robotic create the impression that AI is going to change the world in a adverse way which I needed to disagree with and hence proved most optimistic side of AI by way of this paper. As nicely famous personalities like Einstein, Newton have autism, which again triggers my interest on this subject.

Milo is a humanoid robot, which is developed to treat autistic students. This robot might help students to study the mandatory communication skills. The examine for diagnosis for Autism via ANN is predicated on the test results data fed as input to the network and its analysis by way of the network. What if the data provided is misleading? Then, in that case, also will ANN diagnose autism correctly? Also, AI-assisted intervention technologies assist children be taught. They make them comfy enough to speak. So , throughout this procedure, aren’t we pushing children in a man-made world? Moreover, to what extent we can present kids on this world and the way right it is?

Introduction

Centers for Disease Control present data, which states that 1 out of 59 children, has autism.

This means that autism is no longer a uncommon illness. It can affect any individual from all levels of society. Autism is a developmental disorder. This affects social skills, speech, and nonverbal communication and causes repetitive conduct (WWW1). These signs of autism can appear at the age of 2 to three. (Naseer, 2019 ).

Early diagnosis of autism in a person helps to deal with it in the later a part of his or her life. A individual identified with autism earlier shows excellent enchancment over acquiring skills than a person diagnosed later. Artificial Neural Network is a mathematical model based on synthetic intelligence that may diagnose autism in an individual. This technology proves a superb help for autistic individuals and their caregivers as properly as members of the family. After a analysis of autism, autistic people can be handled in various methods. Traditional clinical settings have been favourite in the past. Along with traditional scientific settings, now a day’s technology-based interventions are also proving useful for autistic individuals to learn varied expertise. Researches carried out over the last decade states that folks suffering from autism reveals curiosity in technology-based interventions for learning and speaking (Jaliaawala, 2019 ). These interventions can be used in scientific settings also in homes and classrooms. The study is executed by Jaliaawala (2019) about researches prior to now decade, in his article, he states that every one researches point out the constructive effect of know-how interventions on, verbal and nonverbal skills of an autistic person. Robots like Milo helps autistic kids to learn and perceive, communication, and social skills (WWW2).

Recently I came across an article which states that Albert Einstein, Amadeus Mozart, Sir Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, these famous personalities had autism. This triggered my curiosity in autism. While searching additional, I got here to know that Autistic folks have difficulties in social communication. The use difficulties may be overcome with applied sciences like Milo and QTrobot by implementing synthetic intelligence. This makes me extra fascinated by this field.

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder comes underneath Pervasive Developmental Disorder, which once more subdivided into High Functioning Autism, Low Functioning Autism, and Social interaction impairment. High functioning autistic individuals are these with IQ level 70 or above but face difficulties in emotion regulation and expression, communication, and social interplay. Low functioning autistic people are these having cognitive impairments. The signs of LFA embrace impaired social communication or interactions, problems in sleep, unusual conduct, self -injurious tendencies (Jaliaawala, 2019 ). Autism affects verbal in addition to nonverbal expertise of an individual. According to data offered by the Centers for Disease Control in 2018, 1 out of fifty nine youngsters is autistic. 1 in 37 boys and 1 in 151 girls that imply boys are 4 times extra vulnerable to this dysfunction. 31% of kids have intelligence quotient less than 70, 25% of kids are within the vary of seventy one to 85, and 44% of youngsters possess above 85 intelligence quotient level(WWW1).

Diagnosis of Autism utilizing Artificial Neural Network Model Ibrahim M. Nasser performed an experiment, during which autism analysis is carried out with the assistance of ANN mannequin. This model used sample data out of which eighty % knowledge used to train the mannequin and 20% of information used to validate the mannequin. This knowledge is collected from the ASD check app. This is a mobile screening software to detect the presence of autism.

Test: -This application is designed such that all individuals of all ages can use it. ASD behaviors are measured based mostly on 4 modules of this app. Autism Spectrum Quotient is the screening software which consists of self -observed questions. The answers to these question s can detect autistic traits in an individual. This 50 -question set is decreased to 10, to shorten the version. These questions examine autism’s cognitive strength. The answer to the question ranges from definitely conform to disagree. On the ten -question scale, a person who scores more than six is detected with autism.

Methodology: – The data from the autistic screening take a look at is collected. This dataset is used for this experiment. ANN mannequin used in this experiment is skilled and validated in opposition to this data and conclusions drawn from it. This information consists of user-specific info like name, gender, age, ethnicity, history about jaundice, autism detected in a family member, relation with a participant of the experiment, nation of residence, information about the usage of the appliance prior to now, together with ten revised questions from autism spectrum quotient. Data collected from the screening app is preprocessed earlier than forwarding to the ANN model. This is done for predictive evaluation. The precise knowledge fed to mannequin consists of answers from 10 questions, age, gender, jaundice at start or not, class/ASD attribute. Apart from the age attribute, all other information is within the form of Boolean numbers, which suggests solely 0 and one values. Out of those information, all attributes from age to jaundice are thought of as enter attributes, and the category attribute is taken into account as an output attribute, which shows ASD presence or absence.

Results: – ANN mannequin developed by ( Naseer, 2019 ) exhibits an accuracy of 100 percent. The mannequin was appropriate in the detection of autism.

Importance of Technology-Assisted Intervention within the treatment of autism autistic people lacks social and communication skills. This makes them difficult to reach for teaching and letting them understand society. Many of them keep away from social contact, so standard school settings and clinical settings make it much more difficult to teach them needed abilities like, perceive and reply to facial expressions, greet friends or do any communication with the elderly or with colleagues.

A Comprehensive Survey of AI-Assisted Intervention for Autistic People

The methodologies which are reviewed in this survey are modern computer-aided systems, laptop imaginative and prescient assisted technologies, and virtual reality or AI-assisted intervention. In this study, literature is presented associated to interventions for facial features impairments in autistic people. Interventions for facial features impairments are once more subdivided into three categories.

They are non -verbal communication abilities, verbal social skills, and digital reality. Non -verbal communication skills can be summarized as emotion recognition, affect recognition, maintaining eye contact, decision making, etc. Similarly, verbal communication expertise could be summarized as social interactions, greeting to friends, etc. Virtual actuality includes both non – verbal and verbal expertise. All the reviewed researches categorized in these three sections and conclusion is drawn. One of the primary questions, among researches, was, whether Computer-Aided Systems are more effective than traditional clinical settings for autistic people? Some ofthe researches present constructive outcomes about statistical inference. Though the effectivity of CAS over conventional scientific settings isn’t confirmed, it has benefits over conventional medical settings for people who have ASD. Advantages of CAS over Traditional Clinical Settings for Autism  Unlimited repeated therapies may be formulated with correctness. Hence improving constancy. Because of automation, access to more extensive and distant areas which in flip saves price. As human intervention is lowered, probabilities of unintentional induction of maladaptive behaviors are also reduced.

Methodology and Result: -Result of the survey are tabulated. This desk contains column heads with Author, Participant, Mean Age, Average IQ, Participants characteristics, Skill intervened, Technology used for intervention. Data from numerous researches are studied, sorted, and entered against respective columns of tables. For example, Bernard Opitz et al. (2001) performed analysis during which sixteen persons participated, eight persons, having ASD, and eight persons with TYP syndrome with a mean age of 4 years for TYP syndrome and seven years for ASD. The average IQ of these people was ninety. The characteristics of those people noted were, eight individuals have ASD out of which 2 had been females, and 6 have been males. Eight individuals have typical management out of which 3 had been females, and 5 had been males. Social expertise and resolution generation capability in conflicting conditions have been intervened through this research. The technological background consists of software – developed by the researcher, hardware – a private pc with home windows ninety five for ten periods. Results obtained from this research have been additionally entered towards the end result column. For this research, they compared the enthusiasm scale for computer and teacher. After comparison, they found that autistic people have fewer issues with habits and increased motivation in the direction of computer-aided periods.

Milo. A Robot for Autism

Robokind, a robotics firm, created a robotic known as Milo. This is 2 ft tall social robot developed to assist youngsters with autism. The mechanical inclinations of the robot make youngsters relate shortly with a humanoid robotic. Milo can engage kids 87 % of their time.

Milo, along with instructor or therapist, helps kids learn with out getting frustrated and teaches through the number of repetition s. Milo can be utilized as a group setting or an individual setting. Milo needs an teacher to facilitate between MMilo and the kid. Milo within the present moment solely accessible for faculties and therapist’s use. Unfortunately, it’s not available for residence or private use (WWW2). The only drawback of MMilo is, it needs some prerequisite abilities possessed by kids to proceed learning with Milo. Caregivers or therapists have to verify these abilities in an autistic individual to work with MMilo (WWW2).

Conclusion

As autism is a developmental dysfunction, there is no particular treatment or remedy to autism. Early diagnosis of autism is helpful to take care of autism. ANN can detect autism 100 % accurately based on knowledge supplied. A complete survey of all researches relating to AI intervention with autistic people reveals that the autistic person shows a eager interest in technology-based intervention and these interventions can be used to teach autistic inhabitants needed expertise relating to verbal and nonverbal communication sorts. However, although proving efficient, there isn’t any uniformity amongst pc scientists, therapists, and AI creating teams. There is no standard protocol which is adopted during researches concerning AI intervention technologies with people who have autism. Hence knowledge collected thus far cannot be effectively used (Jaliaawala, 2019 ). Robots like Milo can prove a great assist in the educational processes of the autistic inhabitants. However, there have to be management over each technology used with people who have autism. Because of this dysfunction, these people are already in disconnection with society. If not use in control method, youngsters will get obsessive about robots and can forget the human touch. If the situation gets uncontrolled, then it’s going to turn out to be difficult for conventional settings additionally to deal with children. Hence management use of any expertise could probably be the necessary thing to determine better outcomes to deal with autism with AI-assisted know-how intervention.

References

  1. Nasser, I. M. et al., (2019). Artificial Neural Network for Diagnose Autism Spectrum Disorder.
  2. International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) ISSN: 2000 -002X Vol. three Issue 2 , Pages: 27 -32
  3. Jaliaawala, M. S. et al., (2019). Can autism be catered with synthetic intelligence -assisted intervention technology? A complete survey. Artificial Intelligen ce Review , 1 -32.
  4. WWW1. What is Autism? < -autism > Accessed 2019.
  5. WWW2. About Robokind. < >
  6. WWW3. Causes and Risk Factors < -spectrum – issues -asd/index.shtml >

Autism and Social Skills

Autism spectrum dysfunction is a neurodevelopmental dysfunction that ranges from gentle to extreme impairments in communication, social interplay, and repetitive pattern of interest. Children with autism want early social expertise help to develop their social interactions and understanding. Autism spectrum issues (ASD) and socialization amongst younger kids and adolescence is one of the main impairments, together with language people have. Social skills groups are prearranged groups with, a direct aim orientated to have interaction young children and adolescences with the appropriate help, within the improvement of social abilities.

Social expertise groups for young youngsters and adolescences is normally a viable software, in serving to youngsters with ASD to learn how to socialize appropriately. The Socialization of younger youngsters with a prognosis of ASD has proven some constructive results.

This pilot research was carried out in response to the heightened consciousness and the necessity for younger kids with ASD to study social skills. The parents of autistic youngsters, the children which have a analysis of ASD and the facilitators of the teams, will have interaction the children in social periods, in hopes to construct social relationships.

The mother and father will fill out questionnaires as to the progress they see their kids making. This pilot study units out to reply the following two questions. Is participation in a social skills group beneficial for young youngsters / adolescence with ASD from the child’s, Parents and the facilitator’s perspectives? The second query posed was, is there any enchancment within the autistic child’s ability to communicate or interrelate socially.

Methodology

Based on a review of literature on Autism, a psychologist and a medical psychologist planed a structured 5-week program, for one-hour sessions, in the future a week. Only children with a analysis of ASD had been invited. The children’s ages ranged from seven to 18. Using the qualitative method, the parental focus group was used to assemble knowledge and answer two analysis questions. Each father or mother received three questionnaires developed for the purpose of this evaluation. One was a pre- questionnaire, to be accomplished initially of the teams, the submit questionnaire, at the finish of groups, and a evaluation questionnaire, to be accomplished six months following the social skills teams. The questionnaires had been used for the dad and mom to rate their child’s current level of difficulties.

Results and Discussions

The high cost of 1 on one remedy for autistic kids has become too high for caregivers and the necessity for alternative approaches was essential. Evidence suggested that social abilities teams for autistic children can be another Dunlop, Knott and Mackay (2000). The info gathered from father or mother questionnaires and through observations from the facilitators and the higher functioning adolescents with ASD confirmed there was a necessity for social expertise programs. Some mother and father felt their youngsters benefitted and others seen no change.

The feedback was very positive and a lot of the individuals would actually like the social abilities groups to proceed. There have been several areas identified inside the program that wants fine-tuning such as, smaller teams, the level or severity of ASD the kids have, longer length of classes with out summer breaks and addressing how to manage the challenging behaviors a few of the autistic kids displayed, which prevented them from engaging socially throughout the teams. There was no time for one on one interaction, to encourage those youngsters that didn’t socialize

during the five-week program. The facilitators noticed this and felt that it was an important concern to address together with the other recommendations above, when planning social expertise applications. I select this text as a end result of I am a parent of an autistic youngster and I am at all times looking for new therapy strategies. I like to remain informed of all the model new research on autism to share with my son. I assume there is a must socialize all persons with autism and the perfect of social expertise groups can not hurt; it could improve the standard of life for the autistic child.

Literature Review on Autism Spectrum Disorders

Abstract
Autism has become an increasing subject of interest, especially to researchers and medical professionals. This increase in interest is most likely due to the fact that autism is becoming an increasing problem in children, with the number of diagnoses doubling in just a four year period. In order to discover what may cause this disorder as well as finding effective ways to treat it, people must be informed and knowledgeable about autism. The current study discusses what ASD is, symptoms of this disorder, possible causes and risk factors, and methods of treatments and therapy, such as early intervention and sensory integration therapy. This study hypothesizes that sensory integration therapy will significantly improve grades and school performance in children with autism.

Recently, it seems as if autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been receiving a great deal of attention by those who work in the medical field, researchers, education providers, and parents as well. This is due to the fact that the number of diagnoses has increased significantly. In just a four year period, the number of recorded diagnoses for these types of disorders has doubled (Keen & Ward, 2004). This substantial increase in the diagnoses of ASDs could be due to the fact that doctors and other health professionals are becoming more aware of the criteria for these disorders, and are beginning to have greater recognition of ASD in more able, high functioning children. In the past, there have been several cases where high functioning children were first diagnosed with ADHD, and later received an ASD diagnoses (Keen & Ward, 2004). With the recent awareness of autism spectrum disorders, a more clear criteria has developed for the diagnoses of these disorders.

In broad terms, autism spectrum disorders is a group of developmental brain disorders, collectively called ASD. It is called autism spectrum disorder because the symptoms and levels of impairment for these disorders ranges widely in each individual with an ASD. (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2011). In fact, according to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2011), some higher functioning children may only be mildly impaired by his or hers symptoms, while other children who are low functioning may have more severely impaired by his or hers symptoms, causing them to be severely disabled.

To diagnose an individual with ASD, one must meet the criteria listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition – Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Currently, there are five defined disorders that fall under the category of ASD. These disorders include autistic disorder (classic autism), Asperger’s disorder (Asperger’s syndrome), pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), Rett’s disorder (Rett’s syndrome), and childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) (NIMH, 2011). However, this review will focus mostly on the more common disorders, classic autism and Asperger’s syndrome. The NIMH (2011) has identified some key symptoms seen in individuals with ASD. While symptoms do vary from one child to the next, the symptoms tend to fall into three main areas. These three areas include social impairment, communication difficulties, and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors.

Children with autism have trouble with social interactions and find it difficult to engage in everyday social interactions. Some of these problems with social interactions may include having trouble with making eye contact, have trouble listening to and responding to other people in their environment, and having trouble picking up on social cues and reading peoples emotions. Children with ASD may respond unusually or inappropriately when others show feelings of anger, sadness, distress, or affection (Kamps, Leonard, Vernon, Dugan, & Delquadri, 1992). Children with autism also suffer from several communication issues, such as failing or being slow to respond to verbal attempts to get their attention, developing language at a slower pace than others, repeating words or phrases that they hear, and using words that are strange or out of place, that do not really make sense to people other than the child and those close to the child whom are familiar with the child’s communication style. The last important symptom seen in children with ASD is repetitive and stereotyped behavior.

Many children with ASD tend to have odd, repetitive actions and behaviors that may be referred to as stereotyped behaviors. An example of a stereotyped behavior might be a simple gesture of the arm that is repeatedly done by the child. Children with autism often have one subject or interest that they tend to overly focus on. They tend to become obsessed with one particular subject, and will learn everything they can about the subject of interest. Because autistic children seem to display several repetitive behaviors and thoughts, a set routine is usually the best environment for a child with ASD (NIMH, 2011).

While there have been many theories and suggestions of what may cause autism spectrum disorders, there is not one particular known cause of these disorders. A great deal of research has been done to examine possible causes of and risk factors for this disorder. Recently, there has been research on the hypotheses that maternal early life factors associated with hormone levels may have some correlation with being at risk of having a child with ASD. Ascherio, Lyall, Pauls, Santangelo, and Spiegelman (2011) conducted a study to see if they could find any relationships between certain maternal early life factors associated with hormone levels and the risk of having a child with an ASD. This study focuses on maternal early life factors, and how some of these reproductive and hormonal factors of mothers could put them at risk of having a child with ASD (Ascherio, Lyall, Pauls, Santangelo, & Spiegelman, 2011). The methods of this study included a cohort study with 61,596 women.

Data was collected from these women, which included age of menarche (first menstrual cycle), characteristics of menstrual cycle during adolescence, use of birth control, specifically oral contraceptives, prior to have given birth, body shape, and body mass index (BMI). The results of this study showed relationships between higher BMI’s at age 18, early age at menarche, and longer use of oral contraceptives prior to first birth, and being at risk for having a child with ASD (Ascherio et al., 2011).

Other risk factors for having a child with an ASD that have been studied include prenatal, or the period of time before the child is born, perinatal, or the period of delivery and immediately before and after delivery, and parental, or characteristics of the parents, factors. In a study done by Hertz-Piccottio et al. (2010), the authors examine possible parental, prenatal and perinatal factors associated with ASD. The methods of this study was a case-control study, using a cohort of children in China. Cases came from six special education schools and two Preschool Autistic Children Special Education Institutions in Tianjin, China (Hertz-Piccottio et al., 2010). The parental risk factors that were studied included parental ages at delivery, ethnicity, occupation, education, marriage of a close relative, exposure to toxins, personality, and family medical history of different illnesses (Hertz-Piccottio et al., 2010, p. 1313).

The prenatal risk factors that were examined in this study included maternal characteristics and behaviors during pregnancy, alcohol consumption, smoking and second hand smoke exposure, exposure to X-rays, attempt to terminate pregnancy, contact with toxins, emotional state, disease history, and medication history (Hertz-Piccottio et al., 2010, p. 1313). Some perinatal factors that were examined include infant gestational age at birth, fetal nuchal chord (umbilical chord wrapped around neck), cesarean delivery, and breech birth. Also included were newborn complications such as birth weight, delayed crying, and abnormal skin color due to an array of conditions such a hypoxia, apnoea, neonatal jaundice, and several other conditions (Hertz-Piccottio et al., 2010, p. 1313). The results of this study showed relationships between several of the factors examined and the risk of having a child with ASD. In relation to the prenatal risk factors studied, seven conditions during gestation were significantly associated with the risk of having a child with ASD, four of which showed the strongest relationship. The four prenatal risk factors that showed the strongest relationship included frequent maternal second-hand smoke exposure, chronic and acute medical conditions unrelated to pregnancy, maternal unhappy emotional state, and one or more gestational complications (Hertz-Piccottio et al., 2010, p. 1314).

For the perinatal risk factors that were studied, seven characteristics at the time of delivery were significantly associated with autism. These characteristics include abnormal gestational age, including preterm and post-term, nuchal chord, cesarean delivery, delayed crying, newborn complications, apnoea, and neonatal jaundice (Hertz-Piccottio et al., 2010, p. 1314). For the parental characteristics studied, results showed that gravidity > 1 and advanced paternal age at delivery were significantly associated with autism (Hertz-Piccottio et al., 2010, p. 1314).

Other studies have also done research on possible perinatal, prenatal, and parental risk factors for autism. In a study done by Agerbo et al. (2005), the authors created a study in Denmark of children with ASD. This study focused on possible perinatal risk factors for autism, as well as the associations between parental psychiatric history and socioeconomic status and the risk of having a child with autism. The following perinatal factors were investigated in this study: birth weight, gestational at birth, weight for gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at 5 minutes, fetal presentation, mode of delivery, pregnancy characteristics such as multiple gestation, and parental characteristics such as maternal smoking, maternal and paternal ages, maternal citizenship, and number of previous pregnancies. Other factors considered were parental psychiatric history, that is, if the parent had been diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder prior to the date the child was diagnosed with autism, and socioeconomic factors, including maternal education and parental wealth (Agerbo et al., 2005).

As we begin to understand more about what exactly autism spectrum disorders are, what may cause these disorders, and how to diagnose children more accurately and sooner, the next step in being proactive with ASD is studying different treatment methods and developing new methods of treatment that may be more effective. The biggest impairment for most children with ASD is the social impairments caused by these disorders. Developing treatments that may help children with an ASD learn how to better interact in social situations could possibly be the most useful type of treatment for these children.

Researchers have been working on several different treatment methods for children with autism, especially treatments to help develop and improve social skills. In a study done by Koegel, Koegel, Hurley, and Frea (1992), the authors seek out to find a treatment to improve social skills in children with an ASD. This study assessed whether self-management could be used as a technique to improve extended responsiveness to verbal initiations from others, without the presence of a treatment provider. The methods of this study included four children, all of whom were diagnosed with autism. The results of the study showed that children with autism who displayed severe deficits in social skills could learn to self-manage responsivity to others in multiple community settings (Koegel, Koegel, Hurley, & Frea, 1992). Another method of treatment that is being explored is the use of social robots for the therapy of children with ASD. In a study done by Werry, Dautenhahn, Ogden, and Harwin (2001), the researchers developed a robotic agent that could help with therapy in children with autism. This study was called the AURORA project, which started in 1998. The results so far have been quite promising, and the social robot has proven to be a very useful tool for children with autism. It gives them the opportunity to practice social interactions and serves as a social mediator (Werry, Dautenhan, Ogden, & Harwin, 2001).

The treatment of autism is not a simple process. There is no single therapy or method of treatment that can completely cure an individual with autism. However, there are an assortment of treatments and therapies that have proven to be effective in treating children with autism. Quite often, children with autism combine different treatment methods and therapies to improve different skills. Some of the more common approaches at treating autism in children include behavioral procedures, such as early intervention and discrete trial trainings, speech therapy, dietary approaches, and occupational therapy ( Watling, Deitz, Kanny, & McLaughlin, 1999).

Early intervention, a behavioral analytic treatment for autism, is an intensive behavioral therapy that is started as soon as a child is diagnosed with autism, usually before age 5. This type of therapy is based on the principles of operant conditioning. In this type of treatment, therapists simplify children’s environment in order to maximize successes and minimize failures. For example, the therapist might break a behavior down into smaller units and teach each unit individually, eventually linking all of the units together, which may also be called chaining. Another method of simplification that a therapist may use is discrete trial format. Discrete trial format involves a one on one interaction with a therapist that is carefully planned out, in which the child receives short and clear instructions from the therapist, and is immediately reinforced for every correct response.

Another type of treatment for children with autism that is becoming more popular is occupational therapy. Occupational therapists are trained in teaching every day skills to help the individual being treated live as independently as possible. These skills can be very helpful to children with an ASD. One of the most well-known types of therapy occupational therapists use to help treat autism is sensory integration therapy. Those who practice this type of therapy hypothesize that the primary symptoms of autism are disturbances in sensory modulation. Consequently, children with autism have difficulties in social relating, communication, and language. Because children with autism have these disturbances in regulating sensory input appropriately, they suffer from several social and communication problems (Case-Smith & Bryan, 1999). The sensory integration approach attempts to stimulate and challenge the senses of the individual being treated (Cohn, 2001). A common symptom in individuals with autism is being either over stimulated under-stimulated by their environment. They often have trouble learning to combine and integrating their different senses.

These sensory difficulties may be a cause of communication problems and social interaction problems in children with autism. Because they have such difficulty regulating their sensory systems, they tend to have trouble socializing and interacting with others. Some individuals with autism practice certain stereotyped behaviors, such as lining up toys or moving a toy back and forth on a table. This may be an attempt to try and regulate their sensory systems. The sensory integration approach aims to help children with autism improve their sensory processing and modulation. There are three elements typically included in this approach: helping parents better understand their child’s behavior, helping parents/teachers modify the child’s environment in order to meet his or hers sensory needs, and helping children organize responses to sensory input. However, each sensory integration therapy session is unique to the individual being treated. Occupational therapists must consider different individuals’ unique needs and goals (Case-Smith & Bryan, 1999).

Sensory integration therapy is the most used technique in occupational therapy for the treatment of children with autism, with 95% of occupational therapists using this approach at least some of the time. The reason for its popularity in the treatment of autism is because of its proven efficacy in helping improve social interactions and communications. In a study done by Case-Smith and Bryan (1999) the authors found that sensory integration therapy can significantly increase mastery play, or the child’s interactions with the physical environment. They also found that sensory integration therapy significantly decreases non-engaged behaviors, or behaviors where the child is not interacting or minimally interacting with their environment. Examples of these behaviors include unfocused staring or aimless wandering. In a study by Cohn (2001), the author is concerned with parents’ perspectives of the sensory integration approach used in the treatment of their children. In this study, the author found that sensory integration was successful in helping parents understand their children’s problems. While there is a great deal of research that has been done on the sensory integration approach as a treatment for children with autism and the efficacy of this treatment in improving certain social behaviors, there is not much literature on the effects of sensory integration therapy on grades and school performance of children with autism. In consideration to prior research in relation to autism and the treatment methods, the current study hypothesizes that sensory integration therapy will significantly improves grades and school performance in children with autism.

Methods

Participants
Participants of this study will consist of young children with autism or another type of ASD, attending some type of day care or school for children with disabilities. Participants will be in the age group of 3 years old to 7 years old. There will be about 10-15 total participants.

Materials

This study will be a single-subject design, where each participant serves as his or hers own control group. The study will be conducted right after a break in school, such as winter break or summer break. When the students return from the break in school, they will attend school for three to four weeks without receiving any therapy or treatment. At the end of this period, grades will be assessed as well as general school performance such has participation and behavior. After the three week period of no therapy, intervention will be initiated and children will all receive sensory integration therapy. Children will receive this therapy within the school for six to eight weeks. At the end of this intervention period, grades and school performance will be assessed again.

Procedure

The therapy sessions will take place in the day care or school building. Observations of the participants will be made in the classroom, both before the intervention period and during the intervention period. These observations will assess each child’s individual school performance, including things such as participation and class behaviors. Grades will also be assessed both before the intervention and during the intervention period. Students will return to school after their break and will not receive any therapy for three weeks. After the first three weeks, the intervention will be initiated and the children will each participate individually in a form of sensory integration therapy under the supervision of a trained occupational therapist. Each therapy session will be unique to the individual and his or hers unique needs or goals. At the end of the intervention period, grades will be assessed again. The grades and school performance of each child before the therapy was started will be compared with the grades and school performance assessed during and at the end of the therapy, using SPSS or some sort of statistical analysis program, to determine whether or not sensory integration therapy significantly improves grades and school performance in children with autism.

References
Agerbo, E., Eaton, W. W., Larsson, H. J., Madsen, K. M., Mortensen, P. B., Oleson, A. V., …Vestergaard, M. (2005). Risk factors for autism: Perinatal factors, parental psychiatric history, and socioeconomic status. American Journal of Epidemiology. 161(10), 916-925. doi:10.1093/aje/kwi123 Ascherio, A., Lyall, K., Pauls, D. L., Santangelo, S., & Spiegelman, D. (2011). Maternal early life factors associated with hormone levels and the risk of having a child with an autism spectrum disorder in the nurses health study II. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders,41, 618-

627. doi:10.1007/s10803-010-1079-7
Case – Smith, J., & Bryan, T. (1999). The effects of occupational therapy with sensory integration emphasis on preschool-age children with autism. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 53, 489 – 497. Cohn, E. S. (2001). Parent perspectives of occupational therapy using a sensory integration approach. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 55, 285-294. Hertz- Picciotto, I., Lv, C. C., Miao, R. J., Qi, L., Tian, J., Xi, W., & Zhang, X. (2010) Prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism in china. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 1311-1321. doi: 10.1007/s10803-010-0992-0 Kamps, D. M., Leonard, B. R., Vernon, S., Dugan, E. P., Delquadri, J. C., Gershon, B.,…Folk, L. (1992). Journal of Applied and Behavior Analysis, 25 (2), 281-288. Keen, D. & Ward, S. (2004). Autistic spectrum disorder a child population profile. The National Autistic Society, 8 (1), 39-48. Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Hurley, C., & Frea, W. (1992). Improving social skills and disruptive behavior in children with autism through self-management. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 341-353. Smith, Tristram. (1999). Outcome of early intervention for children with autism. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice,6, (1), 33-49. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health. (2011). A parent’s guide to autism spectrum disorder (NIH Publication No. 11-5511). Retrieved from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/a-parents-guide-to-autism-spectrum-disorder/complete-index.shtml#pub6 Watling, R., Deitz, J., Kanny, E. M., & McLaughlin, J. F. (1999). Current practice of occupational therapy for children with autism. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 53, 498–505. Werry, I., Dautenhahn, K., Ogden, B., & Harwin, W. (2001). Can social interaction skills be taught by a social agent? The role of a robotic mediator in autism therapy.

Early diagnosis of autism and impact on prognosis

Autism and IQ

Introduction

Early diagnosis of autism and impact on prognosis: a narrative review

            Fernell, Eriksson and Gillberg (2013) based the study of the individuals affected by ASD on the magnocellular theory. The theory’s main constructs include that the people suffering from the disorder will have impaired magnocellular transmission networks and that the impairment is the cause of their problems in the processing of information on movement and motion. The theory also explains the problem as one, where results from the abnormal nature of magnocellular neural networks and a variety of sensory systems, unlike in the case of other similar conditions like dyslexia.The main constructs of the theory used by the authors of the article are based on the malfunctioning nature of the networks that guarantee that the working of the human brain is effective and optimal.

The main constructs explored under the theory incorporated into the study are related in a variety of ways.Theyinclude the neurodevelopment deficiencies found in the brains of these individuals are the main cause for the impairment of the individual’s social instinct.The article draws on the behaviors that are manifest from the nature of these individuals, to conclude that the impairment of brain networks lead to socially instinctual deficiencies, for example,slowness in flicker-pedestal evaluations. In real life situations, the individual is not able to indicate the appearance of the different squares.Fernell, Eriksson and Gillberg (2013) contended with the premise of the theory that the effects seen arise from physiological underdevelopment of the brain.

They also offered the explanation that impaired development or underdevelopment is caused by a variety of medical deficiencies. Based on the research done in a five-year period, they highlighted that there is a wide variety of causes, including the developmental deficiencies, early detection and trials to correct the issue and the effects of treatment. The effects explored included the impairments seen in the social functionality of the child and the outcomes of the treatment plan. For example, one of the effects explained was that there is little evidence of effective results arising from early interventions (Fernell, Eriksson & Gillberg, 2013). The article explored a variety of variables that are either moderating or mediating, depending on their nature and levels, including being epileptic and the fragility of the x syndrome. In the working out of the various constructs, the researchers controlled for the outside factors and variables, and reached the conclusion that there is little effectiveness in the early intervention models developed. From the study of the meta-analyses of the studies published by Pub Med in last five years.

The researchers found some information showing that the adoption of early intensive treatment led to the successful correction of the problems found in children suffering from ASD. The interpretation of the findings was that more study was needed to explore the link between the impaired development of the networks and the intensity of behavioral corrections. Based on the article’s area of study as well as its findings, some information gaps were exposed, including those on whether the mediating variables of epilepsy among others could hold the key to the positive outcomes. The effects of the mediating factors should be explored further, so as to find out whether it will be necessary to develop a new theory incorporating them (Fernell, Eriksson & Gillberg, 2013).

The main constructs explored under the theory incorporated into the study are related in a variety of ways.Theyinclude the neurodevelopment deficiencies found in the brains of these individuals are the main cause for the impairment of the individual’s social instinct.The article draws on the behaviors that are manifest from the nature of these individuals, to conclude that the impairment of brain networks lead to socially instinctual deficiencies, for example,slowness in flicker-pedestal evaluations. In real life situations, the individual is not able to indicate the appearance of the different squares.Fernell, Eriksson and Gillberg (2013) contended with the premise of the theory that the effects seen arise from physiological underdevelopment of the brain.

They also offered the explanation that impaired development or underdevelopment is caused by a variety of medical deficiencies. Based on the research done in a five-year period, they highlighted that there is a wide variety of causes, including the developmental deficiencies, early detection and trials to correct the issue and the effects of treatment. The effects explored included the impairments seen in the social functionality of the child and the outcomes of the treatment plan. For example, one of the effects explained was that there is little evidence of effective results arising from early interventions (Fernell, Eriksson & Gillberg, 2013). The article explored a variety of variables that are either moderating or mediating, depending on their nature and levels, including being epileptic and the fragility of the x syndrome.

In the working out of the various constructs, the researchers controlled for the outside factors and variables, and reached the conclusion that there is little effectiveness in the early intervention models developed. From the study of the meta-analyses of the studies published by Pub Med in last five years. The researchers found some information showing that the adoption of early intensive treatment led to the successful correction of the problems found in children suffering from ASD.

The interpretation of the findings was that more study was needed to explore the link between the impaired development of the networks and the intensity of behavioral corrections. Based on the article’s area of study as well as its findings, some information gaps were exposed, including those on whether the mediating variables of epilepsy among others could hold the key to the positive outcomes. The effects of the mediating factors should be explored further, so as to find out whether it will be necessary to develop a new theory incorporating them (Fernell, Eriksson & Gillberg, 2013).

            Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: the Early Start Denver Model

            Dawson and colleagues (2010) did a randomized study exploring the effectiveness of the ESDM model of treatment. The ESDM is a developmental model of treatment based on behavioral interventions and is intended to lessen the severity of the effects of the toddlers suffering from ASD. The mediating and moderating areas explored through the study included the age of the children, which ranged from 18 to 30 months. The independent variables of the study included the delivery of ESDM model of treatment, and the dependent variable beingchecked towards theory development was the reduction in the severity of the ASD condition. The theory under exploration was the empathizing-systemizing theoretical model. The main position of the theory is that the children suffering from ASD get fewer scores in adaptive behaviors like empathy as compared to their peers (Dawson et al., 2010). The theory is based on the outlook that the effects of autism limit a child’s ability to adapt to social situations and their environment.

            The main constructs of the theory include the systematized nature of social functionality, sensory manipulation, and the working of motor-based systems. The relationship of the constructs is that the impairment in the development of the brain leads to the reduced effectiveness of the autistic child. The cause of the phenomena includes the impairment in the development of the brain. The effects include the low levels of emotional ability (empathy), sensory manipulation including tapping; and motor manipulation like rocking.

The mediating variables included the ages of the children and were not demonstrated to have any effect on the effectiveness of the treatment (Dawson et al., 2010). In the operationalization of the constructs, the study used a study group and a control group. The study split the sampled children of ages ranging from 18 to 30 monthsinto two groups (control and study).In addition, it delivered the ESDM treatment over a two-year period and demonstrated that the method yielded results.The study adopted a statistically comparative study of the children’s standardized scores. The study showed that the treatment was effective, and the study contributed to the advancement of the theory that the developmental effects can be reduced. The results of the study could widen the scope of the theory among others as many have maintained the position that treatment does not yield results(Dawson et al., 2010).

Systematic Review of Early Intensive Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders

            Warren and colleagues (2011)based their study on the theory of applied behavioral evaluation. The main constructs of the theory include that the principle that child learning can be utilized to improve the affected behavioral areas, through behavioral learning. The implications of the principle are that, despite that it may be impossible to solve the problems completely; it is possible to reduce the severity and develop behaviors that reduce their adversity. The relationship between the constructs is based on the outlook that behaviors are learned and that the impaired behavioral areas can be improved through specificallytargeted learning.

The learning that is effective for different individuals is often different, depending on the severity of the ASD in the different areas of underdevelopment. The causes in a relationship include the impairments of the children’s brains, and the effects of behavioral training. The mediating factors explored in the study include the outlook of the behavioral training and its effectiveness. The aspects taken into account as determinants of the effectiveness of the process include the team that administers the behavioral training. In the operationalization of the constructs, the study explored the study explored the modeling based on the early start Denver system.

The study entailed the review of the literature that explored the field during the years spanning from 2000 and 2010. The study was mainly a literature review of the studies done, in the past, in the area. The study did not apply any statistical analyzes, due to its nature. The findings of the study included that the Lovaas-based model of treatment, among a few other early intensive training for behavioral development, improved skills like language, cognitive abilities, and social behaviors. The interpretation of the results was that early interventionism is useful in countering or lessening the severity of the impacts of ASD.

Autism spectrum disorders: an overview of diagnosis andtreatment

            Brentani and colleagues (2013) based their exploration of the problem of ASD and the corrective measures employed to address it, on the developmental milestones of children aged between 0 and 3.The article started by exploring the wide array of developmental impairments that resemble ASD, including a Heller’s syndrome.It emphasized that they all result from the faulty or compromised working of the child’s brain systems(Brentani et al., 2013). The effects of ASD explored include the abnormality of social engagement, creative play, and language skills. The major constructions explored by the authors in the review included the diagnostic models used, main areas of evaluation, the scales and tools for evaluating the problem and the information generated through epidemiological treatment models. In exploring the wide array of constructs, the authors reviewed the studies exploring ASD and the different variables. The relationship between the constructs includes that some contribute to the development of ASD

The relationship between the constructs includes that some contribute to the development of ASD andothers are the outcomes(Brentani et al., 2013). The causes covered by the study include drugs administered for symptom control and the scales used to evaluate the problem and their effects on the management of the problem. There are no mediating or moderating constructs, but the dependent constructs include the change of the symptoms of ASD. The study was mainly a review of theliterature; therefore, it did not employ any research methods. Using the outcomes of the study, there was no information reported on the recovery of the subjects covered by the study after they were subjected to the corrective and management-based treatments. Further, the study gave the impression that it is necessary to develop multi-professional teams in the exploration of the problem of ASD. In addition to its engagement with management or treatment models (Brentani et al., 2013).

Autistic spectrum disorders: Diagnostic and Therapeutic challenges in Mexico

            Marquez-Caraveo and Albores-Gallo (2011)explored the nature of ASD, which are developmental impairments that affect three areas, including the skills of communication, interactive skills in social settings and motor movements. The study explored in the article is based on the developmental theory of mind blindness. The theoretic model that emphasizes the blindness of the mind, is based on the concept that the autism of a child is initially noticed by parents. Among the other people within the social circle of the child as early as when they are as young as 12 months of age.The theory highlights that the areas of cognitive and interactive development that are impaired include the child’s ability to observe the behavior of another and then adjust in response. One example of real-life experience that demonstrates this area of weakness is that you will find the autistic child looking outside the window, but they will notice little on the view outside the window. In exploring the theory, the researchers highlighted that less than 38% of families seek medical advice, even after noticing the developmental deficiencies that give evidence of ASD. The researchers also highlighted the necessity of training health and educational service providers, on the developmental course of social communication and interactions as well as language acquisition. By developing the experience and the knowledge needed to discover the problems of the children, they will report the condition before it escalates to levels that are more adverse.

The theory highlights that the areas of cognitive and interactive development that are impaired include the child’s ability to observe the behavior of another and then adjust in response. One example of real-life experience that demonstrates this area of weakness is that you will find the autistic child looking outside the window, but they will notice little on the view outside the window. In exploring the theory, the researchers highlighted that less than 38% of families seek medical advice, even after noticing the developmental deficiencies that give evidence of ASD. The researchers also highlighted the necessity of training health and educational service providers, on the developmental course of social communication and interactions as well as language acquisition. By developing the experience and the knowledge needed to discover the problems of the children, they will report the condition before it escalates to levels that are more adverse.

            The major constructs explored in the study included the discovery of the symptoms of autism, the instruments for assessing the problem, and the psychosocial treatments that can be used to address the problem. The relationship between the various constructs is one that demonstrates a continuum model.This is where the observation of symptoms should lead to the use of dedicated tools to study the problem and initiating psychosocial treatment to reduce the severity of the problem.The cause variable is the symptoms of ASD. The mediating and in some case moderating variable is the evaluation of the problem using dedicated tools. The dependent variable is initiating psychosocial treatment, which leads to the reduction of the problem. The constructs were mainly explored as a continuum of events, and not operationalized as cause-effect based phenomena. The study was mainly a literature review exploring the literature developed about ASD, its treatment and the course of discovery. The article led to questions on the importance of training/ teaching parents on ASD, so that they can detect ASD early and initiate psychosocial development for better outcomes.

The mediating and in some case moderating variable is the evaluation of the problem using dedicated tools. The dependent variable is initiating psychosocial treatment, which leads to the reduction of the problem. The constructs were mainly explored as a continuum of events, and not operationalized as cause-effect based phenomena. The study was mainly a literature review exploring the literature developed about ASD, its treatment and the course of discovery. The article led to questions on the importance of training/ teaching parents on ASD, so that they can detect ASD early and initiate psychosocial development for better outcomes.

The mediating and in some case moderating variable is the evaluation of the problem using dedicated tools. The dependent variable is initiating psychosocial treatment, which leads to the reduction of the problem. The constructs were mainly explored as a continuum of events, and not operationalized as cause-effect based phenomena. The study was mainly a literature review exploring the literature developed about ASD, its treatment and the course of discovery. The article led to questions on the importance of training/ teaching parents on ASD, so that they can detect ASD early and initiate psychosocial development for better outcomes.

References

Brentani, H., de Paula, C., Bordini, D., Rolim, D., Sato, F., Portolese, J., Pacifico, M., &McCracken, J. (2013). Autism spectrum disorders: an overview of diagnosis and treatment.Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr.  35 (Supl. 1), S62-72.

Dawson, G., Rogers, S., Munson, J., Smith, M., Winter, J., Greenson, J., Donaldson, A., &Varley, J. (2010). Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: the Early Start Denver Model.Pediatrics, 125 (1), e17-23.

Fernell, E., Eriksson, M., & Gillberg, C. (2013). Early diagnosis of autism and impact on prognosis: a narrative review. Clin Epidemiol, 5, 33-43.

Marquez-Caraveo, M., & Albores-Gallo, L. (2011). Autistic spectrum disorders: Diagnostic and Therapeutic challenges in Mexico. Salud Mental, 34, 435-441.

Warren, Z., McPheeters, M., Sathe, N., Foss-Feig, J., Glasser, A., &Veenstra-VanderWeele, J.A. (2011). Systematic Review of Early Intensive Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders. Pediatrics,127(5), e1303-e1311.

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