Attitudinal Behaviour

Purpose – In order to classify people based mostly on their needs, this paper aims to contemplate both self-stated attitudes and behaviours in a comprehensive range of daily financial affairs. Furthermore, it aims to study the impacts of socio-demographic variables such as gender, age, and training. Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire was answered by 1,282 respondents within the German-speaking a part of Switzerland. Factor analysis revealed five parts. Based on these elements a two-step cluster evaluation (Ward and K-means analyses) identified distinct subgroups. Linear regressions have been used to analyze the impacts of socio-demographic variables.

Findings – Factor analysis revealed five underlying dimensions of financial attitudes and behaviour: anxiety, pursuits in financial issues, decision kinds, want for precautionary financial savings, and spending tendency. Cluster evaluation segmented the respondents into five subgroups primarily based on these dimensions with an ascending order of specific wants for financial products. Gender, age, and schooling had been discovered to have significant impacts. Research limitations/implications – Real consumption behaviour can’t be noticed by way of the survey, which limits the external validity of the study.

Practical implications – The segmentation identifies different levels of financial competence and needs for financial products. It permits financial service providers to offer simpler recommendation and to meet customers on their own stage to enhance private financial administration. Originality/value – Attitudes and behaviours in every day financial affairs are examined to disclose individuals’ financial competence and consequential product wants. A heterogeneous pattern covers a big selection of demographic teams. Keywords Personal finance, Savings, Questionnaires, Factor analysis, Cluster evaluation, Switzerland Paper sort Research paper

Introduction Everyone has to manage his or her private finance in a technique or one other.

Some tend to avoid wasting lots, some like to collect information before each purchase, some like to observe their intestine emotions. Private traders aren’t a homogeneous group but quite The authors wish to acknowledge the help of the University Research Priority Program “Finance and Financial Markets” of the University of Zurich and the National Centre of Competence in Research “Financial Valuation and Risk Management” (NCCR FINRISK), Project three, “Evolution and Foundations of Financial Markets”. In addition, they wish to thank the Swiss financial company that offered them with shopper knowledge and the anonymous referee for the helpful comments.

people with various financial practices combined with different ranges of experience, nervousness and interest in financial issues (Gunnarsson and Wahlund, 1997). In an increasingly aggressive marketplace, financial institutions want to stress customer relationships and the retention of existing customers that require an in-depth understanding of their attitudes and behaviours (Harrison and Ansell, 2002). The heterogeneous market is divided into smaller extra homogeneous groups to satisfy specific needs with a corresponding business model (Jenkins and McDonald, 1997). Market segmentation relies, in the financial industry, largely on socio-demographic info to define segments for specific providers (Harrison, 2000). It is questionable ¨ as to how applicable they are (Jorg, 2005), due to this fact on this research, selected aspects of financial affairs such as routines and attitudes are gathered to realize insights in course of significant behavioural patterns.

The goal on this analysis is to look at the extent to which a broad vary of private traders can be classified into a small variety of clusters so as to study group-specific wants in financial affairs. More than 1,200 participants in Switzerland have answered our questionnaire with a response rate of 79 per cent. Unlike another studies in this field (e.g. Lim and Teo, 1997; Wood and Zaichkowsky, 2004), this survey isn’t limited to students, however includes a broader vary of the public. Instead of focusing solely on financial savings behaviour (EBRI, 2002; MacFarland et al., 2003), the current research embraces a wider scope of daily financial considerations. Thereby factor evaluation exposes five underlying dimensions: anxiousness, pursuits in financial points, determination styles, want for precautionary financial savings, and spending tendency.

We demonstrate that our respondents can, based on these dimensions, be classified into five distinct groups by cluster analysis where from cluster I to V, the need for motion for a better dealing with of financial matters increases: for example, the “Gut-feeling followers” present a intuitive means of determination taking, disinterest in financial subjects and a lack of knowledge for the need of provision which make it difficult to argue for or to provoke remedial action. Each cluster raises key issues in assembly their wants and permits for guidance to design and adapt instruments to assist in specific financial requirements. To illustrate how financial behaviour may be modified to improve personal finance specifically for every group, examples from the realm of retirement savings, an essential a part of every day financial administration, are chosen (Clark-Murphy and Soutar, 2005).

Linear regression further reveals that the clusters highlight socio-demographic characteristics and help generate a better understanding, although one socio-demographic issue alone does not provide sufficient info to detect cluster membership. The primary theoretical contribution of this paper is that we segment the traders primarily based on the revealed dimensions in attitudes (e.g., level of anxiety), along with the self-stated finance-related behavioural sample (e.g., spending tendency). In this way we could identify the specific needs and supply different companies to every subgroup. Theoretical background and literature evaluation Individuals present considerable deviation from the expectation of rational behaviour implied by financial fashions (Barberis, 2003). Being conscious of the empirical limitations of the homo economicus model for exploring the behaviour of private individuals, behavioural finance broadens the view by combining information from psychology and economics (Camerer and Loewenstein, 2004). Our study belongs to this space.

However, as an alternative of specializing in specific anomalies and biases that people succumb to, such as overconfidence and procrastination (Biais et al., 2005; O’Donoghue and Rabin, 1998), we broaden the scope underneath evaluate by studying common patterns when coping with financial issues. Market segmentation In the financial services business, market segmentation is a standard technique to understand higher and serve the diverse customer base with its wide-ranging wants and various behaviours (Speed and Smith, 1992). Competitive pressures from deregulation of the financial companies market enhance the requirement for market orientation and a more intimate information of the market and its segments (Gunnarsson and Wahlund, 1997). Previous research has shown that there are various benefits from taking a segmented approach to the marketplace: a better serving of buyer necessities; a tailoring of choices; and better buyer satisfaction (Harrison and Ansell, 2002).

It can improve customer retention and create loyalty and long-term relationships that positively have an result on performance (Martenson, 2008). Market segmentation goals to recognise patterns of financial behaviour, identified by studied section predictors to group people into segments based on their product wants (Harrison, 2000). Yet, advertising in the financial providers business today remains to be predominantly primarily based on socio-demographic options like gender and age which are straightforward to determine and straightforward to use within the composition of teams (Machauer and Morgner, 2001). A prediction of needs from socio-demographic traits can’t be assumed; subsequently these broadly used a priori segmentations are beneath evaluate (Speed and Smith, 1992). In distinction, publish hoc methods entail the grouping of respondents in accordance with their responses to specific variables, specializing in buyer motivations (i.e. needs/behaviour) that are extra likely to lead to a service based mostly on particular person want (Durkin, 2005).

In analysis, behavioural segmentation is more and more discovered (Elliott and Glynn, 1998; Soper, 2002), though researchers continue to concentrate on the financial behaviour of specific teams and selective variables ¨ (Warneryd, 2001). This research focuses on the overall population, giving a extra holistic view of personal financial management activities and taking attitudes and behaviour into consideration. Individual investors The literature on individual financial behaviour typically focuses narrowly on specific ¨ areas similar to risk attitudes (Warneryd, 1999; Wood and Zaichkowsky, 2004) or saving (Normann and Langer, 2002; Thaler and Benartzi, 2004).

Other fields of research target investment in securities (Barber and Odean, 2001; Brennan, 1995; Keller and Siegrist, 2006) or focus on specific segments such as occupational teams (e.g., dentists and ¨ managers (Jorg, 2005)). Specific financial issues or situations, nevertheless, are not indicative of an individual’s behavioural and attitudinal disposition towards finance. Rather an interest in finances or having sure habits associated to managing one’s financial means could certainly be a moderating factor to find out about behaviours and wishes (Loix et al., 2005). The attitudes and behaviours toward finances regarded in this examine focus on individual financial management behaviour. It is a subject with essential implications that has not been sufficiently examined in financial and financial behavioural studies (Loix et al., 2005).

The subject isn’t coated by the in depth research on individual’s attitudes and habits in direction of money, as such studies give attention to the which means of cash (Lim and Teo, 1997) or basic values regarding cash generally as an summary concept (Raich, 2008), and not on an individuals’ methods of coping with his or her personal finance. Previous studies of private traders have used primarily behaviour-based standards or attitudes and do not combine each aspects (Keller and Siegrist, 2006) that are the focus of this study. This research just isn’t product-linked but wider ranging in that it examines the self-stated financial attitudes and behavior of particular person traders. Attitudes and behaviours A incessantly discussed question in research is to what extent attitudes predict behaviour. A direct relationship between attitudes and behaviour has typically been found to be weak, however difficulties in finding a strong relationship might derive from ¨ variations in definition and measurement (Warneryd, 1999).

The extra specific the perspective is the higher are the possibilities of finding a substantial correlation with behaviour if behaviour can be defined as a specific act (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980). Therefore, defined questions or attitudes can have predictive power and a greater correlation of perspective to-wards behaviour has been confirmed in research (in a complete ´ meta-analysis: Glasman and Albarracın, 2006; Tesser and Shaffer, 1990). A additional question is the benefit of information concerning behaviour. Whilst behaviour changes over time, there’s a well-liked assertion that “past behaviour is the best predictor of future behaviour” (Ajzen, 1991, p. 202). It is a reflection of these concepts that leads to attitudes and behaviour being explored in this paper. Financial needs segmentation Several typologies in regards to the financial affairs of personal traders could be discovered in the earlier literature, but with extra specific approaches: segmentations are primarily based on financial maturity and data (Harrison, 1994), provision for retirement (Gough and Sozou, 2005) or financial savings methods (Gunnarsson and Wahlund, 1997).

Loix et al. (2005) come closest to the focus of this study with the query of orientation towards finances however their goal is to develop a measurement scale for individual’s financial management. In this study, we look at the self-stated financial attitudes and behavior through a broader foundation and don’t limit ourselves only to questions concerning threat or saving. We apply the methodology of cluster analysis to determine groups of private buyers to find a way to get hold of perception into the implementing or modifying of specific behaviour. Cluster analysis has turn into a typical tool in advertising and is a well-adopted technique for market segmentation as properly as the applied issue analysis apparent in this paper (Punj and Stewart, 1983).

The goal of the present examine is to obtain a greater understanding of people’s wants in financial issues to provide sufficient services and products. This research, primarily based on financial service consumers, identifies distinct motivational clusters that were independent of the more established socio-demographic segmentation variables used in focusing on and communicating by financial establishments. This research demonstrates that, by segmenting respondents on the premise of a broader range of financial attitudes and behavior, a yield of clearly interpretable profiles could be realised and is useful to determine those people in most want of skilled financial recommendation. This analysis suggests that customer’s financial profiles could additionally be helpful in predicting their response to new products as nicely as persuading them to make use of current companies for the specific benefits they value. Participants and questionnaire The data come from a questionnaire that was completed by 1,282 respondents from various areas of the German-speaking a half of Switzerland.

The respondents have been recruited from two sources: fifty three per cent of the participants (n ¼ 680) were clients looking for consulting recommendation from a Swiss financial planning company, along with participants in courses in financial coaching throughout the same firm (convenient sample). The second supply was employed to keep away from a consumer bias in the research. A total of 602 research subjects (47 per cent of the whole study) have been identified through a mixture of “quota[1] and snowball[2] sampling procedures” (Vogt, 2005) so that its composition by means of intercourse, age, and different demographic traits got here close to reflecting the respective proportions in Switzerland. Although not each member of the inhabitants is equally likely to be chosen, the pattern is composed of all kinds of backgrounds.

The range came from such teams as members in a study relating to financial literacy, and from different sources such as a nursing house, a gaggle of college students, a bunch of academics, company employees from 4 Swiss corporations unrelated to the financial companies sector, a bunch of self-employed individuals, members in a course for the unemployed, and a bunch made up of oldsters. The questionnaire was designed in German. Participants were first requested to offer their self-assessment by answering 17 questions on their financial behavioural apply or angle in direction of financial affairs.

The response format is a five-point-Likert-type scale with “absolutely” and “not at all” at the two ends of the question spectrum. Subsequently, the questionnaire incorporates questions concerning socio-demographic variables such as age, gender, career stage, and education[3]. The age of individuals ranges from 18 to eighty four years old, with fifty eight.9 per cent between 36 and 65 years old (n ¼ 755). The pure demographic steadiness of men and women is reflected within the sample with forty nine.3 per cent males (n ¼ 632) and 50.7 per cent girls (n ¼ 650).

The proportion of individuals with a college diploma or equal is forty six.6 per cent (n ¼ 598), whereas 33.8 per cent individuals (n ¼ 433) obtained an apprenticeship (up to five years). There are 14.5 per cent individuals (n ¼ 186) who have a high school diploma as the highest academic degree, whereas 5.1 per cent individuals (n ¼ 65) have only attended secondary school. There are 10.5 per cent (n ¼ 135) participants who have been learning at a college or at another institute of higher training at the time of our survey. Methodology and outcomes Factor evaluation As the first step we carried out an exploratory issue analysis, a principal element evaluation, in order to decide the underlying dimensions of the financial attitudes and behavioural tendencies. The chosen resolution with five principal parts was constructed using the varimax rotation method and might clarify fifty three.three per cent of the total variance. Different opinions concerning what constitutes a high loading are discovered in the literature, e.g. zero.3 (Gardner, 2001). Here, the rotated issue loading of zero.5 was chosen as a threshold.

Analysis of Starbucks coffee company’ employees misunderstanding utilizing organizational behaviour approach

Analysis of Starbucks coffee company’ staff misunderstanding utilizing organizational behaviour approach

Introduction

            In each organization, organization behaviour is very important in any respect levels of employees from administration to employees. Organizational behaviour deals the research of personality of individuals or characteristic of a gaggle in an organization together with inner processes of a company so as to determine the effectiveness of the organization or develop a solution (Hellriegel, & Slocum, 2010 p.

5). It helps folks to work together, understand each other and discover solution to behavioural problems, which culminate in improved working environment thus resulting to improved productivity.

Therefore, it is necessary for administration to ensure that effective employees accepted behaviour is maintained throughout the organization. It is essential to understand group behaviour so that decision making course of and necessities of workers are addressed in one of the best ways that wouldn’t have an effect on efficiency of an organization (Mullins, 2013 p. 77). This paper will contain solving group problem that faced Starbucks Coffee Company in 2005. The problem involved misunderstandings between workers and administration leading to communication downside in the company, which significantly affected its productivity in New Zealand (Mark, 2013 p.

10). The problem triggered workers dissatisfaction and lack of motivation and thus giving poor companies that in flip decreased production output and thus the company making losses. The misunderstanding between employees and management led to change of employees’ behaviour and so it was important to alter their behaviour in order to notice the productiveness of the corporate. Employees’ dissatisfaction and misunderstanding in an organization causes low dedication from workers thus affecting the performance of an organization (Hellriegel, & Slocum, 2010 p. 502). Although the problem could be addressed utilizing numerous organizational techniques corresponding to organizational growth, organizational behaviour strategy remained the best approach to find the answer of the matter in order to improve the effectiveness of the corporate.

            Starbucks coffee firm is a multinational company (MNC) that was started in Seattle in 1971 (Starbucks Coffee Company, 2014 b Company Information. Starbucks Coffee Company). The company specialises in coffee and coffee merchandise. It has its shops established throughout the six continents with a lot of the market being concentrated in America, Europe and Asia. The firm has more than 15,000 shops in additional than 50 countries in six continents. The company efficiency and productiveness increased steadily over years turning into among the best coffee promoting company in the world. It continued progress and growth led to opening of a brand new store in New Zealand in 1998 (Starbucks coffee firm, 2014 a Extends the Starbucks brand into grocery channels across the U.S. Launches Starbucks.com). In New Zealand, Starbucks has more than 29 stores and over 3,seven hundred workers serving greater than 60,000 clients every day operating underneath restaurant Brands franchise (Starbucks Coffee Company, 2014 c Starbucks Coffee Company New Zealand; Restaurant Brands, 2014 About Us-Restaurant brands). Similarly, the shop in New Zealand has improved progress and development giving it benefit in the market. However, poor administration in 2005 led to it making losses due to misunderstanding between staff and administration. Communication barrier caused by misunderstandings had been the major causes of its poor performance (Phillips, & Gully, 2012 p. 497).

            The company’s group culture involves revolutionary merchandise such as wifi espresso home and employees motivation via reward and enticing remunerations. Similarly, the corporate advocated for organizational culture where highly educated employees give top quality providers to shoppers through exceptional performances that has rewards (Moncarz, Zhao, & Kay, 2009 p. 447). This tradition has enabled the company to have aggressive advantage and have the power to command a big share of market in all its stores opened throughout the globe. New Zealand is certainly one of the openings that has also had an exceptional development and contributed to the growth of the company. However, the growth was halt in 2005 when the company suffered loss that was brought on by misunderstanding between varied ranges of administration. The misunderstanding was a result of a choice made by the management not to improve their wages to $ 12 per hour as workers had requested. The company has additionally been said to discriminate its staff by giving low wages as evidenced in Starbucks shops in New York (Bussing-Burks, 2009 p. 90). The decision affected the connection between workers and administration. Moreover, the efficiency of the staff was negatively affected and consequently the behaviour of the staff changed from the culture of exceptional performance and high quality providers to employees thus affecting the company’s efficiency.

            In every group, workers and managements operate under a pre-established behaviour that ensures its effectiveness. A optimistic behaviour have to be maintained or improved so as to improve the performance of the company (Luthans, & Youssef, 2007 p. 337). Therefore, the management must guarantee an optimum enterprise setting is highly maintained in order to take care of the behaviour of employees’ at the simplest and productive stage. Consequently, administration ought to try to maintain their administration behaviour as a outcome of their behaviour can affect that of the staff (Gelf, Erez, & Aycan, 2007 p. 494). The combination of this behaviour in direction of the effectiveness of a corporation ensures that a constructive culture is maintained and that the organization is ready to keep its productiveness, growth and development. Similarly, solutions to crises are easily laid off.

            In order to address this problem, organizational behaviour models or theories have been helpful in encouraging the employees and administration to change their behaviours and adapt their past or new behaviour that may guarantee effectiveness within the firm. Some theoretical approaches to this downside included techniques, neo-human relations, decision-making, scientific management, human relations, and bureaucratic method (Mullins, 2013 p. 43). The organizational behaviour models are important in addressing human behaviours and understandings their relations for efficient implementation of changes that might ensure company’s productiveness in maintained and improved.

            Neo-human relations method entails how an organization is ready to define buildings of administration in a way that it is ready to encourage workers via satisfying their fundamental wants and giving enticing remunerations. The mannequin helps in addressing employees’ dissatisfaction (Mawhinney, 2011 p. 313). In addition, the method focuses on the wants to deal with to the employees’ issues such as salary increment and other needs. An organization that uses this approach is prepared to keep it excessive predominance and progress. A resolution to the problem at Starbucks coffee company required management adapt to neo-human method by ensuring that the wants of the staff could possibly be attended. The solution might be realised if administration may improve plan to increase the wage of the staff to $ 12. The increment might be promised to be carried out in phases so that the financial performance of the company wouldn’t be affected. Consequently, employees’ motivation may b e achieved that could results in elevated productiveness of the company. However, leaving the situation without a answer would end in strikes, which might further have an result on the reputation of the corporate as well as workers decreased performance. Organization that does not perceive the behaviour of the workers fails to meet the wants of employees and this will likely cause passive participation and resistance rather than work (Bloisi, Cook, & Hunsaker, 2007 p. 113). Strikes coupled to employees’ underperformance could greatly have an effect on the company and might cause its collapse if an immediate action could probably be delayed. From this approach, the duties of leaders are to be sure that the goals of workers are achieved so that they’ll facilitate the achievement of the company’s goals (Bratton, 2010 p. 200).

            Decision making model would even be an important method to handle the issue with Starbucks coffee company. In decision making model, a decision that’s arrived at isn’t a essentially an optimum answer but an answer that benefits all of the parties and improve the performance of the corporate (Klein, 2008 p. 457). The decision making model optimise the change of behaviour that’s aim oriented. The manner by which a choice is made is essential in an organization (Griffin, & Moorhead, 2013 p. 215). An organization that is able to make moral decisions have high doubtless hood of succeeding and reaching high development. Poor decision making leads to poor administration and misunderstanding between the administration and employees and end up affecting the efficiency of the company negatively (Stein, 2010 p. 87). This is what was skilled in Starbucks Company in 12 months 2005. The decision to say no to lift the payments of employees with no major purpose or a proper communication brought on the administration to search out themselves in a disaster of management and efficiency of the corporate. The drawback can be addressed via moral determination making process the place all of the stakeholders are involved in determination making (Punnett, 2009 p. 31). In moral choice making, the views of the employees may have been addressed and that of the corporate ending up in a compromising situation where each events points are met in agreement.

            The determine 1 above exhibiting a call making downside that helps a corporation to restrict unethical choices that could affect the efficiency of the company. The determination to say no wage increment was alleged to comply with all the steps whereas involving stakeholders and thus the choice would not have affected the employees’ behaviour.

            The drawback in Starbucks could also be addressed using scientific management model. In this mannequin, the effectivity in work place can be monitored and adjusted accordingly utilizing varied leadership skills such as charisma (Nelson, & Quick, 2012 p. 443). The mannequin is helpful in understanding the target and objectives of the corporate so that each problem or problem is addressed in accordance to the goal of the company (Borkowski, 2011 p. 201). In this model, managers are the general supervisors of the company and that they need to ensure that the corporate doesn’t lose for his or her mismanagement. For this cause, managers assign job to workers and monitor in order that they can give an output of a high quality work. Therefore, the management was accountable to manage the work of workers throughout in order that they might have made sure that every worker was productive and thus preventing underperformances during the crisis period (Punnett, 2009). The strategy makes certain that the goal of the corporate is at all times on the focus and so its progress isn’t compromised regardless of the issue. Starbucks management had failed to utilize this strategy they usually left the corporate to be controlled by staff changed behaviour thus low efficiency. The mannequin is important to each firm that is going through employees’ efficiency disaster so that they performance of the corporate remain on focus.

            The determine 2 above shows the mannequin for scientific leadership models. The choice that is made is targeted on the result as proven in the determine above. All the opposite elements ought to be considered guaranteeing that aim of the company isn’t compromised.

            Human relations or group behavioural concept is another model that’s finest for addressing the problem at Starbucks. It bias necessary for a corporation to grasp the behaviour of staff apart from economic worth corresponding to wages (Netting, & O’Connor, 2013 human relations). How staff relate with each other in place of work determines their performance in places of labor and known as “Hawthorne Effect” (Dalton, Hoyle, & Watts, 2011 P. 13). The mannequin was discovered to be operational in both informal and formal organization. A good relation between workers and administration permits clean choice making leading to quick and higher solution. In addition, good interpersonal relation in a company helps to improve the efficiency of workers and staff (Reece, 2014 p. 5). This mannequin would have allowed the management to make appropriate choice on the employees pay and stop misunderstanding thus sustaining the efficiency of the company.

            System model would also be necessary in addressing misunderstanding problem that led to poor performance of Starbucks coffee company. In this strategy the corporate is ready to measure the output in respect to inner operations. The management is ready to monitor all of the production processes and be able to consider the efficiency of the company on the basis of employees’ productivity (Mbanote, 2011 Models of organizational behaviour). Therefore, the management would have been able to realise that there was a problem earlier than hand and make use of numerous management expertise before an issue could erupt. When productiveness of workers decline, the management finds the instant cause and addresses the issue giving an instantaneous and effective choice (Noble, 2014 p. 15). The problem of workers fee would have been addressed before the company could make losses through low productiveness. Consequently, the employees wouldn’t have reached to the extent of dissatisfaction and reduced performance. Thereby, the efficiency of the corporate would not have been affected.

            Contingency model is one other essential organizational behaviour concept that was useful for Starbucks coffee company. In contingency model, a scenario forces adaptation of one of the best leadership abilities (Tushman, & Romanelli, 2008 p. 174). In other phrases, it’s situational leadership expertise that chief are capable of creating to have the ability to regulate their leadership and relationship behaviour to handle the situation at hand. The model was developed by a administration theorist named Fred Fiedler in 1967 (Singh, 2010 p. 275). In Starbucks coffee company, the effectiveness of leaders in the prevailing situation was necessary in addressing employees’ dissatisfaction of their choice. The contingency fashions require leaders to adjust with the scenario in order that the performance of a corporation just isn’t affected. However, the management in Starbucks New Zealand Company compromised on the prevailing situation resulting in decreased performance of staff and productiveness of the company. The case required an instantaneous determination that might have maintained the motivation of employees and job satisfaction. An quick assembly with employees’ union leaders and addressing the problem would have stored the hope of workers a live and they’d have continued acting at their degree greatest thus the growth and productivity of the company would have been maintained. Moreover, reverse of the decision and initiation of a new process to make an alternate decision that might involve all of the employees’ representatives and different stakeholders would have calmed the scenario. This would have prevented workers from changing their behaviour and concentrate on the aim of the company to improve its productivity. Contingency model of leadership is considered one of organizational behaviour that has been tailored by many corporations that have found themselves in crisis and wishes to save the corporate (Zaccaro, 2007 P. 6).

            Bureaucracy mannequin is certainly one of the administration fashions that’s extremely utilized in Starbucks coffee company. The level of administration is divided in ranges of management and this make it difficult for workers to work together with the top management instantly. The excessive stage of paperwork serves as an obstacle of employees to air their grievances and thus any choice or problem should be addressed via a hierarchical process making it to take plenty of time (Greenberg, 2013 bureaucratic model-ideal types). In the case that occurred to Starbucks would have been solved in good time and minimized the effect that was caused by the situation. However, the decision had to comply with a protocol that took plenty of time and a variety of the choices had been being objected at completely different ranges. Therefore, staff received impatient they usually began reiterating via low efficiency and low productiveness that affected greatly the efficiency of the corporate. Bureaucratic mannequin of group administration requires resolution to conditions that are not urgent and that could not affect the productiveness and effectiveness of the company (Boin, & Hart, 2007 p. 43). An pressing scenario requires fast determination making and action earlier than a company is affected negatively. Therefore, urgent answer was required in Starbuck and so bureaucratic mannequin was not acceptable.

Conclusion

            Organization behaviour is the examine how individual and groups of people interact with the interior processes of a corporation with respect to effectiveness of an organization. Starbucks coffee firm skilled a change in behaviour of staff in New Zealand after a misunderstanding on the increment of wages to $ 12 a day. The employees’ change of behaviour affected the effectiveness of the corporate resulting to poor financial performance. Therefore, it was needed for the corporate to use varied group behaviour fashions or theories in order to understand and address the change in behaviour so that the effectiveness of the company in providing companies and products might be resumed. Some of the fashions included neo-human relations, which entailed an strategy that ensured that management could have the flexibility to motivate employees by way of satisfying their basic needs and giving enticing remunerations that may lead to change of behaviour and thus affectivity in the firm. In addition, other models that were essential in addressing the problem at Starbuck had been human relations, contingency management mannequin, system mannequin, scientific management model, decision making model, and bureaucratic models. The fashions are necessary in shaping the management and workers behaviour towards efficient efficiency of the group. These models of organization behaviour didn’t come into play before the crisis and instantly after the disaster thus affecting the performance or the group negatively.

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Source document

Analysis of Carbon Market Price Behaviour

The mannequin evaluates EUA prices has attracted some researcher’s consideration. The evaluate of their methodology frameworks underlines two primary strands: the primary one proposes numerous regression fashions to explain the allowance costs by totally different economic and monetary determinants with variations within the information analysed (i.e. phases I, II and II).

These varying methods to explain the allowance costs can elucidate in part the completely different and, generally, contradictory results. In this sense, we find that the judgment of the authors could be associated to the trading section chosen (Chevallier, 2012, Creti et al.

, 2012; Rickels et al., 2015, amongst others) and the factors which seem to drive the carbon worth in addition to the necessary thing determinants of the price of EUAs (Fezzi and Bunn, 2009; Hintermann, 2010; Maydybura, 2011; Bredin and Muckley, 2011, amongst others).

Being conscious of the issues of assuming the EUA worth formation by way of a set of exogenous determinants, an alternative line of research (i.e. second strand) has focused on the stochastic properties of daily EUA spot prices and the appliance of models from monetary econometrics to EUA data.

Seifert et al. (2008), Daskalakis et al. (2009), Benz and Tr?ck (2009) and Hitzemann and Uhrig-Homburg (2013) which focus on the stochastic properties of every day price data and supply, amongst different things, proof for conditional heteroskedasticity.

Paolella and Taschini (2008) suggest combined GARCH fashions which allowed for the unconditional tail behaviour and heteroskedasticity in the EUA worth sequence. According to their outcomes, they have reported the validity of those fashions in capturing the price volatility at the finish of Phase I.

Seifert et al. (2008) use a stochastic equilibrium mannequin to analyse the dynamics of EUA spot costs.

Their main conclusion is that an EUAs pricing mannequin exhibits a time- and value volatility structure. Daskalakis et al. (2009) mannequin the consequences of abolishing banking on futures prices during Phase I and develop a framework for pricing and hedging of intra-phase and inter-phase futures and options on futures. Benz and Tr?ck (2009) advocate the utilization of Markov switching and GARCH models for the volatility evaluation of the EUA spot costs in Phase I.

Their outcomes help the energy of both fashions to emphasis the specific traits of the EUA time collection, corresponding to cyclic phases, volatility clustering, skewness, and extra kurtosis. Bao (2013) analyses the EUA end-of-day spot worth and real-time worth using the change point evaluation.

A key result’s that the EUAs spot value can be decomposed into two elements: a diffusion half which resembles white noise, and a jump part which could be linked to influential political news out there. It’s essential to notice that these studies that addressing the stochastic properties of EUAs prices are limited to information from Phase I.

It is feasible that the outcomes of the first section usually are not fully generalizable to different phases. In this context, Benschop et al. (2014) assist the performance of Markov Switching GARCH fashions to predict EUA log returns in the course of the second trading section.

Recall that these fashions are developed to capture some characteristics of knowledge such as the volatility clustering, breaks within the volatility course of and heavy-tailed distributions. Recently, Gil-Alana (2016) re-examines the behaviour of persistence in carbon emission allowance costs.

For this objective, they use day by day knowledge for the period between 2007-2014 and methods primarily based on the idea of long reminiscence accounting for structural breaks and non-linearities within the information.

Results point out that, while there is no proof of non-linearity, when allowing for structural breaks, the persistence of shocks to the carbon emission allowance is markedly reduced, with the identical being transitory for latest sub-samples. Similarly, M?lar et al. (2017) study structural breaks in the emission allowance worth process of the European Union Trading System but during Phase ? and Phase III. There is indeed a structural break between Phase II and Phase III.

However, there are a number of regimes within every of those phases. Moreover, the findings counsel that the high-volatility regimes are often the regimes with adverse common returns, whereas low-volatility regimes normally exhibit zero or positive average returns.

Yang et al. (2015) are the primary who introduce the leap results in modelling CO2 emission allowance costs. In explicit, they reveal that the dynamic bounce ARMA-GARCH model can provide extra accurate valuations of the CO2 emission allowance options on futures than different fashions in terms of a pricing error.

More recently, Daskalakis et al. (2019) investigate various well-liked diffusion and jump-diffusion processes used to explain commodity costs. The research covers knowledge of three main markets for emission allowances within the EU ETS: Powernext, Nord Pool and European Climate Exchange (ECX).

Their analysis means that the prohibition of banking of emission allowances between distinct phases of the EU ETS has important implications in terms of EUA futures pricing. Besides, the non-mean reverting fashions proposed by Merton (1976) are the more acceptable process.

Despite the outcomes of these research, it is very important note that this second strand of analysis specializing in monetary econometric statistics might have to be more prolonged to cover the trendy fashions that mirrored the properties and knowledge of EUAs. This present analysis is entered into this purpose.

AirAsia Consumer Behaviour

Introduction

AIRASIA:

AirAsia is a Malaysian firm, that launched the Low Cost Carrier service to the home market and ultimately the asian region. Currently AirAsia is the leader in this market segment. Before it becomes the AirAsia that everyone knows at present, AirAsia was a poorly carried out company owned by a government-link firm (GLC) in Malaysia, DRB-HICOM. In 2001, it was bought to the current owner, Tony Fernandes and its TuneAir company, for a sum of only RM1.00 or approximately US$0.30, together with its accrued debt of RM40 million (AirAsia, 2008).

Within two years, Tony Fernandes exceeds everyone’s expectations, and turned AirAsia to a revenue making firm. By the third 12 months it was listed in the Kuala Lumpur bourse with excellent IPO (initial Public Offer) of RM717.4 million (AirAsia, 2008).

In 2006, the AirAsia was given using LCCT terminal in Malaysia, as a result of its passenger load have expanded to such a capability. This project will describe how AirAsia, managed to become the corporate it’s today, started with a fleet of only one plane in 2001, to a fleet of seventy two aircrafts, flies over sixty one domestic and 108 international destinations, and operates over four hundred flights every day from hubs situated not solely in Malaysia, but also Thailand and Indonesia, and launched AirAsia X for longer haul flights with its wide-body aircrafts, via the eyes of Consumer Behaviour, from psychological drivers, sociological drivers and consumer choice making course of.

Psychological Drivers of Consumer Behaviour

There are psychological drivers that affect the consumer’s behaviour. They are; motivation, perception, learning, values, beliefs and attitudes, and lifestyle, are helpful for intrepeting the consumer’s shopping for process and directing the company’s marketing efforts.

Motivation.

Motivation is the energizing pressure that causes conduct that satisfies a need. The wants are hierarchical, from the fundamental of it and better.

Hierarchy of Needs

From this Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, earlier than AirAsia, air travel is generally thought-about in the larger hierarcy of needs, esteem, the place some folks intend to indicate others their capacity to journey by air, and visit destinatations that others can’t. This is what AirAsia realized, they created the tagline “now everybody can fly”, hence creating the awarenes to the folks, and likewise created the motivation that now air journey isn’t any longer thought of in the ‘esteem’ hierarchy of wants, folks can travel just to fulfil their Love/Belonging wants, whether people journey to hunt the ones they love, friends or family, or they journey to please these loved ones, similar to holiday locations, by air.

Means-end chain

Means-end chain comply with a time-honered strategy for excited about motivational issues. The central premise — that objects have worth solely as a end result of they produce desirable penalties or enable one to keep away from adverse consequences — is on the heart of most trendy conceptualizations of motivation (Atkinson, 1964, Lewin, 1951, Tolman 1959).

The above chain exhibits that at the finish of the day, a client who buy AirAsia as way of their air travel, may have excess cash to avoid wasting or to spend on one thing else of their journey or vacation.

The ad above, reveals that due to the AirAsia’s cheap worth of airticket to London, consumers get to spend their money on something else, like buying and visiting heritages places in London. AirAsia marketing people created the motivation of a fascinating penalties if client purchase their service

Perception

Perception is “the strategy of assembling sensations into a useable mental representation of the world,..perception creates faces, melodies, artworks, illusions out of the raw material of sensation” (Coon, 1983) or to summarize, is the process by which physical sensations are chosen, organised and interpreted. Individuals with the identical want won’t buy or choose related merchandise or service as a result of difference in notion.

From the perceptual process model above (Solomon, 2006), AirAsia succeded in creating stimulations and attentions, and attempt to generalized the perception of people that now everyone can fly. Obviously they stimulate the sights first, by using the identical tagline in every advertisements, media and on-line and billboards. Thus, shoppers bear in mind this information, which ends up when they need to purchase an airline ticket, AirAsia is the first choice involves mind.

Learning

Learning is “the process by which relatively everlasting changes happen in behavioural potential on account of experience” (Anderson, 1995). AirAsia’s advertising people perceive consumer’s learning course of affecting their determination making.

Behavioural Learning.

Repeated exposure to an expertise will end result within the process of growing an computerized response to that specific situation. In the AirAsia case, the company is trying to develop that automatic response is choosing AirAsia as their airline, everytime a customer desires to purchase an airline ticket. e.g: As AirAsia owns by Tune group who additionally owns the Hotel chain of Tune Hotel, the corporate capable of promote air tickets along with lodge fares, resulted in cheaper and convenient way to journey. Customers learned that via the website, they’ll purchased the air ticket along with resort. This resulted in repeated behaviour of buying AirAsia ticket, as the customer discover it extra handy.

Cognitive Learning

AirAsia is making an attempt to make connections between the two ideas of buying airline ticket together with the hotel. But now, as the customers uses the AirAsia web site to purchase the air ticket, they’ll additionally choose a wider vary of lodge decisions, not simply the AirAsia’s personal Tune Hotel Chain. AirAsia by way of their web site now additionally act as an agent, where customer, as they’re saving cash by shopping for airasia’s ticket, have the choices to spend more whether to indulge in additional luxurious means of staying, by selecting extra luxurious motels that now out there within the company’s web site.

The above screenshot of airasia’s website shows that cosumers should purchase airticket and resort vouchers on the same time.

Brand Loyalty

One of the finest way of doing applicating studying rules by AirAsia is introducing their reward programs to AirAsia’s prospects, there are the frequent flyer miles, or free ticket, or vacation vouchers to disclose to its prospects. These issues reinforce their behaviour and build model loyalty towards AirAsia itself. AirAsia is trying to teach the people, they themselves turn into the catalyst of the educational course of.

The end result of studying is memory. By placing inputs and knowledge out there, “now everybody can fly”, even the people who are not in wants of air journey, learned that there is now an inexpensive approach to fly. Hence, this info is recovered from reminiscence when these shoppers are in need of air travel, and choose AirAsia.

Beliefs and Attitudes.

Beliefs and attitudes play an important function in influencing the shopping for decisions of customers. No matter how good the service is, but if the patron feels it is ineffective, he/she would never buy it.

From the attitude-towards-the-ad fashions, AirAsia, creates such an exposure to adverts for shoppers, with the identical theme of purple and white, of their billboards advertisements, website’s look, magazine and newspaper’s ads, thus affecting the beliefs in course of the AirAsia brand.

Constant publicity to these ads and commercials, with purple and white colored themed, create the angle of selecting AirAsia, when the time is come for shopper to select.

Lifestyle.

A person’s activities, interests and opinions, often resulted in that explicit person’s way of life. The expertise nowadays created a new way of life in people’s life. Internet and smartphones is turning into increasingly more necessary to individuals. AirAsia recognized this, beside web site as their buying portal, now folks additionally should purchase air ticket and resort voucher as properly via their smartphones, by creating software for smartphone’s plattforms similar to iOS and android.

Sociological Drivers of client behaviour

Personal Influence

Personal influences resulted from the interaction between one particular person and others. These influences can also come from opinion leaders, where one individual can exert sure infulence over different people. e.g., in a working setting, when a manager determined to make use of AirAsia, even for his/her private travel, his/her subordinances might be influenced to do the same factor.

Reference Groups

When a certain individual appears to a group of people, as a basis of self-appraisal or as a supply for personal requirements, these group of people may be considered as Reference groups. Marketers should perceive: how groups influence particular person behaviour, how group influences differ accross products and brands, how to use group influences to develop effective strategies. Recognizing these groups may help the advertising individuals of AirAsia for their marketing methods. There are three types of reference teams to create a difference in advertising implications:

3.2.1. Membership group.

A membership group is the place an individual is actually belong to.

Aspiration group

An aspiration group is a bunch the place a person wish to be indentified to.

Dissociative group

A dissociative group is a bunch the place one individual needs to maintain up a distance to, because of differences in values or behaviour.

The Family

Differential affect of members of the family can affect the pruchasing choices. AirAsia acknowledged this by introducing one credit card for all transactions in their house web site. In asian area, in a family, decision normally carried out by the top of the family (the father), or the one who is providing for the whole family. Thus, even where a scenario like a joint determination making is arised, the daddy who has the biggest revenue normally make the decision. In their web site, a father, can create a username, which already included with all of the credit card’s data. In this case, any member of the family who wants to buy air ticket can simply use their husband’s/father’s username.

Social Class

Social class is a comparatively everlasting, homogeneous divisions in a society into which individuals sharing related values, interests, and behaviour are grouped. The determinant of social class usually include occupation, supply of income and education. AirAsia’s marketing methods and advertisement noticed these social classes in society, especially the middle-class. The rise of middle-class economic system in asia pacific area created extra value-oriented consumer, the place worth for money is essential. Co-workers, college students even housewives group can now easily travel and spend holiday together.

Culture

Culture refers to the set of values, ideas and attitudes which may be accepted by a homogeneous group of people and transmitted to the subsequent generation. The South East Asian region, where AirAsia is predicated, is translated to a growing market. By studying the shopping for patterns of these people, AirAsia can targeted their marketing methods. These rising market in South East Asia, which additionally recognized by the rising economies, means increasingly people have an extra disposable income. The South East Asian people are easily affected by others. A trend is definitely shaped, if a group of workers, families or college students are using AirAsia to journey and explore new places and shared their experiences by way of social media, it could simply influence other similar groups within the society to do the identical thing.

Consumer Decision Making process.

Problem recognition.

First stage of the consumer determination making course of is the issue recognition. At this stage, a shopper is perceiving a necessity. In AirAsia’s case, is the need to travel. In some AirAsia’s commercial, the marketing folks reveals a quite a few travel vacation spot, with every separate personal picture, and shows how low cost it is now to get to these locations by utilizing AirAsia as their airline. Hence, it is underlining the necessity of the people. This relates to advertising combine, of PRODUCT, PRICE and PLACE. For PRODUCT and PRICE, no airlines earlier than airasia can provide this low fare of airtickets. As for PLACE, airasia provides more destination regionally than any other airlines and additionally have new sales office in main cities not simply in Malaysia, but additionally Indonesia and the Phillippines. Another factor, the internet reserving, how airasia manage to save tons of consumer’s time in purchasing of airticket, people can now purchase their airtickets on-line, and even from their smartphones.

The advert reveals how cheap it’s to journey to Paris. The must journey, especially abroad, possibly as honeymoon, is already there, however now AirAsia, with these commercials everywhere, is enhancing that need.

Information search

The data search by the consumers, clarify what options are there out there to them. Which airline is the cheapest, which one is essentially the most snug, problem free and so on. There are two steps of knowledge search;

Internal Search.

Internal search is the place one search one’s memory, recall any earlier experience or data, on this case, associated to air journey. An individual might remember how exhausting it’s to buy a ticket utilizing a physical store, the place the need to be on the journey agent physically and bought the ticket. In marketing combine, PROMOTION, airasia is going all-out with their “now everybody can fly” tagline. Consumer can see this tagline in all places; billboards on roadsides, magazines, newspaper, even on news web site as pop-up advertisement. Airasia is trying to plant this tagline inside everyone’s mind, therefore, by the point they wish to purchase airticket, they immediately keep in mind of airasia’s “now everybody can fly”.

External Search.

Sources for external information are normally family and friends, public sources, and marketer-dominated supply. Marketer-dominated sources are where AirAsia’s advertising staff excelled at. Their promoting aggressive everywhere and media, their websites are continuously updating with new time-limited promotions, inflicting folks to access it extra usually. Now, consumer’s can even subscribe for their newsletter by emails.

In relation to advertising combine, airasia present new PRODUCT/SERVICE. The screenshot above exhibits AirAsia comes up with hassle free web site, with its flash page technology, that exhibits multiple locations photos that all the time altering within the house web page.

Evaluation of alternatives

At this stage, a consumer is evaluating what are the alternatives of choices he/she has. The company will all the time enhancing what are their superiorities over competitors. PRICE is one obvious thing why client choose AirAsia, theirs will often cheaper than others. Other method doing that is at all times one step ahead in the know-how aspect of selling. AirAsia is the first airline that offering on-line purchasing via the internet. Now, the place other low-cost airline also have the identical characteristic on their web site, AirAsia have provide you with smartphone application. This software could be downloaded to a consumer’s smartphone, and he/she can simply make flight queries or buying ticket(s) or even shopping for hotel voucher, simply through the use of his/her smartphone.

Purchase decision

At this stage, client are making their decision by which airline service to determine on. AirAsia’s advertising individuals understand on the previous levels of CDP, they have excelled. Hence, at this stage, their marketing combine, PRODUCT, PRICE, PROMOTION and PLACE of AirAsia have succesfully goal the consumer and guiding them into purchasing their service.

Postpurchase behaviour

At this stage, the patron compares the service they bought with expectations and is either happy of dissastified. Expentancy disconfirmation with performance strategy (Oliver, 1997) and the balancing paradigm (Fournier and Mick, 1999) are two present theories of client satisfaction. Satisfaction extra more probably to result in repeat purchase/loyalty and positive Word of Mouth (WOM). Dissatisfaction more likely to lead to brand switching, complaints and negative word of mouth (WOM). In AirAsia’s case, they attempt to reduce the consumer’s expectations as little as attainable.

The two footage above are the screenshot of airasia web site when consumer buying airticket. It clearly shows that passengers is not going to get in-flight refreshment, no complimentary luggage, no alternative of seats, except they purchase all of these things in the web site. By doing this, AirAsia managed to get their customer’s expectations as little as potential, beacuse they don’t promise other than the service that you just, as a customer, already purchased on-line.

Conclusion

Airasia has established themselves as a profit making company and a succesful low value service that prompted different airlines in the south east asian area to do the similar factor. This company build their brand name with their tag line “now everybody can fly”, telling people who flying is now more inexpensive and simple. This tagline is also shaping their advertising combine. For their Product, Price, and Place, airasia clearly launched a new means of flying by airways, an inexpensive and simple one. At Consumer Decision Making process, the Product and Price influenced consumer at the Problem recognizition and Information search step process. With Promotion, they influence the steps of Information search and Purchase determination in the CDP process. Airasia is so aggressive of their promotional activities, by placing their tagline “now everyone can fly” in each advertisement and commercials.

By understanding the psychological drivers and sociological drivers of consumer, airasia have executed its marketing plan briliantly, placing the kind of commercial that appropriate. By understanding the Consumer Decision making course of, AirAsia present what type of values that consumer seeks and asses within the information search, and evaluation of options phases. By the time consumer making their buy choice and postpurchase behaviour, these values are good enough to make them purchase airasia’s service and by not giving the patron excessive expectations from the first time, the satisfaction rate from client is excessive. The succes story of AirAsia advertising strategies exhibits how necessary it is for a brand to grasp the psychological drivers, sociological drivers and the decision making strategy of client behaviour.

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Air Passenger Behaviour Rules

Datamonitor, (2011), acknowledged that vacationers spend their sources, such as time and money, to succeed in the vacation spot. When they select the flight for their trip, air travelers not solely try to reduce their expenditure of time and money, but in addition think about some other factors, such as, pleasure, and comfort through the journey. However, it is very troublesome to generalize the factors which influence the decision procedures of flight alternative. This determination depends on not solely the attributes of the air service, but in addition the socio-economic characteristics of the person.

According to Datamonitor, (2011), each traveler would consider various factors with totally different weight for his/ her flight alternative, and even the identical individual could behave differently in several situations. However, previous research concerning transport alternative models, have typically recognized the journey time, price, service frequency, and luxury throughout travel as fundamental factors for transport alternative decisions. In the case of flight selection, the factors for the decision are typically equivalent to different transport choice models, but it is necessary to be a little extra particular to adjust to the air traveler’s selection state of affairs.

According to Belobaba, Odoni & Barnhart, (2009), the air vacationers are of two categories: business vacationers and leisure vacationers. Business vacationers have their travel function related to business and are often paid for by employers. The leisure vacationers are subdivided into two categories, vacation travel and travel for visiting pals or relatives (VFR). Leisure travelers pay for their very own travel. For enterprise journey, journey is normally organized by the company itself, and the traveler could have solely limited affect in flight choice.

Timing is more necessary than fare for business vacationers. Corporations send employees abroad for a enterprise matter, and normally have a hard and fast time plan. Flight arrangements ought to be flexible to accommodate last-minute change in the enterprise schedules. The business trips usually are not properly deliberate in advance. This state of affairs of late flight reserving and suppleness in schedule of enterprise journeys prevent enterprise travelers from using discounted fare tickets. Business vacationers consider the reliability of time performance as important and so they additionally need to arrive at vacation spot in good condition. So, quality of service is essential for this type of traveler.

Business Organisational Behaviour

Demonstrate the influence of environmental and behavioural factors on corporate size, structure and strategy. (b) Understand the processes of business planning and policy making and the reason for change over time. Percentage of marks awarded for module:

This assignment is worth 50% of the total marks for the module Assessment criteria  Explanatory comments on the assessment criteria  Maximum marks for each section  Content, style, relevance, originality  Clear demonstration of rigorous research from recognised authoritative sources. Audience focus. 50% Format, referencing, bibliography  Harvardю

Assignment Task
As a retail consultant you have been commissioned by a high street outlet, of your own choice, to prepare a strategy that will help them to compete for many years to come in a rapidly changing environment. The strategy will include methods of recognising how external changes impact upon the firm and the various techniques that may be used in the implementation of change. Consideration must also be given to the structure and size of the firm and how it presents itself to it’s stackholders.

Social class is still the determinant of voting behaviour

‘Social class is still the main determinant of voting behaviour.’ Discuss. In some ways, this statement is correct, however, as society is evolving this is becoming less and less apparent. The change in voting behaviour based on classes started to change between 1945 and the 1980s, where the class de-alignment occurred. This was the decline in the relationship between social class and voting. After World War II, the distinctions between the classes became less important as the country had fought a war together, and everyone struggled because of it, no matter of their class.

The period from the 1960s to the 1970s also showed changes in society. The distinctions between the classes eroded due to an increase in prosperity. Many more people were entering into higher education, and there was a significant rise in female workers. In the 1980s a ‘new working-class’ emerged; the private sector grew dramatically, most people were entering work with better qualifications, and the number of home owners increased. All of these things contributed to the class de-alignment, as distinguishing between the social classes became harder, and therefore more of a challenge for parties to target one specific class.

This can be seen from the 1983 general election, where the Conservatives gained the support of the working class, whereas previously Conservatives were mainly popular with the middle classes. This led to the victory of the Conservatives with Margaret Thatcher becoming Prime Minister with a majority of 144 seats. The most apparent change in the class de-alignment was in the 1997 general election. Tony Blair brought in the ‘new labour’, intended to be a ‘catch all’ party which aimed to please everyone, regardless of ethnicity, gender, region and class. Tony Blair strived to unite the country and in his victory speech he said he aimed to achieve ‘a Britain that is one nation, with shared values and purpose’. This made his party extremely popular and Tony Blair won the election with a majority of 179 seats. Since the ‘new Labour’ success, the main parties do not tend to target individual classes, but instead aim to unify the country with policies that will benefit all.

However, in modern day government there is still some aspect of class based policies. This is shown in the 2010 general election, where Labour was still the most popular party among the working class and Conservative still perform best among the middle classes. Before and during the class de-alignment, many people still tended to vote for their ‘natural’ party, i.e. the party that best represented their class, and there is clearly still an aspect of this today. An example of this is during the Labour party conference, where party leader Ed Miliband used, to his advantage that he did not go to the best private school in the UK, unlike rival Conservative David Cameron.

He stressed that his background gave him an advantage as he was more at level with the working classes and could understand their needs better than David Cameron. This shows that in some ways the Labour party are traditionally targeting the working class as they have done for centuries. Although there is a lot of evidence to suggest that class is still an important determinant of voting behaviour, there is a stronger argument against class alignment. Since 1945 until present day class has become almost insignificant in society, and due to the success in ‘new Labour’, class has become less of a target in modern day politics. All the parties at present are pushing a ‘united country’ attitude and are striving to achieve a unified and equal society.

Disconcerting Behaviour in The Wasp Factory and A Streetcar Named Desire

‘Compare the ways writers’ present disconcerting behaviour in both texts so far.’ The following will elucidate how disturbing behaviour is conveyed in the novel The Wasp Factory by Iain Banks and the play, A Streetcar Named Desire by Tennessee Williams. In A Streetcar Named Desire, the theme of violence is very frequent in the character Stanley Kowalski. Stanley is a married, young man, who comes across to the reader as quite an enraged person with animalistic attributes.

A prime insinuation of Stanley’s difference to regular humans is when Stella DuBois (Stanley’s wife) explains to her sister that Stanley is of “a different species”, foreshadowing that Williams may be warning the reader that Stanley is capable of things that are not in the norm. Additionally, his manner of walking is often described as “stalks”, which is commonly used to describe animals, such as smilodons and cheetahs and both of which are quite vicious, uncontrollable creatures. Further animalistic gestures performed by Stanley include “jerks out an armful of dresses” and “jerks open a small drawer”, not to mention the fact that he “kicks the trunk”. In excess of these being certain exemplifications of Stanley’s brutal attitude, they also indicate Stanley’s lack of self-control, which once again is similar to an animal trait, as animals are liable to be quite ruthless and don’t think about their actions before they carry it out.

Furthermore, the fact that Stanley is acting quite rudely towards his sister-in-law and a just-arrived guest fortifies the belief that he is uncaring and confounding towards new people, thus makes him even more animal-like, since most animals dislike people or things that are new to them. Inasmuch, the above is a distinctive example of disconcerting behaviour, particularly because Stanley is an adult and adults tend to be very responsible people, however in the above case mentioned Stanley is not as he is behaving rather irresponsibly. Playwright Tennessee Williams suffered a very brutal childhood filled with abuse and mistreat.

The actions of Stanley are highly significant as they reflect on and are analogous to Williams’ father, who physically abused Tennessee Williams callously when he was child up to his teenage years. Williams himself claimed that A Streetcar Named Desire was “Everything I had to say”, which goes to show the significance of the playwright’s life on A Streetcar Named Desire. Another major indication of Stanley’s violence is when he “gives a loud whack of his hand on her (referring to Stella) thigh” and gives her a rough beating when Stella tries to calm Stanley down from being abrasive towards Blanche, which is relatively disconcerting, since Stella is pregnant; hence she is in need of comfort, love and support. In opposed to Stanley giving Stella moral support and his duty as a husband to protect his pregnant wife, Stanley seems to think it is okay to hurt her, which is fundamentally wrong and very disturbing.

On the other hand, the above mentioned phase of the play reinforces the fact that there was much male dominance in the early 1900s. Stella is also portrayed as one of the weaknesses than the strengths of civilisation in her acceptance of a husband who gives her satisfaction of physical desire. Critic, Nancy Tischner suggests “apparently Williams wants the audience to believe that Stella is wrong in loving Stanley, but right in living with him.”

Personally, I agree with Tischner, simply because it was explicit that the 1900s was a patriarchal society. Women were inferior to men and were represented mostly through their husbands; consequently they were submissive and dependent on their husbands, because they needed a place to live and food to eat. The message of male ascendancy is articulated in a conversation between Stanley and Stella in which Stella asks her husband for money so she could buy her sister dinner, because she knows she hasn’t any money herself: “…you’d better give me some money” (scene II), which emphasizes that wives were reliant on their husbands for support, even if they weren’t entirely happy in their relationship.

Another indication of Stella’s dependence in Stanley is when she claimed that she “can’t stand when he (Stanley) is away for a night … I cry on his lap like a baby.” Although this highlights that Stella is highly dependent on Stanley, we cannot ignore the fact that she loves him too. Similar to Stanley Kowalski, the protagonist of The Wasp Factory, Frank Cauldhame also behaves violently; however in Frank’s case violence is directed mostly towards animals as he is aware of his superiority to them, just as Stanley is aware he is superior to his wife.

The reader follows account of how Frank fills his long, solitary summer victimising animals such as rabbits, as well as killing wasps on a daily basis. Frank’s annihilation of rabbits on the island is a crucial example of how violence is a conventional part of his life – as if he’s accepted that killing and deliberately hurting things will always be normal to him. Frank “throttled the rabbit, swinging it in front of him … its neck held on the thin black line of rubber tubing”. It is highly disturbing how a 16-year old is comfortable in inflicting pain on innocent creatures, not to mention killing them as well as finding it rather amusing, as he claims “I felt good” after his genocidal of the rabbits.

Moreover, Frank does not undergo any remorse after he has committed these harsh doings, because after he killed a cute little bunny he “kicked it into the water.” Despite Stanley being violent towards his inferior (Stella), Frank’s violence is slightly different in comparison to Stanley, as Stanley definitely displays contriteness and guilt after he attacks Stella, whereas Frank demonstrates no pity whatsoever, which accentuates Frank is hysterically riotous, accordingly a person who constantly carries out disconcerting behaviour.

A point that must be noted in A Streetcar Named Desire is my belief that Blanche DuBoi’s insecurity could be seen as a form of disconcerting behaviour. Blanche is constantly fishing for compliments from Stella, which may not seem disturbing at first at all, as most people like to be complimented on their beauty, however, when Stella asks Stanley to “admire her dress and tell her she’s looking wonderful. That’s important with Blanche. Her little weakness”, we begin to question whether Blanche is totally obsessed with herself and her image. The fact that Stella claims “looks” are Blanche’s “weakness” strengthens the belief that Blanche is insecure – especially because this judgement is made from her sister who is very close to Blanche.

Her insecurity highlights the belief that Blanche is a very disturbed person and we can make an assumption that an incident in the past has caused this anxiety in her. In addition, when Blanche declares she still has vanity about her beauty, she looks over at her sister Stella “for reassurance”. We can deduce from Blanche’s final look at Stella to assure she still looks pretty that Blanche definitely self-doubts her appearance and is thinks it’s critical about what people think of her; which further reinforces she is a very unsettled person – perhaps the opposite of Stella, as Stella already has her own husband, home and happiness of a new addition to the family to look forward to.

Furthermore, when Blanche exclaims: “Turn that over-light off! Turn that off! I won’t be looked at in this merciless glare” I find it slightly disconcerting, as she makes such a big deal out of her looks as though it’s gold dust for her and if a speck of it is ruined, then so be herself. The fact that she requests that she would like the light to be off can deduce that Blanche does not want to display her true reality and perhaps she is hiding something. Also the fact that she is older than Stella and has more experience in life, despite this, Stella seems to have a more mature outlook on life than Blanche.

A review by a man named Benjamin Nelson theorises that “Blanche’s inability to tragically mature is a result of her incompletion and fragmentation”. What Nelson is saying is that people are responsible for their own doings provided their current situation has been truly stimulated. Then, and only then, can a classic tragic character evolve, similarly, Blanche finds herself in a situation which is completely different to how she was perhaps living before and has to keep an eye on how she is displaying her self-image to others. The reader is aware that Blanche is not an entirely honest person, as she lies to herself and others about her drinking habits as she begins with telling her sister that (drink-wise) one is her limit.

The fact that the first practical task Blanche carries out in Stella’s home is “she springs up and crosses to it, and removes a whiskey bottle.”, underlines that drinking may be a usual thing is her life, so why does she attempt to hide it all the time? The answer to this of course is so she comes across as socially desirable to new people and especially in Mitch’s case, sexually admirable. When Mitch is around, Blanche stands near the light when the curtain is drawn, as to show her body to Mitch, supposedly for her sense of self-esteem, which means that she has often succumbed to passion. Nevertheless, throughout the play, Blanche avoids appearing in direct, bright light, particularly in front of Mitch.

This implies that Blanche perchance looks to Mitch as a future partner. She also refuses to reveal her age, and it is clear that she avoids light in order to prevent him from seeing the reality of her fading beauty. This fits in with the analogy that Blanche can be seen as moth, as moths avoid because they can’t stand it. In addition to this theory, moths are usually very irritating creatures and tend to cause havoc wherever they go, such as nibbling on clothes and entering rooms without permission. Blanche too has a moth-like persona as she seems to be interference in Stanley and Stella’s love life, as from the moment she has arrived, the couple had an argument immediately.

Stanley’s perception of Blanche is that she is a nuisance and doesn’t like the fact that she is staying in his home: “What do you think you are? A pair of queens?”, which implies that Blanche is behaving too badly for Stanley’s liking. Initially, Tennessee Williams was going to name this play ‘The Moth’, simply because Blanche is such an essential persona in A Streetcar Named Desire. Just as Ms Blanche DuBois is apprehensive about her appearance and quite uncomfortable in her skin, so is Mr Frank Cauldhame in The Wasp Factory.

Due to the ‘accident’ Frank apparently faced as a child in which his male genitalia was bitten off by a dog, it is obvious that he isn’t satisfied with his image. Frank wants to be looked at as frightening to people and even stated: “Looking at me, you’d never guess I’d killed three people”, as though it’s something people should know and as though he is proud of what he did.

He says he “wants to look dark and menacing … the way I might have looked if I hadn’t had my little accident.” This sustains the belief that Frank feels highly uncomfortable with his looks mainly due to the accident. Killing is a very violent act, stereotypically associated with the male gender in which Frank is so desperately trying to conform into. However, he finds it rather hard and feels insecure about his masculinity due to his ‘accident’, therefore resorts to great lengths such as killing people and animals as a method of defining and assuring himself he is a boy. This is slightly similar to Blanche, as Blanche resorts to lying to paint a portrait of how she desires to be looked out, nonetheless, different because Blanche is not so extreme to the point that she harms people like Frank.

Undoubtedly, I find Frank’s killings to emphasize on his masculinity rather pathetic and extremely disconcerting, since he is a teenager and almost seventeen years of age, as a result he should be more than aware of what is right and what is wrong and killing is indeed wrong. On the other hand, I do feel a little sympathy for Frank as he is very isolated and his father refused to allow Frank to officially exist in society, thence he may not have entirely been taught what is morally right and what is morally wrong by his father – especially since his mother is dead and he has no other mother figure in life to guide him.

Other than Frank committing overly masculine acts to demonstrate that he is definitely a boy, Frank envisions himself as someone that is strong and powerful and is upset with his appearance as he laments the fact that he is “chubby”. This is very similar to Blanche, as she too comments on how slender her figure has remained over the years and for reassurance glances
at her sister.

To conclude, I would like to say that disconcerting behaviour is common in both texts and there are various similarities, as well as differences in phases of both the play and the novel.

Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour

Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

1. Utilitarianism
2. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
3. Virtue Ethics
4. Medical Ethics
5. Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. 6. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. 7. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization 8.

9. Utilitarianism
10. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
11. Virtue Ethics
12. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

13. Utilitarianism
14. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
15. Virtue Ethics
16. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and
prevention of infections during hospitalization

17. Utilitarianism
18. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
19. Virtue Ethics
20. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

21. Utilitarianism
22. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
23. Virtue Ethics
24. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

25. Utilitarianism
26. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
27. Virtue Ethics
28. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

29. Utilitarianism
30. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
31. Virtue Ethics
32. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient.

Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings. The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

33. Utilitarianism
34. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
35. Virtue Ethics
36. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

37. Utilitarianism
38. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
39. Virtue Ethics
40. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

41. Utilitarianism
42. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
43. Virtue Ethics
44. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

45. Utilitarianism
46. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
47. Virtue Ethics
48. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a
structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

49. Utilitarianism
50. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
51. Virtue Ethics
52. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

53. Utilitarianism
54. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
55. Virtue Ethics
56. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient.

Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings. The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

57. Utilitarianism
58. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
59. Virtue Ethics
60. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient.

Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings. The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

61. Utilitarianism
62. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
63. Virtue Ethics
64. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

65. Utilitarianism
66. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
67. Virtue Ethics
68. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

69. Utilitarianism
70. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
71. Virtue Ethics
72. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient.

Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings. The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

73. Utilitarianism
74. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
75. Virtue Ethics
76. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient.

Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings. The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

77. Utilitarianism
78. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
79. Virtue Ethics
80. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

81. Utilitarianism
82. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
83. Virtue Ethics
84. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

85. Utilitarianism
86. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
87. Virtue Ethics
88. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

89. Utilitarianism
90. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
91. Virtue Ethics
92. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems.
Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

93. Utilitarianism
94. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
95. Virtue Ethics
96. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient.

Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings. The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

97. Utilitarianism
98. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
99. Virtue Ethics
100. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

101. Utilitarianism
102. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
103. Virtue Ethics
104. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient.

Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings. The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

105. Utilitarianism
106. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
107. Virtue Ethics
108. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

109. Utilitarianism
110. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
111. Virtue Ethics
112. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient.

Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings. The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

113. Utilitarianism
114. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
115. Virtue Ethics
116. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

117. Utilitarianism
118. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
119. Virtue Ethics
120. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient.

Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings. The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

121. Utilitarianism
122. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
123. Virtue Ethics
124. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

125. Utilitarianism
126. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
127. Virtue Ethics
128. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient.

Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings. The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

129. Utilitarianism
130. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
131. Virtue Ethics
132. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient.

Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings. The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

133. Utilitarianism
134. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
135. Virtue Ethics
136. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the
necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient. Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings.

The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

137. Utilitarianism
138. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
139. Virtue Ethics
140. Medical Ethics
Ethic is concerned about the study of human behaviour. It provides a structure for dealing different kinds of issues, dilemmas and problems. Understanding the ethical concepts help the individual to decide the necessary action provide in the situation. According to the International Council of Nurses (1973), it is the healthcare workers responsibilities to give quality of care to prevent the infection and to ensure the holistic care of the patient.

Hand hygiene practice is the responsibility of each individual who is working in the healthcare settings. The quality of care of the patient relies on personal beliefs and values of the healthcare worker. It is the right of responsibility of the healthcare workers including the nursing students to work with proper safety precaution. Every individual living in Finland has the right to receive a proper treatment and care. The patient will receive quality of care without further complications and prevention of infections during hospitalization

141. Utilitarianism
142. Duty Ethics (Deontology)
143. Virtue Ethics
144. Medical Ethics
145.

Support children and young people’s positive behaviour

Introduction

This assignment will demonstrate the knowledge and understanding of why it is important for all staff to be consistent and fair when applying boundaries and rules for children and young people. Also outlining the implications that inconsistent application of rules may have and applying the rules and boundaries in accordance with the policies and procedures. Detailing the benefits or encouraging and rewarding positive behaviour and providing examples of the types of behaviour that should be referred to others and to whom these should be referred.

Assessment Criteria 1.2

Why it is important for all staff to be consistent and fair when applying boundaries and rules for children and young people and outlining the implications that inconsistent applications of rules may have.

All staff in school should know and use rules consistently and behaviour should be monitored closely by the schools senior management. Children and young people should be shown fair and consistent boundaries at all times they respond well when they know what is expected of them, if all members of staff use the same strategies when managing behaviour. If behaviour is not managed well this could waste lesson time and children’s learning could suffer. Children should know the sanction and rewards and the order in which it will be applied no matter who talks to them about their behaviour. If they are consistent and fair the children get to understand quickly what id acceptable and what’s not.

If you are inconsistent they become confused and may become scared or withdrawn as they are unsure of whether their actions are leading them into trouble or not. If you treat children differently and react to individual children’s behaviour differently you can be accused of favouritism, bias and victimisation. You can project an image on someone who lacks control and doesn’t know what they are doing and therefore lose authority and respect. The school should work as a whole to be consistent in-line with policies and procedures then staff, pupils and parents have an understanding of the rules, boundaries and behaviour expectations as well as sanctions that result from transgressions this results in a calmer, smoother, day and easier year group to group transitions.

Reasons why it is important to have behaviour boundaries:-

To create a positive environment, which encourages independence and development of self – of esteem to enable all children to care for themselves, be responsible for their own safety and take ownership of their own action and take pride in their achievements. To stop all forms of bullying, racial and sexual harassment all incidents will be thoroughly investigated and all children involved will be counselled and parents will be informed and involved in all decision making. When children are being bullied in school we may not always recognise that they are being bullied or likewise they also may misunderstand the nature and label one incident as bullying.

All incidents will be recorded and in cases or racial and sexual incidents the schools governors will also be involved. When managing pupils behaviour, all staff will need to be aware of schools policies. The majority of children / young people do not present Challenging behaviour, and they attend arrange of educational settings in environments which are conductive to learning appropriate behaviours., it is essential to ensure that behaviour which does not meet school settings expectations, is responded to throughout management strategies that do not rely upon and form of physical or abusive intervention. The aims of this procedure is:-

To promote positive behaviour management in schools and education settings and to help schools and educational settings to understand what the law means for them in practical terms and provide staff with advice on good practice. To protect the interest and well – being of children and young people’s for whom staff have a shared responsibility and to protect staff in fulfilment of their responsibility’s to children and young people and reduced the likelihood of actions by staff being challenged in the courts. Protecting the local authority who ultimately has responsibility for the actions of its staff.

Examples of applying these rules and boundaries in accordance with policies and procedures

All adults who work within the school environment have a responsibility to themselves and to the schools, to model a high standard of behaviour, both in their dealings with the children and with others adults within the school as their examples of behaviour has a significant influence on the children’s behaviour. Good strong teamwork between adults will encourage good behaviour in children. Each school has a behaviour policy that staff should be aware of and adhere to all staff; all new staff follows an induction programme to guarantee a dependable approach to behaviour management.

Classroom organisation and teaching methods have a major influence on children’s behaviour in classroom environment, children are aware of the degree to which they and their efforts are valued. A good relationship between a teacher, teaching assistant and the children promotes positive strategies which are used together with classroom displays that the children have done by themselves all have a bearing on the children’s behaviour behaviour.

Assessment criteria 2.1

The benefits of encouraging and rewarding positive behaviour.

All children are given explicit guidelines on their expected behaviour within the schools premises and all expectations are given in clear and precise manner paying attention of the relevant age range. All children will be encouraged and trained to the daily routines and responsibilities for their own actions when in school. Positive and appropriate behaviour is rewarded with special choosing activity and positive attention and privileges. A whole class sticker chart maybe implemented to encourage more positive behaviour in which the class will be rewarded with a treat. The best way to reward good behaviour and encourage more is positive reinforcement. Good behaviour results from parents and adults rewarding the child with encouragement and positive words. If a child feels good about something that they have did and achieved they are more than likely to repeat the good behaviour.

Children are naturally born pleaser’s and you can reward good behaviour with a simple smile, a laugh, praise or a continuing fun activity. Children will be encouraged to repeat good behaviour because each time they are having more fun and enjoyment. Good behaviour means that they get to repeat the fun things that they like to do and this encourages them to have good behaviour. Rewarding good behaviour with compliments children like to feel more grown up then they are and this encourages the children to continue with good behaviour and will also make them feel more independent. Tell the children with good behaviour that they are acting a certain age older. Another way to reward good behaviour is to tell the child or children how pleased you are with something that the child has done. The child will be encouraged to keep up with the good behaviour. Most importantly reward good behaviour and encourage more with patience and kind words.

Assessment criteria 3.2

Examples of the types of behaviour that should be referred to others and to whom these should be referred to.

There will be times when children might not show a positive behaviour. There could be many reasons for any type of inappropriate behaviour shown sometimes children and young people are just testing the limits of their boundaries or sometimes their could be far more serious reasons behind it. However in a situation like this teachers and teaching assistants need to recognise that when the child needs to be referred to others. Sometimes children’s behaviour could show some signs that they need some extra support.

Children biting:- Most children stop biting by the age of three. It is common in toddlers and is linked to frustration as they cannot talk and express their feelings and find it difficult to control their emotions. If older children are still biting they may need to be investigated to determine what is causing them to behave in this way.

Aggression:- While most children will squabble and younger children will hit out older children should be more controlled. Aggressive acts such as hitting another child for no reason should be referred.

Change of behaviour:- If children’s behaviour changes on certain days or who were fine earlier may need additional support. There could be many reasons of sudden change in their behaviour such as abuse, family separation, or a bereavement in the family.

Many behavioural problems can be solved by a teacher or teaching assistant but sometimes the more serious problems needs to be reported on to people higher up in the school system.

These include:-

Hearing a child saying something about another person’s race. Which the teaching assistant at first report to the teacher, then the head and if necessary they would inform the parents of the children involved.

Verbal abuse to another to another person. First this would be reported to the teacher and then the head and if necessary the parents of the child.

Stealing from other children or around the school e.g. classroom etc – report to teacher and the head, parents of the child or children will be informed and police if necessary.

The types of behaviour that are unacceptable and should be referred to others include:-

Using your power, strength and authority to intimidate others, Abusive language, and racist, homophobic, sexist language. Possession of and taking drugs or alcohol and illegal substances or entering the school premises after having taken alcohol or any drugs, fighting and violent behaviour may result to damage of school property.

We also need to refer the following types of inappropriate behaviour:-

Behaviour that is inappropriate for the child’s stages of development e.g. a child over four years old who continues biting an older child who hits other children or is physically aggressive in other ways, Self harming behaviour, and the common type of behaviour is bullying:- Other professionals who may be called upon help to all those involved. It is useful for senior members of staff to attend meetings in which allows everyone to contribute information about a child, these will help to create an overview on the progress, development and behaviour of the child and its here that recorded observations will be especially useful.

Professionals who may become involved include the following:-

Health Visitors

Works primarily with children up to five years and their families, checking for healthy growth and development.

Play Therapists

Play therapists have specialist training and work with children through play to help them feel emotionally secure.

Paediatricians

Paediatricians are doctors who specialise in the care of children and young people up to the age of 16, to check for normal development and diagnose difficulties.

Educational Psychologist

They assess children and young people who have special needs and give advice, particularly for those with emotional and behaviour difficulties.

Child Psychologist

They are doctors who specialise in diagnosing and treating behavioural and thought disorders in children, adolescents and sometimes in adults. They use there knowledge on many factors including biological and psychological factors, in order to devise a treatment plan for a child with behavioural and thought disorders. This plan may include medication to help control or minimise certain behaviours or thoughts.

Conclusion

We have learnt that all members of staff should be consistent and fair when applying boundaries and rules for children and young people and to why it is important to do so. Also to apply these rules and boundaries within the schools policies and procedures. We have also detailed the importance of encouraging and rewarding positive behaviour and the ways these can have affect on the children and young people. we have provided examples of the types of behaviour that maybe found in children and young people and who they may be referred to in different situations regarding to the different behaviour patterns.

Organizational behaviour

An organization is a group of people who work independently towards a common goal. Organization achieves their goals by creating, communicating, and operating the system existing in every organization. To better organize and manage the organization, manager needs to understand the element of the social system, role and role conflict, as well as the culture of the organization. In this assignment, we were asked to study a case regarding the role conflict and culture that were faced by Amir as a management trainee at a well-established organisation which at the same time, he is a husband and a father of two children. Based on the study case, we found out that Amir is facing with inter-role conflict, personal-role conflict, role overloads and role ambiguity. All these role conflicts must be solved professionally as it can affect Amir’s work performance and the perception of the organizational members towards him. In order to resolve these problems, Amir has to study the changes that happen in the culture of the organization as he needs to adapt with the new environment. There are two types of cultural changes in organization, that are the cultural revolution and the cultural evolution. In Amir’s case, he is confronted with the cultural revolution. Thus, he needs to know the process of creating back the organizational culture so that he can create a good culture.

OBJECTIVE
1. To define organization culture.
2. To describe the factors shaping the organizational culture.
3. To know role and define role conflict in the study case.
4. To know how to resolve the role conflict in organizational.

DISCUSSION
Question 1
Do you think that Amir is facing the problem of role conflict? If yes, identify the kind of role conflict Amir is facing.

Role is when someone understands the relative importance of those tasks, in other words, they know the priorities of their various responsibilities, while role conflict is a situation in which an individual encounters deviating role expectations. In my opinion, yes, Amir is facing the problem of role conflict that consists of inter-role conflict, person role conflict, role overload and role ambiguity. Below is the explanation about these role conflicts in this case.

I. Inter-role conflict

Inter-role conflicts occur when an individual occupies more than one role with inconsistent expectations. In other words, certain role with expected of a person are in conflict with the other roles that the person holds.

For example, Aminah has a class-mate that wants to lodge at their room for one day but the room-mate disagree because they have their own rule which is not outsiders are allowed to stay in the room. In this situation, Aminah has to faces the conflict on which role should be performed whether as a class-mate or a room-mate.

In Amir’s case, Amir as a husband does not know how to manage time between the family and the company. Amir was required to do all kinds of work until he has become a workaholic. In the same time, Amir was not able to give sufficient time to his family as he devoted most of his time working even on Sundays.

II. Person-role conflict

Person-role conflicts may define when a role holder is required to perform a role that contradicts or violates the role holder’s attitudes, beliefs and behaviors.

As an example, when a staff expected to punch card for his friend, indirectly it may contradicts the staff attitude and beliefs where by a staff in the company should not to punch card for the other staff except themselves.

Throughout Amir’s case, Amir has to assign with various other roles and was required to coordinate and communicate with diverse groups of the workforce. However, the team members do not want to give full cooperation in fulfilling the tasks. Indirectly, was scolded by the boss for errors committed by other team members.

III. Role overload

Role overload occurs when there is a lack of balance or reasonableness in the number or the extent of expectations from a role holder. It also happens when the expectations sent to a role holder are unmanageable and there is not enough time for the role holder to perform all the roles expected of him or her.

For example, where a student is expected to study while at the same time expected to do part time job. As a student, they must expect to perform some other roles even though it is impossible to be done in the same time.

In this case, it’s similar with Amir which is he was required to do all kinds of managerial task from conducting office correspondence and conducting business meetings to solving the complaints of customers and subordinates. As time passed, Amir became more efficient and performed various roles in increasing effective manner.

IV. Role Ambiguity

Role ambiguity occurs when there is lack of clarity in understanding what expectations or prescriptions exist for any given role. A role holder lacks sufficient information in performing the role. This results in the role holder feeling unsure on how to act in his or her role.

As an example, a new student in second intake was entered in the university and they did not receive complete information regarding the subject or any related activities. Indirectly, the student’s do not sure how to act in his or her role.

In this case, the first few months on job Amir have to faced on stress which is he was entrusted with limited tasks related to his area of expertise as a management. It is because the organization did not explained to him regarding his role as a management trainee.

Question 2
What could be done to resolve his problem?

For every problem, there will be solutions and ways to overcome. Amir who deals with many types of role conflicts can handle the problems well if he knows how to deal with it.

I. Inter-role conflict

In solving Amir’s dilemmas of role conflict as a worker and as a head of family members, the best way in dealing with these problems is he must know how to manage his time well. He also needs to understand and distinguish his responsibilities in holding both roles. Amir should avoid working on weekends as that is the only time to have a good time with the family members. This is to make sure that at the same time of being a dedicated worker to the organization, he can spend his quality time with his family members as well.

II. Person-role conflict

As a former Management Executive, for sure Amir will expect the task of management trainee would involves his area of expertise that is, management. However, different roles were assigned to him. In solving this matter, Amir should confront with his superior and ask for a good explanation regarding his exact tasks that he needs to fulfill. He also should stand for his right if he was scolded for errors not committed by him. In my opinion, even though the tasks given are not in his area, Amir can take the tasks as a new thing to learn.

III. Role overload

As a worker, the tasks given by the superior is a must to do but, if Amir thinks there is a lot of work to be done in a time, he should suggests his superior an assistant if possible. Amir should not be stressful with the multi tasks given in order to maintain a good quality of work. If the superior could not fulfill his suggestion, maybe Amir could ask for higher pay. Even though money could not promise happiness and could not replace the time that he can be with his family, at least he would feel satisfied and appreciated for the job he done.

IV. Role Ambiguity

The transfer of information between the sender and the receiver is very important in an organization. Improper communication of information definitely will result misunderstanding between both parties. In solving Amir’s role ambiguity as he was not explained the role as a management trainee, what he should do is get a clear information on his role from his superior. Even though he has a strict taskmaster, he must be brave enough to ask and get the exact information from him. Or else, he should get the right information either from the seniors or other colleagues.

Question 3
Comment on the culture of the organization that Amir work in. Prior to comment further on the culture of the organization that Amir work in, it is necessary to explain briefly on what is the Organizational Culture. Organization are more than a workplace, they are place where people spend most of their time. Thus, the culture of the organization is important for employees to stay and work happily. Organization Culture according to Robbins and Judge is a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organization. Organization Culture is a set of assumption, beliefs, values, and norms shared by everyone in an organization. Organization Culture change in two ways, Cultural Revolution and Cultural Evolution.

There are two main type of organization culture, and it is called dominant cultures and subcultures. It is appropriate to categories that the type of culture that Amir works in is subcultures. Subcultures develop to reflect common problems, situations or consequences that are faced by members in a department. However, it is also includes the core values of the organization. Correspondence to Amir situation that can be seen from the case study article, it is said that his role as management trainee is not properly explain, and when he is assigned with various roles that required him to communicate to a different group of workforce, problem started to occurs and these problem starting to put pressure on Amir. A cooperation that is essential in completing a task was not given to him by other members, instead they act rudely to him. And if there is an error made by other members Amir was the person who will be scolded by his boss. We can see here that it is logical to categories that Amir working in a subcultures environment because Amir is facing a problem in his work, and he is the one who received the consequences of others mistakes, and it is clearly that the core values of the organization isn’t quite harmony because of the values and ethics that is being practice by other members in the organization.. Differ with dominant culture, dominant culture are the core values that are shared by everyone in an organization, which can be understand that everyone have a same work ethics that allow them to complete their work efficiently.

Cultural change is influence or is shape by several factors, firstly is characteristic of people within the organization, the values, beliefs, and attitudes that is bring by the people inside are shared with each other. If most of them have good values it will influences other to do so and vice versa. Secondly, cultural change is being shape by the nature of employment relationship. This factor comes from human resources policies that is enforced in an organization, for example trying bonuses with performance levels. Employees may take these policies as motivating factors to work harder. Third factors is design of organizational structure, defines as primary reporting relationship that exists within an organization where a division of work can be seen clearly. Lastly, cultural change can be shape by the organizational ethics, it is a moral values, rules and principles outlined to employees on how they should act and behave when it comes to dealing with each other and also with people outside the organization.

A suggestion could be shared here, as a top management in an organization, Amir’s boss should be a role-model to his subordinates, he should create an efficient organizational culture in order for them to achieve successfulness. In order to create a prosper organizational culture, Amir’s boss can follow the following steps. First step is formulae a strategic values, which is a basics beliefs about an organization’s environment. Secondly is, develop cultural values, which the values that the employees need to have and act upon in carrying out its strategic values. Third step is, create vision, vision is a picture of what the organization is going to be in the future. Fourth step is, initiate implementation strategies, which is develop action strategies to accomplish its vision. And last step which is the step five is, reinforce cultural behaviors, reinforcement may take various form such as reward system that acknowledged desired behaviors.

CONCLUSION
Organizational behaviour is concerned with people’s thoughts, feelings, emotions and actions in setting up work. Understanding individual behaviour is in itself a challenge but understanding group behaviour in an organization environment is a monumental managerial task. Role conflict is a situation in which an individual encounters divergent role expectations. This occurs due to different perception and expectations of a person’s role. As we work together in an organization, we should treat people in the organization as a family. In this way, it is easier for us to communicate and interact with each other. The organization itself needs to plant this input in the minds of the workers so that the people that work in the roof of the firm will work happily without any conflicts.

REFERENCE
1. Organizational behaviour oxford Sarah Sabir Ahmad
2. Kamus Dwibahasa Oxford Fajar Joyce M. Hawkins

Customer behaviour

What is Electronic Commerce?
Commerce
– The exchange of commodities, buying and selling, of products and services requiring transportation, from location to location is known as commerce. E-Commerce
– From a communications perspective, e-commerce is the delivery of information, products/services or payments via telephone lines, Fax, computer networks or any other means.

What is Electronic Commerce?
From an online perspective, e-commerce provides the capability of buying and selling products and information on the internet and other online services. It refers to a wide range of online business activities for products and services. Any form of business transaction in which the parties interact electronically rather than by physical exchanges or direct physical contact.

Difference between E-Commerce & E-Business
Electronic commerce or “e-Commerce”
E-commerce covers online processes that touch customers, suppliers and external partners, including sales, marketing, order taking, delivery, customer service, purchasing of raw materials and supplies for production. More sophisticated system such as flight and hotel reservation system.

e-Commerce breaks into two components:
Online Shopping – the scope of information and activities that provides the customer with the information they need to conduct business with you and make an informed buying decision. Online Purchasing – the technology infrastructure for the exchange of data and the purchase of a product over the Internet. Online purchasing is a metaphor used in business-to-business e-Commerce for providing customers with an online method of placing an order, submitting a purchase order, or requesting a quotation.

E-Business is a super-set of E-Commerce.
E-business includes e-commerce but also covers internal processes such as production, inventory management, product development, risk management, finance, and human resources. E-business includes electronic mechanism to distribute information not directly related to buying and selling of goods. Examples:

Product specifications, customer testimonials, and product reviews. Purchasing activities on your site, e.g., order forms, shopping carts, and credit card processing. Customers can’t interact directly with the firm. (territory barrier)

History of EC
The term e-commerce was originally conceived to describe the process of conducting business transactions electronically using technology from the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT).

These technologies, which first appeared in the late 1970’s, allowed for the exchange of information and the execution of electronic transactions between businesses, typically in the form of electronic purchase orders and invoices. EDI and EFT were the enabling technologies that laid the groundwork for what we now know as e-commerce. The Boston Computer Exchange, a marketplace for used computer equipment started in 1982, was one of the first known examples of e-commerce. Throughout the 1980’s, the proliferation of credit cards, ATM machines and telephone banking was the next step in the evolution of electronic commerce. The birth of companies such as eBay and Amazon (launched in 1994) really began to lead the way in e-commerce. Both eBay and Amazon were among the first to establish prominent e-commerce brands. The most prominent e-commerce categories today are computers, books, office supplies, music, and a variety of electronics. Dell.com,1997

Types of Ecommerce
B2B( Business to Business E-commerce) or Inter-Organizational E-commerce B2C( Business to Consumer E-commerce)
C2B( Consumer to Business E-commerce)
C2C( Consumer to Consumer E-commerce) or Ecommerce Involving Intermediaries Intra-organizational E-commerce m-commerce(Mobile E-commerce)
Business to Government E-Commerce

B2B (Business-to-Business) or inter-organizational Ecommerce Companies doing business with each other such as manufacturers selling to distributors and wholesalers selling to retailers. Pricing is based on quantity of order and is often negotiable. B2B is used to improve business relationship among orgz. (invoices, cheques, purchase orders, financial reports) are in electronic for. For Example: Logistic companies

Benefits:
Supplier Management (reduce no. of suppliers, processing coast, and cycle time) Inventory Management (list of items/product, eliminate out of stock items) Distribution Management (list of ship’s cargo, purchase orders etc) Channel Management (reduce labour, time saving)

Payment Management (electronic payment reduce clerical errors, lower transaction fee and coast)

B2C Business to Consumer
In B2C seller is a business organization buyer is consumer. In this case costumer directly interacts with company, i.e. books and cd’s buy online and internet used as a medium for transaction. Newspapers reading and weather forecasting are used as a B2C E-commerce. This type of e-commerce improve the flow of information between firm and customers. Examples are ebay.com, and amazon.com.

C2B Consumer to Business
A consumer posts his project with a set budget online and within hours companies review the consumer’s requirements and bid on the project. The consumer reviews the bids and selects the company that will complete the project. Elance empowers consumers around the world by providing the meeting ground and platform for such transactions. Freelancing

C2C (Consumer-to-Consumer) or
E-commerce Involving Intermediaries
In this type both seller and buyers are consumers.
There are many sites offering free classifieds, auctions and forums where individuals can buy and sell. PayPal where people can send and receive money online with ease. Olx.com auction service is a great example of where person-to-person transactions take place everyday.

Intra-organizational E-C
The purpose of Intra-organizational applications is to help a company maintain the relationships that are critical to delivering superior customer value by paying close attention to various functions in the organization. Benefits:

Workgroup communications
Electronic Publishing
Sales force Productivity

Business to Government E-C
A platform for businesses to bid on government opportunities. It refers to the use of the Internet for public procurement, licensing procedures, and other government-related operations. It reduces the risk of irregularities.

Income Tax Department, Excise and Taxation Department

M-Commerce
Mobile commerce is the buying and selling of goods and services through wireless technology – i.e., cellular telephones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). Including mobile banking (when customers use their handheld devices to access their accounts and pay their bills). Bill payment and account reviews can all be conducted from the same handheld device. Delivery of entertainment, financial news, sports figures and traffic
updates to a single mobile device.

Advantages of e-commerce for businesses?
Reduction of costs in the business
E-commerce serves as an “equalizer”. It enables start-up and small- and medium-sized enterprises to reach the global market. E-commerce makes “mass customization” possible. E-commerce applications in this area include easy-to-use ordering systems that allow customers to choose and order products according to their personal and unique specifications. E-commerce allows “network production.” This refers to the parcelling out of the production process to contractors who are geographically dispersed but who are connected to each other via computer networks.

What forces are fuelling e-commerce?
There are at least three major forces fuelling e-commerce:
Economic forces. One of the most evident benefits of e-commerce is economic efficiency resulting from the reduction in communications costs, – low-cost technological infrastructure.
– speedier and more economic electronic transactions with suppliers. – lower global information sharing and advertising costs.
Market forces. Corporations are encouraged to use e-commerce in marketing and promotion to capture international markets, both big and small. The Internet is likewise used as a medium for enhanced customer service and support. Technology forces. The development of ICT is a key factor in the growth of ecommerce.

What are the components of a successful
e-commerce transaction loop?
To maximize the benefits of e-commerce, a number of technical as well as enabling issues have to be considered. A typical e-commerce transaction loop involves the following major players and corresponding requisites: 1. The Seller should have the following components:

A corporate Web site with e-commerce capabilities (e.g., a secure transaction server); A corporate intranet so that orders are processed in an efficient
manner; and IT-literate employees to manage the information flows and maintain the e-commerce system. 2. Transaction partners include:

Banking institutions that offer transaction clearing services (e.g., processing credit card payments and electronic fund transfers); National and international freight companies to enable the movement of physical goods within, around and out of the country. Authentication authority that serves as a trusted third party to ensure the integrity and security of transactions. 3. Consumers (in a business-to-consumer transaction)

Form a critical mass of the population with access to the Internet and disposable income enabling widespread use of credit cards; and Possess a mindset for purchasing goods over the Internet rather than by physically inspecting items. 4. Firms/Businesses that together form a critical mass of companies (especially within supply chains) with Internet access and the capability to place and take orders over the Internet. 5. Government, to establish:

A legal framework governing e-commerce transactions (including electronic documents, signatures, and the like); and Legal institutions that would enforce the legal framework (i.e., laws and regulations) and protect consumers and businesses from fraud, among others. 6. Internet, the successful use of which depends on the following: A robust and reliable Internet infrastructure; and

A pricing structure that doesn’t penalize consumers for spending time on and buying goods over the Internet (e.g., a flat monthly charge for both ISP access and local phone calls).

Challenging Behaviour

The term `challenging behaviour’ is now more commonly used and has replaced previous terms such as ‘problem behaviour’ or ‘behaviour disorder’. The reasoning is that it reflects a view that the problem is not a property of the behaving person but emerges from how the behaviour is perceived, managed and tolerated by other people. The intensity of the challenge depends not only on the nature of the behaviour but also on the skills of the carers and others in their abilities to respond to the behaviour with a view to lessen or discourage the impact of the behaviour (Emerson and McGill et all.,1994). The existence of CB in people suffering with a learning disability can have serious detrimental consequences in their quality of life Lowe et al. (1995:595 cited in Abudarham and Hurd, 2002).

The definition of CB by Emerson (1987, cited in Abudarham and Hurd, 2002) describes it as a behaviour coupled with high intensity and frequency with a propensity to seriously jeopardise the physical safety of the person and others. As a result of the behaviour there is a likelihood that this will limit or impact on access to ordinary community services or in the extreme deny access or the use of that service. This definition was further amended by Emerson (1995, cited in Abudarham and Hurd, 2002) to include ‘culturally abnormal behaviour(s)’ which highlighted the significance of considering cultural and social norms. CB’s can be loosely divided or categorised into behaviours that are either ‘outer directed’ or ‘inner directed’. An example of outer directed behaviour could include showing or being aggressive towards another person, whilst inner directed can include self-injurious behaviour to one-self which can include self-harming with implements, head banging, burning one-self, eating and swallowing objects or matter.

Lowe et al views on challenging behaviours (1995, cited in Abdurham and Hurd, 2002) reports that CB by definition be-sets both types of behaviour (due to them being defined by ‘consequence’ rather than ‘form’), however evidence gathered from referrals for specialist treatment indicate they are made for people presenting with behaviours that are a disruption to the environment, rather than those that hinder or interfere with the persons learning potential. The study undertaken by Lowe and Felch (1995, cited in Abdurham and Hurd, 2002) highlighted that the behaviours the posed the most problems included aggressiveness, disturbing noises, wandering away, sexual delinquency and temper tantrums. Other behaviours that did not pose equivalent challenges or serious management problems include withdrawal, inactivity or stereotypical behaviours. Self-injuries behaviour was defined by Murphy and Wilson (1985, pg. 15) as “Any behaviour, initiated by the individual which directly results in physical harm to that individual. Physical harm includes bruising, lacerations, bleeding, bone fractures, breakages and other tissue damage.” NICE Guidelines (2013) define self-harm as “self-poisoning or self-injury, irrespective of the apparent purpose of the act.”

Peter’s challenging behaviour is inner-directed as he feels that it alleviates the tension and anxiety issues he is suffering from. Causes of self-harm may be triggered by family issues, relationship break up, history of sexual, mental and physical abuse. An act of self-harm is often described by service users as a coping mechanism and a distraction that may bring relief. In most cases it will bring on feelings of disgust and shame (Chapman et al., 2006). The World Health Organisation (WHO, 2013) evidence base recommendations for management of self-harm includes removing the means of self-harm, regular contact with the person who is self-harming, adopt a problem solving approach, provide social support, hospitalization for person who self-harms, reducing access to the means of the suicide, reducing the availability of drugs and alcohol and responsible media reporting. In order to support Peter appropriately a functional assessment needs to be undertaken which will enable me to form an educated guess/hypotheses as to why Peter engages in this behaviour.

When undertaking a functional assessment the aim is to capture pertinent information in all of the environments and situations where the behaviour occurs. By conducting it in this manner it may elevate the ecological validity of the resulting assessment data and also increase the possibility that the assessment results will capture the range of antecedents and consequences that are influencing the person to behave in that manner ( Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003). The functional assessment can be sub-divided or categorised into an indirect assessment method or a direct assessment method. The indirect assessment method include rating scales and interview methods due to the fact it does not require direct observation when the person is presenting with the CB. The direct assessment method entails systematically observing the person engaging in the challenging behaviour and recording the occurrence/non-occurrence of that challenging behaviour (Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003)

Interviews and rating scales when referring to indirect assessments are reliant on subjective verbal reports by a third party to identify the type of CB, the causal factors and the environmental conditions that are controlling it. When conducting interviews it is imperative for successful analysis that persons interviewed are in daily contact with the person so they can best describe historical events that have occurred and they have been witness to and from this formulate a conclusion of the causal factors of the individual’s behaviour (Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003). The three main objectives of the behavioural interview are to establish the description of the behaviour(s) (i.e. type of problem and it’s appearance), identifying the physical and environmental factors that seem to forecast the challenging behaviour (i.e. occurrence or time of the behaviour) and identifying the maintaining consequences (consequential events that are functioning as reinforcers as a result of the behaviour).

Therefore for best practice the interview should entail probes that are specific in identifying features of the CB, in which circumstance the behaviour occurs or does not occur and the reactions of persons in the immediate environment when witnessing the CB (Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003). Gardner et al. (1986, cited in Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003) developed the ‘Setting Event Checklist’ which is an example of an indirect assessment and proves useful in identifying the influence of global antecedent conditions. This tool consists of questions about the physical condition of the person, their mood and the precipitating factors for social interactions. It also entails the dubiety on how recent the conditions or interactions occurred. Example questions within this checklist aim to identify whether the person presenting with the CB was informed of a change in conditions than their norm, are they tired and suffering from lethargy or have they been assigned new to oversee their care and they are unfamiliar with.

There are other indirect assessment tools which are useful to use for practitioners to identify the potential consequences in maintaining CB. These include the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) which was created by Durrand and Crimmins (1986) and has a series of 16 questions which aim to establish and help the practitioner in determining whether the behaviour is related to attention, escape, tangible or sensory. Others include the Questions About Behavioural Function (QABF) by Paclawskyj et al., (2000) and the Behaviour Diagnostic form created by Bailey and Piles (1989). When undertaking the various indirect assessments it is of paramount importance that practitioners endeavour to get answers to four key questions about the behaviour.

These are in which condition does it occur or most frequently occur, are there times when it rarely or never occurs, establishment of events and interactions that are in occurrence when the behaviour begins and what can be implemented to stop the behaviour ( Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003). Direct functional assessments entails methodically observing the person engaged in the CB and documenting the occurrence/non-occurrence of the CB. There are various different direct observational methods and these include ‘Scatterplot Assessments’, ‘Antecedent Behaviour Consequence (ABC)’ and the Functional Analysis. The information gained from these assessments varies in nature and is dependent on the person’s ability whom is conducting the assessment, the time and effort that is needed to conduct such observations and clarification of what exactly is to be observed (Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003). When conducting the various direct assessments it is important to translate these into observable behaviours before commencing the observation.

The reasons being that it allows for more reliable observations, provides clarity of the behaviour that needs changing and lastly it allows throughout the intervention process an evaluation of the CB. If the desired outcome is not achieved then the type of intervention can be adapted or changed to reach the desired goal. The next step when consensus is agreed on what is to be observed the use of ‘Scatterplots’ and ‘ABC’ assessment. These tools enable the practitioner to observe the person during their regular daily routines and note when the CB is most prevalent. In addition to this the practitioner can systematically structure the environment and measuring the accompanying changes in behaviour (Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003). Scatterplot assessments have been described by Touchette et al. (1985, cited in Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003) as probably the easiest direct observation method.

This method allows the practitioner to identify during the day when the behaviour occurs but is designed not to identify the precursors that evoke or motivate the CB and should be used in conjunction with indirect assessment methods to formulate a hypothesis as to why the person in engages in CB. Scatterplots can also be used as pre assessment tool identify when CB occurs and make allowances for a detailed assessment at high frequency periods of CB (Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003). The design of the Scatterplot is simple in nature and entails time periods on the vertical axis and days on the horizontal axis. The time segments can also be shortened/widened to suit a particular situation. Once the Scatterplot is completed it enable the practitioner to identify visually when high and low risk situations occur.

The ‘Antecedent Behaviour Consequence (ABC)’ tool enables the practitioner to observe behaviour over a period of time and a description of the type of behaviour is recorded. Within the recorded description there are the antecedents and consequences of that behaviour and what the person done in each instance, followed by a description of what was occurring when the behaviour initiated. The format of this tool entails the number of instances that occurred, what was happening at the time, what behaviour was perceived as a problem and what happened in response to the behaviour. The observer needs to be adept and significant effort and time needs to be allocated to formulate a clear picture of the CB. If there are time constraints placed upon the practitioner and other duties need to be undertaken within their role the practitioner can use a scatterplot to determine when the situation/behaviour occurs most frequent and then undertake the ABC tool when the behaviour is most prevalent.

It is good practice that at least 20 occurrence’s need to be recorded before attempting to interpret the results of the ABC analysis as this may allow the practitioner to see some sort of pattern (Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003). The ‘Functional Analysis’ devised by Iwata et al. (1982; 1994 cited in Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003) entails examining the person’s CB under a number of predetermined social conditions which are constructed in a manner for the purpose of identifying specific consequences that are maintain the CB. The number of conditions can vary but usually there are four. The contents are determined on an individual basis which have been sourced from previous interviews and observations. In this section there will be an exploration of the key drivers in the CB arena which endeavour to provide equitable treatment to persons with challenging behaviours. Professor Jim Mansell has achieved great accolades nationally as well as respect in the field of learning disability and community care.

He is the founder director of the ‘Tizard Centre’ which has been recognised as one of the world’s leading centres of study within this field and has published numerous research papers as well as influential guidance on Services for People with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour or Mental Health Needs (1993) which was subsequently revised in 2007 and are popularly known as the “Mansell Reports” (The Challenging Behaviour Foundation, 2008). He also written a report on services for adults with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) and was called ‘Raising Our Sights (2010). The report entailed good practice within services but also highlighted bad practice. The personalisation agenda was included as well as 33 recommendations across areas such as health, wheelchairs, assistive technologies and day activities (Mencap, 2010)

The Valuing People Now document is a three year strategy for people with learning disabilities and particularly sets out to address what people have told the government about the type of support needed for people with learning disabilities and their families. This document also takes into account and reflects the changing priorities which have a direct impact and sets out the government’s response to the ten recommendations in the ‘Healthcare for All’ (2008, cited in Department of Health, 2009) report which was an independent inquiry chaired by Sir Jonathan Michael into access to healthcare for people with learning disabilities. Lastly, it provides a further response to the joint committee on human rights report ‘A Life Like Any Other?’ (2008, cited in Department of Health, 2009) report that concluded that adults with learning disabilities are particularly vulnerable to breaches of their human rights.

The vision and key messages in this document remain the same as set out in the Valuing People (2001, cited in Department of Health, 2009) document. Within the document it mentions that people with learning disabilities are entitled to the same rights and choices as anybody else, have the right to be treated with respect and dignity, have the same chances and responsibilities as everyone else and family carers and families of people with learning disabilities have the right to same hopes and choices of other families. The new strategy entails key components that further strengthen its commitments to people with learning disabilities and is now more inclusive of a multitude of people whom were least often heard and most often excluded. Examples include the Black Minority Ethnic (BME) groups, people with complex needs, offenders whom were incarcerated or in the community and people suffering from autistic spectrum disorders (Department of Health, 2009).

The ‘Personalisation’ component in the strategy aims to give more choice, control and independence and is geared towards enabling people with learning disabilities to get a say on what treatment or care they need, be allowed to plan how the money is spent on the care and be able to choose who they want to support them and how (Department of Health, 2009). ‘Having a life’ within the strategy touches on the fundamentals that the same opportunities/choices apply to people with learning disabilities and they should receive healthcare that is not inferior to that of people without a learning disability, have a right to choose their housing provision, have same opportunities to education, training and employment and to form relationships and raise a family. ‘People as citizens’ within the strategy includes advocacy provision, better accessibility for transport, opportunities for leisure and social activities, being safe in the community or at home and access to justice and redress (Department of Health, 2009).

The ‘Making it happen’ component entails working in partnership with organisations within this arena to make this a reality for people with learning disabilities. The government is to continue supporting organisations such as ‘The National Forum for People with Learning Difficulties’ and ‘The National Valuing Families Forum’ (Department of Health, 2009). The ‘Putting People First’ government report identifies a shared vision for change within the adult social care arena. The report entails the key challenges that the government is facing which include increasing demographic pressure as people are living longer and may experience more complex conditions as they get older, the change in family structures and how this impacts on families, the changing of expectations and the increasing choice which this demands and financial pressures.

The key themes within this report are ‘Choice and Control’, ‘Universal Services’ & ‘Social Capital’, ‘Early Intervention & Prevention’ and ‘Market Shaping’ (Department of Health, 2007). The term `challenging behaviour’ is now more commonly used and has replaced previous terms such as ‘problem behaviour’ or ‘behaviour disorder’. The reasoning is that it reflects a view that the problem is not a property of the behaving person but emerges from how the behaviour is perceived, managed and tolerated by other people. The intensity of the challenge depends not only on the nature of the behaviour but also on the skills of the carers and others in their abilities to respond to the behaviour with a view to lessen or discourage the impact of the behaviour (Emerson and McGill et all.,1994). The existence of CB in people suffering with a learning disability can have serious detrimental consequences in their quality of life Lowe et al. (1995:595 cited in Abudarham and Hurd, 2002).

The definition of CB by Emerson (1987, cited in Abudarham and Hurd, 2002) describes it as a behaviour coupled with high intensity and frequency with a propensity to seriously jeopardise the physical safety of the person and others. As a result of the behaviour there is a likelihood that this will limit or impact on access to ordinary community services or in the extreme deny access or the use of that service. This definition was further amended by Emerson (1995, cited in Abudarham and Hurd, 2002) to include ‘culturally abnormal behaviour(s)’ which highlighted the significance of considering cultural and social norms. CB’s can be loosely divided or categorised into behaviours that are either ‘outer directed’ or ‘inner directed’. An example of outer directed behaviour could include showing or being aggressive towards another person, whilst inner directed can include self-injurious behaviour to one-self which can include self-harming with implements, head banging, burning one-self, eating and swallowing objects or matter.

Lowe et al views on challenging behaviours (1995, cited in Abdurham and Hurd, 2002) reports that CB by definition be-sets both types of behaviour (due to them being defined by ‘consequence’ rather than ‘form’), however evidence gathered from referrals for specialist treatment indicate they are made for people presenting with behaviours that are a disruption to the environment, rather than those that hinder or interfere with the persons learning potential. The study undertaken by Lowe and Felch (1995, cited in Abdurham and Hurd, 2002) highlighted that the behaviours the posed the most problems included aggressiveness, disturbing noises, wandering away, sexual delinquency and temper tantrums. Other behaviours that did not pose equivalent challenges or serious management problems include withdrawal, inactivity or stereotypical behaviours.

Self-injuries behaviour was defined by Murphy and Wilson (1985, pg. 15) as “Any behaviour, initiated by the individual which directly results in physical harm to that individual. Physical harm includes bruising, lacerations, bleeding, bone fractures, breakages and other tissue damage.” NICE Guidelines (2013) define self-harm as “self-poisoning or self-injury, irrespective of the apparent purpose of the act.” Peter’s challenging behaviour is inner-directed as he feels that it alleviates the tension and anxiety issues he is suffering from. Causes of self-harm may be triggered by family issues, relationship break up, history of sexual, mental and physical abuse. An act of self-harm is often described by service users as a coping mechanism and a distraction that may bring relief. In most cases it will bring on feelings of disgust and shame (Chapman et al., 2006).

The World Health Organisation (WHO, 2013) evidence base recommendations for management of self-harm includes removing the means of self-harm, regular contact with the person who is self-harming, adopt a problem solving approach, provide social support, hospitalization for person who self-harms, reducing access to the means of the suicide, reducing the availability of drugs and alcohol and responsible media reporting. In order to support Peter appropriately a functional assessment needs to be undertaken which will enable me to form an educated guess/hypotheses as to why Peter engages in this behaviour. When undertaking a functional assessment the aim is to capture pertinent information in all of the environments and situations where the behaviour occurs. By conducting it in this manner it may elevate the ecological validity of the resulting assessment data and also increase the possibility that the assessment results will capture the range of antecedents and consequences that are influencing the person to behave in that manner ( Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003).

The functional assessment can be sub-divided or categorised into an indirect assessment method or a direct assessment method. The indirect assessment method include rating scales and interview methods due to the fact it does not require direct observation when the person is presenting with the CB. The direct assessment method entails systematically observing the person engaging in the challenging behaviour and recording the occurrence/non-occurrence of that challenging behaviour (Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003) Interviews and rating scales when referring to indirect assessments are reliant on subjective verbal reports by a third party to identify the type of CB, the causal factors and the environmental conditions that are controlling it.

When conducting interviews it is imperative for successful analysis that persons interviewed are in daily contact with the person so they can best describe historical events that have occurred and they have been witness to and from this formulate a conclusion of the causal factors of the individual’s behaviour (Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003). The three main objectives of the behavioural interview are to establish the description of the behaviour(s) (i.e. type of problem and it’s appearance), identifying the physical and environmental factors that seem to forecast the challenging behaviour (i.e. occurrence or time of the behaviour) and identifying the maintaining consequences (consequential events that are functioning as reinforcers as a result of the behaviour). Therefore for best practice the interview should entail probes that are specific in identifying features of the CB, in which circumstance the behaviour occurs or does not occur and the reactions of persons in the immediate environment when witnessing the CB (Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003).

Gardner et al. (1986, cited in Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003) developed the ‘Setting Event Checklist’ which is an example of an indirect assessment and proves useful in identifying the influence of global antecedent conditions. This tool consists of questions about the physical condition of the person, their mood and the precipitating factors for social interactions. It also entails the dubiety on how recent the conditions or interactions occurred. Example questions within this checklist aim to identify whether the person presenting with the CB was informed of a change in conditions than their norm, are they tired and suffering from lethargy or have they been assigned new to oversee their care and they are unfamiliar with. There are other indirect assessment tools which are useful to use for practitioners to identify the potential consequences in maintaining CB.

These include the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) which was created by Durrand and Crimmins (1986) and has a series of 16 questions which aim to establish and help the practitioner in determining whether the behaviour is related to attention, escape, tangible or sensory. Others include the Questions About Behavioural Function (QABF) by Paclawskyj et al., (2000) and the Behaviour Diagnostic form created by Bailey and Piles (1989). When undertaking the various indirect assessments it is of paramount importance that practitioners endeavour to get answers to four key questions about the behaviour. These are in which condition does it occur or most frequently occur, are there times when it rarely or never occurs, establishment of events and interactions that are in occurrence when the behaviour begins and what can be implemented to stop the behaviour ( Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003).
Direct functional assessments entails methodically observing the person engaged in the CB and documenting the occurrence/non-occurrence of the CB.

There are various different direct observational methods and these include ‘Scatterplot Assessments’, ‘Antecedent Behaviour Consequence (ABC)’ and the Functional Analysis. The information gained from these assessments varies in nature and is dependent on the person’s ability whom is conducting the assessment, the time and effort that is needed to conduct such observations and clarification of what exactly is to be observed (Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003). When conducting the various direct assessments it is important to translate these into observable behaviours before commencing the observation. The reasons being that it allows for more reliable observations, provides clarity of the behaviour that needs changing and lastly it allows throughout the intervention process an evaluation of the CB. If the desired outcome is not achieved then the type of intervention can be adapted or changed to reach the desired goal.

The next step when consensus is agreed on what is to be observed the use of ‘Scatterplots’ and ‘ABC’ assessment. These tools enable the practitioner to observe the person during their regular daily routines and note when the CB is most prevalent. In addition to this the practitioner can systematically structure the environment and measuring the accompanying changes in behaviour (Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003). Scatterplot assessments have been described by Touchette et al. (1985, cited in Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003) as probably the easiest direct observation method. This method allows the practitioner to identify during the day when the behaviour occurs but is designed not to identify the precursors that evoke or motivate the CB and should be used in conjunction with indirect assessment methods to formulate a hypothesis as to why the person in engages in CB. Scatterplots can also be used as pre assessment tool identify when CB occurs and make allowances for a detailed assessment at high frequency periods of CB (Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003). The design of the Scatterplot is simple in nature and entails time periods on the vertical axis and days on the horizontal axis. The time segments can also be shortened/widened to suit a particular situation.

Once the Scatterplot is completed it enable the practitioner to identify visually when high and low risk situations occur. The ‘Antecedent Behaviour Consequence (ABC)’ tool enables the practitioner to observe behaviour over a period of time and a description of the type of behaviour is recorded. Within the recorded description there are the antecedents and consequences of that behaviour and what the person done in each instance, followed by a description of what was occurring when the behaviour initiated. The format of this tool entails the number of instances that occurred, what was happening at the time, what behaviour was perceived as a problem and what happened in response to the behaviour. The observer needs to be adept and significant effort and time needs to be allocated to formulate a clear picture of the CB. If there are time constraints placed upon the practitioner and other duties need to be undertaken within their role the practitioner can use a scatterplot to determine when the situation/behaviour occurs most frequent and then undertake the ABC tool when the behaviour is most prevalent.

It is good practice that at least 20 occurrence’s need to be recorded before attempting to interpret the results of the ABC analysis as this may allow the practitioner to see some sort of pattern (Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003). The ‘Functional Analysis’ devised by Iwata et al. (1982; 1994 cited in Sigafoos and Arthur et al., 2003) entails examining the person’s CB under a number of predetermined social conditions which are constructed in a manner for the purpose of identifying specific consequences that are maintain the CB. The number of conditions can vary but usually there are four. The contents are determined on an individual basis which have been sourced from previous interviews and observations. In this section there will be an exploration of the key drivers in the CB arena which endeavour to provide equitable treatment to persons with challenging behaviours.

Professor Jim Mansell has achieved great accolades nationally as well as respect in the field of learning disability and community care. He is the founder director of the ‘Tizard Centre’ which has been recognised as one of the world’s leading centres of study within this field and has published numerous research papers as well as influential guidance on Services for People with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour or Mental Health Needs (1993) which was subsequently revised in 2007 and are popularly known as the “Mansell Reports” (The Challenging Behaviour Foundation, 2008). He also written a report on services for adults with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) and was called ‘Raising Our Sights (2010). The report entailed good practice within services but also highlighted bad practice.

The personalisation agenda was included as well as 33 recommendations across areas such as health, wheelchairs, assistive technologies and day activities (Mencap, 2010) The Valuing People Now document is a three year strategy for people with learning disabilities and particularly sets out to address what people have told the government about the type of support needed for people with learning disabilities and their families. This document also takes into account and reflects the changing priorities which have a direct impact and sets out the government’s response to the ten recommendations in the ‘Healthcare for All’ (2008, cited in Department of Health, 2009) report which was an independent inquiry chaired by Sir Jonathan Michael into access to healthcare for people with learning disabilities. Lastly, it provides a further response to the joint committee on human rights report ‘A Life Like Any Other?’ (2008, cited in Department of Health, 2009) report that concluded that adults with learning disabilities are particularly vulnerable to breaches of their human rights.

The vision and key messages in this document remain the same as set out in the Valuing People (2001, cited in Department of Health, 2009) document. Within the document it mentions that people with learning disabilities are entitled to the same rights and choices as anybody else, have the right to be treated with respect and dignity, have the same chances and responsibilities as everyone else and family carers and families of people with learning disabilities have the right to same hopes and choices of other families. The new strategy entails key components that further strengthen its commitments to people with learning disabilities and is now more inclusive of a multitude of people whom were least often heard and most often excluded. Examples include the Black Minority Ethnic (BME) groups, people with complex needs, offenders whom were incarcerated or in the community and people suffering from autistic spectrum disorders (Department of Health, 2009).

The ‘Personalisation’ component in the strategy aims to give more choice, control and independence and is geared towards enabling people with learning disabilities to get a say on what treatment or care they need, be allowed to plan how the money is spent on the care and be able to choose who they want to support them and how (Department of Health, 2009). ‘Having a life’ within the strategy touches on the fundamentals that the same opportunities/choices apply to people with learning disabilities and they should receive healthcare that is not inferior to that of people without a learning disability, have a right to choose their housing provision, have same opportunities to education, training and employment and to form relationships and raise a family. ‘People as citizens’ within the strategy includes advocacy provision, better accessibility for transport, opportunities for leisure and social activities, being safe in the community or at home and access to justice and redress (Department of Health, 2009).

The ‘Making it happen’ component entails working in partnership with organisations within this arena to make this a reality for people with learning disabilities. The government is to continue supporting organisations such as ‘The National Forum for People with Learning Difficulties’ and ‘The National Valuing Families Forum’ (Department of Health, 2009). The ‘Putting People First’ government report identifies a shared vision for change within the adult social care arena. The report entails the key challenges that the government is facing which include increasing demographic pressure as people are living longer and may experience more complex conditions as they get older, the change in family structures and how this impacts on families, the changing of expectations and the increasing choice which this demands and financial pressures.

The key themes within this report are ‘Choice and Control’, ‘Universal Services’ & ‘Social Capital’, ‘Early Intervention & Prevention’ and ‘Market Shaping’ (Department of Health, 2007). In concluding this assignment it is important to note that various assessment methods and questions can be used and asked to form a hypothesis on Peter’s behaviour. It also is useful to focus on the antecedents and the consequences that may conjure and maintain his behaviour. The Scatterplot’ and the ‘ABC’ analysis were consistent with that of the indirect assessments enabling me to be more confident in formulating a judgement on the function or purpose of Peter’s self-harm. The key drivers mentioned in this assignment have made significant inroads in achieving fair and equitable treatment for people with CB, learning disabilities and mental health problems. In undertaking this assignment my knowledge on CB has immensely improved and now feel confident that the knowledge gained from this assignment can be applied and incorporated into my working practice.

In concluding this assignment it is important to note that various assessment methods and questions can be used and asked to form a hypothesis on Peter’s behaviour. It also is useful to focus on the antecedents and the consequences that may conjure and maintain his behaviour. The Scatterplot’ and the ‘ABC’ analysis were consistent with that of the indirect assessments enabling me to be more confident in formulating a judgement on the function or purpose of Peter’s self-harm. The key drivers mentioned in this assignment have made significant inroads in achieving fair and equitable treatment for people with CB, learning disabilities and mental health problems. In undertaking this assignment my knowledge on CB has immensely improved and now feel confident that the knowledge gained from this assignment can be applied and incorporated into my working practice.

Role of environment in human behaviour

The term environment refers to the cultural and social aspects that shape our lives both as a population and as a person. Research has examined the influence of different factors on human behaviour and performance, external factors depend on a persons upbringing, culture and the influence they receive from their peers. The environment in which we live has a considerable impact on our behaviour and performance, three of which will be explored in more detail. The first being Albert Bandura’s study with ‘Bobo dolls’ and the effect violence has on a child’s behaviour. Whilst also looking at how friendships are built and the different peer pressures we face as children and adolescents and how the friendships we build can influence behaviour and performance whilst also defining who we are. The third type will be looking at the effects of a stroke on the brain and the way in which it recovers and reprogram’s itself.

Social learning is described as learning new behaviours by observing others. These behaviours being observed can be of good or bad behaviour. There are certain things that can influence human behaviours, for example media violence, films, TV and computer games. Today the internet is powerful and has the power to influence behaviour, online games portray extreme violence that both children and adults can participate in. With technology becoming more advanced and the digital world available more easily to young people it is becoming a concern that this is having a serious effect on attitudes towards violence, in the sense of what is the correct way to behave and what is not (Oates, 2010, p. 103).

Albert Bandura conducted an experiment to find out if there was a relationship between children witnessing violence and them carrying out violent acts. He observed the children within four different groups to allow him to see the affect of certain variables on their behaviour. He used a ‘model’ to act aggressively towards a blow up doll in a variety of scenes including both live and filmed models. He then observed the children’s behaviour towards the doll after they had witnessed the ‘model’ behaving violently. His results showed that exposure to these displays of aggression by both types of models led to aggressive behaviour and highlighted that there is a key link between the media and children’s behaviour. Human behaviour can be influenced by seeing violent acts, however the result from the study observed that it depends on the gender of the child and who has performed the violent act, for example male, female, cartoon or human (Oates, 2010, p. 110 & 111).

Bandura et al study is one of the first experiments to measure the effects of media on behaviour. There is a strong correlation between the amount of aggression a child shows and what violence they have just witnessed. However there are reasons why observing a correlation can not always show the correct results. A correlation doesn’t inform us of what the direction of effect may be. Instead of a child acting violently because of what they have seen, it could be that they were already an aggressive child and were seeking to watch violent content or play violent online games. A correlation also doesn’t tell us if there is a third factor in the behaviour. A child could be at home with a violent parent and violent videos may be easily accessible to them. Here the environment at home could account for both the aggressive child and the exposure to the media content (Oates, 2010, p.120 & 121).

Friendships are an important influence on behaviour, this can be in both a positive and negative way. Those first friendships formed in school can be very important and influential in the way children experience their start to school life. Throughout life friends can influence children and adults in the way they behave as peer pressure can lead to good and bad experiences. For example if a person is friends with somebody who smokes or takes drugs, they may feel that they have to mimic this action as well to stay in the specific group. Research by Kim McLeod has shown this to be the case and that the friends humans make influence development and behaviour.

McLeod et al decided to study the influence of friends on smoking behaviour. To do this they studied sets of twins, one of who smoked and one who didn’t. They looked to see if it was their friendship groups that caused them to smoke or in the others case not to smoke. McLeod et al found that friends do influence the decision to smoke. The reasons given for smoking was for social mobility, for example to make friends with certain groups or to gain a rebellious image. They also found that as with the smoker twin, the non smoker was aware that the role of smoking can create a certain social image and personal identity (Bronlow, 2010, p.256 & 257).

Gonzale et al studied friendships in both collectivist cultures and individualistic cultures. The friendships built in collectivist cultures tend to be based on values i.e. concern for each other and peaceful relationships and individualistic cultures where they are focused on individual goals and achievements. Gonzale et al studied the relationship between teenagers in Canada and Cuba to compare the different types of friendships. He asked nearly six hundred teenagers between the two countries to write an essay about the qualities they look for in a best friend of the same gender.

What he found was that both cultures looked for loyalty and acceptance but the Cuban essays focused more on who the person was and having a close bond with them. Whereas the Canadian essays were more focused on the sharing of interests or social interaction. Although the results showed what Bandura et al thought, studies since have not brought the same results and as a result suggest that concepts such as collectivism and individualism are sometimes too general when trying to understand the sometimes subtle influence culture can have on human behaviour and social skills (Bronlow, 2010, p. 258, 259, 260 & 261).

Whilst a lot of the way we behave and perform is to do with both peer pressure and influence, some of it is out of our control and not down to the environment in which we live. People who suffer from a stroke perform in different ways because of what is known as aphasia, a breakdown in speech. This involves broken connections between language, meaning and production, affecting speech, writing, reading and processing numbers. Which connections that have been damaged is different for everyone. Stroke patients are vital when providing valuable understanding between the brain and psychological functions (Toates, 2010, p. 315).

The brain has the ability to recover from a stroke due to the plasticity of it, it can create new pathways following a stroke, almost like it is being reprogrammed. With the help of therapy courses the brain has the ability to adapt. A therapy called MIT, melodic intonation therapy can help build a patients confidence and realise their strengths and use these to adapt to their damage and improve the recovery process. Once a person has had a stroke they never fully recover from it as it damages brain tissue that can not be regenerated. The brain has to become more alert using different regions that have always been there and do have the connections, they just need to become more efficient (Film 3: Researching language impairment (2010) ).

To conclude, there are various environmental factors that effect human behaviour and performance. The television children watch can have an impact on whether they behave well or not, but sometimes the media is just an extra influence to an aggressive or violent life that already exists for that child. Correlations are not always as black and white as they may seem and there may be more to the reasons behind the aggressive behaviour. When looking at the influence friends have on our behaviour it is important to look at all cultures. All across the world people make friends every day, they try to impress these friends and fit in with groups they want to be in.

These environmental facts have a great influence on whether children and even adults do well in life, at school, work and personal lives. In some cases, such as patients who have suffered from strokes, the environment in which we live isn’t always the cause of human behaviour or performance. In the case of stroke patients the cause for their performance is because of biological reasons and with the help of therapy groups they can improve and help re direct their brain. The environment plays a large part in human behaviour and with out therapy groups patients wouldn’t be able to recover as well, or in some cases at all.

Promote childrens behaviour

Unit 304 Promote children and young people’s positive behaviour The role of a school is multi-faceted. It exists not only to educate, but to guide children’s development into well-adjusted, independent, and successful adults. In order to offer support and time to a class in its entirety, pupil behaviour needs to be managed effectively. Boundaries and rules need to be set for children and a consistent approach applied by all staff. Documented policies and procedures enable all to have a clear understanding of expectations and common goals. There are, however, behavioural or discipline problems that need to be referred to others and all need to be aware of when the situation needs additional assistance and where to obtain this. All staff, from teaching to support staff and lunchtime supervisors, within my setting have sight of the behaviour policy and are expected to adhere to the principles and strategies contained within it. This ensures that all know what is expected from them and children can respond positively.

I believe that children respond well to having clear, consistent, boundaries and guidelines. When met with unclear, or differing rules, they will attempt to test or push the boundaries as they do not have the security of knowing where they stand. This is likely to be most evident with older students. When all staff follow the correct procedures and fairly apply boundaries, the children know what is acceptable and what is not. If children are aware of the scale of rewards and sanctions and the order in which they are applied, it should not matter, who is speaking to them about their behaviour. As a volunteer within the school, I have the same status and authority as contracted teaching staff with regard to behaviour management. I am fortunate to have the full support of the class teacher and this reinforces my confidence in dealing with inappropriate behaviour.

The children can see that there is a “team” approach to behaviour management and that they will be treated in the same manner, regardless of who is with them at the time. . The school works collaboratively with parents by supplying each with a copy of the school promises at the start of the academic year. These are signed by the teacher and the children. The aim of the school is to reward good behaviour in order to develop an ethos of kindness and co-operation. This is certainly true within the class in which I volunteer; however, I am aware that some days can be a battle against poor behaviour and it is a challenge to find positive behaviour to praise, but absolutely essential. A child may become accustomed to only getting attention for bad behaviour, which may serve only to reinforce his actions; especially if it is the only attention that they receive.

The guidelines for the area of school in which I volunteer indicate that a child sit in the “thinking chair,” when they have behaved inappropriately, followed by moving their name if the behaviour continues. Further occurrences would mean the class teacher speaking to the parents. I recently told a child not to swing his p.e bag from his neck and discussed with him the potential dangers of doing so. He continued to display the actions that I had asked him not to and so I used the thinking chair. Further occurrences would have involved moving Julie Gibson10/11/2013

his name and continuing with the set behaviour procedure. Before returning to join the rest of the class, we discussed why he had been on the chair and the potential injuries he could have sustained. In this instance the class teacher also spoke to his parents because of the dangerous nature of his actions and spoke to the whole class about the incident, to reinforce the dangers. The following week, I observed the child warn another, not to put their cord around their neck as “it could hurt.” I praised the child for his actions and explained how much I valued his support. I knew that this particular child liked to be praised in front of his peers and so at a convenient moment, I stopped the class and explained to them that I was awarding him a team point for sensible behaviour in class.

The pride and boost to his self-esteem was clear to see. Applying the same rules and boundaries helps children feel equal, valued and respected. Fairly applied boundaries can also help children become more independent and co-operative. It is important for all pupils to be recognised and rewarded for positive behaviour. As previously stated, children who are more often given attention for poor behaviour, require positive behaviour to be recognised and rewarded when positive behaviour is displayed. When children attempt to gain attention through undesirable behaviour, it is often better to ignore it if possible and give attention to those behaving well. Research and studies developed by B.F Skinner in the 1940’s, suggest that behaviour that gives them recognition or praise is more likely to be repeated. In order to maintain a balance, children need six positive responses for every negative.

If possible, negative behaviour should be ignored and diversion techniques used, to prevent the undesirable behaviour. Boundaries help children feel safe and avoid confusion. By rewarding good behaviour, children experience a boost to their self-esteem, which, ideally creates a self-perpetuating response of good behaviour. Good behaviour creates a positive environment for learning and should maximise performance in the classroom. There is no value in consistently applying rewards and sanctions, if I do not role model the actions that I am actively promoting. Children will take their lead from me and if I am not behaving responsibly or appropriately, they will not take me seriously. I ensure that interactions that I may have with other adults, or children are respectful and give a clear indication of the correct way to behave.

If I make a mistake, I ensure that I apologise and show my actions to rectify as I am aware that negative actions observed will have a resulting, negative influence upon the actions of the children within my class. When giving instructions and guidelines on required behaviour to the class, I use a positive tone and discuss the benefits with the class e.g “why is it better to walk in class.?” Children are likely to give responses regarding tripping and hurting themselves. By using this tactic, the children are setting boundaries collaboratively. When they do not act in the way agreed, they are breaking their own rules, not

Julie Gibson10/11/2013 simply ones enforced by me. When they do behave appropriately, I can highlight this and give praise and recognition. These may be by way of stickers and team points or recommending for a superstar certificate, to be awarded at the end of the week. Whilst all staff should feel confident in dealing fairly and consistently with inappropriate behaviour, there will always be occasions when others need to be involved. If it becomes clear that a situation is getting out of hand and there is possible danger to the staff member, or pupil, assistance should be requested from another staff member. A pupil may begin to behave in an unpredictable way that makes the staff member uncomfortable.

Referral to the SENCO may be required if a child with additional needs has a behavioural problem requiring specialist assistance and additional strategies for use within the classroom. If staff have a problem with a particular child that is proving increasingly difficult to resolve, assistance from senior staff, or the head teacher can be sought. They can assist in referrals to the local authority behaviour unit and educational psychologists, who will make assessments and offer advice, help and support. Clearly when situations concerning behaviour reach a point where external agencies become involved, parents should be fully aware of difficulties and their cooperation sought to enable a combined approach from all sides.

Consistency is key when dealing with behavioural issues. If all staff support each other to deal in a fair manner, applying rules and boundaries equally, children feel safe in the knowledge that rewards and sanctions with be the same, regardless of who is dealing with their behaviour. By actively promoting positive aspects of behaviour and role modelling requirements, children are more likely to repeat appropriate behaviour. When poor behaviour creates a situation where staff or pupils may be endangered, help from others should be sought. Behaviour can be managed when all collaborate to support children to work within boundaries and help them to feel confident in their surroundings. .

Understanding and Managing Behaviour in the Learning Environment

As teachers, we have a duty of care to understand and be aware of the current legislation that can have an influence on the management of behaviour in the learning environment. Managing behaviour is an area that can determine that all learners have the right to achieve; therefore, it is important that we understand the legal implications fully in an educational institute. Below is an example of these policies that are relevant to my own teaching. The Equality Act 2010 (The Equality Act 2010, 2012), has replaced the previous acts, primarily the Equal Pay Act 1970, the Sex Discrimination Act 1975, the Disability Act 1995 and the Race Relations Act 1976 with one overarching policy that relates to equal opportunities for all regardless of their disability, race, gender, sexual orientation. It is important when recruiting learners that there is a clear understanding of their ability and background, if a learner goes through the induction process and has been mismatched to the course then their behaviour in the classroom could be disruptive or non inclusive.

This could be down to boredom or inability to do the level that they have selected for. In turn these factors can cause difficulties for the teacher to keep the learner engaged. The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 are standards which affect workers and others who carry out any work activity. (health and safety legislation). The health and Safety at Work Act 1974 is relevant to managing behaviour with regard to a safe and resourceful environment. Having a large group of learners in a practical class for example, has its risks; if a learner were to have an accident due to lack of knowledge regarding a risk assessment, This would inevitably disrupt the smooth running of the class and could lead to the learner missing classes and falling behind therefore the management of these acts is crucial to ensure all learners and staff are aware of their responsibilities in the learning environment. Looking at the policies in place where I work, the one policy that stands out as problematic is the attendance policy.

The policy states that if a learner is unable to attend a training session then the learner must inform the tutor within one hour of the start time of the session. If the learner is to be absent through sickness the learner must provide a doctors certificate. It also states that the learner has a fifteen-minute grace period for lateness before the learner is marked as a problem. This policy is straightforward and easily understood. However, the part that makes it difficult to implement is the consequences if not adhered to by the learner. There are few consequences for lateness or a learner missing sessions on a regular basis because of the very laws in place to protect the learner. If a learner is absent on a regular basis do we exclude the learner? Many situations are reasonable explanations of why a learner’s attendance is erratic; however there is a need for a policy change regarding how the late learner is dealt with to provide a system that is fair to all learners.

For example a case study of a learner within my own group of learners that I will refer to as learner x, demonstrates how managing behaviour within the group can become a challenge. Learner x is bipolar and is considered a vulnerable learner. Learner x only attends two days per week as oppose to four; therefore the tutor is continuously supporting the learner with work missed. The learner is academically capable of the level assigned to her. The learner is willing to work but with a lot of one to one support, (in itself difficult to achieve if the learner’s attendance is not regular), already managing a group that has different abilities takes the skill of the tutor to manage the learning environment effectively to avoid little disruption for those that do attend regularly and work hard. Learner x has been on the course for a lot longer than predicted she can only attend two out of the four days that the course requires, she has regular medication that can make her tired if not taken at the correct times.

When learner x is having a bad day she will often seek attention by accusing other students of bullying, this is not the case but a part of the condition she has causes paranoia. The majority of the time the learner x gets on and works well but on occasion if learner x has a bad day then this takes time away from the rest of the group. To summarise the difficulties in managing behaviour in the learning environment and reviewing the attendance policy I would firstly remove the fifteen-minute grace period for lateness. I believe this just encourages the learner to arrive fifteen minutes late. Trying to implement consequences is far more difficult given the current legislation.

One of the ways that can achieve a balanced learning environment, where the group as a whole can benefit is to firstly know your learners and encourage them to take some responsibility of their learning. I try to give responsibility that I know each learner is capable of, for example, I would group together a learner with leadership qualities with a learner who needs support, and this I find benefits both learners. All learners have the right to learn. Understanding the learning environment as a teacher is vital to their success.

Task 2: Negative or disruptive behaviour which is demonstrated by an individual Learner y spends a lot of the time being uncooperative in the classroom. Learner y also likes to gain allies in her endeavour to be non-cooperative. The learner often just looks blankly at me when asked to start a task or will role her eyes in an attempt to gain a negative response. The learner causes disruption in the sense that my attention is drawn away from the rest of the group when dealing with this learner. The impact that this has causes the course delivery to slow down and wastes time. Learner y is capable of doing the course but appears lazy most of the time. I do not believe that the learner is lazy because when learner y is cooperative her work is of a very good standard and she will work hard.

There is of course the impact of the learner’s ally in this situation, the ally is being dominated by learner y and is therefore missing the opportunity to demonstrate her own potential. The group as a whole tend to avoid learner y, this leaves her with just her dominated ally, and together they are falling behind. Of course I have looked into different ways to change this behaviour but it has not been easy. Understanding why this learner behaves the way she does for me is a process of elimination. Initially the learner comes across as an attention seeker (Petty, 2009), describes this as, “Attention seeking students are usually extrovert, and seem to enjoy the attention of the teacher and the class, even if the attention is negative.” This statement is a similar description of learner y, however the extrovert part is not a word I would use when describing her personality, My interpretation of this learner would be passive aggressive and she will often be disruptive in other ways that are more subtle but still seeking attention. According to (Harrn, 2011), the traits of passive aggressive behaviour she shows are. Non Communication

Avoiding and ignoring
Sulking
Making excuses
After getting to know the learner over a period of time the one thing the learner lacks is self-esteem. The learner has difficulty with reading and writing and appears to hide this by being difficult rather than asking for help. The course is of a practical nature but does have written assignments, the learner can find ways of compensating for this if the learner has had to write anything she has the computer to help her with spelling mistakes, grammar and punctuation. I have come to understand that the attention seeking tendencies are to distract others from thinking she may not understand the question or the exercise in any given lesson. I also see her dominating approach to her ally is so she does not feel isolated when she is disciplined for her lack of cooperation. There have been times when learner y has excelled in her work and surprised me. It is apparent that the learner has specific needs to overcome the low self-esteem problem.

From looking at the student’s learning style this presents itself as auditory although this is a small exercise in determining how a learner learns it is of benefit to me as a teacher to understand the learner’s reactions to the learning environment. Learner y shows a lot of resistance when asked to complete a task whether it is practical or theory based. I believe the problem lies in the learner having a fear of achievement assuming that she cannot achieve. Learner y displays a defensive nature. Learner y was excluded from school in year nine and attended a specialist institute and went on to a college and achieved a level one course but has stated that she did not enjoy the course. Learner y was diagnosed as dyslexic in primary school but did not get specialist help once she reached secondary school. With all this information regarding the learner I have to find ways of getting learner y to engage. My first attempt to get learner y to engage in the lesson was to sit and talk to her one to one and ask her what she expected of the course. Her reaction surprised me her interest lies more in one of her subjects than the other and this was causing her to become bored which led her to be disruptive.

We managed to come up with an individual learning plan that would take her down her chosen career path rather than working towards goals she did not need. I was made aware of her dyslexia late into her starting the course and therefore did not know this was diagnosed as a learning difficulty for her. With hindsight this answered a lot of questions and now we are working on supporting her written work and her reading so she can understand the coursework assigned to her. Separating Learner y from her ally during the lesson is beneficial during some tasks but on occasion learner y becomes more resistant when this has been tried. It seems she works harder when with the other learner and given support and guidance.

I have seen that there is more improvement in her attitude towards learning when she is praised for her efforts this has given her a little more confidence to speak up in a positive way. The last few weeks have seen a turn around with learner y she has become less disruptive and more willing to take part within the group. Learner y has come to trust my judgement although this took some analysis on my part to understand how and why she behaves the way she does. After reading (Petty, 2009) the one approach that did work with learner y is the one to one chat Non directive adult–to-adult style. I believe this had an enormous effect on the learner’s sense of being heard.

Learner y needs support to build her confidence to get her where she wants to be. She has learning difficulties that need to be supported. It will take time to get her to her desired goals but with hard work and determination from myself and the learner there should be no reason why she cannot achieve what she has set out to achieve. My own development needs

The need for me to continuously update within my vocational area is paramount. This will enable my learners to gain the most valid and current information. I strive to work on my maths skills as this is a weak area for me but plays an important part of the subject that I deliver I am average at number work but would like to improve on this.

Works Cited

The Equality Act 2010. (2012, October 23rd). Retrieved December 2nd, 2012, from Department for Education: http://www.education.gov.uk/aboutdfe/policiesandprocedures/equalityanddiversity/a0064570/-equality-act-2010 Harrn, A. (2011, May 13th). What is Passive Aggresive Behaviour. Retrieved December 14/12/12, 2012, from Councelling
Directory: http://www.counselling-directory.org.uk/counsellor-articles/what-is-passive-aggressive-behaviour health and safety legislation. (n.d.). Retrieved December 2nd, 2012, from www.atl.org.uk: http://www.atl.org.uk/health-and-safety/legal-framework/health-safety-legislation.asp Petty, G. (2009). Teaching Today a Practical guide 4th Edition. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.

Task 2: Negative or disruptive behaviour, which is demonstrated by an individual or in a group in my class. Case Study:
A case study based upon a real experience with a learner. Learner y had been on the course for a year and had some time out due to personal problems and problems within the organisation where I worked due to staff shortages. This particular day the learner arrived at least an hour late indicating that she had to deal with a friend’s personal issue and that she had been up all night and would like to discuss it with me. I briefly listened to what she had to say and asked that we discuss it in more detail later as the class was in full flow during a practical session. The learner began by bringing food into the practical class and was uncooperative when asked to put it away until lunchtime her response was she has not eaten yet. This was not the first incident with this learner. Usually learner y responds to reason and encouragement this particular day her behaviour just escalated into what I can only describe as a tantrum using abusive language and accusing the staff of not teaching her how they should be. This led me exclude her from the classroom.

The whole incident disrupted everyone throughout the latter half of the lesson. On reflection this situation was going to erupt from the moment learner y arrived even with the all the skills in teaching that I have gained there were subtle indicators that would, under less busy situations led me to read the signs. I know this learner well and I know that her home life is disruptive. Learner y at the time was in a transition period, coming out of care and living independently waiting to be housed in her own accommodation. The learner had been involved in a stressful incident the night before. There are mitigating circumstances to why this particular incident was as ineffective as it could have been on this particular occasion. The classroom was very busy with students all doing a practical task there were clients in the salon area and a colleague had arrived for a meeting. I also had a trainee teacher working with the learners whom alerted me to learner y’s ongoing behaviour.

Learner y is a vulnerable learner and the only place she has consistency in her life is at college. Learner why has a pattern of behaviour this can be handled with encouragement and setting tasks that give her a sense of independence and achievement. Learner y works well in a group situation too. However, learner y has childlike qualities that cause her to be disruptive if she is not getting the attention she sometimes craves. As Petty indicates, ‘The best strategy is to accept the need for attention, but encourage the student to get this attention from ‘legitimate needs’ (Petty, 2009). Learner y has many personal issues to deal with but from this wants to learn and better herself so that she can be independent, therefore taking all these circumstances into account, it is understandable that from time to time her behaviour is going to be difficult.

Learner y is a young vulnerable adult that has responsibilities way beyond her experience. At the same time, she has a need for stability and nurture not easy for any youngster without a network of support. There is a support network for the student that has social needs and this extends to outside agencies working with the students and the staff. Learner y has access to all of these resources but does not wish to use them mostly because she does not trust the system. This seems to be a common theme for vulnerable learners.

Understanding the Principles and Practices of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

This essay intends to examine some of the principles and practices of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy an approach to therapy that has become a staple of modern day therapy and reflective professional practice based on ‘actively constructing a collection, selection and interpretation of data’ (Finlay and Gough, 2003, p.5). This examination will begin with a critical evaluation of the key principles and practices that underpin Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, beginning with its foundations and origins, its evolution, and some of the different ways in which it can be utilised. It will be shown that Cognitive Behaviour Therapy can be used to tackle a wide range of inhibiting problems, and there will also be a concise section of some of the common characteristics of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, and how this helps to facilitate strategies to reduce and assist individuals cope with maladaptive behaviours.

There will also be a brief elaboration to how some of the theories of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy may also be applied to a social care setting, and throughout this essay differing social care perspectives will be considered.

Both the strengths and weaknesses of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy will be analysed, before balancing the positives and negatives and determining the usefulness of the approach. Finally, some tentative conclusions will be offered regarding the validity of using Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in a social care setting; and whether or not it is likely to remain one of the staple tools for helping people adjust and adapt to certain behaviours.

Cognitive behaviour therapy is a psychotherapeutic approach that assists in helping patients to understand why they behave the way that they do, more recently it has been used frequently to change negative or maladaptive behaviours through the therapeutic process, (O’Donohue & Fisher, 2008). To begin with it typically involves dealing with a very specific problem (such as an addiction, phobia, or anxiety), thus the core idea behind Cognitive Behaviour Therapy is that thoughts and feelings have a direct impact upon people’s behaviour.

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy is grounded by the work of Ivan Pavlov (1927), who examined techniques of animal learning (and his famous classical conditioning experiments); and since then, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy has gone on to build a solid foundation of empirical evidence of its success. It is an approach that was developed by the founding fathers, Aaron T. Beck and Albert Ellis (Hofmann, 2012).

Simmons and Griffiths (2009, p.8) state that Cognitive Behaviour Therapy has “developed through rigorous research and outcome studies” which really began in earnest in the 1970s, from then many behavioural researchers and therapists began to lean towards a more cognitive approach and ‘self-instructional training’. Simmons and Griffiths (2009, p.8) also go on to state that “As Cognitive Behaviour Therapy has become more widespread, it has been subjected to rigorous outcome research and has been shown to be a valuable approach with a considerable range of psychological problems”. It may be considered perhaps that this flexibility associated with Cognitive Behaviour Therapy has in fact contributed to its growing popularity.

Greenberger and Padesky (1995) provide a succinct and simplistic explanation which involves the examination of an individual’s thought and belief system which connect and contribute to people’s moods and physical experiences. In short, it is the idea that people’s thoughts have a direct impact on their emotional responses. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy is therefore a combination of cognitive psychology, which is the analysis of mental processes, and behavioural therapy, which focuses on behaviours and how that behaviour was learned (so therefore, it can then be ‘unlearned’ through processes such as aversion therapy). In essence providing the best of both worlds, and the two approaches complement each other and enhance a more holistic approach.

To outline what Cognitive Behaviour Therapy is and where it came from, Bakker (2008, p.5) states that

“Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, having grown out of the behaviour therapies, rests on a mass of well-established learning theory and conditioning theory research, dating back to Watson and Pavlov and burgeoning especially in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. It therefore uses many of the same processes and techniques, such as rehearsal, coaching, reinforcement, modelling, extinction, and so on”

Moreover, Bakker (2008) also discusses how clients can learn to overcome their problems by finding new ways to function by adaptation. He states “As a process this is usually therefore active, progressive, time-limited, and goal-oriented” (Bakker, 2008, p. 5), as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy is commonly concerned with what is maintaining causes of distress (rather than what actually triggered it). For example, it might not be clear as to what has caused a certain phobia to arise (the trigger), but what is helping to maintain that phobia can often be addressed, thus strategies can be formed to help to cope with it. Moreover, Robertson (2010. p.3) further explains this idea by saying that “Cognitive Behaviour Therapy is concerned with helping clients to deal with irrational or disturbing emotions, and to cultivate rational, healthy and proportionate ones in their stead”.

According to O’Donohue and Fisher (2008), there are numerous reasons why Cognitive Behaviour Therapy has become so popular in recent years; some of these reasons include mounting empirical evidence which justify how it is effective. It would be reasonable to suggest that it is cost effective due to therapy tending to be relatively brief and the fact that it can be done in groups, it can be utilised for a wide range of problems, it is a relatively straightforward and uncomplicated approach to therapy, and there being many individual techniques that can be drawn from within the Cognitive Behaviour Therapy system for therapeutic purposes. This may substantiate claims that exist that there has been a dramatically increased evidence base which appears to have occurred over the last two decades as Dobson and Dobson (2009, p.1) state that “Cognitive-behavioural therapy has broad evidence as a powerful intervention for mental health problems in adults”. References such as this should be reflected as key endorsements when considering implementations for improving future practice, and ones that should not be ignored

Indeed, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy has many advocates, and Hofmann (2012) even goes as far as to say that it is at least as effective as medication for certain problems, and that it is a highly effective strategy for dealing with many psychological problems. These too are grand claims, but ones that must have some backing due to the increasing popularity as a form of therapy.

In the context of social care, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy has the potential to be applied to a wide range of problems, such as addictions (drugs, alcohol, sex, food, etc.), abuse (physical or mental), youth delinquency, crime, food disorders (such as anorexia or bulimia), phobias (such as agoraphobia), and many other social problems, (Woolfe et al, 2003). Due to this flexibility, along with much empirical evidence to support its effectiveness, this has led it to being one of the most used of therapeutic approaches in social care settings.

There are a number of different phases in the process of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, and this begins with an initial assessment that is done via a structured or semi-structured interview, followed by a ‘reconceptualisation’ phase (creating a new concept for something such as focusing on the ill effects of drugs rather than the pleasure), skills acquisition (such as finding new ways to cope with negative feelings), and numerous follow up phases such as reinforcement and follow up assessments by the therapist (Beck, 1995).

There are many specific techniques which can be utilised. A selection of some of these techniques include, behaviour therapy, anger control therapy, biofeedback, and sex therapy (Bakker, 2008, p. 8). Therefore this would substantiate the claim that Cognitive Behaviour Therapy appears to have a considerable collection of empirically supported theory-based practices.

However, the crux which underpins therapeutic techniques is that cognitive activity affects behaviour, cognitive activity can be monitored and changed, and that desired behaviour change may be achieved through cognitive change (Robertson, 2010, p. 4).

For example, a child who has a prolific history of petty and minor offending is caught shoplifting, and social services who have worked with the child and the family intensively in the past reinvestigate and find that the child is now being brought up by the mother (singularly), she has a long medical history of depression. This condition may be inhibited her from providing basic parenting, and reducing the attention and care she gives to the child.

To improve this situation it is possible that a social worker may recommend that the mother attends a series of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy sessions, and (worst case scenario) the child is to be accommodated in temporary care until the issue is resolved or significantly alleviated. The role of the therapist would be to monitor the mother’s negative automatic thoughts and cognitions, to evaluate the relationship between her thoughts, feelings and actions, to evaluate the evidence for these maladaptive cognitions, to create alternative cognitions to substitute the negative ones, and to identify and modify the underlying assumptions and beliefs that predispose her towards negative automatic thoughts (Robertson, 2010, p. 4).

By giving the mother a strategy for coping with her depression (instead of medication), she may be able to better adapt to her circumstances, and her child may also be more likely get more attention and stop the attention-seeking behaviour that brought the mother to the social worker’s attention in the first place.

However, it is wrong to describe Cognitive Behaviour Therapy as simply just ‘thinking positively’; a frequently used definition implies that it is “infinitely more complex than this”, (Simmons & Griffiths, 2009, p. 5).

Some more characteristics include being a therapeutic style (with the therapist being more active and involved rather than being a passive listener), a psychological formulation of a problem (a ‘big picture’ of why the client is experiencing their problem), a collaborative relationship (with the client and the therapist very much working together), a structured therapy session (creating a problem-solving atmosphere), a goal directed therapy session (determined by client and therapist), an examination and questioning of unhelpful thinking (through a series of questions), a use of a range of aid and techniques (determined by the psychological formulation), teaching the client to be their own therapist (which helps to empower them and allows them to be independent when the therapy schedule is complete), using homework and assignments as part of the therapy (allowing clients to work between sessions), a time-limited exercise (pushing clients to become their own therapist), and sometimes the audio-recording of sessions for later analysis (Simmons & Griffiths, 2009, p. 5).

In addition, with regard to using Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, specifically in a social care setting, Ronen and Freeman (2007) argue that social workers have become the backbone of mental health practice, and that clinicians recognise the need for a model of treatment that is active, short-term, directive, problem-oriented, solution-focused, collaborative, structured, dynamic, and psychoeducational interventions.

They state that “The goals of clinical social work must include helping individuals, families and groups to be happier, more personally fulfilled and more productive. It is essential, however, that the strategies (goals) and interventions (techniques) used to reach these collaboratively set goals are measurable, reasonable, proximal, and realistic. It is far more important in the short term to get better than to feel better. It is, in fact, the quest for short-term gain that often will lead individuals into the avoidance seen in the anxiety spectrum disorders, substance misuse, or eating disorders” (p.xxiv)

Social care work is consequently about supporting, protecting and empowering vulnerable individuals, groups and communities. Therefore Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in this environment would mainly be about empowerment (although it could also be about protection from such things as drug overdoses or suicide attempts). It allows clients to build short-term coping strategies to mitigate maladaptive behaviours, and to teach them how to continue with this on their own once the therapy schedule has run its course.

Parrish (2010 p.1) states that “The ability to observe and understand people’s behaviour is an essential component of effective social work practice”. Tools such as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy may combine and become essential for social care workers to reach their goals. For example, cognitive restructuring (a therapeutic tool used in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy) could be used to essentially reprogram negative thoughts and assumptions that lead to maladaptive behaviour, and replace them with more positive schematic patterns (Hepworth, Rooney, Rooney, Strom-Gottfried & Larsen, 2010, p. 390).

Therefore it could be considered that Cognitive Behaviour Therapy techniques are based upon the idea that people construct their own reality, and that their behaviour is a result of cognitive processes and their own unique inner dialogue. By changing this inner dialogue, people can thus change their behaviour, and this is what Cognitive Behaviour Therapy attempts to do.

However, it has been noted by Walsh (2010) that this approach is better suited to people with obsessive personality styles rather than avoidant personality types. Moreover, there is also some empirical evidence to suggest that Cognitive Behaviour Therapy is in fact more effective with clients that are married rather than single or non-cohabiting clients (Walsh, 2010, p. 182). Thus, whether this approach is implement or not in a social care setting will very much depend on the clients’ personality type and situation, with other therapeutic approaches (such as interpersonal psychotherapy) being more suited to certain types of client. Although Cognitive Behaviour Therapy is flexible and adaptable, it is certainly not an approach that will suit everyone.

Finally, Thomlison and Thomlison (2011) claim that it was not until the late 1960s that this approach first began to appear in social care practices (with it coming to prominence as mentioned in the 1970s), they also point out a number of criticisms. For example, behavioural therapy traditionally consists of observing behaviour and then modifying it through new learned responses. However, it could be said that thoughts and feelings are not observable in the same way via a third party—and therefore cannot be objectively validated in the same way that behaviour can. Moreover, it has also been noted that Cognitive Behaviour Therapy is not very helpful for people who are not comfortable with reflection. However, on the whole it does seem that this approach has more advocates than critics, and that these criticisms are generally brief and unsubstantial.

In conclusion, it would appear that Cognitive Behaviour Therapy can and is becoming an important tool of contemporary within social care practices. The fact that Cognitive Behaviour Therapy techniques are so flexible, and that they can be applied to so many different social problems, makes it almost the perfect strategy and tool for social care workers dealing with clients that have maladaptive behaviours. However, it has been noted that this approach is not a one-fit for all strategy, and that it is only suited to certain personality types who are receptive to introspection and the analysis of their thoughts and feelings.

With a wealth of empirical evidence pointing to the effectiveness of using Cognitive Behaviour Therapy it is likely that social care workers will continue to recommend its use for clients that have certain problematic behaviours and issues.

References

Bakker, G. (2008) Practical Cognitive Behaviour Therapy: Using Functional Analysis and Standardised Homework in Everyday Therapy, Australia: Australian Academic Press.

Beck, J.S. (1995) Cognitive Therapy: Basics and Beyond. New York, NY: Guilford Press

Ciarrochi, J.V. & Bailey, A. (2008) Cognitive Behaviour Therapy; A practitioner’s Guide to ACT, Oakland: New Harbinger Publications.

Dobson, D. & Dobson, K.S. (2009) Evidence-Based Practice of
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, New York: The Guildford Press.

Finlay, L. and Gough, B. (2003) Reflexivity: A Practical Guide for Researchers in Health and Social Sciences. Oxford: Blackwell.

Greenberger, D. & Padesky, C.A. (1995) Mind Over Mood: Change How You Feel by Changing the Way You Think, New York: The Guildford Press.

Hepworth, D.H., Rooney, R.H., Rooney, G.D., Strom-Gottfried, K. & Larsen, J. (2010) Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills, USA: Brooks/Cole.

Hofmann, S.G. (2012) An Introduction to Modern Cognitive Behaviour Therapy: Psychological Solutions to Mental Health Problems, Oxford: John Wiley and Sons.

O’Donohue, W.T. & Fisher, J.E. (Eds.) (2008) Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Applying Empirically Supported Techniques in Your Practice, New Jersey: Wiley and Sons.

Parrish, M. (2010) Social Work Perspectives on Human Behaviour, England: Oxford University Press.

Pavlov, I.P. (1927) Conditioned Reflexes: An Investigation of the Physiological Activity of the Cerebral Cortex, London: OUP.

Robertson, D. (2010) The Philosophy of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY): Stoic Philosophy As Rational and Cognitive Psychotherapy, London: Karnac Books Limited.

Ronen, T. (2007) Cognitive Behavior Therapy: In Clinical Social Work Practice, New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Simmons, J. & Griffiths, R. (2009) Cognitive Behaviour Therapy For Beginners, New Delhi: Sage.

Thomlison, R.J. & Thomlison, B. (2011) ‘Cognitive Behavior Theory and Social Work Treatment’. In: Turner, F.J. (Ed.) Social Work Treatment: Interlocking Theoretical Approaches, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Walsh, J. (2010) Theories for Direct Social Work Practice, USA: Wadsworth.

Woolfe, R., Dryden, W., & Strawbridge, S. (2003). Handbook of Counselling Psychology (2nd ed.). London: Sage Publications, Inc

Bibliography

Davidson, A. (2007) Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Explained, Oxford: Radcliffe

Dryden, W (Ed.) (2008) Key Issues for Counselling in Action, London: Sage

Trower, P. et al (2011) Cognitive Behavioural Counselling in Action, London: Sage

Wilding, A. and Milne, C. (2008) Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, London: Hodder

The Effects Of Advertisement and Consumer Buying Behaviour

Consumers demand different commodities based on their preference and taste for them. Awareness of a good influences a consumer‘s purchase of the good. Other factors that influence one‘s taste and preference for a good are psychological and environmental. Taste and preference for a good change overtime. Advertisements play a role in influencing the taste and preference of consumers‘choice.

Consumers are known to be rational with regard to their purchases, wanting to maximize their Satisfaction when it comes to consumer goods. A consumer will therefore not purchase a commodity whose price is above the additional satisfaction that he derives from the good. (Sloman and Wride, 2007)

Advertising is a business activity, employing creative techniques to design persuasive communication in mass media that promote ideas, goods, and services in a manner consistent with the achievement of the advertiser‘s objective, the delivery of consumer satisfaction and the development of social and economic welfare. (Cohen, 1988) One encounters advertising messages while watching television, reading magazines and newspapers, surfing the internet, listening to the radio or even simply while walking down the street, therefore advertisement has a stimulating influence on the purchasing behaviour of the consumer.

In durable markets, the initial growth of product‘s sales is usually attributed to consumers becoming informed about the existence of the new product (Horsky and Simon 1983 and Krishnan and Jain 2006).

The effect of advertising on sales via informing the consumers of the product‘s existence is dynamic since advertising will affect the consumer‘ s awareness of the product in the future, and therefore will affect future sales. This dynamic effect of advertising explains that firms usually advertise a product the most at the entry.

Producers often advertise their product mostly with the intention of increasing their sales which allows the firms to gain economies of scale and keep prices down. It also makes their products well known on the market. Also, advertising is necessary to introduce new products on the market. Without it, firms would find it difficult to break into market in which there are established brands.(Sloman and Wride, 2007)

Advertising increases output, but increased output in turn increases production cost and this must be taken into consideration when comparing the cost and benefit of an extra rupee of advertisement. The correct decision is to increase advertising until the marginal revenue from an additional rupee from advertisement, is just equal to the full marginal cost of that advertisement. That full marginal cost is the sum of the rupee spent directly on the advertisement and the marginal production cost that results from the increased sales that advertisement brings about. Thus the firm should advertise where MRA=MCA. (Pindyck and Rubinfield, 1995)

1.1 Statement of the problem

This mammoth surge of advertisements from every possible source is basically to fulfil the urge of markets in the country to reach a large number of people so that their product may receive optimum exposure. The role of advertisement which is to create brand loyalty, consequently increasing sales revenue and profits of the local firms and also causing impact on the business cycle has been falling apart. (Sundarsan, 2007). The subject of advertising has remained a topic of debate either on one pretext or another for decades, at the beginning of the 19th century, it was a subject of little interest but it became a fertile topic for research at the turn of the 19th century. (Sharma and Sharma, 2009). In view of this, this study seeks to find out if advertisement plays a role in consumer demand.

1.2 Objectives

The general objective of the study is to find out if there is any effect of advertisement on consumer buying behavior.
In my quest to achieve the general objective, the following specific objectives were set and formulated to guide in data collection and analysis:

I. To know the extent to which purchases of consumers are based on advertisement.

II. To know the growth pattern and trend of sales revenue and advertisement expenses for selected locally produced firms.

1.3 Methodology

This deals with the methods in terms of analytical approach and data collection. Data Analysis will be done using Stata. Data to be used are primary and secondary data. Primary data will be collected from consumers to find out how advertisement influenced their purchases and secondary data will be taken from Malls to and shops in Bangalore to know the amount of locally produced goods patronized by consumers. Consumers will be selected using systematic sampling and the malls and shops on purposive sampling

1.4 The rationale for the study

With increasing number of advertisements on the electronic media and the print media, it has become a necessity that a research be conducted to find out if advertisements have effect on the taste and preferences of consumers‘ demand and empirically, the effect on sales of firms.

The research will focused on both locally produced goods and foreign brands with emphasis on two manufacturers, two other large scale trading enterprises or malls in Bangalore and four hundred consumers in Bangalore.

The manufacturers will provide information as to whether advertisement affects their sales level, thus, whether consumers react positively, indifferent or even negatively. The supermarkets will provide information on the percentage of locally manufactured goods available, and consumers‘ attitude towards locally manufactured goods. Consumers will provide information as to whether advertisements influence their purchase of locally manufactured goods and the accessibility of these goods. They will also provide information on other factors that influence their purchase besides advertisement.

1.5 Limitation of the Study

It will be difficult getting data from firms. Firms might not willing to cooperate in giving out data on their sales and advertisement expenditure needed for our study.

References
Sloman J. and Wride A., Economics” (2007) Seventh Edition, Prentice Hall Financial Times Horsky D. and Simon L.S. (1983), “Advertising and the Diffusion of New Products”, Marketing Science, 2 (1), pp. 1-17

Pindyck R. S. and Rubinfield, D. L. “Microeconomics (1995), Prentice Hall International, Inc. pp. 395
Sundarsan, P.K. (2007), “Evaluating Effectiveness of Advertising on Sales; A Study Using Firm Level Data”, ICFAI Journal of Managerial Economics, Vol. V (1), pp.54-62

Promote positive behaviour

Communication Environment Power imbalance Excessive demands Boredom Lack of boundaries or goals Emotional expression Sensory needs Physical Health Mental Health An individual’s past experiences Age and gender

Setting boundaries and rules together, for everyone to work within.

Do observations to help understand why behaviours are happening or what resources are being accessed in the setting. Adapting the environment if it’s found that any aspect triggers challenging behaviour. Changing routines if any aspect is found to trigger challenging behaviour Have policies and procedures in place that help colleagues deal – reactively with incidents of conflict and reporting causes/triggers.

self-injury
physical aggression
verbal aggression
disruption and destruction of property or the environment
stereotyped behaviours (eg rocking)
inappropriate or unacceptable sexual behaviour
smearing and urination
stealing
manipulative, deceitful and non-compliant behaviour
absconding.

People must always be treated with dignity and respect, this may be difficult when their behaviour is threatening to their friends or members of staff, however it is essential to remember that it’s the behaviour that is adverse and not the individual. When challenging the behaviour it is important to disapprove of the negative behaviour, not the
individual. Should the situation require reactive strategies, it is important to uphold best practise and continue to treat the individual in a person centred way, according to their placement plan, risk assessment and positive handling plan, paying attention to the individuals faith, beliefs, culture while maintaining dignity.

a) how they were feeling at the time prior to and directly before the incident.Aim: to identify the mood, emotion, level of stress. This helps the individual recognise what part their feelings may of played within the incident.

b) their behaviourAim: to identify actions. This helps to critically analyse what went on, the physical contact that occured, verbal language and body language. c) the consquences of their behaviourAim: to see what arose from their actions, who if anyone was hurt emotionally or physically, if an object broke, was part of the incident. If the consequences were negative or positive. d) how they were feeling after the incident.Aim: to give names to emotions and feelings, with the possibility to explore alternative means of resolving differences, diffusing challenging behaviour.

After the incident you may feel tired and upset, judgemental, shocked, surprised, angry, sad, glad its over. It is important to talk to someone else about what has happened.

The individual should be checked over by a member of staff who was not involved in the incident of challenging behaviour. Immediate action should be taken to ensure medical help is sought if there are any injuries which require more than basic first aid. All injuries should be reported and recorded using the appropriate systems.

 Benefits of encouraging and rewarding positive behaviour

When it comes to behaviour it can be easy to focus on what we need to stop children from doing. The problem with this approach is that it does not help children know what they should be doing. This means that nowadays there is much more emphasis on encouraging positive behaviour . A good starting point is to think about the positive behaviour or goals that you should be encouraging in children. This may be outlined in your settings policy or you may need to observe what other staff seem to encourage. If you are working in a setting that several ages of children notice the way in which there are different expectations according to the age of the children

Why encouraging and rewarding positive behaviour works
1. It helps children to learn what they need to do
2. It creates calmer environment and stronger relationships 3. Children respond well
4. Children learn from adults

Skills and techniques for positive behaviour
1. Rewards
2. Attention
3. Praise
4. Star charts
5. Being given responsibility
6. Treats
7. Stickers
8. Timing
9. Explanation
10. Public acknowledged

Settings for children and young people

Children centres children aged 0-5yrs
Day care facilcity children ages 0-5yrs
A home setting children aged 0-8yrs
Extended care children and young people 4-16yrs
Youth activity club young 11-16yrs
A reception class ks1 in a primary school
A crèche for children up to the age up to 5yrs

Attention seeking
What a child does
Many children show attention seeking behaviour at times . it can be a sign of insecurity or in some cases mean that children have become used to having a lot of adult attention How to deal with it

It is often best to ignore attention seeking behaviour unless it is dangerous as by challenging it you may be teaching children that they can get attention this way

Biting
What a child does
Many toddlers bite especially if they are in group care. Biting is often linked to frustration and can become a habit

How to deal with it
Act immediately
Give the victim attention first
Once a child has bitten, it is likely that another bite will follow

Behaviour problems that should be referred

Biting, aggression, change of behaviour ,self-harming, bullying

It is unusual for most settings to try a few strategies’ first before referring to other professionals sometimes unwanted behaviour is a result of a medical condition or learning difficulty while others might be linked to emotional difficulty that the child has table 2 shows some of the pros who may support the child and their family.

GP family doctor
This is often the first part of call as the family doctor will able to refer to others.

Health visitor
A health visitor may visit the family at home and give some advice.

Educational physcologist
The educational physcologist will look at the children’s learning and behaviour.

Child psychiatrist
A child psychiatrist will help children who may have metal health issues.

Family counsellor
A family counsellor may help work with whole family and child.

Play therapist
Children who have had some trauma may see a play therapist so that they can work on what has happened.

Young and Invincible Adolescent Participation in Reckless Behaviour

Most teenagers in their adolescent stage often push the boundaries of tolerable behaviour. Some engage in extremely reckless behaviour such as drug abuse and dangerous driving. Although it is paramount for parents to support and show love to their teens, they should advise their children on the dangers and effects of reckless behaviour. Shader (2004) writes that adolescence bears a heightened reckless potential in comparison to other periods of development and the tenacity of the potential varies with culture and time. While there have been several studied on the various forms of reckless behavior, the efforts to determine the underlying factors to all reckless behaviour variation and its prevalence only among the adolescence have been limited.

The conclusion of the data was based on the information from questionnaires used in sampling youths in various social settings such as school, family, peers and community. In addition to dispersion and central tendency measure, the research assessed variability and normality in data. Furthermore, correlational analysis of multiple variables was conducted based on the model of the theoretical framework. The results of the correlation analysis were then used to make conclusions on existing patterns. The research tested a structural model of equation to assess the degree of how the theoretical framework fits the data.

Research Question

Are adolescents, within a higher than average Indigenous populated community, participating in reckless behavior?

Significance of the Study

(The aim of the study is to increase the possible effectiveness of intervention approaches)

Today dynamic society lacks guidance necessary for adolescents to pursue their goals. It is therefore important to analyze the risks associated with adolescent reckless behaviours as regard goal attainment. The study aims to increase the possible effectiveness of intervention development, by determining which risks are being taken and by whom, which would deter reckless behaviour participation and promote beneficial development.

The interventions necessary for modern adolescents may include a combination of traditional disciplinary interventions and multidimensional adolescent development issues. This may possibly bridge the gap between research, theory and actual practice through a detailed evaluation and analysis of current empirical trends of adolescent reckless behaviours and by incorporating the intervention approaches.

Although more research is needed, the study aims to serve as a stepping stone on determining the relationships that support viable framework, thus providing a platform for the development of additional efficacious interventions.

Problem Statement

(The community is responsible for supporting adolescents in their transition to adulthood)Regardless of the social and economic circumstances, adolescents need assistance, discipline, instruction, pastoral care and support as they transcend to adulthood. The help comes from various stakeholders such as good schools, safe and supportive neighborhoods, solid families and the culture surrounding.

Statement of Purpose

(To determine the extent to which Indigenous adolescents participate in reckless behaviour)The purpose of this study is analyzing the relationships associated with reckless behaviors among adolescents. It was hypothesized that the problems lie within adolescent behaviour in relation to the individual, school, family and peer groups. The study is consistent with development science, empirical and theoretical works on reckless behaviour which has emerged as a highly multivariate, multidisciplinary, process focused and person-centered topic.

The dynamics of reckless behaviour of adolescents is discussed through theoretical models. The study examines adolescents associated with reported risk behaviours and the degree to which contextual factors influence risk behaviours. Therefore, this research seeks to determine if Indigenous adolescents participate in reckless behaviour.

Study Limitations

(Focus on a single environment and use of computer aided techniques were the sources of limitation)

Cross-sectional studies are less expensive and less likely to manifest participant attrition as compared to longitudinal studies (Fagan, 2004). However, the use of data from cross-sectional studies limits the extents to which deductive subjects can be interpreted due to its variable measurements. Ideally, these limiting effects hinder efficient evaluation of the subjects. The effectiveness of the study was compromised since the study considered a section of subjects in a single environment which are likely to differ from other adolescent cohorts. Teese and Bradley, (2008) highlight that assessment issues are likely to be problematic in research on reckless adolescent behaviours. The report from the adolescents themselves had no possibility for biasness because of their tendency to underrate or exaggerate their reckless activities. Computer-aided study techniques of interviews often produce inaccurate responses.

(Types of reckless behaviour)

Previous studies have employed various terms in an attempt to describe potentially dangerous activities, including criminal, problematic, risky, and delinquent (Teese & Bradley, 2008). The ideal descriptive term is reckless behaviour since it bears stronger connotations of potentially negative consequences. Thus, numerous conclusions have asserted that reckless behaviour ranges from minor criminal activities, drug abuse, irresponsible sexual behaviour and alcohol consumption. These reckless behaviours lead to serious personal injuries, legal system arrest and conviction, unwanted pregnancies and death in extreme circumstances. Additional risks common among older adolescent groups include gambling and economic calculations where the risk is based on loss or gain of monetary benefits (i.e. sports tipping, unsecured monetary loans, credit cards, etc.).

(Definition of reckless behaviour)

Although the definition of reckless behaviour is a gray area, the considerations in this paper intend to apply to reckless behavior that may hinder adolescents in becoming well-adjusted members of society. Recklessness may be defined as seeking thrill activities that may result in adrenaline rush. Rafting and parachute jumping are recreational activities accepted by society but still present potential extreme consequences, such as injury and death. The danger present in these circumstances is recognized but minimised deliberately. There has been a slight difference as a result of reckless behavior, such as illicit drug use and criminal activity, foreseeable risks are not taken into consideration (Steinberg, 2007).

(Causes of reckless behaviour)

According to Shader (2004) it is difficult to determine the exact number of adolescents affected by mental or physical health disability. However, research evidence (Arnett, 2007) provides that Indigenous adolescent groups, especially young people, are likely to suffer of exclusion, discrimination and stigmatization. Furthermore, the society singles out Indigenous adolescents as passive victims and as a result, this population suffers shame and guilt and may become less stable within society. Studies on health behaviour models suggest that stigmatization and discriminations trigger decisions to engage in reckless behaviour among Indigenous adolescents. Consistent with other behaviour models (Pearson, 2001); poor emotional health and stress may lead to reckless behaviours.Theoretical Rationale

Scholars have presented well-articulated theories to explain reckless behaviour among the adolescent groups (Erikson, 1968; Jessor, 1994; Price & Dalgleish, 2013). The models incorporate numerous factors and are based on the developmental theory that states that adolescent behavior is the result of the person and their environment. For example, some behaviors, such as sexual activities and alcohol consumption, are socially legal for adults, but are considered unhealthy and illegal for adolescents. As established by Price and Dalgleish, (2013) an adolescent will engage in illicit behaviour because one wishes to attain an adult status. The theory posits that some of the reckless behaviours, such as excessive alcohol consumption and truancy, cease after adolescence.

(Adolescents engage in reckless behaviour to acquire adult status)

Price and Dalgleish’s (2013) theory was tested using a longitudinal study of college and high school students on numerous social, environmental and personality variables in association with five types of irresponsible behaviour. These were sexual activity, problem drinking, use of marijuana, drug use and general deviance such as stealing and vandalism. According to the study, these activities were considered a syndrome rather than having occurred in isolation.

Parental ideology and control were also incorporated into the model to recognize broad and narrow socialization ideas (Price & Dalgleish, 2013). The model, in contrast to the developmental theory, argues that problem initiation of adolescence reckless behaviour plays a developmental role on the desire to be an adult. It makes sense when adolescents engage in alcohol consumption and sexual activity when they are approved for adults but proscribed for adolescents. Thus, the desire to indulge in such activities signifies the adolescent’s wishing to attain adulthood. However, stealing, lying and vandalism that also form part of the syndrome of reckless behaviour are socially unacceptable for adults. (Sigmund Freud’s assertion that reckless behaviour is triggered by biological instincts)

Furthermore, Shader, (2004) observes that the psychological theories pioneered by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) recognize childhood as the most formative period in human development. Sigmund believed that personality dynamics strongly depend on the superego, sexual instinct identification and the ego. Central to the theory, it assumes that human beings possess powerful drives that must be satisfied. Freud believed that human beings are biological creatures with the drive to serve and satisfy their motives (Tyson & Tyson, 1984).

Contrastingly, the society dictates that most of these drives are undesirable and must be controlled. Also, Freud asserts that individuals are unaware that the biological instincts are the driving forces behind behaviours (Tyson & Tyson, 1984). In a developmental analysis, Anna Freud (1895-1982) added that adolescence signifies an important life period of turbulence due to the prevailing sexual conflicts from puberty (Sandler, 1980). However, critics argue that this theory focuses too much on sexuality and oblivion which are part of the causes of reckless behaviours.

Method

Collecting data through quantitative questionnaires is a popular methodology because they are practical, cost effective, allow for the ability to reach out to a large group of people, and the results can be analysed more scientifically and objectively as compared to other forms of research (Sarantakos, 1993, p. 158). Previous researchers of adolescent behaviour (Teese & Bradley, 2006; Fagan, 2004; Birleson, 1980; and Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, 2014) have succeeded in using self-administered, close-ended questionnaires to collect relevant data.

The dynamic and rapid technological advancements have made it possible to administer web-based questionnaires through services such as Survey Monkey and Survey Gizmo, eliminating paper and limiting contact with participants. A web-based questionnaire may be a cost-effective tool for obtaining survey responses (BUSM, 2010). Between 2003 and 2007, when Boston University first offered the option of completing a web questionnaire, the proportion of respondents who chose to complete a web questionnaire doubled (BUSM, 2010).

Participants

60 Students from an independent college ranging in age from 15-18 years old (males and females) will voluntarily participate in this study. Consent will be obtains from all students and parents. Final numbers will be based on disposition to participate.

Materials

The materials for this study include an information sheet, consent form, and a web-based questionnaire to measure variables. These variables will be measured by a modified adaption of Achenbach and Rescorla’s (2001) Youth Self-Report for Ages 11-18 (YSR). The instrument is made up of 38 close-ended questions instead of the original 112 mixed response. The questionnaire was modified from its original format, which requested names and parental information, to maintain the participants’ anonymity. The adapted instrument will be scored on a five-point Likert scale (1=Never, 2 = Not Often, 3 = Sometimes, 4 = Often, 5 = Always) instead of the original three-point scale to offer more detailed answers.

The Youth Self Report (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) is a prominent and widely used measurement for the assessment of emotional and behavioural problems among youth ages 11 to 18. It has been validated by Harvard University for use in social research (Ebesutani, C., Bernstein, A., Martinez, J.I., Chorpita, B. F., & Weisz, J.R., 2011, p. 338).

Moderators

In addition to the above measurements, three secondary moderators will be considered. In this study, moderators of age, gender, and cultural identity will be included. Participants will be asked if they would like to identify themselves as Indigenous. This is an important section because the data received has the potential to contribute to the future development of gender and culturally competent intervention programs. It is expected that there will be a high number of responses for cultural identity because the college has a large number of Indigenous students. However, this is a limitation because participation is voluntary and there is no way to ensure the participant’s response is truthful.

Procedure

Research Design

The proposed study employs an ex-post facto (after the fact) research design, which is a systematic empirical inquiry, in which the primary investigator does not have control of the variables because their manifestations have already occurred (Sarantakos, 1993, p. 8).

The study plan will involve the gathering of information on behaviour and characteristics among adolescents. There will be no manipulation of the variables by the researcher; instead any determined correlations will be ex post facto in nature in that they will originate from similarities in results in the measurement scores.

An on-line questionnaire will be available to a sample of the adolescent population. Information sheets and consent forms in sealed envelopes will be given to the select school to be handed out during period 1 the following day by classroom teachers. The primary investigator will have no contact with the participants.

Adolescents who agree to participate (with parental consent) will have a link to the questionnaire on the information sheet. The questionnaire may be completed at each student’s convenience, within a 14-day period from the date of distribution. The questionnaire will take approximately 10 mins and will pose a series of statements about social interactions/relationships, aggression, emotions, academic achievement, reckless behaviour, and additional questions that were adapted from the Youth Self-Report for Ages 11-18 (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001). As the questionnaires are submitted, the web-based program automatically collects and stores the data in a secure environment.

Data Analysis

Interferential analyses are proposed for this study:

Correlations will be conducted to determine if there is a relationship between characteristics and reckless behaviour.

Chi-square analyses will be conducted to determine if there are common characteristics among participants who are taking part in reckless behaviour.

Discussion

The research was conducted in order to establish the ability of using web questionnaires as a quantitative method in analysing adolescent behaviours as opposed to the traditional use of support-administered questionnaires. For data gathering purposes with focus on adolescent behaviours, the research utilized the use of web questionnaires as quantitative approach with a tally of 60 students consisting of both males and females in the age bracket of 15-18 years old from an independent college. The students that have been selected in this study filled out a web-based questionnaire to evaluate survey responses to adolescent behaviours.

The variables of the survey were determined using the Youth Self-Report Ages 11 -18 then scored on a five-point Likert scale (1= Never, 2 = Rarely, 3 = Sometimes, 4 = Often, 5 = Always) which included an extension of two additional points as opposed to the original three-point scale ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Flesch</Author><Year>1951</Year><RecNum>1</RecNum><IDText>How to test Readability</IDText><DisplayText>(Flesch, 1951)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”v2wravw5fezpf8eweeu5pzeg9e5s5xf2w0a0″ timestamp=”1413939135″>1</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Flesch, R.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>How to test Readability</title></titles><dates><year>1951</year></dates><pub-location>New York </pub-location><publisher>Harper &amp; Brothers </publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Flesch, 1951). The collected data was then correlated to find a distinct relationship between the characteristics of the Youth Self-Report for Ages 11-18 and reckless behaviour in adolescents with express emphasis on chi-square analyses.

The credibility of the findings and conclusions is dependent on the research design quality, data collection and management and the final analysis of the data collected. In justifying the means in which the study results were to be obtained, discussed in the subsequent chapters are the procedures and methods used based on description of data obtained, how the data obtained is to be processed/analysed, its interpretation and final correlation of collected data to come up with a credible conclusion. The research will cover; research design to be utilized and methods, data collection materials, respondents to be analysed and the data analysis process.

Data was collected in the form of an online web-based questionnaire and was analysed after a cumulated period of 14 days after administration of online questionnaires to individual students. No contact was made between the primary investigator and the students, but they were rather handed sealed envelopes containing consent forms for their parents by their teachers. Those who were inclined to participate after acquisition of parental consent were to use a link provided in the information sheet sealed in the envelope that guided them to the online questionnaire platform ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Grills</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>2</RecNum><IDText>Multiple informant agreement and the anxiety disorders interview schedule for parents and children.</IDText><DisplayText>(Grills &amp; Ollendick, 2003)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>2</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”v2wravw5fezpf8eweeu5pzeg9e5s5xf2w0a0″ timestamp=”1413939135″>2</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Grills, A. E.,</author><author>Ollendick, T. H. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Multiple informant agreement and the anxiety disorders interview schedule for parents and children.</title><secondary-title>Journal of the American Academy of Child &amp; Adolescent Psychiatry</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of the American Academy of Child &amp; Adolescent Psychiatry</full-title></periodical><pages>30-40</pages><dates><year>2003</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Grills & Ollendick, 2003). The platform was designed to give a 14 day open window for questionnaire completion since distribution date with an approximated questions estimated to take around 10 minutes that included a series of variables; emotions, aggression, reckless behaviour, academic achievements and other questions adapted from the Youth Self-Report for Ages 11-18.

The questionnaire interface is designed in such a way that upon submission of data by a student, there is automatic collection of the information for storage in a secure memory bank. As opposed to the original Achenbach and Rescorla’s (2001) Youth Self-Report for Ages 11-18 containing 112 questions, this study encompassed only 38 closed ended questions ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Achenbach</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>3</RecNum><IDText>The Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms &amp; Profiles.</IDText><DisplayText>(Achenbach &amp; Rescorla, 2001)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>3</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”v2wravw5fezpf8eweeu5pzeg9e5s5xf2w0a0″ timestamp=”1413939135″>3</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Achenbach, T.</author><author>Rescorla, L. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms &amp; Profiles.</title></titles><dates><year>2001</year></dates><pub-location>Burlington</pub-location><publisher>University of Vermont, Research Centre for Children, Youth and Families </publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001). The adapted variables were then scored on the five point Likert scale on the basis of (1=Never, 2 = Not Often, 3 = Sometimes, 4 = Often, 5 = Always). Inclusive in the study, a total number of three secondary moderators namely; age, gender and cultural identity were considered for the main purpose of future intervention programs. No definite number of students analysed is available although originally, a total of 60 students between the ages 15-18 years old consisting of both males and females were voluntarily involved in the study.

Chapter 2: Review of Literature

The widespread reckless behavior among adolescent groups is troubling because these behaviors can have long-term consequences on development, including underemployment, long-term substance abuse, school dropout’s unplanned parenthood and sexually transmitted infections (Lipsey & Derzon, 1998). A large number of youths in the adolescent stage are negatively affected by reckless behavior with elevated variations such as life expectancy, successful transition to adulthood, physical health and psychological adjustment.This chapter illustrates the variations of reckless behaviors in adolescents through literature that examines the factors influencing multiple types of reckless behavior and provides specific development variation. The data presented suggest that prevention policies and programs focused on risk reduction for recess behaviors should limit the multiple types of reckless behaviors of adolescent.

Literature Risk and Adolescents

The course and initiation of reckless behaviors vary across questioned behavior. For example, on average, delinquent behavior involvement increases in the early stages of adolescent, peaks at 17 and rapid decline is observed thereafter (Lipsey & Derzon, 1998). Substance use sharply elevates through adolescence and arrive peak level amid 18 and 24. For example, in the United States, first sexual intercourse is averagely estimated at 16 years for females and 17 years for males (Gullone, Moore, Moss, & Boyd, 2000).

(First order factor cannot account for varying reckless behaviour)

Essentially, reckless behaviour is less prevalent in late childhood and increases towards adolescence (Bradley &Wildman, 2002). A longitudinal study of the adolescence in different societies, Kauffman, Bradbury and Owings, (1992) examined the deviant behaviour and structural nature of marijuana use, alcohol consumption, trouble at school and the use of illicit drugs among children of 11 – 12 ages. The research provided evidence that numerous reckless behaviour- delinquency, school troubles and substance use could not be accounted for using the first order factor.

(Different view about the propensity of reckless behaviours across age)

While Kauffman et al., (1992), argue that reckless behaviours strengthen as the youth age from 8 to 12 years, Keeping et al., (1989) suggests that the reckless behaviour may become less correlated and heterogeneous as the adolescent groups’ transit to adulthood. Lau & Yuen (2013) contrast the argument by Kauffman et al., by arguing that reckless behaviour syndrome remains intact into adulthood.

(Reckless behaviour equally contributed to irresponsible behaviour in both early and late adolescence)

According to the results from the longitudinal study on the covariance at ages of four and from early adolescence to adulthood, academic orientation, drug use and social nonconformity were noted among early adolescents (Kauffman et al., 1992). On the other hand, sexual involvement, drug use, social non-conformity, academic orientation and criminal activities were noted among late adolescent. Thus the most commonly defined factor in adolescence is social non-conformity. However, early adulthood and late adolescence, sexual involvement and drug use were the strongly related reckless behaviour factors. Finally, drug use was the strongly related factor of reckless behaviour in adulthood, then social non-conformity, criminal behaviour and number of sexual partners.

(Reckless behaviours in adolescence later externalize into adult behaviour)

The probable reason for the variation in reckless behaviour in adolescents may be due to reckless behaviour sequencing and pattern of development. According to the cascade model of development (Dodge, Malone, Lansford, Miller, Petit, & Bates, 2009), reckless behaviours in one domain are likely to cascade into other types of problems in a bidirectional association.

The model illustrates this assertion by explaining that reckless behaviours in adolescence is a prediction of future academic problems, that later externalizes in adult behaviour (Dodge et al., 2009; Doolan, Najman, Mills, Cherney, Strathearn, 2012). In conclusion, reckless behavior highly contributes to academic problems in the present and later life of an adolescent.

As explained by Jessor’s (1994) theory of reckless behaviour, the primary cause of external problems in the adolescent stage is non-conformity which takes place in the personality of youths and social environment in the adolescent stage. The theory posits that non-conformed individuals are particularly tolerant to deviance and less associated to religious and educational institutions.

Unconventional environment is defined as a large number of persons sharing similar attitudes; which places a high adolescent association with a variety of reckless behaviours (Lipsey & Derzon, 1998). Jessor’s presents perceived environment, personality, social environment, genetics/biology as the five domains necessary in explaining adolescent reckless behaviour.

Common vs. Specific Risk Factors

This section examines key reckless behaviour contributors during adolescence across family, peer groups, community and school.

Domains of Risk

Peer Risk

(Individuals with inability to control impulses are more likely to engage in reckless behaviour)

The inability to control impulses due to immaturity is one of the factors that explain risk taking in adolescent groups. According to Fletcher, (2011) the association underlying antisocial behaviour, substance dependence and conduct disorder is genetically mediated along the externalizing spectrum. Additionally, vulnerability of traits to lack of restrains manifests as poor control of impulse. The framework posits that individuals with inadequate ability to control their impulses are highly expected to engage in reckless behaviour.Pearl, (1972) explains that, peer group is a common salient social context in adolescence. The significance of adolescence peer groups is that it enhances multiple processes, including duration individuals spend with peers. The stated susceptibility and significance of peer relationships provides that deviant peers are more likely to commit reckless behaviours than youths without deviant peers. However, Indigenous adolescents often suffer from shame and guilt, thus are less likely to involve in peer risks. Adolescents who are overprotected by their family peers are likely to follow the course of the family members.

Familial Risk

(Family history strongly predicts subsequent reckless behaviour during adolescence)The characteristics of a family may influence reckless adolescent behaviour. Scholars argue that if an individual is raised in a reckless-behaving family, he will grow up into the same as a response to adapt to a hostile environment (Ellis, Shirtcliff, Boyce, Deardorff & Essex, 2011). Inadequate parental and low maternal involvement expectations are associated with the use of drugs, sexual debut and delinquency.

Essentially, adolescents with lenient parents exhibit elevated levels of reckless behaviour. Moreover, youths whose parents condone violent behaviour, drug use, and smoking are most likely to follow suit. In essence, family history strongly predicts subsequent reckless behaviour during adolescence and some of the risks may be genetically instigated.

School Risk(Less association with educational institutions contributes to reckless behaviour)

Youths spend considerable time in school settings and their performance and perception in school provides significant implications of reckless behaviour. Edmonds (1979) states that poor performance in school predicts drug use, early sexual activity and delinquent behavior. Youths with problems of conduct are likely to perform poorly at school which may lead to reckless behaviour.

Contrastingly, attachment and success in school are related to reducing involvement in reckless behaviour, providing that strong bonds with school may protect against various behavioural characteristics. Indigenous adolescents suffer from guilt and shame and are more likely to drop out of school. As elaborated by Edmonds, (1979) less association with educational institutions contributes to reckless behaviour such as drug use and irresponsible sexual behaviour.

Community Risk

(Community disorganization exposes adolescents to reckless behaviours)

The low socio-economic and disorganization of neighborhoods in the community influences various types of reckless behaviour. Low socioeconomic indicators such as poor housing, poverty and overcrowding are related to drug use, delinquency and risky sexual behaviour. However, no research has provided a clear relationship between disadvantaged socioeconomic status and reckless behaviour. Subsequently, disorganized neighborhoods associated with dense population, physical deterioration and residential mobility expose adolescent groups to high risks of illegal drug trafficking and high crime rates (Matthews, 2000).

Matthews further explains that models of health behaviour assert that psychological problems expose Indigenous adolescents to violence, sexual activities and drug use. This is due to discrimination and stigmatization in the society which influences their perceptions and vulnerability. Thus, they are likely to engage in problem behaviour as predicted by their health cognition.

Relation among Developmental Variation, Risk Domain and Cumulative Risk(Risk factors affect development variations in reckless behaviour)

Family environment and genetics seek to provide etiological explanations of reckless behaviour unquestionably and generalize the multiple pathways and complexity of adolescent behaviour. Risk factors affect behaviour problem in multiple ways. For instance, positive perceptions on sexual activities may precede and affect sexual debut directly.

Likewise, deviant peers association have a direct impact on one’s behaviour as risk factors indirectly impact reckless behaviour. For example, disorganization of the community provides transition difficulties of pro-social values from families to offspring (Fagan, 2004). Thus, residing in disorganized neighborhoods results in poor family management which is a precursor for reckless adolescent behaviour.

Conclusion(Ensure research collaborations focus on various domains of reckless behaviour)

The greatest potential health complications of adolescent results from behaviours they willingly engage in such as delinquency, reckless driving, risky sexual behaviour and substance use. The literature discussed provides evidence on how these reckless behaviours develop during adolescence. Consequently, there is strong evidence associating multiple risk factors to reckless behaviour. Though not all, risk factors such as disadvantaged socioeconomic status may result in reckless behaviours.

Unfortunately, practice and research has treated adolescent reckless behaviours as independent, with minimal consideration of their interconnections. Perhaps, the absolute danger is that problem behavior research is classified into several domains. Thus, these classifications do not provide in depth details on the interrelationship between these risk factors and reckless behavior. In conclusion, there is urgent need to ensure research collaborations focus on various domains of reckless behaviour and promote positive adolescent development.

Chapter 3: Research Design Method

Protection of Human Subjects

All research activities involving human subjects within this project were reviewed and approved by the Charles Sturt University Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC). Charles Sturt University subscribes to the basic ethical principles in the conduct of research involving human subjects as set forth by the Australian Research Council. The HREC ensures the protection of human subjects in research. The HREC has the responsibility and authority to review, approve, disapprove, or require changes in research activities involving human subjects. This policy applies to all research studies conducted at Charles Sturt University, regardless of whether the project is funded externally, internally, or receives no funding support.

Instruments Used in Data Collection

The study adapted Achenbach and Rescorla’s (2001) Youth Self-Report for Ages 11-18 to assess the adolescent behaviour in students aged between 15-18 years ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Achenbach</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>3</RecNum><IDText>The Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms &amp; Profiles.</IDText><DisplayText>(Achenbach &amp; Rescorla, 2001)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>3</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”v2wravw5fezpf8eweeu5pzeg9e5s5xf2w0a0″ timestamp=”1413939135″>3</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Book”>6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Achenbach, T.</author><author>Rescorla, L. </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms &amp; Profiles.</title></titles><dates><year>2001</year></dates><pub-location>Burlington</pub-location><publisher>University of Vermont, Research Centre for Children, Youth and Families </publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001). The YSR Report is a commonly used self-report measure for the youth which is utilized for the assessment of behavioural and emotional problems between the ages 11 to 18 thus making it accurate in this study case. In the study’s case the YSR Report utilized three forms of measurement i.e. social interactions and relationships, aggressive behaviour, emotional behaviour, academic engagement and reckless behaviour.

Each of the 38 close ended questions were scored on a five-point Likert scale (interpreted as 1=Never, 2 = Rarely, 3 = Sometimes, 4 = Often, 5 = Always) for each of the categories assessing adolescent behaviours in students between the ages of 15 and 18 ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Vreugdenhil</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>4</RecNum><IDText>The ability of YSR scales to predict DSM/DISC-C psychiatric disorders among incarcerated adolescents</IDText><DisplayText>(Vreugdenhil, van den Brink, Ferdinand, Wouters, &amp; Doreleijers, 2006)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>4</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”v2wravw5fezpf8eweeu5pzeg9e5s5xf2w0a0″ timestamp=”1413939135″>4</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Vreugdenhil, C.,</author><author>van den Brink, W.</author><author>Ferdinand, R</author><author>Wouters, L</author><author>Doreleijers, T.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The ability of YSR scales to predict DSM/DISC-C psychiatric disorders among incarcerated adolescents</title><secondary-title>European Child &amp; Adolescent Psychiatry</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>European Child &amp; Adolescent Psychiatry</full-title></periodical><pages>88-96</pages><dates><year>2006</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Vreugdenhil, van den Brink, Ferdinand, Wouters, & Doreleijers, 2006). A combination of the total scores obtained from responses and the 38 close ended questions of the web-based questionnaire to come up with a standardized score demonstrating that high scores illustrated high risks for deteriorated adolescent behaviour.

Social interactions and relationship experience were demonstrated as responding to ‘sometimes’ at a base of 3 on the Likert scale to the question “I hang around with kids who get into trouble and I get teased a lot.” Aggressive behaviour were defined at a score of 5 on the Likert scale as getting into many fights, students being mean to others and destroying things that belong to others.

In terms of emotional behaviour a minimal number scored a 5 with a majority being clustered at point 3 on the Likert scale in terms of feeling lonely, feeling confused and feeling guilty. Coming to academic engagement, very few students scored a 5 with reference to cheating in academics, not finishing the work they started and having difficulty paying attention. Most of the scored responded on a scare of 2 to the above considerations.

When it came to analysis of reckless behaviour credibility of collected results was questionable as most of the answers analysed scored 1 on the Likert scale with a response to experimentation with drugs, breaking of rules both at home and school and finally drinking alcohol without parental approval. Social demographic variables that included age, gender and cultural identity were instrumental in establishing perceived outcome of behaviour in a student with specified emphasis on the cultural identity of a student to have a link with how they tackle situations.

The idea of risk ought to imply probability, not certainty. There should be at least a chance that risk will not materialize, that the undesirable behaviour or outcome will not occur. In respect to youth behaviour, the fact that an individual may display problems, does not mean the event has already happened, nor a certainty about the future course of events in a person’s life.

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