Autocratic and Democratic Leadership

There are numerous advantages and drawbacks of both autocratic and democratic federal authorities, not to mention, lots of apparent variations. Surprisingly, there are likewise some similarities in between these two distinct governing designs. Autocracy as outlined by the Merriam Webster on-line dictionary is, “A government in which somebody has countless energy.” Opposingly, democracy as outlined by Danzinger, teacher and former chair of the department of presidency on the University of California is “A governance by leaders whose authority is predicated on a limited mandate from a universal voters that selects amongst real choices and has some rights to political participation and opposition” (173 ).

Most leadership qualities can be categorized into these two groups extra separating them into 2 distinctive management designs. An autocratic chief tends to guide with an iron fist comparable to the design of a police state, whereas a democratic leader tends to take a somewhat softer technique governing with approval and compliance from individuals. Throughout this paper I will provide an evaluation of basic qualities of each autocratic and democratic authorities and leaders, in addition to a quick introduction of the favorable and unfavorable parts of both governing techniques.

Each governing design is made to work within its own surroundings, governing its people and doing what is best for its nation.

Autocracy requires an absence of separation of powers, so absolutely the ruler can’t beopposed by any other efficient source. For example, a checks and balances’ system would hinder an autocratic federal authorities as a end result of the leader would not have outright power.

Autocracies can take the kind of a totalitarian/dictoral federal authorities, where a country is under the rule of 1 individual. Often times, autocratic rulers work to better their nations only because it in turn offers wonderful benefits for the rulers themselves. “An autocratic federal government is one which takes full advantage of the online income the ruling clique extracts from the relaxation of the population; this extraction, in flip, is the excellence in between the tax revenues the routine gathers and the quantities it invests on public services, navy activities, and curiosity.” (Niskanan, 182).

Basically, out of the increase in output that results from the net income extracted from the inhabitants, the chief obtains extra resources for his or her personal functions than for the general public. Also, for the reason that public population is a supply of tax-income for the leader, the chief then has incentive to guard his or her individuals from warfare, terrorist attacks, etc. Hence, the monopolization of earnings tax can even have a positive have an result on on most of the people. The public can additionally be benefitted as a end result of they get hold of the revenue they have made that has not been taken in taxes.

A commonly used phrase individuals use when talking about autocratic governments is, “An absolute ruler fails absolutely,” but is this necessarily the case in an autocratic government? Unlimited power of a ruler could solely be thought of harmful if it falls into the incorrect arms. The time period autocracy has become synonymous with the title of dictator, however, not all dictatorships are necessarily a unfavorable form of government. For example, Hugo Chavez, leader of Venezuela has created the Bolivarian Revolution, “A shut duplicate of Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal-a progressive revenue tax, public works, social security, low-cost electricity-makes him wildly well-liked with the poor. And most Venezuelans are poor” (Palast 42). On the other hand, many people argue that Chavez is in fact a nasty leader. A frequent view of the American government portrays Chavez as a threat to international oil prices and regional financial system. Just like there’s a great and dangerous aspect to autocratic leaders, there are heaps of pros and cons when carefully inspecting an autocratic authorities.

Many might argue that an autocratic style of government is corrupt and unjust. However, there are numerous constructive features of autocracy. Decisions are made quickly with out strenuous contemplation from different political powers. For example, if a dictator wished to cross a legislation making it illegal to wear blue denims in his or her nation he could move the law with out consent from anyone else. If a president wished to make the same regulation, it must be overseen and contemplated by numerous different events before passing. Not solely is an autocratic government fast to make decisions, it additionally defines a transparent backside line. Topics of controversy are not left as a lot as the interpretation of the basic public, and differing opinions usually are not expressed as a outcome of the common public inhabitants of an autocratic government is usually discouraged from expressing particular person opinions.

Unfortunately there are also many negative elements of autocracy. Mainly, it has the potential to disregard the wants of the majority. Ultimately, all decisions are left as much as the chief, creating a doubtlessly skewed consequence as far as the wants of the public go. The views and norms of a complete state may be held solely in the hands of one person and evidently could have fairly a adverse impact. Irrational choices can be made, with just about no hope of being stopped. If an autocratic leader happens to be having a nasty day and makes an irrational and harsh choice, it may have a negative influence on the entire nation.

One could wonder why the residents of an autocratic authorities would tolerate such a harsh and extreme chief, why not just overthrow him?The similar logic of collective motion that ensured that there are not any social contracts within the historical report whereby massive groups agreed to obtain the benefits of government also implies that the plenty shall not overthrow an autocrat just because they would be better off to do so. Historical evidence from no less than the primary pharos through Saddam Hussein indicates that resolute autocrats can survive even when they impose heinous amounts of struggling upon their peoples. When they are replaced, it’s for different causes (Mancur 23).

The opposite of autocracy might be regarded as democracy. Democracy is a broadly accepted form of authorities that works for the folks by allowing them to choose on their very own representation. Not solely are the individuals represented by a leader of their choice, however are additionally capable of give opinions as to the on goings of their country. “Democracy is a sign of the existence of a powerful civil society that is primarily based on various middleman teams, from women’s associations and labor unions to cooperatives and trade councils. Such groups function in all probability the best instruments for communicating social calls for to decision makers.” (Gangi 41).

Democracy is said to have originated in medieval Europe as a explanation for three details;First, late medieval Europe had quite a few political characteristics that distinguished it from other main world civilizations. These characteristics an important of which have been consultant assemblies constituted as a foundation for liberal democracy which offered Europe with a predisposition toward democratic political institutions. Second, the ‘military revolution’ of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries led to the strengthing of monarchal energy in international locations counting on home assets to finance fashionable armies. In these international locations, medieval constitutionalism was done away with and expansive autocracies had been built demolishing the predisposition. Third, in nations that avoided the army revolution, navy modernization didn’t destroy constitutional authorities, and a liberal political end result became more probably (Downing 3).

Much like autocracy requires an absence of separation of powers, democracy wants a separation of powers. A democratic government is divided into three branches. The executive branch consists of the presidential party which in turn consists of the president, the vice president, and all the cupboard members. This branch assists in finishing up the regulation. The president is allowed to move or veto a invoice despatched by the legislature. The legislative department or “Bicameral Congress” consists of the Senate (100 seats, one-third are renewed every two years; 2 members are elected from every state by well-liked vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives (435 seats; members are instantly elected by in style vote to serve two-year terms)” (

The legislative branch writes laws on a invoice to enable them to be sent to the senator, after which to the representatives, and then to the president. The judicial branch is in command of the courtroom techniques consisting of the “Supreme Court (nine justices; nominated by the president and confirmed with the recommendation and consent of the Senate; appointed to serve for life); United States Courts of Appeal; United States District Courts; State and County Courts” ( The judicial branch applies the legislation by hearing and making selections on various authorized instances. Just like some other government, democracy can differ from country to nation.

A democratic authorities could are out there in many different varieties similar to participatory democracy, representative democracy, electoral democracy, liberal democracy, and so forth, hence there are close to countless optimistic and unfavorable aspects. Singapore practices an electoral democracy where “All citizens periodically vote to have the ability to choose political leaders from amongst alternative contenders” (Danziger 173), that means that the federal government picks the candidates that the citizens can vote for. In 2006 the Freedom House described America as a liberal democracy which is a authorities where “Citizens take pleasure in not solely electoral democracy but in addition these extensive political rights and civil liberties regarding participation, private freedoms, and opposition” (173). However, I feel that America is better categorized as a consultant democracy the place “Citizens elect people to represent them within the political process and to allocate values on their behalf” (172). Because of all the totally different situations within the many kinds of democracies one may surprise what exactly defines democracy.

One of the key characteristics of American democracy is common suffrage. Universal suffrage consists of the best to vote no matter race, religion, gender, social standing, economic standing, and so on. Suffrage has been a continually developing side of democracy for hundreds of years. According to Wikipedia, African American suffrage started in 1866, and women’s suffrage began in 1920. A second democratic characteristic is equality of all folks. Within the US Constitution it’s implied that beneath a democratic government each particular person is entitled to equal safety beneath the regulation, freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and so on, along with varied other economic, social, cultural, civil, political, and group-oriented rights. Democracy bases itself on offering fair and equal alternatives for all people no matter their race, intercourse, faith, economic/social standing, etc. The idea of American democracy totally supporting equality introduced many immigrants right here, with promises of equal opportunity. Along with all of the rights and privileges residents of a democratic government have, there are additionally some adverse elements.

The larger democracies get, the tougher voting and vote tallying turns into. For example, through the Gore vs. Bush presidential elections the vote counts in Florida were misinterpreted, and many people thought the outcome of the election was skewed because of vote fraud. Also, democracy is hailed as one of the truthful governments, however catering to the wants of solely the majority truly excludes the minority. No matter how minuscule the minority may be, they’re still be exploited by the bulk. Lastly, the larger a democratic system becomes, the less peaceable and environment friendly it turns into. Mancur Olsen provides an excellent example of this negative side of democracy in his essay Autocracy, Democracy, and History.

If there are say 5 related folks, every of them will get about a fifth of the features from the creation of a peaceful [democratic] order. …The advantages of such an order are so large that one fifth of the positive aspects may eaisly exceed the entire sacrifice. Moreover, when there are only a few individuals in a bunch it goes to be clear that the welfare of every particular person is determined by whether one another particular person acts in a group-oriented or anti-social method. Thus every person by making clear that the cooperation by others will convey forth cooperation from him but that non-cooperation is not going to, can increase the chance that others will match his habits. This not solely increases the probability of peaceful [democratic] interaction but even makes it easily attainable that cooperation will attain a super or group optimum extent (Olsen 3).

Hence, democracies work better for relatively small teams. Mancur argues that a democracy is better than raw anarchy, but democracy continues to be removed from excellent. (2)In conclusion, both autocratic and democratic governments have many sturdy and weak factors. Some unfavorable features of autocracy such as income tax monopoly can have a optimistic have an result on on an entire country’s inhabitants, while some optimistic elements of democracy such as majority ruling can have adverse impacts such as excluding the minority.

The pros and cons of a authorities are what ultimately define that government’s fundamental construction. If a government has a disorganized electoral system, power may probably fall into the mistaken leaders palms. If a government has a very strict electoral policy, the folks could additionally be misrepresented as a end result of the truth that they do not have full freedom to decide on their chief. Each governmental style works for the betterment of their citizens whether it’s by strict rule, or lax rule. All in all, governments working towards the betterment of their residents, are really working in the course of the betterment of the human population as an entire.

Works Cited

“Autocracy.” Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary. 2004. .

Danziger, James. Understanding the Political World: A Comparative
Introduction to Political Science. New York: Pearson Education Inc, 2007.

Downing, Brian. The Military Revolution and Political Change: Origins of Democracy andAutocracy in Early Modern Europe. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1992.

Gangi, Akbar. “The Struggle Against Sultanism.” Journal of Democracy 2005: sixteen.four. ProjectMuse Scholarly Journals Online. Wayne State University Library. Wayne State University Library, Detroit, MI. 16 Apr 2007.

Olsen, Mancur. “Autocracy, Democracy, and History.” Online working paper #22, 1991.

2 April 2007.

Niskanan, William. Autocratic, Democratic and Optimal Government: Fiscal Choices and Economic Outcomes. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publications, 2004.

Palast, Greg. “Hugo Chavez.” The Progressive. July 2006. 10 April 2007.

“United States.” 2007. The World Fact Book. four April 2007.


An Autocratic Leadership Style

1. Introduction


Autocratic management, also called authoritarian management, is a management style characterised by particular person control over all choices and little input from group members. Autocratic leaders typically make selections primarily based on their very own ideas and judgments and infrequently settle for recommendation from followers. Autocratic management involves absolute, authoritarian management over a bunch. The goal of doing this project is to know Autocratic Leadership Style in detail.

The title of the project is Autocratic Leadership Style

Autocratic describes a method of ruling, but not in a pleasant way.

An autocratic leader is one who rules with an iron fist; in different words — someone with the behaviour of a dictator. In an autocratic management fashion, the particular person in charge has total authority and control over determination making. By virtue of their position and job obligations, they not solely control the efforts of the staff, but monitor them for completion –often beneath close scrutiny This type is paying homage to the earliest tribes and empires.

Obviously, our historical motion towards democracy brings a negative connotation to autocracy, however in some conditions, it’s the most applicable sort of management.

That, after all, doesn’t mean a blank examine to ignore the wellbeing of his subordinate. In an autocratic management style, the person in charge has complete authority and control over determination making. By virtue of their place and job obligations, they not only management the efforts of the staff, but monitor them for completion –often beneath shut scrutiny This style is paying homage to the earliest tribes and empires. Obviously, our historical movement towards democracy brings a adverse connotation to autocracy, but in some conditions, it is the most appropriate kind of leadership. That, in fact, doesn’t mean a clean check to disregard the wellbeing of his subordinate.

a. Introduction
b. Types of Leadership Styles
c. Autocratic Leadership Style
d. Characteristics of Autocratic Leadership Style
e. When to make use of Autocratic Leadership Style
f. Prone and corns of Autocratic Leadership Style
g. Case Study
h. Recommendation
i. Conclusion
j. Bibliography

For my project I actually have referred:-


There are basically 2 methods of research DESCRIPTIVE METHOD AND SCIENTIFIC METHOD. In my Project I might be utilizing DESCRIPTIVE technique. Secondary data technique will be used for doing this project. Secondary knowledge would the data accumulating from the articles, web, and books. After amassing that I have really helpful interpretation of cause and impact.

2. Types of Leadership

Leadership type is the style and approach of offering course, implementing plans, and motivating folks. As seen by the employees, it contains the whole pattern of explicit and implicit actions carried out by their chief (Newstrom, Davis, 1993). The first main examine of leadership kinds was carried out in 1939 by Kurt Lewin who led a gaggle of researchers to establish totally different styles of leadership (Lewin, Lippit, White, 1939). This early research has remained quite influential as it established the three major leadership kinds: (U.S. Army, 1973): authoritarian or autocratic – the leader tells his or her staff what to do and how to do it, without getting their advice participative or democratic – the leader contains a number of staff in the determination making course of, however the leader normally maintains the ultimate determination making authority Delegative or laissez-fair – the chief permits the employees to make the decisions, however, the chief continues to be liable for the decisions which are made Although good leaders use all three styles, with one of them normally dominant, unhealthy leaders tend to stick with the one style, usually autocratic.


I want each of you to. .

This type is used when leaders tell their workers what they want carried out and the way they need it completed, with out getting the advice of their followers. Some of the suitable circumstances to make use of this type is when you’ve all the knowledge to solve the issue, you might be short on time, and/or your staff are well motivated. Some individuals have a tendency to assume about this type as a car for yelling, utilizing demeaning language, and main by threats. This isn’t the authoritarian type, somewhat it’s an abusive, unprofessional fashion referred to as “bossing people around.” It has completely no place in a leader’s repertoire. The authoritarian fashion should usually only be used on uncommon events. If you’ve the time and need to gain more commitment and motivation out of your employees, then you must use the participative fashion.

Participative or Democratic Leadership

Let’s work together to solve this. . .

This fashion includes the leader including one or more staff in the determination making process (determining what to do and the means to do it). However, the leader maintains the final choice making authority. Using this fashion is not a sign of weakness, quite it is a signal of strength that your employees will respect. This is generally used when you’ve a part of the information, and your employees produce other components. A leader just isn’t expected to know everything—this is why you utilize knowledgeable and expert folks. Using this fashion is of mutual benefit as it permits them to turn into part of the team and allows you to make better choices.

Delegative or Laissez-faire Leadership

You two take care of the issue whereas I go. . .

In this style, the leader permits the workers to make the selections. However, the chief remains to be responsible for the choices that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyse the state of affairs and determine what needs to be carried out and how to do it. You cannot do everything! You should set priorities and delegate certain duties. This just isn’t a style to make use of so as to blame others when issues go mistaken, rather this is a fashion to be used if you totally belief and have confidence in the individuals below you. Do not be afraid to use it, nonetheless, use it wisely! NOTE: Laissez-faire (or lais·ser faire) is the non-interference within the affairs of others. [French : laissez, second particular person pl. crucial of laisser, to let, permit + faire, to do.]

Transactional Leadership Style

The transactional style of management was first described by Max Weber in 1947 after which later described by Bernard Bass in 1981. Mainly utilized by administration, transactional leaders focus their leadership on motivating followers via a system of rewards and punishments. There are two factors which type the basis for this method, Contingent Reward and management-by-exception. Contingent Reward Provides rewards, materialistic or psychological, for effort and recognizes good efficiency. Management-by-Exception allows the chief to maintain the standing quo. The chief intervenes when subordinates don’t meet acceptable performance ranges and initiates corrective action to improve performance.

Management by exception helps reduce the workload of managers being that they are solely called-in when workers deviate from course. This kind of chief identifies the wants of their followers and gives rewards to satisfy those wants in change of certain stage of performance. Transactional leaders give attention to growing the efficiency of established routines and procedures. They are extra concerned with following existing guidelines than with making changes to the organization. A transactional leader establishes and standardizes practices that may assist the group reach: Maturity

Efficiency of operation
Increasing productiveness.

Effect on work teams survey carried out by Jun Liu, Xiaoyu Liu and Xianju Zeng on the correlation of transactional leadership and the way innovations could be affected by group feelings. The analysis was composed of ninety work teams, with a total of 460 members and 90 staff leaders. The study found that there’s a relationship between emotions, labor conduct and transactional leadership that affect for the team. Depending on the extent of emotions of the group; this will affect the transactional leader in a optimistic or adverse means. Transactional leaders work better in teams the place there is a decrease degree of emotions going into the project. This is as a result of people are in a place to Think freely when setting their emotions aside from their work. Have all of their concentrate on the given task.

A transactional chief is:
Negatively affected when the emotional stage is high.
Positively affected when the emotional stage is low.
Transactional management presents a type of strategic management that’s essential for the organizations development. Transactional management is important for group innovativeness.

Transformational Leadership Style

A transformational leader is a type of individual by which the chief is not restricted by his or her followers’ notion. The major objective is to work to vary or rework his or her followers’ needs and redirect their pondering. Leaders that observe the transformation type of main, challenge and encourage their followers with a sense of function and pleasure.[10] They also create a imaginative and prescient of what they aspire to be, and communicate this concept to others (their followers). According to Schultz and Schultz, there are three identified characteristics of a transformational leader:

Charismatic leadership has a broad information of subject, has a self-promoting persona, high/great power level, and willing to take danger and use irregular strategies to be able to stimulate their followers to suppose independently Individualized consideration

Intellectual stimulation

3. Autocratic Leadership Style

Authoritarian leaders are generally referred to as autocratic leaders. They present clear expectations for what must be done, when it ought to be accomplished, and how it must be done. There can be a clear divide between the leader and the followers. Authoritarian leaders make selections independently with little or no enter from the relaxation of the group. Authoritarian leaders uphold stringent control over their followers by immediately regulating rules, methodologies, and actions. Authoritarian leaders construct gaps and build distance between themselves and their followers with the intention of stressing role distinctions. This type of leadership dates again to the earliest tribes and empires.

It is often utilized in present day when there is little room for error, similar to building jobs or manufacturing jobs. Authoritarian leadership typically fosters little creativity in decision-making. Lewin additionally found that it is harder to transfer from an authoritarian fashion to a democratic type than from a democratic kind to an authoritarian form of leadership. Abuse of this style is often seen as controlling, bossy and dictatorial. Authoritarian leadership is greatest utilized to conditions the place there could be little time for group discussion.

3.2 Views of Autocratic Leaders

A widespread perception of many authoritarian leaders is that followers require direct supervision at all times or else they’d not operate effectively. This belief is in accordance with considered one of Douglas McGregor’s philosophical views of humankind, Theory X. This principle proposes that it is a leader’s function to coerce and control followers, because individuals have an inherent aversion for work and will abstain from it whenever potential. Theory X also postulates that folks should be compelled through force, intimidation or authority, and managed, directed, or threatened with punishment to be able to get them to perform the organizational wants. In the minds of authoritarian leaders, people who discover themselves left to work autonomously will finally be unproductive. “Examples of authoritarian communicative behaviour embody a police officer directing site visitors, a instructor ordering a scholar to do his or her task, and a supervisor instructing a subordinate to wash a workstation.”

Communication Patterns of Authoritarian Leadership:

Downward, one-way communication (i.e. leaders to followers, or supervisors to subordinates) Controls discussion with followers
Dominates interaction
Independently/unilaterally units coverage and procedures
Individually directs the completion of tasks
Does not supply constant feedback
Rewards acquiescent obedient habits and punishes misguided actions Poor listener
Uses conflict for particular person gain
Ways to Properly Incorporate Authoritarian Leadership:

Always explain rules- it allows your subordinates to complete the duty you need accomplished effectively Be consistent- if you’re to enforce rules and regulations, ensure to do so regularly so your subordinates take you seriously. This will kind a stronger degree of trust. Respect your subordinates – always recognized your subordinates efforts and achievements Educate your subordinates earlier than imposing rules – don’t present them with any surprises. This can result in issues in the future due to false communications. Listen to recommendations out of your subordinates even if you don’t incorporate them

Effects of Authoritarian Leadership Communication Styles: Increase in productivity when chief is present
Produces more accurate options when leaser is knowledgeable Is extra positively accepted in larger groups
Enhances efficiency on simple duties and decreases performance on complex tasks Increases aggression ranges amongst followers
Increases turnover rates
Successful when there’s a time urgency for completion of projects Improves the long run work of these subordinates whose skills usually are not very applicable or useful with out the demands of another


Adolf Hitler was extraordinarily authoritarian. He required the population of the Third Reich to accept every little thing that he stated as absolute legislation, and was in a place to impose a dying sentence on anybody who failed to do so. Hitler was obsessive about being in management, and with being the alpha male in a rigid male dominance hierarchy.

Characteristics of Autocratic Leadership

The major autocratic management style characteristics embrace: 1. The autocratic leader retains all power, authority, and control, and reserves the right to make all choices. 2. Autocratic leaders mistrust their subordinate’s capability, and intently supervise and management people beneath them. three. Autocratic leaders involve themselves in detailed day-to-day activities, and infrequently delegate or empower subordinates. four. The autocratic leader adopts one-way communication. They do not seek the guidance of with subordinates or give them an opportunity to offer their opinions, irrespective of the potential benefit of such inputs.

5. Autocratic leadership assumes that employee motivation comes not by way of empowerment, but by making a structured set of rewards and punishments. 6. Autocratic leaders get work accomplished by issuing threats and punishments and evoking fear. 7. The main concern of autocratic leaders stays coping with the work at hand and not on developmental actions. eight. Autocratic leaders assume full responsibility and take full credit for the work.

Advantages of Autocratic Leadership Style

the autocratic fashion is certainly one of the most acknowledged types of directive leadership. At first, the fashion seems to contradict many modern work environments that emphasize teamwork, group input and shared decision-making. However, sure conditions and specific industries, such as the military, manufacturing and construction, thrive when a frontrunner takes tight management and makes most of the selections, in accordance with Leadership-Toolbox. Even so, the most effective autocratic leaders bear in mind to communicate task expectations and to respect their followers.

Easy to Learn

The autocratic, or “do this or else,” type of leadership is intuitive, straightforward to learn and does not require specialized training or information of leadership concept, in accordance with Leadership-Toolbox. Autocratic leaders do not have to fret about recognizing and responding to followers’ feelings or try to meet totally different motivational needs of group members.


Dangerous work environments or situations requiring sophisticated tasks with no room for error, similar to safety inspections, prosper under autocratic management since each is dependent upon management. In addition, companies might turn to autocratic management for urgent short-term results, based on Money-Zine. For example, employees working via a company crisis may have one authoritative leader to call the photographs and guarantee tasks are completed accurately.

Good for Inexperienced or Unmotivated Workers

Depending on the business, new staff may have specific instructions and close follow-up till they learn the job, according to Leadership-Toolbox. The autocratic management type is also good for low-skilled duties, such as directing staff to make copies or file papers. In addition, in accordance with LeadershipExpert, bosses may have to make use of the “do it or else” type of autocratic management to ensure that unmotivated staff complete their assigned duties.


Autocratic management creates a centralized chain of command with heavy involvement of the leader in all gamuts of operations. This leads to the formation of a hub and spoken kind of organizational structure that helps in some ways, such as: Getting things accomplished quickly

Improving communication and logistics.
Better response to adjustments in the external environment

Putting forth a extra coordinated method toward fulfilling organizational targets Anticipating problems upfront, and better realization of penalties of an motion by one part on other sections Proponents of the autocratic leadership type advocate it as an ideal method to extract high performance from employees with out putting them underneath stress. They insist the close supervision and monitoring leads to a sooner tempo of work with much less slack, the place the chief assumes full accountability for the choices and actions, ultimately creating lowered stress for subordinates.

Drawbacks of the Autocratic Leadership Style

Increased Work Burden

Since they take full accountability for staff choices and review of a team’s work, autocratic leaders are extremely busy, which can result in excessive stress and even health issues, based on LeadershipExpert. Other management styles, similar to participative or democratic, distribute a variety of the decision-making to sure group members.

Bad for Highly Skilled and Motivated Workers

Few folks prefer to be told what to do, particularly those who are already intrinsically motivated and understand the duty at hand, according to Leadership Expert. An autocratic leader dealing with this kind of group will dampen morale and can reduce his team’s creativity and productivity.

Autocratic leaders in this state of affairs might not make one of the best choices since they lack the group input from team members who have expertise and abilities. In addition, members of Generation Y, workers born within the mid-1970s to 1990s, usually don’t respond well to autocratic management, based on Leadership Expert.

Leader Dependence

The autocratic style is handiest when the leader is current, in accordance with Leadership Expert. Unlike the transformational type of leadership the place followers turn out to be self-motivated to complete duties, once the autocratic chief is gone, there is no guarantee that staff members will maintain working. The advantages of autocratic management notwithstanding, this management style has born the brunt of heavy criticism in the final three decades, where the transfer towards techniques thinking and empowering people have led to the perception of “autocratic” and “centralized command” as negative and undesirable traits. Theory Y, the antithesis of Theory X assumes that formidable and self-motivated employees take pleasure in their psychological and bodily work duties.

Such workers possess the power for artistic drawback solving, however most organizations under-utilize their skills. Theory Y holds that workers seek and settle for responsibility and train self-control and self-direction in undertaking aims, provided the conditions remain congenial for such an approach. The autocratic leadership fashion remains wholly unsuited for such Theory Y oriented workforces and doesn’t rank among the modern management kinds in a changing world.

Criticisms Levied Against Autocratic Leadership

The main criticisms levied in opposition to autocratic management include the next: 1. Contrary to claims of close supervision with detailed directions to minimize back stress and enhance productiveness, analysis suggests that such actions truly unmotivate workers, and trigger them to changing into tense, fearful, or resentful. 2. Lack of involvement from the worker within the determination making process results in workers not assuming possession of their work, contributing to low morale, lack of commitment, and manifesting in high turnover, absenteeism, and work stoppage. three. The heavily centralized command of autocratic management style ensures that the system depends entirely on the chief. If the chief is robust, capable, competent, and just, the organization features smoothly, and if the chief is weak, incompetent, or has low moral and moral standards, the whole group suffers for the sake of a single chief. 4. All energy vested with the leader results in risk of leaders with low moral fiber exploiting workers, indulging in favoritism and discrimination, and the like.

5. Weak autocratic leaders tend to take selections primarily based on ego somewhat than sound administration rules, and punish staff who dare to disagree with such decisions. 6. The chief reserving the right to make all selections results in subordinates changing into closely dependent on the chief. The group thereby turns into ineffective in running operations in the occasion that they lose contact with their leader, and absence of the chief results in complete collapse and shutdown of operations. 7. The one sided communication move in an autocratic leadership style restricts the creative and leadership skills of the staff and prevents their improvement. This harms the group as properly, for the workers remain incapable of assuming larger duties, or to carry out something exterior the routine. eight. The autocratic leader, by taking all accountability and concerned closely in everyday operations, remains forced to work at full capability, leading to stress and different well being issues. 9. Autocratic leaders usually remain unpopular and damage working relationships with colleagues. This management fashion is unsuited to construct trusting relationships.

Application of Autocratic Leadership Style

A critique of autocratic leadership style reveals that it remains finest suited in sure situations corresponding to: 1. Occasions when the scenario requires a powerful centralized management with detailed orders and instructions, corresponding to within the army or during surgery. 2. When leading an extremely giant group, corresponding to in meeting line factories, where the wide span of management not solely makes it inconceivable but in addition counterproductive to elicit the views of all workers. 3. When followers are new or inexperienced, or lack the skills, abilities, or talent to reply to any participative leadership types, or stay unmotivated, and non dedicated employees. 4. During occasions of contingencies, emergencies and different situations warranting on the spot decisions.

5. When dealing or negotiating with external agencies or departments. The autocratic management fashion on the whole stays a short-term or quick repair strategy to administration. The capacity to make decisions quicker, whereas serving to the organization in the brief time period, truly unskills the workforce resulting in poor decision-making functionality and productivity in the long run. This leadership fashion survives by default because it comes naturally to most leaders, particularly in instances of low morale or insubordination.

Case Study Business Leadership – A Study on Steve Jobs

Executive Summary

This task makes an attempt to study the leadership of Steve Jobs. A visionary innovator, a marketing guru and an autocratic chief admired by many. The first part of the assignment will study and analyse how Jobs management is similar to the traits and models present in textbooks. Jobs is analysed by using McGregor’s principle X & Y. Jobs management traits and skills are compared with Stogdill’s theory whereas additionally taking a glance at how Jobs utilized contingency principle. The reports studies how Jobs changed Apple’s path from an ailing firm to a client giant. When Jobs speaks, everyone stops and listens to him, be it a meeting or a Worldwide Developer Conference. Jobs just had the charisma to capture people’s consideration. Jobs autocratic management fashion was accepted by his staff, some could not have appreciated it however they stood with him and the corporate and by no means regretted their decision. The research also discovered Jobs to be a meticulous perfectionist.

Jobs never approves a product with out fully testing them, him being a beta tester for all of Apple’s product had made sure Apple delivered what the market needed. The second part of this research is about to look at the differences and examine the management abilities of Steve Jobs, Michael Dell and Bill Gates. Jobs’ leadership expertise had been completely different from each Dell and Gates. Jobs lead Apple to its height along with his own aptitude. His leadership fashion and character was unique and at occasions appears inappropriate nevertheless it has introduced only optimistic progress to Apple and its workers. All three of them are iconic leaders, brought advancement to the group they based and strive for nothing lesser than the best. Finally, the examine suggests and recommends what Jobs might have adopted to be a greater leader.

Background of Apple Inc

The corporate historical past of Apple Inc is considered as a history of passion. It was begun by a pair of Stevens, i.e. Steven Wozniak and Steven Jobs along with Ronald Wayne, who mixed their professional expertise to create Apple Computer on 1st April 1976 with the release of the Apple I, the primary Apple pc, in the same yr. Since the institution, Apple has been specializing in the patron electronics, computer software, and personal computer systems and the best-known merchandise embody Iphone, Ipad, Mac line of computers and different hardware and software program products. And in accordance one of the most current brand research carried out by the worldwide manufacturers company Millward Brown, Apple has overtaken Google because the world’s most valuable brand ( 2011).

Introduction to Steve Jobs

A revolutionary chief, an innovator of technology and a charismatic grasp showman, is the phrases that can be utilized to explain Steve Paul Jobs. Jobs has portrayed fantastic examples of management all through his career. Being a younger boy, he was attracted to electronic gadgets. Jobs has always been exploring means to improve technology. His ideas was mentioned to be unimaginable and impractical has proven many critics and even his workers wsrong (Elliot, 2011a). Throughout his profession he has influenced many leaders to hitch his staff of progressive work drive, particularly John Scully, Jay Elliot, Andy Hertzfeld, Larry Tessler and Bob Belleville (Elliot, 2011b).

During his teenage life, the love for technology introduced him and Steve Wozniak together. The duo later went on to begin Apple (Isaacson, 2011a). Jobs has then lead Apple, Next and Pixar to their peak bringing futuristic inventions. Jobs was a fantastic marketer, captivating hundreds of thousands of audience every time he’s delivering a speech. Barrack Obama describes Jobs as a visionary, and amongst the best innovators of America (, 2011).

Steve Jobs’ management styles do match the theories from the textual content books and documented papers. Most of his qualities and traits if not all are linked to the theories from the text books. There are a small variety of traits and qualities present in his management that opposes to the theories of text books however Jobs has managed to make use of his charisma and management expertise to lead his followers and make them profitable. McGregor and Gershenfeld (2006) have explained Theory X and Y Managers.

Appendix 2 reveals the distinction between Theory X and Theory Y people. Jobs is a Theory X supervisor, being self centred, emphasizing whole control and inducing fear (Stewart, 2010). Jobs believes the expenditure of physical and mental effort is as pure as play or relaxation, this is seen his act of forming a group of proficient and devoted.

William, Mchugh & Mchugh, (2006) states that autocratic leaderships imply making managerial choices without consulting others. Jobs held on to his authorities, makes decision and expects his staff to comply with them with out being questioned. Jobs additionally displays that his instruction are followed by his employees. The autocratic management style has helped Apple to make fast decision and have an organized flow of activities. Job autocratic type is nicely balanced by his charismatic management, on a rare sight Jobs was also seen giving pep talk to an underperforming staff and subsequently inspiring him. Jobs was always making an attempt to do his best for the betterment of the product and firm and that went on to make Apple the corporate with the lowest employees turnover charges amongst know-how corporations. Jobs have portrayed self-directions to attain dedicated goals to his employees and he demanded the same from them.

Elliot (2011d) states that Jobs has demanded sixteen hours work shift Monday to Sunday from his core group of builders and engineers, Jobs additionally would tell them to not hassle coming to work on Monday if they didn’t flip up on weekends. Since younger, Jobs was identified by his mother and father and acquaintance for his creativity, high stage ingenuity and creativeness, even his pranks as a rising teenager. Jobs was additionally persuasive, throughout his comeback to Apple in 1997, he did a quantity of evaluation sessions with the product team and key stakeholders. And upon completing them he has ordered all other products to be cancelled and to give attention to his suggestion of latest products consisting 4 quadrants labelled as shopper, pro, desktop and portable (HBR, 2012). Jobs’ power of influence was enormous, not solely to the patron but also his influence to other CEO’s. His influential power and leadership abilities can be clearly seen when he advised Larry Page to solely concentrate on 5 merchandise at a time and discard the remaining. Larry Page took his advice and informed his staff to focus on Google+ and Android (HBR, 2012).

This had proven favourable to Google. As of 1st quarter of 2012, 59% of smart phones shipped are Google’s’ Android powered operating system (Forbes, 2012a), Appendix four reveals the market share of cell phone by operating system. There is nothing that is much less essential for Jobs. The design of a product and its performance is as necessary as the method in which a worker at an Apple store treats its clients. Jobs demonstrates this by going to one particular store in Pasadena to examine the new tiling work, being a perfectionist, Jobs wasn’t happy with the tiles and also the workmanship. He ordered the work crew to tear up the flooring and demanded a whole redo (Elliot, 2011f). Jobs perfectionist perspective was also seen throughout his takeover of Pixar. During the production of Toy Story, Jobs felt that the storyline was not nice enough and stopped the manufacturing for five months. While Jobs and his core staff reworked the story line, Job paid the relaxation of the crew to do nothing for five month (Jobs, 2008).

Jobs portrays the traits of a traditional transactional leader, Jobs makes use of his authority and power of his management to make use of followers to complete his task (Burns, 1978). This is seen when Jobs took over the Macintosh growth group after being kicked off Lisa. Jobs took over the staff with no discover, he added new people to the group, known as meeting and setting new instructions. Despite the usage of keyboard to command the machine, Jobs wanted a control gadget to maneuver the cursor, to click on, drag and display an inventory of choices, the group was not advised how, however they knew only what Jobs needed Jobs is stuffed with ambition and achievement, when Jobs was sacked from his personal company by John Scully, a frontrunner that Jobs handpicked, Jobs started Pixar, together with his management and advertising skills, Jobs later offered Pixar to Disney for USD 7.5 billion in 2006 (Anon, 2008). Jobs was additionally liable for his motion, when the Mac was virtually completed for launch, Jobs informed his engineers to remove the fan from the machine as a end result of it was too noisy and asked it to be improvised.

The engineers went on to ship the Mac without cooling fan and upon launching the Mac had overheating problems. Jobs took duty and went on to improvise the design and efficiently made a quiet operating machine Managing change is commonly an unpleasant scenario to be in for any human being. Returning to Apple after a decade, Jobs turned an ailing firm to an organization with stock valuation of USD 600 billion (CNN Money, 2012). Rogers, (1986) counsel particular person typically may be divided into 5 categories consisting innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards. Jobs was solely interested in the innovators and early adopter to a sure extent.

Jobs achieved this by deciding on and motivating his own management group, some of his administration group members are his followers from previous firm. Jobs told them to create innovative merchandise and to think out of the box. He wanted the products to face out from the present market offerings (CNN Money, 2008). Every scenario is subjective and wishes a personal influence of the chief. Jobs practised empowerment in his leadership, Jobs coaches his core staff, counselled them, motivated them and at the same time was strict to them. Jobs has powerful folks abilities. Elliot, (2011j) justified this by saying Apple has the bottom staff turnover price within the trade.

Leadership behaviours of Steve Jobs

In the early time before Steve Jobs left Apple, he led the company utilizing a laissez-faire management style that was believed to contribute the creation of the technology-based merchandise and plenty of of which proved to be fairly profitable due to the surroundings introduced by the laissez-faire leadership fashion and such surroundings did encourage the creativity of the staff (Pride, Hughes & Kapoor 2011, p.170). But there are also constrains of utilizing laissez-faire management such as that it’s confirmed as being connected with the reason for low productivity (Bass, B. M., Bass, R. & Bass, R. R. 2008, p.451). As for Apple, the laissez-faire leadership fashion of Steve Jobs become to some extent ineffective and had made the corporate in drawback when competing with IBM after IBM’s entry into the PC market. And this was one of many key the reason why Jobs was changed by the robust John Scully who was known as a top-down determination maker (Clemens & Meyer 1987).

And after his return to Apple in 1996 when Apple announced that it might buy NeXT, Steve Jobs’ new company for $429 million, Steve Jobs got here with the leadership with some differences. He nonetheless requested for perfection and he was manipulative and demanding which his staff described as “autocratic” but such autocratic leadership was focusing on the important thing project as himself was quoted saying that “My job is to not be easy on individuals. My job is to make them better. My job is to drag things collectively from totally different elements of the corporate and clear the ways and get the resources for the necessary thing projects” (Kramer 2010).

Though laissez-faire leadership style and autocratic leadership conduct appears to be contradicting, they do co-exist in Steve Jobs’s administration practices because the CEO of Apple which individuals explained as Steve Job is having a personalized management which means that his management behaviors serves primarily his personal pursuits and obviously money just isn’t crucial factor that he cares about leading to his only focusing on the necessary thing tasks in his imaginative and prescient leaving his different leadership roles untouched.

Recommendations for Steve Jobs

Jobs was a visionary, an instance of great leader. Below are suggestion and recommendations how Jobs might have been a better leader. Jobs devoted his life to work and his obligation as a CEO. He lacked emotional intelligence, he doesn’t care how others really feel and does not wish to take heed to them speaking the rest apart from work. He solely listened to their ideas and the way it can help Apple develop (Kahney, 2008b). Davenport, (2008) described Jobs as corporate dictator who makes each determination, up to the extent of the meals being served in cafeteria. Jobs ought to have opened himself to suggestion and enchancment plans by his workers, this is not going to solely help quicker remedy setting but additionally produce a better environment for the staff. Jobs classifies everybody into solely two classes, it’s both a 3 digit IQ individual or someone who does not measure up. Jobs should not stereotype people neither judge them without giving them an opportunity.

Jobs was a feared in Apple, employees would stammer whereas talking to him, this does not means they aren’t smart or they are unproductive but this is due to the image Jobs has created for himself. However, this has also created a cult like devotion of Apple employees towards Jobs. Jobs may have been a extra sincere man, as this also displays to his management, and as a leader it is by no means a great publicity to be caught lying or dishonest as this reflects for a really lengthy time, in Jobs scenario, two important examples which continues to be being discussed is when Jobs denied paternity, claiming he was sterile and infertile, this has made Lisa, the women he impregnate to reside out of welfare (CNN Money, 2008) and another one is when Jobs lied to his companion, Wozniak when they successfully created a recreation call Breakout for Atari, Jobs was given a bonus of $5000 however Jobs only informed Wozniak they received $750 (Businessweek, 2006).

Jobs is also known for being brief tempered and using abusive language to his employees, he typically scolds them and uses foul languages, (CNN Money, 2011). This does not promote a conducive environment to work in as Jobs scolds his employees in public and in front of their subordinates. This also will lead to low morale in individual and possible situation of resignation. Jobs also should portray good qualities not only as a business leader but in addition as a great human being. Not giving again to the society is something of Jobs’s notion and choice. Kahney, (2008c) has talked about that Jobs likes to park at handicapped spot and at occasions even taking as much as 2 spots. Kahney even had a number of pictures of Jobs’s parking etiquette. Leaders are supposed to be adopted, but by portraying bad examples and contrary moral practices defeats the aim of a pacesetter.


Jobs was a transformational chief, he introduced change to Apple, challenged the stakeholders and demanded his employee’s to attain impossible objectives (Bryant, 2003). His autocratic management fashion was totally different from the opposite leaders. He was a demanding perfectionist and by no means took no for a solution. Steve grew up in a median family surroundings but he achieved what very few can come near. His perseverance and never say no perspective has brought him and Apple to an unimaginable peak. His leadership was deemed unhealthy by some critics but Jobs did not take the critics instead went to show them mistaken.

This research has analysed the traits and management quality of Jobs, compared him with leaders in Information Technology field and to critically analyse them. Jobs has dedicated his complete life to technological improvement, his research and growth in Apple isn’t ending vouching for improvement and delivering one of the best expertise for both business and company users. His diverse journey in different fields proves that Jobs just isn’t a quitter and will not failure have an effect on him one bit. Jobs would come again from a fall stronger than ever.

This research also has confirmed that Jobs isn’t solely a genius creator, however a visionary chief and a advertising guru. His advertising and promotional campaigns have by no means didn’t create one other benchmark. His presentation and speeches has gathered another humongous group of followers mesmerized by his session. Marketing and public relation organizations have began to develop coaching courses to dub and emulate Jobs’s presentation technique. Jobs a true genius, made his mark and conquered the world of mobility. He shall be significantly missed, looked up as an idol and eternally be the father of Apple.


Autocratic management is one of the forms of administration which is utilized in companies and organizations everywhere in the world. Autocratic management isn’t thought-about as a favourable approach in modern-day leadership, however it can still be seen in practice and is a broadly discussed management mannequin, it’s also one of the accepted kinds of management.