Autumn: The Best Season of All

Of all the magnificent seasons, autumn is the most wonderful season of all. Not only do the leaves change into vivid, colorful pictures as people drive by their beauty every day to work, but the temperature is just as inviting. People enjoy outdoor activities much more when it is a mild temperature than when the weather is either too hot or too cold. People also seem to be more cheerful and happy when it feels that way outside. A perfect depiction of the best season ever would be: when the trees look as if they are a picture in a postcard, the weather is perfect, and people are in better moods.

What do people think when they hear the word autumn? Beautiful trees, leaves slowly changing from green to orange, and from red, to yellow, are the first things that come to mind for most people. It is a splendid sight driving to the store, or even coming home from work; when all around, the mountains are full of warm colors like a sea of leaves. The crisp, refreshing autumn air fills everybody’s nostrils and lungs. Just to look at something this astounding promotes extreme relaxation for most people. Imagine looking out at nature’s canopy and realizing that life is an amazing thing, and the need for beauty is one of the things that separates humans from animals.

People need beauty, and it comes around every year in the form of autumn. Not only does the beauty of autumn appeal to the eye, but the mild weather makes it feel just as comfortable as it looks. Sometimes, the weather is too hot to go out and play football; sometimes it’s too cold to have a barbecue; but in autumn, every day is a football or grilling day. People like to feel relaxed when enjoying outdoor activities. During autumn, the temperature stays constant and comfortable for most people. It’s extremely relaxing to be outside on a cool day and enjoy nature’s beauty. Perhaps the greatest reason of all would have to be the people’s attitudes. It seems that everybody is in a jollier mood during this time of year than any other season. A couple possibilities are the pretty weather, and the holidays coming up just around the corner. People are happier to see each other, more grateful for what they have, and quicker to help someone in need during this time.

Perhaps this is due to the crisp, fresh air outside; or the pure magnificence of the mountain view. When people are nicer and care about each other more, it makes this world a more loving place for everybody. In conclusion, all the other seasons just can’t compare to autumn; it is the best season by far. People need beauty in their lives, which this season provides. People need to feel relaxed and less stressed out about everyday life, which autumn once again provides. Finally, people need to be more respectful and happy towards each other. With the beauty, the smell, the temperature, and the overall relaxing feeling autumn gives people: it overall increases kindness and love within every human being.

My Best Public Speaking Experience

My Best Public Speaking Experience was at the fourth course of university at meterology class . Everyone from our group need to prepare the presentation and abstract paper, which would be dealt with in this course. I choose the topic : « Aerozol and physical mechanisms of its formation». I presented it to the public very efficiency. Even though , my opponent was a student at six course of the university, I have managed to defend the topic in the best way. While analyzing the success of my public speaking experience I selected to myself several reasons of it . Firstly , I was really interested in aerosols and that motivated me to understand deeply the subject of my report. Secondary, my teacher suggest me some resources of literature and were to look for it. I was looking for literature very meticulously and I have managed to found out a lot of interesting and fresh material . The third reason was that I was well prepared for the presentation.

The day before I looked through my speech carefully , identify and understand the main points. The forth reason – I was prepared in advance . I started my preparation three weeks before the presentation. Although, I usually begin my preparation approximately two weeks before the presentation. The fifth reason was my classmates and opponent. My classmates were listening to me very attentively and my opponent talked to me with ease. Moreover , he asked me some questions I was really interested in and that’s betrayed me the confidence. So, based on my own experience I can identify five basic points that have helped me to prepare successfully for my oral presentation and they are : motivation, teacher , identifying and understanding the main points of the speech , preparation in advance and audience. I hold this five points may help other students to prepare well its oral presentation or reports . I think the experience of public speaking and preparation of presentations will be very useful to me in the future.

Working mothers are best mothers

Of all the discoveries of study made in the unalterable century and the apportion, the feat of energy has been the most multipurpose. It has practically transformed the present of the livelong group. Redbrick period and all its support and conveniences depend often upon this crucial exploit.

The uses to which electricity has been put are galore. It has short length. It helps us in dynamical automobile tramways, railways, and locomote vehicles. We can now go from one spot to other without overmuch failure of quantify.

Telegraphic messages can be transmitted from rank to space in an astonishingly momentary time. A man experience atLahorecan publicize superb or bad information to members of his phratry inKarachior comprehend program for them within two or tercet hours. Telephonic messages can also be conveyed from domiciliate to sanctuary or from one country to another. A man living in Anarkali bazaar can feature on his byplay without estimate with another. A man inLondoncan verbalise to a man In City as if be were articulate to a man slack nearest him. This I what electricity has finished through telecommunicate and telephones.

Electricity has assumption us automobile lights, electric fans and motorcar heaters. We owe to it the illumination of our large cities and alter of our homes. In season it can make us alter by giving us turn project. In season it can displace passionless by sharing us heat through electric heaters.

Also these, electricity is much utilised in industries both large and teensy. It is old for the purification of metals. In electro-plating, electro-typing and electro guiding, we see the marvels of electricity. It is also victimised in curing careful diseases.

Electricity his augmented the conveniences and conveniences of mankind to a rattling hulking extent. It cooks our food, washes our clothes, grinds our callus, sweeps our houses, comedian the waste fabrication in the street, heats our houses in season and provides us with water in consequence.

Energy can do all kinds of utilise. We realise its powerfulness when we journey at altissimo pace in galvanising trams and railways. When we reach our houses and streets light with car Lights. When we acquire a telephonic or a telegraphic content, or sit under an galvanic fan.

The present age is an age of energy. We cannot do without this. What has energy done for us? It has tract us meliorate Lighted, wagerer furnished, better aired, gambler provided with matter, and, in surpass hygienical conditions. This is the immeasurable personnel energy has finished to mankind.

Read more:

Essay On ELECTRICITY IN THE SERVICE OF MAN Full Essay http://www.friendsmania.net/forum/essay-writing-notes-applications-letters/251722.htm#ixzz3CpAS9NTe

Best teacher

My best teacher that I have had thus far in my academic teacher would have to be Elias Semaan. Professor Semaan taught the upper level Finance courses here at JMU and his intelligence as well as his passion captured my attention and made me want to absorb the knowledge that he was preaching. I had Professor Semaan my sophomore and junior year and he was great. He taught a difficult course, FIN 360 Analytical Methods in Finance but he made difficult concepts and equations seem easy by going through the logic behind them and why and how we use them.

He added in humor to lighten the heavy load of the courses content and keep the class happy. He was also very creative and used his own little real world examples while explaining bigger critical concepts. Professor Semaan did an excellent job of keeping the class active and participating. He was open to the student’s opinion and always asked at the beginning of class if anyone was having trouble with anything in the course or had any questions, if they did we would discuss it as a class until everyone was caught up.

At first I had difficultly grasping some of the concepts as I had switched my major from Management to Finance, but he sat down with me one on one in his office and walked me through any questions I had with clear cut explanations until I had them down. He used tests as assessments for the class and they were tough but fair. If you paid attention and did all your work, the problems would seem familiar and if you slacked off in class or did not attend it would show through the grade of his tests.

He was not an easy teacher by any means and you had to work hard for a good grade but he made you want to succeed and motivated me to reach my full potential more than any other of my teachers had. I liked him so much in FIN 360 that the next year I took his other class, FIN 450 Financial Risk Management. I grew a close relationship with Professor Semaan as we shared stories, went over new and challenging concepts, and he served as a role model for me through my College career.

Professor Semaan said I remind him of a younger version of himself and I take that as a great compliment. He is very intelligent, he received his PhD in Finance at George Washington University and has been teaching at a University level for over 10 years now. He is in his early 50s and has had a hard life with many ups and downs but continues to push forward and motivate his students to succeed and reach their highest potential. He is dedicated, ambitious, intelligent, funny, charismatic and strong-minded and I admire him and respect him tremendously as a person and mentor.

He has made me want to put in all of my effort and work as hard as I have to until I understand what I am learning. He pushed me in the right direction and offers me priceless career information as to what paths to go into and how to make myself look good to employers. He even gave me his cell number to call him if I have any questions or problems at any time. He has my back and I respect him for all that he has done for me and all that he has accomplished throughout his life.

I believe Professor Semaan’s teaching philosophy is to have his students maximize their learning potential and focus on their strengths to pick a career path where they will ultimately be happy as well as successful. He has done a great job abiding by his philosophy and has helped me through College and the job searching process. He held office hours by schedule and by appointment and was very flexible and would work with you and do whatever he had to ensuring that his students learned. He also pushed his students to succeed through his charisma and charm and worked one on one with students who went out of their way to learn. He was my best teacher and I feel very lucky that him and I were able to cross paths and establish such a great relationship as teacher/student, mentor/role model, and friends.

Best cost allocation method

SQ3R – Survey Question Read Recite Review
SQ3R will help you build a framework to understand your reading assignment and it helps us to extract useful information from the text.

The reading text is about the unfair headquarters’ overhead cost allocation method of Korea insurance company. There are concerns towards the system by a manager. And that lead to reduce on net income of branches. Jin Kim is trying to develop more efficient systems.

The reading text is about the headquarters’ cost allocation method of Korea insurance Co. Inc. Jin Kim, manager of the company, accused that the costing systems is inefficient as it leads to decrease in incremental cost inappropriately and discourages employees to reach the common goal of maximizing profit. It is claimed that the heavy regulations towards the insurance industry by government, put pressure on many financial companies.

As a result, many of them tended to adopt least controversial cost allocation policy without considering managerial problems in detail. Jim Kim implemented several policies to generate higher return and less cost, yet there is still room for development of a better system.

1. What is the headquarters’ cost allocation method?
2. What are the concerns of the branch manager?
3. Why is the change of cost systems necessary?
4. How should the cost systems be adjusted?
5. Any difficulties encountered when implementing new system? 6. Who is/are the stakeholder(s)?
7. What criterion does the current system use to allocate overhead costs to branches? Why? 8. How does this effect branches?

1-
Exhibit 1 illustrates the cost structure of Korea Auto Insurance Co. Inc. Direct costs accounted for about 60 per cent of total costs while indirect costs accounted for about 40 per cent of total costs. Direct costs consisted of both operating costs (48 per cent) and admin….. 2-

Kim, however, realized that expansion of the branch might penalize him and branch employees by not only incurring direct costs at the branch level but also by the branch being allocated a large amount of the headquarters’ overhead costs, resulting in lower net income. 3-

Paragraph of ‘IT team’,’ Operating supporting team’ and so on.

The reading text is about the headquarters’ cost allocation method of Korea insurance Co. Inc. Jin Kim, manager of the company, accused that the costing systems is unfair as it leads to decrease in incremental income and thus discourages employees to reach the common goal of maximizing profit. It is claimed that the heavy regulations and over-protection towards the insurance industry by government, put pressure on many financial companies.

As a result, many of them tended to adopt least controversial cost allocation policy without considering managerial problems in detail. Jim Kim believed that there should be improvement for the costing system.

Why trains are the best way to travel

WHEN you travel long term you have plenty of time to ponder the big questions. Maybe that’s why philosophy and travel go so well together. You finally have the time to really think about what the hell Confucius and Plato were trying to get at… Maybe that’s why I also love to travel by rail. Above all other forms of long distance transport, trains are my favourite. I’m comfortably sitting, watching a frozen landscape of farmland, forests and tiny villages fly by my window. Drifts of snow rise and fall like endless frozen waves as skeletal trees scratch at the sky across the distance, disappearing over the horizon, as the sun sets in a radiant arc of crimson fire. The world is bare, open and, above all else, interesting and full of wonder. This is what should make train rides important to travellers. Modern conveniences like email, smartphones and supermarkets have made life more efficient than ever before but in doing so something’s been lost.

Don’t get me wrong, 2013 is the best time to be alive (ever!), but I do think we all could learn to appreciate ‘the journey’ a little more than we do. In modern life the journey has taken a definitive backseat to the destination. I put long distance train travel in roughly the same category as calligraphy, wax seals, orchestras and Shakespearean English. There may be more efficient, easier and faster ways to accomplish writing, making music or talking but the ‘romance of the journey’ makes these endeavours both interesting and valuable. The difference is not taking the journey for an inconvenience that’s in the way of getting somewhere, but rather in enjoying the journey for what it is. Flying is obviously more efficient in regards to time, but it lacks in journey aesthetics. Taking a commercial flight really doesn’t allow for much appreciation for a country’s’ aesthetics (unless you count Virgin’s flight attendants).

Another downside to flying is that planes are cramped, much like being a sardine in a can (only with less vegetable oil). There’s also the fact that you’re hurtling through the open sky at 800km/h in a hulking 500 tonne machine made of metal and plastic – maybe you can tell that I’m not a fan of flying. What about buses? Buses unfortunately are a necessary evil in the same way that McDonalds is a necessary evil at 3am on a Sunday morning. Buses, while often cheap offer neither efficiency or the journey experience and come a very distant third choice. Railroads are quite often cut through remote wilderness far from highways and roads, giving you a sense of remoteness that’s hard to match with other forms of transportation, perfect for moments of quiet contemplation and reflection and often amplified by the beautiful scenery. There’s also the comfort factor to consider. If you’re the butt of beanstalk jokes, journeying by rail allows for more leg and shoulder room than a bus and a flight combined.

How do I learn best

How do I learn best?

Cal state University

How do I learn best?
Simply defined, your learning style is the way you tend to learn best. Learning styles do not gauge a person’s abilities or intelligence, but they can explain why some tasks may seem easier than others. According to the VARK system, five learning styles exist: visual learning style, auditory learning style, reading and writing learning style, kinesthetic learning style and multimodal learning style. Visual learners use graphic presentations like charts, diagrams, and graphs to understand information. Aural learners rely on discussions, recordings and lectures to process information. Kinesthetic learners learn best when they can put concepts that they are learning into actions or activities for which they rely on videos and demonstrations. Majority of learners fall under the multimodal strategy of learning. Multimodal study strategy is a learning method which utilizes various sensory modalities of a learner. Utilization of multimodal strategy “has expanded the ways we acquire information and understand concepts.”(“Position Statement on Multimodal Literacies,” n.d., para. 13) Multimodal strategy combines print, images, animation, speech, and sound as its style. (“Position Statement on Multimodal Literacies,” n.d., para. 15) The Multimodal Study strategy allows for switching between various styles, that is, visual, aural, read/write or kinesthetic, for the purposes of better communication and learning.

The more varied ways a person learns something, the more truly that person understands that concept, (Lazear, 2008) gains a deeper understanding of the subject and retains the information longer. In utilizing the multimodal structure of education, the educator can accommodate use of various tools like visual graphics, documentaries and interactive modules to supplement a lecture. This helps in reinforcing the material being taught. Utilizing methods that stimulate different senses facilitates learning. (Heady, 2010, p. 247) Multimodal learning is more effective than unimodal learning. When different senses are combined such as visual with auditory, higher-order learning occurs. (Metiri Group, 2008, p. 14). However, this also has a negative aspect. It’s important for the educator to create a balance between various modalities. Frequent switching between different modalities can cause “overload” of information and confuse the learner. (Maier, n.d., para. 3) Learners may lose focus and have difficulty understanding. People with multimodal learning style may often “switch” to an inappropriate mode that will negatively impact their learning capability. So it is imperative for multimodal learners to know how and when to switch from one modality to another to stay focused and enhance their learning process. Read/Write study strategy works for many learners.

The read/write learners prefer visual material presented in a written format. In this category, the learner intakes the information by making notes, which include lists and headings, organizing visual graphics into written statements. The learner utilizes resources like dictionaries, textbooks and, manuals. After gathering all information the learner proceeds to make a package for learning. This is done by writing and reading one’s notes multiple times. For many learners this strategy works for them as writing what you read makes you go over information again which also serves as a revision. Often breaking down what you read into your own words makes you remember things more vividly. However, the read/write style is considered a traditional style of learning. Studies suggest that avid offline readers are not the best online readers and vice versa. (“Reading Online,” n.d., para. 4) With the onset of distant learning, such as online programs and e-learning formats, the read/write style learners will have to accommodate new methods into their learning pattern and that’s where being a multimodal study strategy style learner can come in handy. One should learn from peers how to utilize a different study strategy and accommodate their style into one’s own style of learning. It is important to recognize your preferred learning strategies and the identified strategies for your learning style.

Combining the two can help the learner become more proficient by utilizing various senses simultaneously. It is important to know that some concepts are best understood using various modalities or a different study strategy. At the same time learners should also recognize that being a Multimodal learner can help as it can reduce their learning and understanding time. By putting extra effort one can recognize and use the best modalities that work in understanding a subject. No single learning style is better than the other.

Every individual learns differently. It is important to know which style suits you. It may take time and effort on the learner’s part to conclude which style aids in their learning best but once known, your strategy of learning will empower you with best learning abilities contributing to your success.

References
Lazear, D. (2008). “Multi-Modal” Learning by David Lazear. Retrieved from http://www.davidlazeargroup.com/free_articles/multi-modal.html . (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.readwritethink.org/professional-development/strategy-guides/reading-online-30096.html Heady, S. A. (2010). Health Education. In C. L. Edelman, & C. L. Mandle (Eds.), Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span (7 ed., pp. 243-258). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby Elsevier. Maier, C. (n.d.). Multimodal Teaching Strategies. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/info_12049345_multimodal-teaching-strategies.html Metiri Group. (2008). Multimodal Learning Through Media: What the Research Says. Retrieved from http://www.cisco.com/web/strategy/docs/education/Multimodal-Learning-Through-Media.pdf NCTE Position Statement. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ncte.org/positions/statements/multimodalliteracies

The One That Works Best

There are a lot of factors that influence how one grasps information. Each and every person is unique in their ability, interest and background knowledge and it is safe to assume that there is a preferred style of learning that works best for them. The common styles of learning are visual, auditory, and kinesthetic but a style can be determines in further depth through many different evaluations. I have learned a few things about myself and my own personal learning style which I will share with you in this essay. There are three basic learning styles which are visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. Visual learners retain information best through visual aids such as graphs, pictures, films and demonstrations. Auditory learners absorb the most from hearing the material through lectures or oral discussions. The last of the three is Kinesthetic learners who learns best through physical demonstrations rather than seeing or hearing. Based on the completion of Learning Style Inventory (Bixler, 2010), I have determined I am a Kinesthetic learner also known as a tactile learner. My preference of learning is through a hands-on method.

When I reflect on my study habits I found that this is true. I retain information better through moving, doing or touching. How can I make this learning style work best for me? I can make studying a more physical task. Instead of sitting down and reading I could stand, or snack while listening to lectures. Playing music in the background is something I often do and is also a useful habit to acquire for kinesthetic learners. One of the down falls of being a tactile learner is that I am easily distracted but allowing myself frequent study breaks will help with staying on track with any assignment. Through the Index of Learning Styles Questionnaire (Felder & Soloman, n.d.), I have determined that I am not only a well-rounded learner but I also have very strong learning preferences that may affect my grasp on content. My results reflected that I am an active learner. I use a “Let’s try it out and see how it works,” study mentality.

The questionnaire also reflected that when it comes to sensing and intuition I am a little bit of both. I like learning facts as well as theories. I have discovered through this questionnaire that I am also well rounded when it comes to being a visual and verbal learner. Visual and verbal learning is the primary method of learning in today’s school system. I believe I reflected being fairly balanced in both because this is the learning style I’ve known based on the teaching style offered. Last, the questionnaire showed me that I am a sequential learner as well as a global learner. This result is accurate because different topics require a different way to complete or learn them whether it is step by step or absorbing bits and pieces to get the big picture. I have always known that I learned things better through hands-on experience. After taking both evaluations I realized I actually prefer many different learning styles but I am predominately a kinesthetic or active learner. I am sure this has changed many time based on my situation. Understanding what style works best for me is the first step in success.

Being a physical learner will make taking online classes a bit difficult because online learning isn’t a hands-on kind of learning environment. My style may change throughout this course based on the situation or I will adapt my current learning style to somehow work with this environment. Throughout life we evolve and adapt to the different situations we are put in. This type of evolution occurs when it comes to our learning styles. As learners we adapt to the learning environment because it is more likely that our learning style will change before the teaching style changes. Every individual has a preferred learning style that works best for them based on their current situation. Each and every one of us is different and every different person has a different situation from the other which brings us to the conclusion that everyone has a different learning style.

References
Bixler, B. (2010). Learning style inventory. Retrieved from http://www.personal.psu.edu/bxb11/LSI/LSI.htm Felder, R. M., & Soloman, B. A. (n.d.). Index of learning styles. Retrieved from http://www.engr.ncsu.edu/learningstyles/ilsweb.html Reiner, C. & Willingham, D. (2010). The myth of learning styles. Retrieved from http://www.changemag.org/Archives/Back%20Issues/September-October%202010/the-myth-of-learning-full.html

This Is the Best Day of My Life

1. How did geography and the environment impact the Persians? The harsh terrain in the area of modern Iran made it very difficult for humans to survive and find water sources. The arid climate meant more work for agriculture and agricultural surplus was very rare. Organizing the building of underground irrigation channels for agriculture required a strong central government. The connection between royal authority and prosperity can be seen in the ideology of the first Persian Empire. (p. 100, 102).

2. How did Persia rise from nomadic roots to become the largest land empire the world had ever seen? Persia’s rise to power began with the marriage between a Persian and a Median. Cyrus, the son of a powerful Persian chief, married a Median princess. The Medes had been the first to achieve a complex political organization in Central Asia near western Iran. The Persians eventually overthrew the Median monarch but maintained the framework of the Median government. In Persian society the warrior was dominant. Over the course of two decades the Persian rulers and their armies redrew the map of western Asia from Anatolia to Mesopotamia and as far as the Indus region. Cyrus and his successors used the traditions of the local people and the creation of a new organizational structure to maintain control of their empire. (103-104)

3. Describe the family and social structure in the Persian Empire. They had occupational and social classes. There were the warriors, priests, and peasants. The warriors were the aristocrats who enjoyed fighting, hunting, and gardening. The priests were the specialists in rituals and sacrifice, and the peasants were the working class, common people. The king and the royal family were at the top of the society. The king had several wives. Both Greek and Persian sources reveal that Persian elite women were politically powerful, possessed a good bit of property, traveled and were prominent on public occasions.(p. 104,105).

4. How were the complex tasks of administration managed in the Persian Empire? The central administration was based in Elam and Mesopotamia. Trained administrators and scribes were used by the kings. Records indicate government officials distributed food and other essentials to large numbers
of workers. The empire was also divided into 12 provinces, each with its’ own governor(satrap) and court. All these provinces were connected to the empire by well- maintained and patrolled roads. A body of law was written during the reign of Darius, but conquered people were allowed to live with their own traditions and laws. This shows the decentralized character of the Persian Empire. (p. 104, 105).

5. Describe Persian religious beliefs during the height of the Persian Empire. Persians believed the empire stood on the will of god and believed the rulers were given a mandate to bring order to a world of turmoil. This comes from, Zoroastrianism a religion created by Zoroaster who taught that Ahuramazda created the world. Angra Mainyu and demons threatened that world. The struggle between good and evil would end in a great fight and good would prevail. People would be rewarded or punished in the afterlife for their actions. Along with following Zoroastrianism they respected nature and venerated beneficial elements like water and fire. They believed the body soul should always be pure, therefore telling the truth and keeping promises was very important to them. (p. 109).

6. What impact did geography or the environment have on Greek civilization? Greece was relatively resource-poor. The rough landscape of central and southern Greece, with small plains separated by ranges of mountains and the many island in the Aegean favored the rise of hundreds of small, independent communities. Because of the limited natural resources of this region, the Greeks had to resort to sea travel and trade with other lands in the Mediterranean. The terrain and climate made it easier for the Greeks to migrate to nearby areas because similar living conditions meant similar cultural practices and way of living so it made it easier for people to get along and adapt to the new place (p. 109-111).

7. What brought Greece out of its isolation and “Dark Age,” and inaugurated the “Archaic” period of Greek history? Explain. The “Dark Age” had seen Greece isolated from the rest of the world. By 800 B.C.E. Phoenician ships began to reestablish contact between the Aegean and the Middle East. This set the Greeks off in search of raw materials, trade and farmland. The Phoenicians also introduced the Greeks to their writing system through which helped the Greek civilization prosper. (p. 111- 112).

8. Describe the cause and effect of Greek colonization.

The growing population caused Greeks to colonize and spread which gave them the opportunity to spread their culture. As a result people were able to experience a new writing system, culture, and form of art that the Greeks had developed; and it also allowed the Greeks to become aware of the things that bound them together with other people and introduced them new ideas and technology such as the invention of coins from Lydia. This allowed for rapid exchanges of goods, better record keeping and storage of wealth. The reduction of surplus population by colonization helped relieve pressures within Greece and laid the foundation for new economic, social, cultural and political ideas, (p. 112-114).

9. Explain the evolution of political systems in the Greek city-states? Invention of coins was a significant development; this started trade and increased wealth. Increasing prosperity and the growth of a middle class in Archaic Greek society led to the emergence in the mid-seventh and sixth centuries B.C.E. of one-man rule by tyrants, who reduced the power of traditional elites. The tyrants were eventually ejected, and government developed in one of two directions: oligarchy or democracy. (p. 114).

10. What part did religion play in the Greek states?
Greek religion involved the worship of human like sky gods, many of which represented forces of nature. These gods were worshiped at state ceremonies. Sacrifice was a central part of religious practice and helped to create a sense of community. In addition, Greeks sought advice from oracles such as the oracle of Apollo at Delphi and also revered female fertility deities.(p 114-115)

11. How were Sparta and Athens different? Alike?
Although Sparta and Athens had similar environmental and cultural backgrounds, they developed differently. Sparta was a polis located in the Peloponnesus in southern Greece. The Spartans conquered the area of Messina for its fertile land and enslaved its population. Because the number of slaves outnumbered the Spartans, they became a military society. Sparta did not participate in the economic, political and cultural renaissance taking place in the rest of Greece. They were forbidden to engage in commerce. Women had more rights or a higher place in society in Sparta than Athens. Athens was located only 5 miles from the sea in the area known as Attica. It had a large population compared to Sparta and other Greek city-states. Because of its location it was more deeply involved in commerce. During the Archaic period it evolved from a government of a small group of aristocratic families to rule by tyrant and eventually a democracy.(p 116,117, 121)

12. What brought the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire into conflict? In 499 B.C.E., the Greek cities of Anatolia, aided by Eretria and Athens, staged a five-year revolt (the Ionian revolt) against Persian rule. Because of the aid given by Greek city-states the Persians were angered. This led to the Persian Wars—two Persian attacks on Greece. (118)

13. Who were the three great Greek philosophers? Describe their philosophies or accomplishments. The three great Greek philosophers were Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. The two most influential philosophers of the Classical period were Socrates and Plato. Socrates turned the focus of philosophy to ethics, probed the precise meaning of words, and created the Socratic method of question and answer. He was tried on charges of corrupting the youth and not believing in the gods of the city and sentenced to death. Socrates’ disciple, Plato, wrote dialogs exploring concepts such as justice, excellence, and wisdom.

Plato taught that the world as we see it is a pale reflection of a higher, ideal reality. Plato’s intellectual activity is representative of the transition from oral to written culture: Plato read and wrote books, and he founded a school, the Academy. Aristotle was pupil of Plato and Alexander’s teacher. He set up his own school the Lyceum. He sought to collect and categorize a vast array of knowledge. He lectured and wrote about politics, philosophy, ethics, logic, poetry, rhetoric, physics, astronomy, meteorology, zoology, and psychology. (120)

14. How were slaves treated in the Greek city-states? Women? Slaves were mostly foreign, accounted for one-third of the population, and were regarded as property. The average Athenian family owned one or more slaves who were treated like domestic servants. Slaves provided male citizens with the leisure for political activity. The position of women varied in different Greek communities. In Sparta, women were relatively free and outspoken. In Athens, women were more confined and oppressed. Athenian marriages were unequal, arranged unions of younger women to older men. The duties of a wife were to produce and raise children (especially sons), to weave cloth, and to cook and clean. (121)

15. What led to the Peloponnesian War and what was the outcome? The Peloponnesian war broke out because of the emergence of Athens as an imperial power which eventually led to suspicions and hostilities between previous allies. It was mainly between Athens and Sparta. As a result of this war, the Spartans won and took over all overseas Greek empire. Eventually the weakening of the Greek city-states because of this war led to the takeover by the Macedonians from the north. (p. 124).

16. How did cultural synthesis develop during the Hellenistic Age? After Alexander the Great died the Greeks divided into kingdoms. The Seleucids (largest in western Asia- founded Greek- style cities), the Ptolemies (encouraged Greek immigration) and the Antigonids (ruled Macedonia). In all the Hellenistic states, ambitious members of the populations learned the Greek language and adopted elements of the Greek way of life. In the Hellenistic Age there was a spontaneous synthesis of Greek and indigenous ways. With little official planning or blessing, coming for the most part from the day to day experiences and actions of ordinary people, a great multicultural experiment unfolded as Greek and Meddle Eastern cultural traits clashed and merged. (p. 125- 129).

CHAPTER 5: An Age of Empires: Rome and Han China, 753 B.C.E. – 600 C.E., pages 134 – 161 1. How did Rome’s location contribute to its success?

Rome was a crossroads not only of Italy but the Mediterranean. This location contributed to its’ success in unifying Italy. Rome also had the Tiber River on one side and double ring of seven hills on the other to act as its natural barriers to invaders. Rome and Italy had many navigable rivers, a mild climate suitable for many crops, and natural resources like iron and timber. All of these favorable conditions sustained a much larger population than Greece. (p. 136).

2. What was the essential economic activity in the early Roman state? Explain. Since social status, values, and political privileges were based on landownership, agriculture was the dominant economic activity. Most Romans were independent farmers and few had large amounts of land, and those were the people who would be chosen to be a member of the senate (p. 136).

3. Although the early Roman state was a republic it was not a democracy. Explain. Sovereign power resided in several assemblies and while all male citizens were eligible to attend, the votes of the wealthy classes counted for more than the votes of poor citizens. And in the Senate (a “self- perpetuating body”) the Senators would just nominate their own sons to take the seat, and fill in vacancies with former officials, this didn’t give everyone the equal amount of chance to be involved. The centers of political power were the two consuls and the Senate. In practice, the Senate made laws and governed.(p. 139).

4. Describe the organization of society and the importance of family in the Roman state. The two main classes were the patricians(elite) and plebeians(the majority of the population). The Roman family was the basic unit of Roman society. The Roman family consisted of several generations of family plus domestic slaves, living under the absolute authority of the oldest living male, the paterfamilias. Society was hierarchical. Families and individuals were tied together by patron/client relationships that institutionalized inequality and gave both sides of the relationship reason to cooperate and to support the status quo.

Roman women had relatively more freedom than Greek women, but their legal status was still that of a child, subordinate to the paterfamilias of their own or their husband’s family. Eventually procedures evolved that made it possible for some women to become independent after the death of their fathers. (139-140)

5. Trace the Roman political system from the Republic to the Principate. The Republican government consisted of a Senate and two consuls. As Rome expanded, the social and economic bases of the Roman republic in Italy were undermined. As the independent farming family that had been the traditional source of soldiers disappeared, Roman commanders built their armies from men from the underclass who tended to give their loyalty, not to the Roman state, but to their commander. This led to generals taking control of politics, to civil wars, and finally to the end of the republican system of government.

Julius Caesar’s grandnephew Octavian (also known as Augustus) took power in 31 B.C.E., reorganized the Roman government, and ruled as a military dictator. He created a paid civil service from a class of wealthy merchants and landowners to manage the growing empire. After Augustus died, several members of his family succeeded him. However, the position of emperor was not necessarily hereditary; in the end, armies chose emperors. Rather than laws developing through a senate and assemblies, as it had during the Republic, the emperor became a major source of laws during the Principate. (139-144)

6. How was the Roman Empire an urban empire?
About 80 percent of the 50 to 60 million people of the Roman Empire were rural farmers, but the empire was administered through and for a network of cities and towns. In this sense, it was an urban empire. Rome had about a million residents, other large cities (Alexandria, Antioch, and Carthage) had several hundred thousand each, while many Roman towns had populations of several thousand. (p 144)

7. Describe the impact of technology on the Roman Empire?
The Romans were expert military and civil engineers. Among their accomplishments were bridge-building, ballistic weapons, elevated and underground aqueducts, the use of arches and domes, and the invention of concrete. The impact of this technology can be seen in the expansion of the empire and the spread of their civilization. (147)

8. What was the importance of trade to the Roman Empire?
Manufacture and trade flourished under the pax romana. Grain had to be imported to feed the huge city of Rome. Rome and the Italian towns (and later, provincial centers) exported glass, metalwork, pottery, and other manufactures to the provinces. Romans also imported Chinese silk and Indian and Arabian spices. One of the effects of this trade was Romanization. In the western part of the Empire, the Latin language, Roman clothing, and the Roman lifestyle were adopted by local people; and indigenous cultures had an effect on Rome through cultural interaction. (p145)

9. What factors brought about the decline of the Roman Empire? The state system constructed by Augustus worked well until what historians call Rome’s third-century crisis. The symptoms of this crisis were frequent change of rulers, raids by German tribesmen from across the Rhine-Danube frontier, and the rise of regional power when Rome seemed unable to guarantee security. Rome’s economy was undermined by the high cost of defense, debasement of the currency and consequent inflation, a disruption of trade, reversion to a barter economy, disappearance of the municipal aristocracy of the provincial cities, and a movement of population out of the cities and back into the rural areas.(147-150)

10. How did China become an empire under the Han?
Confrontation with the Xiongnu confederacy nomads of the north revealed the inadequacy of Han troops, leading Gaozu to develop a policy of appeasement, buying them off with annual gifts. The Han went through a period of territorial expansion under Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 B.C.E.) who increased the power of the emperor. During his rule, he expanded the empire into areas as far as northern Vietnam, Manchuria, and North Korea. Instead of appeasing the Xiongnu, he built his military to fight the northern nomads.Wu’s reign saw the expansion of Chinese territory into the northwest and the foundations of the Silk Road. Walls and forts were built on the frontier. (155-156)

11. What was the social organization in Han China?
The family was the basic unit of society which even included ancestors. Chinese society believed that a hierarchy in the family, dominated by the elder male, reflected a hierarchy in society, dominated by rulers, with interdependent relationships more important than the individual. (Confucianism) The status and authority of women depended upon their social status. Women of the royal family could have some political influence. A young wife was expected to be obedient and recognize her mother-in-law. The emperor and the royal family were at the top of society. The elite lived in elegant multistoried houses and lived a good life with everything they could want.

The common people lived in closely packed houses in largely unplanned, winding alleys. Local officials were supplied by a class of moderately wealthy, educated local landowners called the gentry. The gentry adopted Confucianism as their ideology and pursued careers in the civil service, most often paying to have their sons trained in the same profession. Merchant families also tended to be based in cities. (157)

12. How did technology and trade help the spread of Chinese civilization? Relative to technological innovations, the Han era saw the development of the watermill, a usable horse collar, paper, horse breeding to supply cavalry forces, and a reliable crossbow trigger. These inventions led to the success of the Han armies and the expansion of the empire. The Han also built thousands of miles of roads to facilitate army movement and a network of canals connecting northern and southern river systems. These improvements helped spread Chinese civilization. (157-158)

13. What brought about the decline of the Han Empire?
The Han Empire was undermined by a number of factors. First, the imperial court was plagued by weak leadership and court intrigue. Second, nobles and merchants built up large landholdings at the expense of the small farmers, and peasants sought tax relief, reducing revenues for the empire. Third, the system of military conscription broke down and the central government had to rely on mercenaries whose loyalty was questionable. These factors, compounded by factionalism at court, official corruption, peasant uprisings, and nomadic attacks, led to the fall of the dynasty in 220 C.E. China entered a period of political fragmentation that lasted until the late sixth century. (158)

14. What were the most important similarities and differences between these
two empires? Similarities:

The Han and Roman Empires were similar agriculture being their fundamental economic activity. Both empires received revenue from a percentage of the annual harvests. And both empires strengthened their central rule by breaking the power of old aristocratic families, reducing their land holdings. Both empires saw their authority eroding at the end of their reigns by the reversal of this process. Both empires faced similar problems of defense: long borders located far from the administrative center, aggressive neighbors. They built walls and maintained a chain of forts and garrisons. The cost of defense caused economic problems. The empires became dependent on their military. Ordinary citizens felt the burden of the demand for services and taxes. Both empires lost the loyalty of the people. Both empires were weakened by invasion. The invaders or immigrant groups tried to maintain the imperial culture. Differences

In China, the imperial model was revived and the territory of the Han Empire re-unified. The former Roman Empire was never again reconstituted. Differences between China and the Roman world can be located in the concept of the individual, the greater degree of economic mobility for the middle classes in Rome than in Han China, the make-up and hierarchy of their armies, and the different political ideologies and religions of the two empires. (159-160)

The Best Thing in Life Are Free

Most people do not know what are the best for themselves in this life, so that is, they are striving to achieve things by spending millions of dollars considering that these are the best. rich people strongly believe that material things give them happiness. They claim that for money they can have everything they need to live comfortably and happily. Expensive cars, big houses and exotic trips – these are the things that most of us want to have. Moreover, many people are convinced that thanks to money, they can have many friends and that they will be respected. However I agree with this cliché that the best things in life are free. We have numerous valuable advantages at our hands without our awareness such as our parents’ love, our health and our indispensable talents.

First and foremost, love plays an integral part in everyone’s life and there is no kind of money which can transfer with that special good. In fact, our parents love us the most, so we cannot substitute it with anything. Their inexhaustible love keeps us motivated in further life. We feel loved and cared for at home and can share our problems with them any time. There is not such a great pleasure in the world except this. We have two guides such as mother and father in every period of our lives, who take our hand and point out way to us. Actually, receiving love from others is a wonderful gift, especially from who we love. This costs no money but sacrifice, care and patience. This unforgettable love and patient constancy by them towards us is free.

Best High School Experience

My best high school experience would be graduating. Me graduation was the highlight of my teenage life. I was happy to be leaving high school and beginning a new chapter in my life. I was excited to step into adulthood and be independent. Of course I mentally prepared myself for what was to come and I was more than prepared for all the challenges I would face with being on my own and starting college. This would be my first year in college and I can say that everything has been going pretty good. There has been some up and downs along this new journey of mine, but I really can’t complain. I am on the road to success and I know my parents couldn’t be any happier. I hope to someday accomplish my dream of becoming a pediatrician and working with children. I feel proud of myself for coming this for and I’m glad to say that this is just the beginning. All of this wouldn’t have been possible if I wouldn’t have graduated high school so graduating high school is by far my best experience.

Is democracy the best form of governance?

Democracy is debatably , by far the most challenging form of governance for both, politicians and the people. Though democracy is often described as the government elected by the people, there are cases where a country’s decision to change from an authoritarian regime to a democratic one has been forced upon by foreign interventions. However, recent political insurgency in countries where democracy has been imposed shows that for the people to truly accept and respect the ideals of democracy, it must grow naturally. Many argue that interventions can be successful given the right conditions. For instance chances of the democratic transactions being successful if the state has a stable economy is relatively higher. There have been past successes like Germany and Japan after World War II where imposition of democracy has worked. It is also seen that in many cases without intervention, the individuals who were seeking to defend their rights in their homeland would have been unsuccessful.

For example the people’s movement in Libya, though it had gained much suport would have been suppressed had it not been for the NATO’s involvement. There is also the concept that promoting democracy promotes peace. If people are given their freedom to air their views and feelings of marginalization are prevented then terrorism is less likely to arise. Thus promoting democracy by imposing it, we increase the chances of a peaceful world. Many believe that democracy is the best form of governance which ensures that the rights of the citizens are not violated and gives them the freedom to express their ideas and thus it is their ‘humanitarian obligation’ to bring democracy to those who do not have it. On the contrary, it is believed that an intervention is very likely to fail as the government is being formed against the country’s will and is less likely to gain support. Democratic governments prove to be successful only when the government is chosen by the people and is more likely to command respect and maintain order. Democracies are not necessarily more peaceful than other form of governments.

Just because democracies have not gone to war in the past does not mean that it is less likely to go into war in the future. Invasions, mainly by the western nations, increase the tension between the East and the West and force the formation of terrorist groups which in turn threatens world peace. The 9/11 attack is proof enough to say that imposing democracy fuels terrorist groups. In Osama Bin Laden’s “letter to the American people” he cited interventions in Somalia, India, Palestine, Chechnya, Lebanon and Iraq as reasons for the attack. Just because we prioritize and believe on political self determination being an important value, it does not mean that all nations believe in it too. For instance some nations may prioritize on religious value and prefer to be ruled by a government which promises divine authority. And some may believe in stability of the government and might not want it to keep on changing every few years.

Countries of the middle east like Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Jordan and so on can be taken as examples while considering countries which are non-democratic and peaceful. Taking recent happenings into consideration, western efforts to impose democracy has largely failed. For instance in countries like Iraq, Afghanistan and Vietnam the imposition of democracy has led to political instability but still western countries, United States in particular believes that it is their duty to bring democracy to other countries. Trying to transfer the western lifestyle to totally different locations with complex history and traditions is not an easy task. Besides, when people are bullied into following a completely different system, people are most likely to oppose it.

Today’s fully functional democratic countries include Spain, Portugal, Greece, etc which were once ruled by dictators and only turned into democracies after homegrown movements and the politically instable countries include Iraq, Afghanistan, Egypt, etc where democracy was imposed. Thus, we can see that imposing democracy has led to nothing but disruption in the long term. Imposing democracy has caused more disruption than peace. ‘The white man’s burden’ as the movement is most popularly referred to , has caused much tension between the west and the east. Imposing democracy in countries where people prioritize values like religion and stability is not going to be successful as the people are not going to be cooperative. And the government formed that is not formed for the people is, by definition not a democracy. Democracy, even if established by imposition will still be the ‘rule of the majority’ however for the people to truly accept this form of governance it must grow naturally.

Women are the best managers

1. Well friends, its not important how many things are you managing at a time. Its important how EFFICieNTLY are you manging those things. Im not doubting on the capabilities of women.Bbut i would like to disuss here one condition. If a women faces some issues in her home. will those issues be affecting the decision she will make in office afterwords.

2. Yes, women can manage better than man.they have equal abilities along with men. They can also tackle the situations better than men. They can take right decision in a right time. They have good leadership qualities.

3. In my view. Women are the best managers. Womens can handle the office work as well as household work equally… They take the right decisions at right time.But Men are physically tougher and the women are mentally tougher.

4. A women can be a good manager but the quality of the manager not depend on the gender. A person is good manager who have the skills to motivate the employs, give the direction and maintain the interest and to work with the employs in effectively and efecient manner.

5. Yes, women are better manger bcoz they are hard work and they know their respossibilities.

6. Yes, Women are the best manager than men. Because they easily manage in both family as well as office. And also they have good leadership quality to run the team.

7. Women have different quality than men. Like they have patient, good time management skills and responsible. Men have different qualities than women. He can do the work at under pressure , he has daring. But Now days it isn\’t new to women are CEO or MD of an big organization. Here strange but true there are only couple of women. But almost 80% there are men.

8. In my opinion , i will say that women are the good managers compare to men because ,women have the capability of managing all the circumstances, they have their own planning of getting reed of any difficulties at any situation simply we can say that they are having more patience, women are having more guts to face any problem than men which helps the women to be grow better in way than the men.

9. Womens are the good managers bcz they know their responsibilities where men’s are just need only enjoyment they dont take life as serious but womens take life as serious and they want to achieve something in life then men.

10. Yes women are better managers than mens because in todays world there is lots of strugglr to get anything so women are taking the equal steps as men thay manage their household work and also her professionl work properly.

11. Although women have good managerial skills. but social culture,traditions forces women to resort to accept these managerial skills in outside their home. so their efficiency deteriorate. so these issues forces women to be under men.

12. It is obvious that women are good managers than men,, not because only one point i.e; Patience but also because of the her capability of handling every situation, from household work, children, and maintaining her professional life without getting irritated. But on the other hand men have the wonderful capacity of taking the frustation that comes along their way in their job.

13. Well, woman are good in management. Women don’t take things personally, they are patient when taking their decision.

14. Human beings are good managers, what i mean to say is both are having that capabilities. We have so many examples for men as well as women managers the qualities that the peoples are having leads them as managers, managing the people is not an ordinary issue so it requires patience, good communication skills and leadership skills.

15. Obviously women are good managers than men. Women have so much of patience they manage both their personal life and there work perfectly while this cannot be done by men. Women will think twice before performing any action. women has excellent management skills when compared to men.

16. No,this is not true because it is all about having the managerial skill. Just like all the 100 rupee notes have same value and same power but the owner of that 100 rupee note is the one who have it in his/her pocket. So the one who have the skill will be considered as a good or better MANAGER.

17. Well, I do not agree with this statement. Cause its all about the managerial skill. man or woman whoever has the capability of managing company. He/she can be chosen as manager. May be woman has some inborn skill. But practice makes a man perfect. through some training process a man’s skill can be developed. So,its obvious for being a manager, we need skill of managing, proper planing, communication skill all those.

18. We can’t put example like jhansi ki rani, Mrs. Indira Gandhi. Those designations were very different from present work scenario. Today a working has to travel a lot to reach office, taking proper care of kids, balancing her personal and professional life, managing social issues in her immediate society! Now because of these all circumstances its not possible for a woman to be perfect in each work she does. So if we look practically on this topic. One has to conclude by saying men are better managers than women.

19. According to my views a man be the good manger , a woman manage the home doesn’t mean that she manges the company too. A man can manage his company by late working night but a woman can’t do to some of thier family issues, even woman don’t able to take quick and fast decision as compare with man.

20. Obviously women can easily manage work and everything. Women takes care of her family and even her work mostly which we cannot see this in men. Our rulers Jhansi Rani, Victoria, Indira Gandhi ruled very effectively and managed their work, time, money etc.,

21. Ya, Well. Women are the good managers than men because they have more patience than men. And also they have leadership quality to run the team.

Why perfect competition is the best market structure

Introduction
Market structure is best defined as the organizational and other characteristics of a market. We focus on those characteristics which affect the nature of competition and pricing.Traditionally, the most important features of market structure are: 1. Number of Buyers and Sellers:

Number of buyers and sellers of a commodity in the market indicates the influence exercised by them on the price of the commodity. In case of large number of buyers and sellers, an individual buyer or seller is not in the position to influence the price of the commodity. However, if there is a single seller of a commodity, then such a seller exercises great control over the price. 2. Nature of the Commodity:

If the commodity is of homogeneous nature, i.e. identical in all respects, then it is sold at a uniform price. However, if the commodity is of differentiated nature (like different brands of toothpaste), then it may be sold at different prices. Again, if the commodity has no close substitutes (like Railways), then the seller can charge higher price from the buyers. 3. Freedom of Movement of Firms:

If there is freedom of entry and exit of firms, then price will be stable in the market. However, if there are restrictions on entry of new firms and exit of old firms, then a firm can influence the price as it has no fear of competition from other or new firms. 4. Knowledge of Market Conditions:

If buyers and sellers have perfect knowledge about the market conditions, then a uniform price prevails in the market. However, in case of imperfect knowledge, sellers are in a position to charge different prices. 5. Mobility of Goods and Factors of Production:

When the factors of production can move freely from one place to another, then a uniform price prevails in the market. However, in case of immobility of goods and factors, different prices may prevail in the market.

Here are the four basic market structures:
Perfect competition: Perfect competition happens when numerous small firms compete against each other. Firms in a competitive industry produce the socially optimal output level at the minimum possible cost per unit. Monopoly: A monopoly is a firm that has no competitors in its industry. It reduces output to drive up prices and increase profits. By doing so, it produces less than the socially optimal output level and produces at higher costs than competitive firms. Oligopoly: An oligopoly is an industry with only a few firms. If they collude, they reduce output and drive up profits the way a monopoly does.

However, because of strong incentives to cheat on collusive agreements, oligopoly firms often end up competing against each other. Monopolistic competition: In monopolistic competition, an industry contains many competing firms, each of which has a similar but at least slightly different product. Restaurants, for example, all serve food but of different types and in different locations. Production costs are above what could be achieved if all the firms sold identical products, but consumers benefit from the variety. Other than the above mentioned four,

Duopoly(a special case of an oligopoly with two firms) Monopsony, (when there is only one buyer in a market) and Oligopsony (a market where many sellers can be present but meet only a few buyers are also among different market structures.

Key theories
As mentioned earlier, the identifying characteristics for each type of market structure include the Degree of Price Control
Nature of Demand Curve
Influence on Activities of other Firms
Overall Comparison

(I) Degree of Price Control:
Perfect Competition:
A firm under Perfect competition is a Price-taker, i.e. an individual firm has no control over the price and has to accept the price as determined by the market forces of demand and supply. Monopoly:

A monopolist is a Price-Maker, i.e., a firm has complete control over the price and fixes its own price. Monopolistic Competition:
A firm under monopolistic competition has partial control over the price, i.e. each firm is neither a price-taker nor a price-maker. An individual firm is able to influence the price by creating a differentiated image of its product through heavy selling costs. Oligopoly:

A firm under oligopoly follows the policy of price rigidity. Although, the firm can influence the prices, but it prefers to stick to its prices so as to avoid a price war. (II) Nature of Demand Curve:

i. Perfect Competition:
The demand curve for a perfectly competitive firm is perfectly elastic as it has to accept the price fixed by the market forces of demand and supply. ii. Monopoly:
The monopoly firm faces a downward sloping demand curve as more quantity can be sold only at a lower price. iii. Monopolistic Competition:
The firm under monopolistic competition also faces a downward sloping demand curve as more quantity can be sold only at a lower price. However, the demand curve is more elastic in comparison to demand curve under monopoly because of presence of close substitutes. iv. Oligopoly:

The demand curve for an oligopoly firm is indeterminate, i.e. it cannot be drawn accurately as exact behavior pattern of a producer cannot be ascertained with certainty. (III) Influence on Activities of other Firms:

i. Perfect Competition:
Each firm is so small that its behavior has no influence on the decisions of other firms operating in the market. ii. Monopoly:
There is only one firm in the industry. Therefore, the question of reaction from other firms does not arise, i.e. monopolist has full control over the industry. iii. Monopolistic Competition:
There are large numbers of firms and behaviour of each firm has less impact on activities of other firms. iv. Oligopoly:
There are few firms and behaviour of each firm has significant impact on activities of other firms. (IV) Overall Comparison:

What we analyze in all market structures and why the perfect competition is the most efficient? AR,MR
AC, MC
The point where MR=MC (Profit maximum)
Q* (equilibrium quantity)
P* (equilibrium price)

Perfect Competition – Economics of Competitive Markets
Pure or perfect competition is rare in the real world, but the model is important because it helps competition analyze industries with characteristics similar to pure competition. Examples of this model are stock market and agricultural industries.

Demand
The individual firm will view its demand as perfectly elastic. A perfectly elastic demand curve is a horizontal line at the price. The demand curve for the industry is not perfectly elastic, it only appears that way to the individual firms, since they must take the market price no matter what quantity they produce. Therefore, the firm’s demand curve is a horizontal line at the market price. Marginal revenue (MR) is the increase in total revenue resulting from a one-unit increase in output. Since the price is constant in the perfect competition. The increase in total revenue from producing 1 extra unit will equal to the price. Therefore, P= MR in perfect.

In the short run, the interaction between demand and supply determines the “market-clearing” price. A price P1 is established and output Q1 is produced. This price is taken by each firm. The average revenue curve is their individual demand curve. Since the market price is constant for each unit sold, the AR curve also becomes the marginal revenue curve (MR) for a firm in perfect competition. For the firm, the profit maximising output is at Q2 where MC=MR. This output generates a total revenue (P1 x Q2). Since total revenue exceeds total cost, the firm in our example is making abnormal (economic) profits. This is not necessarily the case for all firms in the industry since it depends on the position of their short run cost curves. Some firms may be experiencing sub-normal profits if average costs exceed the price – and total costs will be greater than total revenue.

The adjustment to the long-run equilibrium in perfect competition If most firms are making abnormal profits in the short run, this encourages the entry of new firms into the industry This will cause an outward shift in market supply forcing down the price The increase in supply will eventually reduce the price until price = long run average cost. At this point, each firm in the industry is making normal profit. Other things remaining the same, there is no further incentive for movement of firms in and out of the industry and a long-run equilibrium has been established. This is shown in the next diagram. Assuming in the diagram above that there has been no shift in market demand. The effect of increased supply is to force down the price and causes an expansion along the market demand curve. But for each supplier, the price they “take” is now lower and it is this that drives down the level of profit made towards normal profit equilibrium. Characteristics of competitive markets

The common characteristics of markets that are considered to be “competitive” are: Lower prices because of many competing firms. The cross-price elasticity of demand for one product will be high suggesting that consumers are prepared to switch their demand to the most competitively priced products in the marketplace. Low barriers to entry – the entry of new firms provides competition and ensures prices are kept low in the long run. Lower total profits and profit margins than in markets which dominated by a few firms. Greater entrepreneurial activity – the Austrian school of economics argues that competition is a process. For competition to be improved and sustained there needs to be a genuine desire on behalf of entrepreneurs to innovate and to invent to drive markets forward and create what Joseph Schumpeter called the “gales of creative destruction”. Economic efficiency – competition will ensure that firms move towards productive efficiency. The threat of competition should lead to a faster rate of technological diffusion, as firms have to be responsive to the changing needs of consumers. This is known as dynamic efficiency. The importance of non-price competition

In competitive markets, non-price competition can be crucial in winning sales and protecting or enhancing market share. Perfect competition and efficiency Perfect competition can be used as a yardstick to compare with other market structures because it displays high levels of economic efficiency.
1. Allocative efficiency: In both the short and long run we find that price is equal to marginal cost (P=MC) and thus allocative efficiency is achieved. At the ruling price, consumer and producer surplus are maximised. No one can be made better off without making some other agent at least as worse off – i.e. we achieve a Pareto optimum allocation of resources.
2. Productive efficiency: Productive efficiency occurs when the equilibrium output is supplied at minimum average cost. This is attained in the long run for a competitive market. Firms with high unit costs may not be able to justify remaining in the industry as the forces of competition drive down the market price.
3. Dynamic efficiency: Since perfectly competitive market produces homogeneous products – in other words, there is little scope for innovation designed purely to make products differentiated from each other and allow a supplier to develop and then exploit a competitive advantage in the market to establish some monopoly power. Some economists claim that perfect competition is not a good market structure for high levels of research and development spending and the resulting product and process innovations. Indeed it may be the case that monopolistic or oligopolistic markets are more effective long term in creating the environment for research and innovation to flourish. A cost-reducing innovation from one producer will, under the assumption of perfect information, be immediately and without cost transferred to all of the other suppliers.

That said a contestable market provides the discipline on firms to keep their costs under control, to seek to minimise wastage of scarce resources and to refrain from exploiting the consumer by setting high prices and enjoying high profit margins. In this sense, competition can stimulate improvements in both static and dynamic efficiency over time. The long run of perfect competition, therefore, exhibits optimal levels of economic efficiency. But for this to be achieved all of the conditions of perfect competition must hold – including in related markets. When the assumptions are dropped, we move into a world of imperfect competition with all of the potential that exists for various forms of market failure

Inefficiency in Monopolistic Competition

Monopoly is the other market structure, which is most different from perfect competition. Compared to a perfectly competitive market monopoly is less efficient . Monopolistic firms’ profit maximizing production levels occur when their marginal revenues equals their marginal costs. This quantity is less than what would be produced in a perfectly competitive market. It also means that producers will supply goods below their manufacturing capacity. Monopoly creates deadweight loss and inefficiency, as represented by the yellow triangle. The quantity is produced when marginal revenue equals marginal cost, or where the green and blue lines intersect. The price is determined based on where the quantity falls on the demand curve, or the red line.

Conclusion: The importance of market structure in an economy cannot be over emphasized as the effect of market structure on an economy, it’s development or degradation is recently been realized. Thus we as the part of the economy need to understand the value of this concept while dealing with others (buyers/sellers) in any market place to yield the optimum benefit and to create win-win situation for all of us.

References:
Grant SJ.(2000), Introductory Economics, (7th edn), Pearsons Eucation, UK. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_structurehttp://www.slideshare.net/mithileshtrivedi581/market-structure-and-types-of-market-strucyure

The best way to deal with conflict is head on

The best way to deal with conflict is head-on, not by avoiding it There are times in conflict where one must tackle it head on to resolve it but there are other instances where approaching conflict upfront may be detrimental to the individual. When an individual actively engages in conflict there is an opportunity to resolve it as one’s views and values may change the opposition’s perspective on an issue. However, individuals or groups who engage in conflict may sometimes worsen the situation as divergent views and values may cause harm and suffering to those involved. The idea of avoiding conflict can be caused by a number of factors as some individuals may pride on being uninvolved whereas some may avoid disagreements due to a fear of health and safety. Sometimes avoiding disputes may be the correct way to deal with conflict but it is often not the case. Dealing with conflict by being involved is often the most methodical way to resolve an issue but there are instances where being engaged can be detrimental to an individual or group.

Approaching conflict by being an active participant is one of many possible options to resolve conflict. There are many different ways to transcend conflict, for instance, unifying all combatants involved in a dispute. Even if brutality and suffering surrounds these groups, bringing them together as one can alleviate all the pain. The “Vocal Orchestra” in Paradise Road accentuates this idea as two groups consisting of differing cultures unite to listen to the calming music. The movie demonstrates many different types of conflict including conflict of war, culture, gender and history. Even with the vast amount of discrepancies between the women and the Japanese guards, Adrienne the conductor of the vocal orchestra discovers a way to move past all the savagery. This makes reference to the fact that conflict can be dealt “head-on”, which is a feasible way to resolve conflict.

By dealing with conflict at its crux, the impact an individual or group may have on another is truly substantial. By saying that dealing with conflict at the heart of it may have a big impact, it may not always be in a good way. Sometimes being involved in conflict may actually cause more harm than being uninvolved and this is most definitely not the best way to deal with conflict. There are certain times where one’s views and values cannot be affected during a dispute despite the many influences imposed upon the individual or group.

The best teaching aid is a piece of chalk

When I first went to school, the dominant teaching aid was blackboard and chalk. That is almost half a century ago. Back then, the statement “The best teaching aid is a piece of chalk” is likely to cause bafflement to teachers. “What else?” would be their common response. Today, however, teaching aids abound. From a simple letter set painstakingly cut out by a devoted teacher, through electronic projection equipment, DVD sound systems, televisions and computers, to the latest interactive whiteboard, they introduce a wealth of variety and differing impact to today’s classroom. Any discussion of this statement will therefore be remiss if I do not introduce and examine some available alternatives and their benefits and limitations. Such examination should include factors such as versatility, ease of usage, impact on students (grabbing their attention), teaching material preparation time and effort and, of course, financial cost.

Let us begin with the ubiquitous chalk and blackboard (including its modern equivalent, the marker and whiteboard). This is a truly unique development from the days of Socrates, who resorted to writing his thoughts and ideas on sand with a stick when discussing issues with his disciples. It is a versatile low cost tool that can be used to all language components and skills, from writing strokes of each letter (cursive or print) to grammatical structure. It also encourages teacher spontaneity. Amongst the blackboard’s ardent supporters is one teacher who wrote:

Basically, anyone wishing to learn how to converse is much better off being with a group of other people than they are sitting in front of a computer. Also, it is not clear that use of a computer is going to help anyone learn how to write (as opposed to type) which really does come in handy sometimes. And lots of board provides lots of reasons to get up and move a bit.

(Lindstromberg, Mar 2002)

Sadly, like all tools, it is only as good as its user. A teacher who can write beautifully, draw decent pictures, and keep his sentences horizontal on the blackboard could conceivably not require additional teaching aids to conduct his classes. Unfortunately, not every teacher can write or draw well. I know for certain that my handwriting (described by a former boss as “chicken scrawl”), if printed carefully, is at best barely legible. The pictures I can draw are also unlikely to elicit the kind of attention from my students that an actual object (or photograph of said object) can. Even the best of drawings cannot compete with an actual object which can be seen, touched, heard, smelt and occasionally, tasted. Let us now look at some complementary, alternative or substitute teaching aids by examining various teaching situations/methods. 1.

Teaching vocabulary, word recognition and sentence building Flashcards and word cards are tools that can be used for this. Very low in cost and easy to make, they add an element of mystery when used correctly, allowing students to think and guess in the few seconds before it is revealed. Magazine pictures and realia makes new words we teach come to life. Students are very often able to relate these to real life situations very quickly, thus shortening the learning process. Also, bringing in realia can liven up a class and imbed the word taught in the students’ minds. As an example, which student can ever forget the word “durian” if one was brought into class when teaching this word? 2. Reinforcing the lesson

Here, Songs & Rhymes and Games & Puzzles come in handy. Songs could be conducted with or without the aid of a DVD player, depending on the familiarity of students with the song chosen. They give students much fun and enjoyment while getting intensive practice on many aspects of language. They are also more likely to remember these language aspects better. Games and puzzles serve a similar purpose – making learning and remembering what students learn enjoyable. Many types of games are available and they can reinforce learning elements ranging from vocabulary (adjectives, verbs and nouns) through listening, speaking and writing skills. 3. Supplementing/substituting the blackboard

Primarily visual aids, these include the overhead projector (OHP), slide projector (almost going the way of the Dodo), and the latest computer projection equipment. A quick check on the internet shows that these can cost anywhere between USD100 and USD2000, not including the screen. Exorbitant cost aside, the OHP and computer projection equipment can, technically, replace the blackboard. OHP sheets can be prepared in advance or blank, to be written on during the lesson. This is the closest to the blackboard. The advantage is that the teacher is facing the class when doing so and is thus better placed to gauge the class’ attention level and behavior. The disadvantages are that it requires a power cord, generates a fair amount of heat, and often requires some training to use effectively and efficiently. It can also breakdown.

The computer projection system requires that all materials be prepared in advance prior the lesson. These can then be presented a bit at a time in accordance to the pace of the lesson. The clearest advantage is that the projected material is type-written and can be set at a font size most suitable for the classroom in use. It can also be used to do slide presentation using Power Point or similar software. A further advantage is that material on the internet can be easily downloaded and adapted for classroom use. However, unpredicted changes in lesson plans are not accommodated and the teacher will have to revert to the good old chalk and blackboard. It is also not suitable for teaching handwriting. Learning to use the computer projection system is even harder than learning to use the OHP. 4. Listening and Reading Skills

The traditional method of introducing students to other English speakers (native or otherwise) is by inviting a speaker. This is often limited in scope and frequency, and especially difficult in small towns. The logistics involved are also relatively heavy. The radio, DVD recording system and television are tools that can enhance listening skills with much less work required. The range of speakers is also greatly increased. Cost of such equipment is certainly higher, but, in my view, the price differential is well worth it. This is especially so if a low to mid price set of equipment is purchased. Students can be recorded reading a text and given the DVD for home review on their own or for review with the teacher in private. This is to avoid the student feeling humiliated in front of his or her classmates. Presenters (be they news broadcasters, political leaders or even the neighborhood grocer), can be recorded and played for students to listen to and augment their listening skills.

This capability is certainly beyond that of the simple chalk and blackboard. I will therefore conclude that while the chalk and blackboard remains the backbone of the language classroom, it alone is no longer enough. Today’s world moves at an increasingly faster pace. As teachers, we must keep pace with such development so that what we teach our students are as close to what they may (or already have) experience (d) in the real world as possible. In fact, chalk and blackboard aside, computers have been programmed to take over some part of a language teacher’s work with some success.

To be able to do this, as Oxford et al. 1998 suggest, teachers should learn ways in which technology can help them improve their language instruction, be able to deal with technology effectively, develop competence in teaching students how to use technology and learn with cognitive styles are better with which kind of class activities and with which technology application. (Rocchetti, Marta Albani, 2000-2001)

Seriously, with so much to learn for the forward-looking and technically savvy teacher, the chalk and blackboard issue does, in my mind, pale in comparison. Bibliography:
Magglestone, Patricia, Planning and Using the Blackboard, G. Allen & Unwin, 1980

Jones, J.R.H., Using the Overhead Projector (Practical Language Teaching), Heinemann (1982-12)

Wright, Andrew, Visual Materials for the Language Teacher, Addison-Wesley Longman Ltd, June 1, 1975

Yadav, Deepak, “Modern Teaching Aids”, IndiaStudyChannel.com, http://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/146402-Modern-Teaching-Aids-An-Innovative-teaching.aspx, last updated 4 Nov 2011, assessed on 28 Apr 2014

Lee, W.R. & Coppen, Helen, Simple Audio-Visual Aids to Foreign-Language Teaching, Oxford University Press, Inc., New Jersey, 1964

Rocchetti, Marta Albani, “Thesis on Computers in the English Language Classroom”, Università degli Studi di Bergamo, 2000-01, Tensionline,
http://www.tesionline.com/intl/preview.jsp?pag=1&idt=4818

Lindstromberg, Seth, “Chalkboards vs. computers in the language classroom”, HLT Magazine, Year 4, Issue 2, Mar 02, http://hltmag.co.uk/mar02/lind.htm

Dr. Shekkeris, Nick, Using computers in the English Language classroom, Pefkios Georgiades Primary School, http://www.pi.ac.cy/imeridaTPE2012/files/parousiaseis/EnglishLanguage_imeridaTPE_3mar12.pdf

Kitchen Best Analysis

Introduction

Kitchen Best Appliance Company must immediately address the ethical, cultural, legal and poor business practices in order for the company to remain in business. If the company continues to turn a blind eye to such behaviors as bribes, nepotism, illegal behavior and reckless endangerment to customer the company will only continue to find itself in a position that leaves it vulnerable to law suits, criminal charges, fines and incarceration of personnel. The case study provides a clear picture of what can happen to company that does not communicate, enforces and support policies and procedures established to have a competitive, compliant, safe and ethical workplace.

Analysis

The major social, ethical and legal challenges that Kitchen Best and other small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) face doing cross border business will be determined below. Social challenges are most easily identified in cultural differences among regions. For instance language barriers can create social challenges as well as differences in cultural beliefs and behaviors. Businesses must be prepared to face language differences by having staff available that can speak and write in languages other than their native tongue. Also the companies must be prepared to investigate and study the cultural differences for the countries that they wish to conduct business with. This is not only to determine if the designated area is a good place to conduct business, but also to acquire the necessary knowledge needed to successfully conduct business.

Ethical challenges are even more difficult for companies when dealing with two different sets of ethical standards, which usually are influenced by cultural standards. It is fully possible that in business dealings that a company has opposing ethical standards to operate within the two countries. In some cultures such activities as bribes, kickbacks, and nepotism are encouraged whereas other countries frown upon such practices. This is where research plays an important role for companies interested in expanding their business globally.

Legal challenges just like ethical and social challenges have a major impact of SMEs who conduct cross border business. There are many forms of governments as well as numerous forms of legal systems that vary among countries. While diversity is accepted, diversity can make business interaction difficult as well as legally impossible. An example of legal challenges can be seen in tax regulation, employee pay regulations, employee working condition regulations, safety regulations and environmental impact regulations. If a SME is found in violation of a particular law or regulation it could face extreme penalties as well as sanctions from agencies as the World Trade Organization.

Kitchen Best has long since participated in offering entertainment and kickbacks to potential clients and business partners, which upper management has turned a blind eye to. Such actions have led Kitchen Best to be susceptible to legal risks. China, Macao and Hong Kong have active laws against such actions which are punishable by imprisonment and fines. Since Kitchen Best employees participated in such actions, with the knowledge of upper management, in both jurisdictions the company is liable along with the employees.

The management and overall governance system of Kitchen Best is below par. While the list of shortcomings is long the company can improve the situation by changing the method in which it operates and creating effective policies. One of the biggest shortcomings of management is the practice of turning a blind eye to corruption and inappropriate business practices. By turning a blind eye to such behaviors and activities management is essentially condoning the employee’s actions. This is obviously a shortcoming that has led Kitchen Best management to knowingly participate in unethical behavior such as bribes and kickbacks. Along with the practice of turning a blind eye to the previous mentioned behaviors and activities management also exhibited a shortcoming by not leading by example. In addition management did not create, maintain and enforce policies and procedures for employees to follow. This could have prevented the shortcoming of non-governance of competitive practices and safety regulations as in the case of Haus de Metro.

Kitchen Best must utilize mechanisms such as effective compliance programs, risk assessments, accessible access of for employees to code of conduct and compliance policies and procedures. As well as the mechanisms mentioned above Kitchen Best must also use continual training for all staff including management on policies, procedures and current legislation. Use of weekly meetings and communication tools such as video conferencing will enable the company to improve communication between all facets of the company. Technology overall will enhance the job performance of employees, but can also be used to create checks and balances within the company. For instance a system of web based approval could be used for the payment of invoices that would allow the company to approve of deny any invoices including those for entertainment. With the advancement of technology companies have the ability to be “big brother” while also enhancing employee performance.

Henry Chan can learn a lot from the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (U.S. FCPA) or the U.K. Bribery Act. Chan can see the penalties that have been established for corrupted behavior as well as ways to prevent such actions. Since both are from Western democracies Chan can compare to corruption acts from China. This will enable Chan to view a variety of guidelines that will assist in creating his own policies and procedures for Kitchen Best. Another advantage to Chan is that he will be better prepared for international business and the cultures of in which they exists.

The problems at Kitchen Best are related to Horatio Sze and Ma Luk. Through the years the company has made missteps in regards to managing staff. Without checks and balances or enforcements of policies staff had free reign with no consequences. Without direct supervision or accountability the management staff allowed the behavior to occur. The company allowed the inappropriate behavior of Sze and Luk by turning a blind eye to their actions. If the company had taken direct action such as disciplinary actions or even termination of either employee when their indiscretions became apparent the problems would have been prevented.

Top managers are responsible when corruption is afoot, especially when top management has knowledge of the corruption. It is the responsibility of top managers to be aware of what is happening within their business. There is also a necessity for top managers to actively participate in business operations and to investigate any alleged corruptions within the company. In the case of Kitchen Best top management ignored allegations of corruptions. Another responsibility of top management is to take and creative preventative measures against corruption.

It is imperative that SMEs practice ethical management locally and internationally. In order for global business to expand along with the actual companies ethical management must be enforced. Ethical management not only assists in creating a fair and competitive business atmosphere, but it also enables progressive business relations with countries. Henry Chan can enhance his role in this regard by participating and enforcing ethical business practices. He can also benefit from exposure to companies similar to Honghua who have transitioned from an unethical management to an ethical management system.

When faced with local expectations of “payoffs” or “referral money” staff should be advised to approach top management. Staff should consult policies and procedures before taking any action, but in this case the seriousness of the situation requires management’s attention. Once management is notified of the situation the employee should then work with management to determine the best course of actions. It must also be stated that if the company has researched the business atmosphere the expectations of “payoffs” or “referral money” should not come as a surprise. Therefore the company can be prepared when the situation arises and will not have to make a snap decision.

Guidance can be sought through numerous channels that include literature, educational classes, expert knowledge, legislation and other professionals. All of the resources could provide guide or research on business management and international business. The internet could also be utilized for information regarding business policies, procedures and desired business behaviors locally and internationally. The World Trade Organization is also a good resources as well as looking at such education facilities as Harvard School of Business. Both previously mentioned offer limitless information via their websites.

There are specific steps and methods that Henry Chan can use to help build Kitchen Best’s corporate culture for the long term benefit of the company. As mentioned before the creation, maintaining and implementation of policies and procedures that include compliance program. When creating and updating the policies and procedures of the company Henry Chan should consult legal counsel as well as other professionals who can provide expert knowledge. Henry Chan himself needs to improve his management skills as well as his ability to interact within different cultures. Another step to improve corporate culture is to remove employees that previously participated in unethical behavior. It is imperative that management lead by example and eliminate those who do not wish to contribute to a positive corporate culture. By creating a culture of compliance the company can successfully perform in a positive manner. This can also be accomplished by providing training to employees, continuing to guide employees in the proper way in business processes, having incentives for employees to reward positive acts and disciplinary measures for non-compliance to policies and procedures. Each of the steps mentioned above will resolve the issues of bribery, kickbacks, safety violations and uncompetitive contracting awarding. Not only will the steps above stop the current issues of Kitchen Best, but also establish preventative measures against such behaviors.

Conclusion

Henry Chan and Kitchen Best can resolve their current business issues and improve the business operations of the company. While the Chan family’s intentions were to create and maintain a company their lackluster attitude towards corruption has made the company liable. With the suggestions provided in this analysis Kitchen Best’s business operations can improve and eliminate the corruption within the company. The scope of improvements necessary for Kitchen Best is vast, which will take a significant amount of time that will in the end prove worth wild.

References
DRS: Daniels, J. D., Radebaugh, L. H. & Sullivan, D. P. International business. (14th ed.) U. S. Dept. of Justice (2012, November). A resource guide to the U. S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. http://www.justice.gov/criminal/fraud/fcpa/guide.pdf Goo, S. & Loo, G. (2011). Kitchen Best: Ethics when doing cross-boundary business in Southern China (Product No. HKU948-PDF-ENG). Retrieved from http://hbsp.harvard.edu

Security Best Practices

1. The first Threat is Viruses have been around for years, but that doesn’t make them any less dangerous or easy to eradicate. New, more destructive viruses and worms are being unleashed at an alarming rate.

The Second threat is Spam. Spam is expected to increase to 80 to 90 percent of total email. Moreover, the boundary between spam and viruses is blurring. New viruses turn desktop PCs into spam-spewing “zombies.” There is also a new type of spamming technique called “phishing,” used to dupe recipients into providing confidential personal identity information.

The third threat is known as Directory Harvest Attacks or also known as “dictionary attacks,” this technique steals proprietary information from corporate directories. During a DHA, spammers attempt to deliver messages to multiple addresses, such as [email protected], [email protected], and [email protected] Addresses that are not rejected by the receiving mail server are determined to be valid. A successful DHA can net a spammer thousands of corporate email addresses in just a few minutes.

2. 1) Disable open relaying on all SMTP virtual servers: Open relay on your Exchange Server allows other Email servers to use your server as a gateway to others. This allows others to send spam Email which appears to be originated from your address, therefore you will be identified as a spam source.

2) Prevent anonymous access on internal SMTP virtual servers and dedicated SMTP virtual servers for IMAP and POP clients: Because all Exchange servers within your organization authenticate with each other to send mail, you do not need to enable anonymous access on your internal Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) virtual servers. Additionally, all Post Office Protocol (POP) and Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) clients authenticate with your SMTP virtual server, so anonymous access is not required on a server that is used exclusively by POP and IMAP clients.

3) Restricting Submissions to Distribution Lists and Users: Restrict who can send e-mail messages to an individual user or a distribution list. Restricting submissions on a distribution list prevents non-trusted senders, such as unauthorized Internet users, from sending mail to an internal-only distribution list.

3. TLS is encrytpion for the e-mail transmission while it is going across to another mail server. The other mail server could be across the internet or across your WAN. Use TLS for example is you are going to allow your remote users to relay mail via your mail server across the internet, as this will encrypt the username and password too for the smtp connection (if you implement this). If you send sensitive e-mails to your partners on a regular basis use TLS to send e-mail to them as this ensures the e-mail transmission from your smtp server to thier smtp server is encrypted. Finally use TLS to further protect your ActiveSync, OWA or RPC/HTTPS as opposed to using the weaker SSL.

Pros: the transmission is encrypted and hence a bit more secure, also you get a sort of confirmation especially between partners that the e-mail did come for the partner’s server.

Cons: Slight load due to the encryption (but very slight), if you use an Internal CA to get the certificates from you need to give your public root cert to your partner so that they can trust your certs and viice versa.

How i learn best

Don Harold, an American writer, once wrote, “The brighter you are, the more you have to learn”. I strongly believe in this statement because knowledge will help us to succeed in life. Every day we are learning new things, but sometimes learning can be very difficult. Learning can be made easier through various ways; though everyone has their own unique ways of learning. Visual learning, auditory learning, and learning from my mistakes are the three ways I learn best in my life. One of the ways I learn best is through visualization by seeing and observing things. For example, when I read a textbook I always highlight the important key words because it helps me to catch my attention when I do revision before each exam. Also, I usually create an outline to minimize the large context of paragraph and to guide me in classifying the important information. Another way of visual learning is by watching videos of the subjects. For instance, when I study marine biology, I like to watch videos about plants and animals that live in the sea; because the videos help me to keep the subject in my head. Making flash cards is another way that helps my visual learning. Flash cards explain the definitions in short forms, allowing me to remember the function of body parts when I study anatomy and physiology. In addition, flash card helps me to point out the important materials in each chapter. I study new vocabulary words on colored index cards with short definitions on the back, and I carry those with me to review them at odd moments or whenever I have spare time. Moreover, visual learning helps me to memorize and store more materials in my brain. For example, when my friend and I study together for a biology test, I exercise my visual methods while my friend memorizes everything. When results come, I score more points than my friend does.

Another way I learn well is through auditory learning. To illustrate, I try to concentrate and be more attentive to what the teacher says in class, for it helps me to learn things while I am in the class room. Also, I record my class lectures and listen them while exercising, so I can utilize my time appropriately and help me to remember. Listening to the radio helps me to learn the English language while I am driving. For instance, there are different radio stations that provide up-to-date news. Just by listening to the radio I can learn new words and get an idea about what is going on around the world. When I hear a new song couple of times, I can sing it without looking at the lyrics because it is already saved in my brain through listening; the same method works with reading books out loud helps me to memorize materials quickly. In addition, study groups are the best place I go for auditory learning because I can hear different ideas from different students. Learning from mistakes is the final way I preferred to learn. When I make mistakes, instead of discouraging myself, I find ways to support my learning process. For example, I used to be a rushed driver, but last year I earned a speeding ticket. After this incident I learned my lesson, and now I am driving at the correct speed limit. Also, I accept my mistakes as a part of the learning process. I believe success only comes from mistakes. In my case it is extremely accurate because last year I failed my Earth and Space class due my laziness and I regret it. Last semester, I took the same class again, studied harder, and I successfully passed the class with an A average. In addition, when I make a correction in my homework, I learned to do not repeat the same mistake. Throughout my personal experience in life, I believe mistakes act as an opportunity to learn. In conclusion, learning is an integral and vital to succeed in life. Visual learning, auditory learning and learning from mistakes are the three ways I learn best in my life. Using those three ways I can make learning easy and simple.

Kitchen Best

Individual case study: Kitchen Best Kitchen Best is the typical family owned SME, specialized in the Kitchen appliance production, with Headquarter in Hong Kong and manufacturing plant based in China, in the Guandong province. The main problems concerning the company, are all related with its managing and governance system. The company has been run for years by its founder, Cha Dong, who managed it in a paternalistic way, establishing very strong relationships with most of its senior Staff. His management style reflected the old business culture, characterized by high sense of belonging to the “family” and an high degree of acceptance of the practice of kickbacks, considered the normal way to run business in China. When Cha Dong, at the end off its career, left the management to its son, Henry Chan, all the governance shortcomings came to light. Henry Chan, who received a Western education, had a more international approach, less involved than its father in the operational activities of the company and more focused on its ambitious targets. He prospected to double the revenues of the company entering the US and EU market directly, while continuing to serve the Asian market, where its father focused until that day. Its expertise in the Western culture would have helped the enter in such markets, making the project ambitious but feasible, on the other side focusing in such a target would have meant ignoring the management aspects of its role, who are the basis for the success of a company. Furthermore Henry Chan lack of operational expertise, so he completely relies on Ma Luk, the company’s operations Director, to whom his father delegated the entire operational activities of the factory, during its lasts years of management. He had in that way a great independence and power, given by its expertise and close connection with clients and suppliers. He had also a low level of coordination with Henry Chan, to whom he formally reported, but still substantially referred to Chang Dong for important issues. In fact the Kitchen Best founder had still a strong managerial presence in the company, as all its employees trusted him completely, we can asses that the managerial transition did not happened in substantial terms.

The company’s culture reflects the old managerial style of the founder: the selection and training of employees is done on a familiar contact base, not relying on impartial standards of efficiency. The lack of standards in training and recruitment, the high degree of toleration of kickbacks, together with the high independence in the operational decisions, are all factors that contributed to the bad management of the Staff. To Ma Luk, too much power was delegated, with no substantial control, due to the lack of technical skills of Henry Chan. Moreover his strong ties with clients and suppliers were created through kickbacks, tolerated by the father and after by his son, partially to provide a certain continuation in management and partially for fear of losing most of the crucial contacts. Sze, on the other side, trained Macy Wei, Quality Control Manager, affecting so the impartiality required by her role. Looking at the Trust and Advice Network inside the company, we will surely underline a strong connection between Sze and Macy Wei, as between Ma Luk and Cha Dong, while the actual manager of the company will result isolated and not connected to the main key figures of Kitchen Best. The communication Network will also reveal important managerial considerations. The communication is formal, non effective and one-way: from the bottom to the top, with a total absence of feedback from Henry Chan. A radical change is so necessary in the company’s culture and governance system, starting with a zero tolerance approach toward facilitating payments. Kickbacks are reducing the competitiveness of the company and is severely punished by criminal laws both in China and Macao, where the company operates. This corruptive system is also exposing the company to many problems: one of its key customers, Honghua, has adopted a zero tolerance policy to kickbacks and the company is re-evaluating all its suppliers under standards of competitiveness.

To cope with these issues, Henry Chan should concentrate more in the operational part of the company, gaining expertise and position himself strongly at the head of the company. First of all, he should establish a code of ethics, as a first step to change the old and paternalistic company’s culture, by inserting Western elements such as standards and ethics principles. The Code of Ethics should be a formal statement, containing ethical principles related with employees responsibilities and Business integrity. On the other side, Standards should be settled and implemented, with a zero toleration of sub-standards, especially when Selecting, Hiring, Training and Promoting employees. Promotions should be based on performance and compliance with the Codes. Moreover an External Independent Auditor should be hired to control that all the members of the company, and also its suppliers are complying with standards and Codes. After all, Henry Chan should communicate in an effective way the radical measures adopted, explaining to the Stuff how fundamental is for the company to meet the standards established, to enhance its competitiveness in order to better serve its actual Asian clients and to enter the US and EU market.

Repeating past errors, such as the Shago or Haus de Metro Incidents, will be fatal for the future of the company: suppliers will be chosen according to their competitiveness and no more on family or friendship relationship base. For that reason a specific Code of behavior for Suppliers has to be implemented too. In conclusion, to make the corporate governance transformation of Kitchen Best feasible, Henry Chan should definitely strengthen its position and impose a more ethic behavior inside the company. To do so, he should enter into the Trust Network, establishing a trust relationship with its Stuff, not being afraid of scolding them when necessary and partially divesting their strength in the customer and suppliers relationships. He should Invest much more time in operational and managerial tasks, as the growth and success of the company depend on them. He should also implement a bi-side communication with its employees, reporting periodically their performances through Feedbacks. When Henry Chan will have adopted all these measures and implemented all the Standards and Codes, his father will be divested from its role, reducing so its influence in the company’s decisions, who reflected the old paternalistic culture, favorable to the unethical practice of facilitating payments.

Honesty is the best policy

Introduction: Honesty means “being honest”, another meaning “truthfulness”, Policy means “course of action adopted by a government, business group, individual, etc.” So here the complete meaning of the essay title is “truthfulness course of action adopted by an individual is the best one”. This “honesty” word is very much known to the whole world but has less impact on the majority of our society. Many social parameters are there which reflects honesty test, but in real sense there is no any concrete method to test honesty. If it would be then there would be no need of judiciary in the world. The largest judicial organisation are telling the story of dishonesty. Let us watch few honesty images.

Value of Honesty: Highest complement for a person is a tag of honesty given by the society ; if he is attached to this virtue. Today’s biggest gap in true sense is the honesty; which is not strengthen properly in the school students. I am not saying that this value is not taught in the schools, but want to draw attention of the school teaching system about the falling graph of this ethical elements in present society. The school students must be engraved with honest practices rather than paying strong attention on science subjects. It is because this is one of the biggest virtue of the growing youngsters ; who will carry nation on their feet. Strong value of honesty will always be a biggest justification throughout the globe for the welfare of the whole humanity. We all have to dictate the tremendous value of honesty to our kids from very beginning in an easy understandable and practical way.

True way of Solution of Human Problems: Many problems of the human society is because of less numbers of honest people. The today’s people forgot the best policy of living. In the world political system many wrong decisions are imposed wrongly because of self centered thinking irrespective of honest approach. In India recently Lokpal system was biggest news headlines. Lokpal is for protecting human interest and to monitor government decisions. I think this would not be required if honesty remains live in the human souls. If honesty remained the best policy of the past time then today’s evils would never come to damage the social, economical and functional balance of the society. Now the whole world have to rethink to renovate and rebuild the honesty in the system by all possible means . Because no any system can check the every minister , clerk etc to stop corruption and self centered policy making. It is only the honesty of these men which will stop them to do dishonest to others.

There should be a system to push honest people in the political system of all the nations. It is the only way to get the true solution for human problems. Advantage of Honesty: Honest people have high degree of social acceptance. They are not confined to a particular town but become the renowned personality of the larger area. It is such a quality of a human beings that uplift him at such a height that can not be achieved by working very hard in normal way. I am giving one such example of an honest man. He is non but the great Mahatma Gandhi of India; whose one word became the command for total Indians in the history. This is because of his honesty as a best policy. Every man believed from his bottom of heart that what Gandhi is telling is more than 100 per cent correct. There are many such examples in the world. Its invisible advantage are infinite. I said invisible because it can only perceived and can not be seen. Where and when we have to practice honesty:

*At the time of paying for things at shop if shopkeeper is busy and forget to ask for payment.
*In queue we have to be very honest to maintain it.
*While checking examination copy of students.
*While distributing something among family or in equal group.
*At our professional position.

Why people are Dishonest Today: It is noticed that human ethical index is degrading day by day. It is because the human beings have shifted from religious belief and become more scientific. But they don’t know that science only gives solution of naturally available thing. But creator is God; who created everything and is watching everyone. Honesty can only be judged in front of God and not in front of any law, system, anyone etc. Many of us also forget that science is very limited it will not be able to discover unlimited nature. If one consumes whole energy of the earth even then ten percent of sky distance is unreachable. It is my own calculation and according to my belief. Another example of perceiving the creator is that a bird flying above thousand feet can look the very small grains and the bird can fly thousand of kilometer from one country to another with its small 500g muscle. Don’t anybody think this while flying in flight which requires gallons of oil to cover only 1000 km. If anyone can understand this then he is with my view.

Conclusion: We have to realize the value of honesty otherwise social, economical balance will be lost. One day we have to answer our life before God. It is certain to happen otherwise no religion would exist on this earth. Much more can be written about “Honesty is the Best Policy Essay”. I will write short point wise essay for grade 1 to 2. Keywords: honesty is the best policy story, honesty is the best policy quote, pictures on honesty, honesty in life.

Best Buy, Inc. Analysis

Executive Summary
A shift in consumer preferences towards multi-tasking electronic devices, fast turnover of electronic devices, increase in online sales, and a tremendous decrease in prices for electronics have led Best Buy to the experience of its first net loss in the past decade. But this is not the first time in Best Buy’s history that the company is going through a “near death experience.” The company has reinvented itself multiple times before and it is clear that the time has come for Best Buy to do it once again. Net Loss of $1.2 billion in 2012 serves as an indicator that the company needs to completely revamp its business strategy and, most importantly, to bring in a strong new leader who will conduct and control reorganization (Case Exhibit 3). In order to stay competitive and to carry on the legacy of the Best Buy brand name several issues have to be addressed. Among them are technological and website improvements (emphasis on online sales), expansion of the global outreach, employee training and retention strategy, inventory management, and development of a strong business culture. Best Buy is on the fast track to extinction, and if the company does not want to end up like Blockbuster or Circuit City several years ago, immediate action to address these issues is required.

Best Buy can no longer achieve a competitive advantage using a cost leadership business strategy because companies like Amazon, Wall-Mart, and Target have successfully superseded Best Buy in this strategy, and if Best Buy continues to lower its prices as a response to competition, the company will continue to carry big losses. It got to the point where Best Buy stores serve as “showrooms” for its direct competition and the company is losing not only on sales but on operational expenses as well. The growth of the company for the 2012 fiscal year was about 0.9% in comparison to about 50% growth of its rival, Amazon; and even though Best Buy sales have increased, it has happened solely due to lower product pricing that is not beneficial for the company in the long run. In order to reinvent itself and to stay competitive Best Buy has to focus on online sales and cutting edge technology that would meet all of the wants and needs of the modern consumer.

Business Strategy – Competitive Advantage
Choosing a right business strategy is crucial to the company’s success. It is clear that with emergence of Amazon and expansion of Wal-Mart and Target electronic departments, Best Buy can no longer pursue the cost leadership strategy; therefore, cost leadership strategy should be abandoned immediately. I would recommend that a mix of differentiation and operational efficiency strategies be pursued in the establishment of the competitive advantage. Differentiation will be easily established because Best Buy already offers a variety of different products. I would also recommend elimination of departments that are becoming obsolete, such as Best Buy’s in-store music and video departments. Video and music industries are undergoing big changes, and with establishment of online music stores and easy access to instant video selections, Best Buy’s music and video departments have become outdated. All of the underperforming brick-and-mortar stores have to be eliminated as well and more attention have to be concentrated on improving online sales.

Case Exhibit 8a provides a good comparison of sales and gross profit margins of Best Buy vs. its most aggressive rival – Amazon. It is clear that Amazon’s online sales are growing much faster and would surpass Best Buy’s total sales within the next couple years. This exhibit provides solid evidence of Best Buy’s urgent need to become much more competitive in online sales. An investment has to be made into improvement of the Best Buy online store. Competitive Framework

Consumer electronics industry has a very low threat of new entrants. Entering the industry requires a lot of capital. Competition is very high and potential new entrants would require using economies of scale in order to be cost competitive, therefore the barriers to entry are very high. Best Buy should not fear any new entrants at this point of time. Competition from substitutes is very high as well due to a large variety of similar products on the market. Nowadays consumers shifted their preferences to the multi-tasking electronic devices and they have a lot more freedom to choose from a variety of products because they are not limited by high costs or operating systems anymore. This also means that bargaining power of consumers is very high; consumers have unlimited access to information about products, and by simply clicking couple of buttons on their smart phones, they can find and compare products and prices.

Technology has extended so far, that an average consumer does not have to leave his or her home in order to make a purchase; therefore, Best Buy has to strive to create a stronger relationship with online consumers. Consumer electronics industry is also very sensitive to prices due to the bargaining power of the buyers. Supplier Power in this industry is medium-high and suppliers are influenced by the large quantity purchases. Best Buy is a consumer electronics giant and it should use vertical integration in order to have control over the end product and different components. Rivalry between established competitors is very intensive. Amazon’s rapid growth, lower prices, ease of purchasing experience, and established reputation allow the firm to aggressively cannibalize Best Buy’s sales. At this point of time, I have two recommendations for Best Buy in order to stay competitive. The company could make a big investment into R&D, and potentially find its unique place in the online sales business or the company could partner with Amazon, and together they would most certainly be able to stay ahead of any other competitors. This potential partnership would allow Best Buy and Amazon to share some of their resources and facilities and, therefore, lower their operating and general and administrative cost.

Supply Chain Management and Restructure
Supply chain and warehouse management have to be reinvented in order to avoid inventory stagnation that precedes big losses for the company. Big sales of the almost obsolete products are only helping the company to get rid of the unwanted inventory; they are not profitable and should be avoided with strategic inventory planning. Replenishment frequency has to be synchronized with consumption, and all of the products available in Best Buy online stores have to be ready for shipment within 24 hours. This means that Best Buy needs to purchase the most advanced inventory tracking software, as well as to hire a very experienced supply chain management and procurement management in order to keep track of the software performance, and to make certain strategic and intuitive adjustments when needed.

International Outreach and CAGE Analyis

Best Buy’s first attempt to grow globally was not very successful and in the most recent years multiple international stores were closed due to underperformance. I recommend that another attempt be made but this time reaching out into still developing economies. Africa could potentially open a new market for Best Buy. Some of the African countries with stable environments and promising economic climates (such as Ghana or South Africa) are striving to achieve technological progress similar to the United States, and Best Buy could potentially aid them in their pursuit. English is a medium language spoken by the majority of the African countries. Weak legal and political institutions can (and I hate to say this) be beneficial for Best Buy, and ease the entry into the African market. African consumer’s income could potentially become a slight problem but in the long run lower product costs could be offset by low general and administrative costs of doing business in Africa. Also, the product mix could be adjusted to African consumer needs and capabilities. Best Buy could potentially sell the products that stopped selling in the US, in Africa. There are definitely certain risks that have to be considered when expanding business to Africa, among them is security and corruption; but the benefits of reaching out to new international markets outweigh challenges and risks, and some of the African countries have the fastest growing economies in the world with a lot of potential.

Corporate Culture

In the past decade, Best Buy has experienced many changes in leadership that undermined its already weak culture. A new leadership with a strong vision and clear mission for the future of the company has to be established. The organizational structure has to be revamped in accordance to new organizational goals. It is crucial that Human Resources department focuses on the employees that already resemble a desirable culture, and communicate with these employees regarding the improvements of the company culture that have to be made. Also, Best Buy does not seem to have a good retention strategy, which is part of the problem why some key employees are leaving the company. The focus of the culture has to be upstream, from the bottom level employees to higher management, and key features of culture should be teamwork, transparency, and communication. And lastly, stronger relationship has to be built between Best Buy and some of its most successful acquisition, such as Geek Squad, because as of right now, Best Buy’s acquisitions resemble separate entities within the Best Buy stores. Financial Implications

Regardless of the net loss in the 2012 fiscal year, Best Buy managed to achieve a positive net cash flow of $96 million. Some of this cash have to be used to pay-off current debts and interest on long-term debt but approximately $50 million should be invested into reinvention of the company. Also, Best Buy would be able to trim a lot of its costs by further eliminating underperforming stores and departments (based on my estimation approximately $200 million, see exhibit 1); savings due to these eliminations should be used solely for the reinvention of the company.

Exhibit #1
Cost savings due to further elimination of underperforming stores and departments: Best Buy already trimmed approximately $800 million in costs with previous store eliminations. About ¼ of the underperforming stores and departments could be further eliminated, bringing in additional $200 million in cost savings. Stores reviewed for elimination include “Total Electronics-Only Stores” that have experienced an average of 13% decline, and “Total Consumer Direct” stores with an average decline of 14.6% (Case Exhibit 2).

Best Buy Case Study

Best Buy is a multinational corporation with over 4,000 locations nationwide. Circuit City was Best Buy’s only main competition for some years until it took over and ran Circuit City out of business. Best Buy’s market share increased after that however, other large retailers as well as e-tailers entered into the market. Amazon, Target, Wal-Mart and Apple became Best Buy’s new competition that caused a decrease in market sales in 2010. They all had the same thing in common after the Circuit City collapse and that was to increase electronics. They all had their own strategies to out-beat Best Buy. Although Best Buy acquired some more competition in a 2010 survey consumers still said Best Buy is the first to come to mind when they think about buying electronics. However, even though Best Buy is the first that comes to mind against the other competitors, depending on what the product is they will go to Amazon to buy it instead. Due to their strategy which focuses on three areas; customer-centricity, employment policies and exclusive branding, they are keeping up with the competition. Best Buy’s strategies may help them a majority of the time but they could change their strategies just a little bit. They should try what Wal-Mart does and price match ads with other stores so that way they are still getting the profits and keeping customers. In my opinion, Best Buy could improve their strategy when it comes to prices because they are on the higher end of prices. As a consumer myself, I do look at Best Buy first for my electronics but I usually go somewhere else because the prices are usually cheaper. Other than their prices I actually think their strategies are working out good for them and it shows in their rankings amongst other competitors.

Consumer electronics is considered a mature industry because of the new trends. This industry hits record sales during the holiday seasons but still says rather well throughout the year as well. All companies associated with this industry try to keep up so they make their own products. However, due to manufactures cannibalizing their products their product life cycle has decreased. Manufactures started doing this to try to keep their consumers loyalty. When prices start to fall for technology products this opens a bigger demographic; however by time the prices fall for the products they have come up with better products. In order to recapture the growth of Best Buy they should try to fix the prices to fit a bigger demographic. I think if they at least try to work with the consumers with the prices they would gain more customers. The problem is the fact that consumers go elsewhere when they see the prices and do a price match. Amazon became popular with electronics because people found out that they could get electronics of all kinds online. Also Amazon has an advantage over Best Buy because with Amazon there is free shipping on products, well on most products. I think if Best Buy tried to adapt some of Amazon’s strategy they can out beat them in the electronics department. If they could be like Amazon and have a limitless inventory online rather than just have their amount of availability on the showroom. If they did this I think they would see growth in their company. They pride their selves in having the most respected name brands in the consumer electronics industry so if they matched the prices with their pride in their brands I see a definite growth in their company. With Best Buy being a well-known company and is the first that comes to mind when talking about electronics, if they had a bigger choice when it came to the products than they might gain some more growth as well to go along with their already loyal customer base.

At Best Buy, they offer a selection of energy-efficient products. These products were designed to help their customers around the world save some more money by using less energy. I think with Best Buy becoming more sustainable they are more able to maintain the interest of the stakeholders. With these products the shareholders play a big role in influencing their overall sustainability strategy. The stakeholders help with modeling Best Buy’s annual sustainability reports. So with them adding this strategy and allowing the stakeholders to get the chance to have a part in the strategy they are gaining their interest. Best Buy actually takes the recommendations from their stakeholders and they try to communicate with them in efforts to keep their interest in their decision to incorporate a sustainability strategy. I think this was a good move on their part because it states they were uncertain about Mr. Dunn’s five year growth strategy. The stakeholders were worried about Best Buy’s cash position and about if these strategies would work or not. Anytime when stakeholders have the opportunity to have a so in a company is a good thing.

In conclusion, I believe Best Buy is a great company but can become a better one if they were to do some modifications with their strategies. With the constantly changing economy they need to adapt their strategies to the changes. I’m not saying they would have to always change their strategies but I think they should always try their best to make their strategies fit the customers as well as help the success of the company. With that being said I believe they will receive even better results for the company as well as the consumers.

Case Study 8.1: His Team Gets the Best Assignments

Case Summary:
Jack’s team:
• Most creative
• Willing to go the extra mile
• Gets along well with Carly
• Often gets allocated extra resources
• Praised for a provocative ad campaign

Terri’s team:
• Counseled out of an ad campaign
• Performs well for the agency
• Unhappy with how Carly treats the team
• Holds animosity toward Carly
• Feels Carly is unfair and favors Jack’s team

Julie’s team:
• Notices Carly favors other teams
• Feels the other teams get the best writers and art directors • Feels Carly doesn’t notice her team or help it with its work • Feels undervalued

Sarah’s team:
• Sarah has worked for 10 years
• Agrees with some of Terri’s & Julie’s observations, but it doesn’t seem to bother her • Her team gets the job done
• Being in Carly’s ‘inner circle’ would require extra time and more headaches • No interest in changing the way department works
Carly Peters directs the creative department at Mills, Smith, & Peters, which has the reputation for being one of the best advertising and public relation agencies in the country. The department has four major account teams, each is led by an associate director, who report directly to Carly. These four teams are headed by Jack, Terri, Julie, and Sarah. Each of the associate directors have different relationship with Carly.

Questions
1.Based on the principles of LMX theory, what observations would you make about Carly’s leadership at Mills, Smith and Peters? According to LMX theory and its research, subordinates become a part of the in-group or the out-group based on how well they work with the leader and how well the leader works with them. Leaders should create a special relationship with all employees, similar to the in-group relationship. Leaders should also offer each employee the opportunity to take on new roles and responsibilities, and should look for ways to build trust and respect. It is clear from this case that Carly has different relationship with each associate directors. Jack’s team is the most creative and goes the extra mile. The result of these team members going the extra mile is that Carly, in turn, does more for them. Jack and Carly’s relationship is clearly in the phase three “partnership” of leadership making. Terri and Julie, claim that their teams perform well for the agency and hence, it’s clearly unfair for Carly to be biased towards Jack’s team. Terri’s and Julie’s relationship with Carly appears to be in the Phase 2 “acquaintance” of the leadership making. The quality of leader member exchange matters most to employees who feel less empowered, and in this case it matters the most to Terri and Julie. It is the responsibility of the leader to make high quality exchanges will all the employees and make them feel as part of in-group to avoid negative implications and inequities. Sarah’s team gets the job done for the agency and Sarah clearly doesn’t want to be in Carly’s in-group, as it will mean more responsibilities for her and her team. Carly has low quality exchanges with Sarah, and their relationship appears to be in the phase 1 “stranger” of the leadership making.

2.Is there and in-group and an out-group, and if so, which are they? Jack’s team is clearly in the in-group and Sarah’s team is in the out-group. Julie’s and Terri’s team are also in the out-group but struggling to be a part of the in-group.

3.In what way is Carly’s relationship with the four groups productive or counterproductive to the overall goals of the agency? Leaders should have high quality exchanges and try to build effective dyads with all employees in the work unit, this would avoid inequities and negative implications of being in an out group. This in turn will also empower employees, and empowering them will have a positive implication on the job satisfaction, performance, turnover and the overall organizational goals. Carly’s relationship with Jack’s team is clearly productive. I feel that her relationship with Sarah’s team is also somewhat productive from an organizational standpoint, as Sarah mentions that her team gets the job done and she clearly doesn’t want to be in the in-group. However, her relationship with Terri’s and Julie’s team seems to affect the team’s morale. It also has made them feel ignored and invaluable, which would certainly affect the teams productivity in the future, and in turn would be counterproductive to the overall goals of the agency.

4.Do you think Carly should change her approach toward the associate directors? If so, what should she do differently? Definitely, organizations stand to gain much from having leaders who can create good working relationship. Carly should try to be an effective leader and build effective relationships with all her employees, the number one thing to do would be to communicate and listen to each of them about their roles and responsibilities. She should also support them in their tasks and motivate them to perform better. If she creates high quality exchanges, builds effective relationships and makes everyone feel a part of in-group, the team dynamics and attitudes will become more positive and this in turn will have positive effect on the overall goals of the organization.

Best War Ever

The Causes of World War II

History 1302

In the book The Best War Ever: America and World War II by Michael C.C. Adams, Adams discusses the misconceptions about world war two that America had and still has today. Through the title, one can assume that Americans came out of the five year war with a positive view. This was due to the way theatre and television portrayed it to the public, and like naïve children America ate it up. Television and other media didn’t want America to see the true horror that actually took place overseas, but what they didn’t know was how mislead America was going to become. This essay will discuss the argument Adams creates in chapter 6 about how sugar coating the war for America, was in a sense best for them, but for small businesses, immigrants and teens it was a different story. Before World War II became the center of attention in America, people lived their everyday lives. Most were small business owners that were just trying to make a living.

As the war went on overseas, Pearl Harbor was attacked, which led to the U.S. joining the war. Do to this sudden need to protect our country, America became “obsessed” and young men volunteered to fight for the country they loved. Everyone including women and children had this attitude of supporting the troops and doing everything they could to help out, by women working jobs in factories that were originally created for men. As these factories like Ford, Coca-Cola, and Wrigley’s grew, “World War II undermined the world of the small producer in business and agriculture, completing the triumph of large corporations…” (The Best War Ever: America and World War II, 1994)1. Small businesses closing down wasn’t the only cause of America joining the war but also, families losing their homes, farms, towns, and well basically their lives. These people had to move to bigger cities where factories that were being recognized, due to the war, were the only jobs available. While factories grew, violence towards immigrants grew as well. Due to Pearl Harbor being attacked by the Japanese, Japanese-Americans were seen as a threat and removed from their homes and put into detention centers. “More than two-thirds of the Japanese who were interned in the spring of 1942 were citizens of the United States.” (Japanese Relocation Centers: During World War II, nearly 120,000 Japanese Americans were under lock and key, 2007)2.

President Roosevelt felt that they were a threat to America and that anyone of them could be a spy. African-Americans were facing hard times as well, though racism was still going strong, many African-Americans were being attacked and miss treated because of mixed work environments as Adams states in his book (1994) “A white man in a wildcat strike at a Packard plant said ‘I’d rather see Hitler and Hirohito win the war than work beside a nigger on the assembly line.’”3 Wives of African-American men in the army were also treated as lower class while the American women would get preferred treatment. Another race that was targeted were American-born Hispanics. Teen Hispanics began to form gangs and “challeng[e] the traditional restraints of their behavior”. They did this by wearing zoot Suits. Because of this new fashion trend amongst Hispanics, military men began to harass and ended up creating a riot known as the “Zoot Suit Riot”. In this riot military and Hispanic men attacked each other but only the Hispanic teens got arrested for the violence. As immigrants were mistreated, young American teens were feeling a sense of freedom, this was due to the lack of parental control. “More girls got pregnant. And the venereal disease rate rose : between 194 and 1944, New York City’s VD rate among girls aged fifteen to eighteen years old increased 204 percent.” (The Best War Ever: America and World War II, 1994)4.

Teens were getting into trouble cutting school and joining gangs. It was hard for schools to maintain a strong education among the youth and so a decline in intellectual quality began in young Americans. Media also had a small part to play in this lack of education. Mass entertainment was trying to win over the youth through T.V. and movies and because of this the armed services saw that students in this generation weren’t as prepared as generations before them, they lacked skills learned in high school. But one reason that as a main factor were the number of jobs that were available. Teens were able to get a job as young as thirteen years old, even though the job wasn’t helping out the war, money made the youth feel free like they could do anything they wanted, which they did. In conclusion, World War II in a sense was the best war ever but for small businesses, immigrants and teens, it was a war that ended up changing tradition into trends and violence. Americans were blinded and lied to and through this it brought grave consequences . “… it is the danger of arrogance and hubris – that is, the danger of going to war because a nation’s leaders are convinced of their own righteousness, or have persuaded themselves and the public that a foreign country should be attacked because its government or society is not merely alien, hostile or threatening, but “evil.”(The ‘Good War’ Myth of World War Two, 2008)5.

Bibliography
Michael C. C. Adams, The Best War Ever: America and world War II (Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 1994)
Japanese Relocation Centers: During World War II, nearly 120,000 Japanese Americans were under lock and key, 2007 http://www.infoplease.com/spot/internment1.html The ‘Good War’ Myth of World War Two, May 24, 2008 http://www.ihr.org/news/weber_ww2_may08.html

Basic Economics.Which economic system is best suited for handling a crisis of epic proportions?

Basic Economics

Introduction

Which economic system is best suited for handling a crisis of epic proportions?

             In the incidence of hazards, disasters, threats  as well as handling crisis’s of epic proportions  such as hurricanes, fires, blizzards and floods among others, employment of the Socialist system helps managements at all levels handle and manage such incidences . The system is systematic, proactive and guides departments at all levels of the government administration, NGOs, as well as the private sector to work as a team and handle such crisis regardless of the size, the intricacy, the source and the location (Kornai & Oxford University Press, 1992). Additionally, it provides a combination of assistance from different sectors.  In this case, the system helps reduce and sometimes prevent loss of life, the loss of property and environmental destructions from incidences of any level. Essentially, it provides a common approach in managing incidences. In this case, the socialism system plays a major role in offering solutions as the government pays everyone who works within the environments. As most disasters are local, the immediate community, the groups within the locality and the individuals within act as the first responders to a calamity hence application of the socialist system serves the best. This motivates individuals to assist and help the people in need. Most importantly, the socialist system is the most effective system in managing crisis as it teaches people within the society the importance of living together, sharing belongings and helping each other during the times of need.

Why a socialist system might be the best in responding to the needs of people struck by an emergency like the earthquake that occurred in Haiti in January 2010?

Socialist societies provide immediate solutions to offer urgent and controlled solutions to emergencies and more so disasters of epic proportions as the one suffered in Haiti in 2010. This is because the system has the ability to call for help on a larger scale since it strategizes on the mix of public, private and government owned operations(Marangos & Palgrave Connect (Online service), 2013).  The incidence of the earthquake that occurred in Haiti was so catastrophic such that it led to collapse of buildings that caused the deaths of thousands of people and left many injured without food and basic commodities(Marangos & Palgrave Connect (Online service), 2013) . Although the US government and the UN provided basic support and help in rescue and provision of basic commodities, the socialist system could have worked better. Socialist communities use the system to ensure a common base for the good of the nation and human needs and provide a common approach in providing a solution. The system enlightens the public to take the necessary measures as well as avoiding waiting the government to bring a solution by recognizing that each person has a role to play. It works well because it basis its endeavors in immediate regrouping and reorganization of efforts.

Why it costs more to heat our homes in the winter?

            In the laws of supply and demand, when the demand of products goes up, the price of the products typically goes up. In the event of the augmented costs of heating up our homes during the winter, the same law applies. For instance, since everyone in the market strives to purchase products for heating their homes, the demand shoots up hence the prices profoundly increase. Therefore, if demand increases and the supply remain unchanged, a shortage is established hence a higher equilibrium costs (Gottheil, 1998). In winter, the same applies as the energy supplies remains the same as the demand augments overwhelmingly an aspect that translates to elevated bills for customers. For instance, change in weather conditions serves as the major factor as to why clients pay more in terms of energy used during the winter.

References

Marangos, J., & Palgrave Connect (Online service). (2013). Consistency and viability of socialist   economic systems. New York NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Gottheil, F. M. (1998). Principles of economics. South-Western college publishing.

Kornai, J., & Oxford University Press. (1992). The Socialist system: The political economy of       communism. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

The local economic impact of Best buy

SWOT analyses are significant for the identification of the weaknesses, strengths, available opportunities and threats to a company (Bohm, 2009). Best buy is a multinational retail corporation operating large departmental stores and warehouses which has headquarters in Minnesota and majors in the sale of electronics and other related commodities and operates in several nations. In addition, the company is among the world’s most profitable business organization in the electronics industry according to a report by Fortune Global in 2014. However, this company is a great threat to other retail companies of a country due to its tendency to acquire cheap products and manual labor overseas. It is alleged that the working conditions of Best buy are not conducive even though it remains the consumer’s best store in many countries (Fishman, 2006). So what are the weaknesses, available opportunities, strengths, threats, future and possible changes which can facilitate the efficient growth of Best buy? This is the basis of discussion for this research paper.

Strengths

To begin with, Best buy has much strength which clearly overpower the weaknesses thus enabling it to remain the best company in the world profit-wise. Firstly, Best buy is the giant retailer in the world of electronics in the global context that no any other electronic retailer can compete with. It is because of its scale of operations that it is able to maintain buyer power through suppliers to reduce the price of commodities. In addition, it is able to achieve larger economies of scale compared to other competing companies due to its large size. Such economies of scale enable it to sell its products at relatively lower prices.

In the same note, Best buy is competent in information systems which enable it to save extra costs. The information system is able to track orders, sales, inventory controls and provide any other information relevant for its operations since each store operates independently. Sequentially, the competence in information systems has enabled Best buy to efficiently manage its supply chains and logistics departments which have enabled its success.

Equally significant, Best buy offers a wide range of products compared to other competing retailers. It sells entertainment, grocery, health, apparel and other home used products. Additionally, it brands and labels its goods which attract many customers to its stores worldwide. With this, the company has seen a rapid growth and profitability in all its stores while maintaining a healthy business environment.

Similarly, the strategy of cost leadership has enabled Best buy to emerge the leading retail store in the world. With this, the company sells its products at the low prices while providing quality goods and services to the ever increasing consumer numbers. In addition, Best buy has built warehouses to store its products which help in the reduction of costs especially shipping costs. These reduced costs are felt by the consumers who buy goods at cheaper prices.

By the same token, Best buy does not rely on a single store or operate in a single country like most of its competitors but it has made its operations international setting up several retail stores in countries like the U.S, U.K, Mexico and Puerto Rico. Such foreign markets give room for new opportunities which have facilitated Best buy’s growth. In addition, the management of the company is exposed to different experience given it operates in different legislations under different political leaders (Hicks, 2007).

Weaknesses

Despite the strengths of Best buy which have helped it grow profit-wise, it has many some weaknesses which ruins its public reputation. To begin with, Best buy has faced and is facing lawsuits in which it is blamed for poor working conditions, low wages, female discrimination and failure to pay its workers for overtime. This makes the company spent millions of dollars in the cases. On the other hand, the pubic reputation for the company has been ruined such that few personnel would be willing to work for them (Lamb, Harry & McDaniel, 2011).

Sequentially, the company has a high turnover of employees who are mostly unskilled which forces it to train them. This high turnover is caused by poor salaries for the employees and working terms like health policies. Consequently, this leads to wastage of resources and time which could have been directed to the marketing and selling of its products.

Comparatively, the company has negative publicity with many people blaming it for being corrupt especially for the top management and the poor working conditions of those employed in the company. This significantly reduces the number of customers for the company hence reducing the sales in a given store and consequently reducing the net income from sales (Ferelli, 2014).

As if that is not enough, Best buy does not carry out differentiation compared to its competitors. This has an implication to the company’s future especially if the consumer’s income increase or product’s prices fall. The strategy of low cost leadership may not be significant which may lead to the increase in the number of competitors and consequently decrease its profitability.

Opportunities

In analyzing a company’s situation, it is essential to also analyze its opportunities. On the wider scope, markets in retail increased, on average, by five percent in emerging markets, last year. The growth in retail markets was a huge opportunity for Best buy, one that would see revenue growth rise. Being a multinational business that thrives in the sale of groceries and general merchandise, Best buy is well established in India, Mexico and Brazil markets. Any visionary company should be responsive to the changing economic trends across the world. In order for Best buy to sustain a grown in future, it should endeavor to maximize opportunities that come along its way and increase.

Acceptance of private label products is rising. Any successful company does not wait for opportunities to pop, rather, it seizes opportunities while creating others. This concept is common in the business world. In the span of the past ten years, the purchase of private label items has seen a 40% surge. This demonstrates that there is an increasing acceptance of private label items as opposed to products that are of a national brand (Elms, 2013). This is a window of opportunity that Best buy should not leave to pass without maximizing on it. This trend presents Best buy with a rare chance of producing private brand items in order to increase its marginal profits.

A trend towards living healthy lifestyles is being witnessed. People have realized that health is tantamount to wealth and risking health is a sure way to poverty or unhappy life. As a grocery enterprise, Best buy gains an advantage in rise of health eating. There has been a concern by medical experts that people who want to live long and enjoy happy lives, should avoid fleshy meals, and are encouraging people to resort to vegetarian diet or just plant products. Due to this emerging lifestyle of healthy living, the demand for groceries has gone high. Best buy has better chances in gaining an advantage through this trend. Carefully strategized, Best buy can receive immense income generated from just the sale of groceries.

Intermarket marketing has greatly promoted online business. In recent years, online shopping has rapidly grown. Transactions are now easily conducted online, thanks to technology, and businesses have thrived greatly. In 2011, in the USA, online retail business grew by 4.7%, reaching $197 billion (Elms, 2013). So far, Best buy is one of most established offline retailer. An opportunity is presented to Best buy to embrace technology and online business in order diversify and extend its presence to online market. Best buy can design an online marketing strategy to help consumers access their private label products. Professional online marketers should be hired to facilitate the realization of this goal. It also avail convenience in picking the goods, earlier, ordered online having approximately 10,000 stores and can lower product prices online. The end result will see Best buy reaching many product consumers and increase of revenue.

Threats and External factors impacting decisions

Competition is either positive or negative. Online, Brick and Mortar competitions are a big threat to Best buy. Meanwhile, Best buy enjoys big price differences, but competitors like Costa, Target and Amazon are marshalling efforts to remove price differences. With an exception of lower prices, Best buy does not slightly differs from other retailers but is expected to witness competition in future (Ray, 2010). Another threat glaring at Best buy is local communities’ increasing resistance. The influence that Best buy has in the local area is not positive. When Best buy opens superstores in the local area, some local retailers close off their businesses, as a result there has been experienced resistance by local members to Best buy. These effects are thus uniformly spread to families and the entire community. Best buy commodity prices are squeezed due to rising commodity prices. This threat is real, but strategies must be put into action to counter the threats. External factors affecting Best buy include globalization and government regulations. At times, price limits are determined by governments, and in rare cases governments may put sanctions to certain companies in order to reduce competition and prevent over-exploitations of citizens. Therefore, a company’s decision are informed by the government, to some extent (Westland & Clark, 2003).

Recommendations and the future of the Best buy company

From the weaknesses and threats discussed above, the company is in a position to change the threats into opportunities and the weaknesses into strengths for a brighter future. The company should seek to manage its employees in a better way. Currently, there is an issue of mushrooming in unskilled employees whose pay is relatively small. Therefore, the company should consider working with fewer employees who are more effective and able to deliver quality in time. The leadership should therefore consider retrenching the unskilled labor whose delivery has not been pleasing and work with fewer, manageable personnel who are skilled. By so doing the company will be able to increase in production and service delivery to customers.

The future of the Best buy is sure if we consider the steps the company is taking especially in the Northwest Arkansas. The company has introduced a new retail format which is online based. Like any other company which is moving towards utilization of technology, the Best buy has started offering online orders and delivery in the Arkansas (Jurevicius, 2014). The plans for expanding the services to the rest of the world should be considered, because from the practice in the Arkansas positive results are expected.

More so, there is an issue of pricing of goods which drives the customers into unanswered questions. The company pricing is lower and this makes the customers suspicious of the quality of goods. Therefore, there is need for awareness to inform people the reason why the pricing is lower in comparative to other companies. Consequently, the company will be able to gain the trust of its customers and the overall results will be advantageous to the company.

The company should also seek to differentiate their goods to cater for all social classes, the rich, the poor and the middle class. There is little differentiation in the company and this has an effect of losing the higher social class if goods continue to be underpriced. The company should therefore look into the possibility of losing the rich to its competitors, and this should be avoided by accommodating both classes of people through differentiation.

Another challenge identified is to do with the publicity of the company, which has been discussed to be negative. The management should ensure the issues of bribery and corruption are dealt with severely. The senior managers should think of investigating the crimes to do with corruption and bribery, and taking the necessary action of replacing and giving such leaders to the law. Such misconduct associated with some leaders can bring the whole company down and therefore, need for immediate changes.

Conclusion

As seen in the discussion, the Best buy company is doing well, but there is a danger if care is not taken on the threats and weaknesses stated. Being the biggest company in the world, has several strengths ranging from scales of operation, international operations and effective communication systems. More so, weaknesses discussed which include the high number of employees and little differentiation among others is all associated with the company. Threats like increased competition and increased resistance by the society have been discussed. The opportunities seen are growth in emerging markets and changes in healthy eating among others as discussed. The company should check on the recommendations given for future better operation and this will help counter any competition.

References

Böhm, A. (2009). The SWOT Analysis. München: GRIN Verlag.

Elms, D. K., Low, P., World Trade Organization., & Temasek Foundation. (2013). Global value chains in a changing world.

Ferrell, O. C. (2014). Marketing. Australia ; Mason, OH: South Western Cengage Learning.

Fishman, C. (2006). The Best buy effect: How the world’s most powerful company really works, and how it’s transforming the American economy. New York: The Penguin Press.

Hicks, M. J. (2007). The local economic impact of Best buy. Youngstown, N.Y: Cambria Press.

Jurevicius, O. (2014). Walmart SWOT analysis 2013 | Strategic Management Insight. Strategicmanagementinsight.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014, from http://www.strategicmanagementinsight.com/swot-analyses/walmart-swot-analysis.html

Lamb, C. W., Hair, J. F., & McDaniel, C. D. (2011). MKTG5: Student edition. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Ray, R. (2010). Supply chain management for retailing. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

Westland, J. C., & Clark, T. H. K. (2000). Global electronic commerce: Theory and case studies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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Dogs as Best Pet

Dogs as best pets have been contentious argument among scholars with center of debate consistently shifting from basic roles of dogs in homes to scientific roles they play in research. It is not fallacious to argue for instance, that in recent decades, there has been social, economic and cultural changes that have brought fundamental shift in the attitude and values of people to an extent that dogs are not only reared as best pets but fulfill a given vacuum left due to a sense of isolation. Scholars such as Tapper (2007) have provided evidence-based researches showing that dogs as pets provide unconditional companionship which equates effective therapeutic options that improve quality of life. However, what Tapper presents in his study should not be considered as the pinnacle in this argument. That is, debate on dogs as the best pet is so rich that argument as made by Tapper is admittedly an introductory one and only represents a research that is clearly in progress. Looking at recent studies such as Serpell and Paul (2010), it is clear that there are still a number of avenues which beg this assessment to explore regarding benefits of gods as pets and such cannot be explored in the confines of what Tapper argues about.

In support of studies that have looked at dogs in a wider perspective, this argument begins, as all proper researches should, that dogs are not only the best pets but work animal. As pets, they are not just fawning but seem to live with people and take their work outside seriously —they are to be found at table and at the gate watching steadily for any intruder. This is not to forget the fact that families use dog as ‘guide dogs for the blind’ or ‘hearing dogs for the blind.’ Though some arguments such as Vivian (2001) have postulated that as pets, dogs can sometime tear their best friends asunder, it is possible to counter this claim in the sense that these pets could only attack their master in situations psychologist term as ‘fight or flight.’ That is, dogs as pets are have feelings and when cornered or threatened, they either fight back or run away from the danger. In fact, close study of these animals as pets brings a number of such contradictions (that dogs can aimlessly attack their masters) (Lloyd-Jones, 2003).

Arguments on whether dogs are the best pet stretches back to the early times of Greek civilization where it was, at the very best, liminal, human’s best friend compared to other animals that were domesticated (Tapper, 2007). Contrariwise, this statement remains uncertain owing to the fact that the animal is just a few steps from the wolf. In addition to this, in a confined argument, the theory continues, that dogs as pets are not as important as other animals reared as pets. The thesis statement of this school of thought lies on the premise that the animal contributes nothing to the common good compared to other pets. In as much as there may be truth in this theoretical framework, comparative studies as cited above have succinctly indicated that such a view is fraught with inherent dangers especially if they are pursued overly simplistically. The reason as to why this argument refutes opposing arguments that is strongly is due to the fact that the obvious relationship existing between people and dogs as pets is rarely that simple, regardless of the level of society the dog is reared as a pet. To argue that dogs as pets are economically worthless is fallacious in the sense that young people in the house and dogs as pets are categorized as creatures put near or in the house, fed but with return or meaningless economic services the owner.

References

Lloyd-Jones, H. (2003), ‘Females of the species and dogs rearing in the upper families.’ ParkRidge, NJ 2003.

Serpell, T. & Paul, E. (2010), ‘Pets and the development of positive attitudes towards dogs’, inAnimals and society. Changing perspectives, eds. A. Manning & James Serpell,Routledge, NY 2010, 127-156.Tapper, R. (2007), ‘Animality, humanity, morality, society’, in What is an animal? Ed. T. Ingold,Routledge, NY 2010, 42-72.

Vivian, K. (2001), ‘In the company of animal. A study of human-animals relationship.’Routledge, NY 2001, 390-412.

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Best source of funding for research organization

There are a number of ways of funding research programs to help medical clinics; we may have an aspect where the government lends a hand or seeking the indulgence of the pharmaceutical companies. (NCSL, 2014) The above stated are two of those ways. Acceptance of offers to carry out research depends on the wishes of beneficiaries; they get to choose whom they perceive to be their best options. (U.S. Congress, 2006) Grants by the federal government may be defined as the assistance in monetary terms offered by the American government. (NIST, 2014)The government assistance has to conform to the laws and regulations set about by the federal agencies. (USA Government, n.d.)Grants offered by the pharmaceutical companies; to conduct clinical research is one of the common ways of sourcing for money to carry out research activities for clinics. (Canadian Business Network, n.d) Pharmaceutical companies are private entities which may not be put under tight regulations as compared to public institutions. (Federal Grants, n.d)The financing pharmaceutical company may fund a research project they deem to be in line with what they find necessary for them. (D.o.J., 1998)

Advantages of using government grants to fund research projects

Government or federal grants are a good way of sourcing for funds; even though the central government may impose very strict measures to go about using the cash. (Cornell University, n.d.) Once a government agency has given the nod for one to conduct the research alongside the funds allocation; a research organization is left to conduct its affairs in the required time they find ample. (UCONN, n.d.) Pharmaceutical companies may impose timelines so that they launch their products for commercial gains. (The Arc, n.d.)Pharmaceutical companies may continue funding a project based on interests to be fulfilled; some may be under pressure to churn out products that cause a buzz within markets. (Grant Space, n.d.)Another risk involved with pharmaceuticals funding projects would be purely to spite their competitors and caress enormous egos of company executives and owners. (TGCI, n.d.) Government does not engage in competition; but their mandate is to look out for the welfare of their citizens. (The White House, n.d.)It’s with the above stated reasons that governmental funding looks more appealing as compared to funding from private entities. (Homeland Security, n.d.)There would not be conflicts or interests as well as undue pressure. (FELDESMAN+TUCKER+LEIFER+FIDELL, n.d.)

References

NCSL. (2014). NCSL. Retrieved from http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/american-health-benefit-exchanges.aspxU.S. Congress. (2006, October). Research and Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Retrieved from https://cbo.gov/sites/…/10-02-drugr-d.pdfCanadian Business Network. (n.d.). Canadian Business Network. Retrieved from http://www.canadabusiness.ca/eng/page/2740/National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), United States Department of Commerce (DoC). (2014, February 25). ANNOUNCEMENT OF FEDERAL FUNDING OPPORTUNITY (FFO) Measurement Science and Engineering (MSE) Research Grant Programs. Retrieved from www.nist.gov/…/grants/USA Government. (n.d.). Benefits, Grants, and Loans. Retrieved from http://www.usa.gov/Citizen/Topics/Benefits.shtmlFederal Grants. (n.d.). Federal Grants. Retrieved from http://www.federalgrants.com/D.o.J. (1998, September). The United States Department of Justice. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/crt/grants_statutes/legalman.phpCornell University. (n.d.). Cornell University. Retrieved from http://www.irb.cornell.edu/faq/UCONN. (n.d.). University of Connecticut. Retrieved from http://research.uconn.edu/The Arc. (n.d.). Public Policy. Retrieved from http://www.thearc.org/what-we-do/public-policy/know-your-rights/federal-lawsGrant Space. (n.d.). Knowledge Base. Retrieved from http://grantspace.org/tools/knowledge-base/Funding-Resources/Government-Funders/government-grantsTGCI. (n.d.). Thw Grantsmanship Center. Retrieved from http://www.tgci.com/training/competing-federal-grants-5-dayThe White House. (n.d.). Office of Mnagement and Budget. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/grants_defaultHomeland Security. (n.d.). Title VI Overview for Recipients of DHS Financial Assistance. Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/title-vi-overview-recipients-dhs-financial-assistanceFELDESMAN+TUCKER+LEIFER+FIDELL. (n.d.). Federal Grants. Retrieved from http://www.feldesmantucker.com/federal-grants/

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Best Buy Project Company Analysis

Best Buy Co. was founded in 1966 by Richard Schulz under the name Sound of Music. The company headquarters are located in Minnesota, and the company is the largest retailer of consumer electrical appliances in the US with more than 1200 stores (Wikinvest, 2012). In FY2008, the company had net revenue of $40 billion. Financial crisis that proceeded in 2008 had a significant impact on the consumer behavior and consequently affected electronics market. The electronics market is subject to discretionary purchases and therefore prone to downturns. Some of the competitors of the company such as Circuit have filed for bankruptcy in the recent past while Best Buy has been prospering. Best Buy also benefits from Repair services and Installations. These services cushion the company against recessions since the company is viewed by many people as a necessity rather than commodity. Brands of the company include Best Buy Mobile, Best Buy, Pacific Sales, Geek Squad, and Magnolia Audio Video (Bensen, Haddi, Fitzsimmons & Marotske, 2012).

In 2001, the company became an international company after it acquired Future Shop that was the market leader at the time. The company entered into china, one of the largest consumer markets in the world, in 2006 after it acquired Five Star Appliances. Consumer electronics constitute majority of the company sales with more than 41% income (Wikinvest, 2012). The company generated more than 17% revenue from China and Canada in 2008. Even though the firm has recorded consistent increase in the international operations, they have proven to be less efficient than domestic operations and only managed to contribute a meager 2.4% in operating margin. There are also partnerships between Best Buy and some other companies such as Carphone Warehouse, which is the largest retailer of mobile phones. The company has opened stores in the United Kingdom, Mexico, and Turkey.

Best Buy has had good and bad times just like most businesses. In 2004, the company scooped Forbes award for the best company of the year. In 2001, it won an award as the Specialty Retailer of the Decade given by Discount Store News. In 2006, the company was ranked by Fortune as one of the most admired firms in the US. In addition, the company was also ranked among top ten most generous companies by Forbes in 2005. The company was the sole supplier of electronics in 2009 both online and brick and mortar after Circuit City filed for bankruptcy and went out of business. The main competitor to Best Buy in Western United States remains Fry’s electronics. Best Buy offers both in-store pickup and online marketing. Buyers are also able to purchase electronics online and use their preferred delivery means (Bensen, Haddi, Fitzsimmons & Marotske, 2012).

An analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats facing the company is crucial as it makes understanding the future of the enterprise. In terms of strengths, the company has shown willingness to adopt multiple approaches and solutions. Such a move is critical as technology and economy climate are always changing. The company operates on a decentralized structure and therefore branch stores do not have to wait for decisions from the central management. This fastens the decision making process and hence creating a better management. The company has also managed ti create local market familiarity. In cities such as Chicago, certain products are found i.e. Jewel. Another major strength of the company is that it has up to date information on distribution and logistics from its wholesale businesses. Best Buy also has the capability and capacity to create supply chains across the US. Best Buy also has a variety of store brands and regional banners and therefore customers have a wide range (Abhijeet, 2010).

Weaknesses: Best Buy lacks shopper data for targeted market programs or local insights. This can be a big hindrance as customer communication is critical in satisfying their needs. Best Buy also has an underdeveloped marketing expertise (Abhijeet, 2010). The company’s online presence has been surpassed by even smaller companies. Online marketing has proven to be the most common in modern day with the current technological advancement. Best Buy also faces challenges in alignment of the divisions of the organization. The retail systems are poorly integrated. The company also experiences difficulties due labour expertise in short supply experienced in the store operations. The company also has high overhead costs and consequently may go out of business.

Opportunities: Best Buy has a leverage card program for its loyal clients. Such a program attracts more customers as they provide shoppers with deeper insight of the company. The company’s ability to create nationwide supply chains is also an opportunity. Such ventures can result in increased sales. Best Buy can also benefit from centralization of its operations. Centralization will lead to better coordination of the activities of the company (Abhijeet, 2010). There is also a potential of increased sales if the company was to focus on higher-margin retail business. Some of the other departments the company can concentrate on organics. Best Buy can also create national banners as a way of improving its marketing strategy. The company can also benefit from the leverage acquired from the acquisition of Albertsons in West Coast, and, therefore, expanding the scope of its operations.

Threats: one of the biggest threats facing Best Buy is the high leverages it experiences. History has it that companies with great leverages have higher levels of fixed costs. Consequently, such firms tend to experience more significant break-even points than companies without leverages (Abhijeet, 2010). The only benefits Best Buy can have from such an arrangement is that its sales may increase beyond a break-even point. The companies also face competition from Wal- Mart Super competition in most key markets. The fact that the primary system of management is decentralized; there are challenges of dependency on local management managerial skills, which may lead to failure of some stores. Decentralized management also lacks an established integration of systems. The wholesale business is not appropriate for many customers, and Best Buy risks are losing customers. There are also possible operation failures which can result in centralization operations in an attempt to establish standardization.

The current operating system comprises of both domestic and international markets. The domestic market generated the highest revenue with over 83% of the market share while International markets generates the least with approximately 17% in 2008. The domestic market comprises of all retail stores in the United States including Geek squad, Speakeasy, Best buy, Best Buy Mobile, Bath, Magnolia Audio Video and Pacific Sales Kitchen. However, the domestic market experienced slower growth rate as compared to the international market. The international segment of the market mostly comprises of Canada and China, even though there are newcomers such as the United Kingdom. Some of the main stores in the international market include Future shop, Best Buy, and Geek Squad in Canada while there is Best Buy and Jiangsu Five Star in China. In FY08, the international market contributed to 17% of the total revenue. In the same year, sales grew by 37% more than the previous year (Wikinvest, 2012).

Future Shop and Best Buy deal in Consumer electronics and services such as installation and repair. Future Shop was acquired in 2001. Geek Squad retails stores deal in computer technical services, and these are mostly standalone systems. These retail stores were acquired in 2002. Best Buy Mobile specializes in Cell phone Sales and Services, and was acquired in 2008. Magnolia Audio Video specialized in home theater and related services and was acquired in 2000. Pacific Sales Kitchen and Bath specializes in remodeling homes and related products and services, and was acquired in 2005. Jiangsu Five Star Appliances were acquired in 2006 and these stores specialize in appliances and consumer electronics. Speakeasy was acquired in 2008 and deals in information technology services.

Since mid-2007, consumers have been keen on their spending habits, cutting expenses on unnecessary items such as video games and flat screen televisions. Even during such turbulent times Best Buy still managed to record an increase of up to 13% in 2008 while firms such as Dick’s Sporting Goods recorded depreciation in sales (Best Buy Project Analysis, 2013). After the global financial crises in 2008, Best Buy was still able to record a 16% ($11.5 billion) in 3Q 2009. In expanding its services to increase its profit gains, BBY has acquired Geek Squad, which specializes in computer and consumer electronics technician service subsidiary. Geek Squad contributed 4% of the total revenue in 2007 (Wikinvest, 2012). However, the business has a high operating margin (10-20%). Best Buy also started in-house Geek Squad areas and consequently there has been a cut down on the existing stand-alone Geek Squad locations in the US.

Some of the other services introduced to generate more income include Best Buy Mobile and Home Installation. Best Buy Services specializes in selling and servicing cellular phones. Having been launched in 2007, Best Buy Mobile operated 14 stand-alone locations and more than 599 in-store concept areas. It is Best Buy Mobile that joint a venture with Carphone Warehouse, the largest retailer of mobile phones in Europe, with the aim of setting up Best Buy stores in Europe. Home installation is offered through several venues such as Magnolia Home Theater centers, Best Buy in-store employees, and Magnolia Audio Video stand-alone stores within Best Buy stores (Best Buy Project Analysis, 2013). Most of the installation sales are from consumers who purchase items such as flat televisions and require assistance in installing their new devices.

As the leading retailer of consumer electronics, digital to analog migration across the globe will be beneficial to the firm. The firm has been focusing on the retailer market mostly in Canada, China, and Europe to boost its sales (Bensen, Haddi, Fitzsimmons & Marotske, 2012). Best Buy also partners with a company such as apple as a third party retailer of its products. The first initiative was selling Apple’s 3G iPhone.

In Conclusion Best Buy needs to reduce its overhead costs to avoid going out of business. The firm also needs to improve its marketing strategy and online presence. Based on the varied nature of the services offered by Best Buy, the firm can benefit greatly from restructuring and improve their customer relations. The leadership structure may also benefit from changes. While some financial experts and analysts recommend that the firm should be privatized due considerations should be made before further decisions. Early restructuring may minimize occurrences such as massive layoffs and stores closing

References

Abhijeet S. (2010). SWOT ANALYSIS ON Best Buy Co. Management Paradise. Retrieved from http://www.managementparadise.com/forums/principles-management-p-o-m/208348-swot-analysis-best-buy-co.html

Best Buy Project Analysis. (2013) StudyMode.com. Retrieved 06, 2013, from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Best-Buy-Project-Analysis-1749089.html

Bensen, S., Haddi, El, A., Fitzsimmons, F., Hussein, A., & Marotske, H. (2012). “Best Buy Corporation: Strategic Management Analysis.” Strategic Management. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/2377926/Best_Buy_Corporation_Strategic_Management_Analysis?login=&email_was_taken=true

Wikinvest. (2012). Wiki Analysis. Retrieved from http://www.wikinvest.com/stock/Best_Buy_%28BBY%29

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