In the year 1990, there were roughly 60.70 million people dwelling within the Philippines. Population elevated from 1990 to 2000 by roughly 15.81 million people. In 2012, the Philippines total reaches 103.seventy eight million in comparability with the 2000 inhabitants of 81.sixteen million. The dimension of the human population is changing at a particularly high fee in the last years which makes the state the 12th most overpopulated country in the entire world. According to U.S. Agency for International Development (2000), it is foreseen that in the year 2030, the population progress might be unstoppable and will be doubled.
Population issues in country’s financial system. The rapid inhabitants development is revealed to have both affirmative and undesirable impact on economic system and monetary system of a rustic depending on how it’s utilized. An overpopulated country is claimed to produce nice quantity by way of human resources.
Villegas (2010) stated that giant inhabitants is “both a source of manpower and as a base for a home market on which the financial development of a country could be sustained, despite periodic ups and downs within the world market.
” It additionally factors positive influence on economies of scale and specialization, the attainable spur to favorable motivation brought on by increased dependency. However, overpopulation and rapid inhabitants growth hinders financial development. Theoretical evaluation contends that top population development creates pressures on limited pure assets. If inhabitants grows at 2% a 12 months, provides of housing, meals and different goods must improve that a lot just to maintain up the current lifestyle. Water Resources
Water is a basic economic resource which is a natural endowment to man.
Nowadays, it is becoming a scarce resource with the ever-growing demand for family and industrial consumption. As an financial useful resource, pricing of water is essentially determined by the cost of extraction from its pure water supply source and the cost of distribution. Water is likewise a basic need for the survival of individuals and family households. Many health and morbidity problems are related to the quality and availability of water for human consumption. With the ever growing population, the demand for potable water in city areas has also elevated, while the water sources began to say no over time. Water pollution is a serious purpose for the decreased availability of and access to clean potable water.
This was the statement made by Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS) Senior Research Fellow Dr. Danilo Israel whose evaluate imputes poor administration of freshwater water resources, notably within the area of water pollution. He says that whereas freshwater is abundant within the nation, estimates present that solely 39 percent of categorized inland surface water bodies are potential water sources for domestic use. Based on further estimates, he also stated that just one,907 cubic meters (the second lowest amongst Southeast Asian countries) of freshwater are available to every Filipino annually.
This predicament, based on Israel, is additional exacerbated by water pollution. Access to scrub and enough water stays an acute seasonal drawback in city and coastal areas within the Philippines. The National Capital Region (Metro Manila), Central Luzon, Southern Tagalog, and Central Visayas are the 4 city crucial areas when it comes to water high quality and amount. If this pattern continues, more Filipinos will not have sufficient entry to safe-drinking water especially since demand for clear water continually increases with inhabitants progress. As a consequence, the country may not attain the Millennium Development Goal that no much less than 86.6 percent of the population ought to have adequate access to potable water by 2015. Cleanfreshwater is a crucial natural resource and without its ample provide, the lives and health of individuals could be put to threat.
Specifically, there is a optimistic relationship between water pollution and water-borne ailments. The World Bank, as an example, has estimated that exposure to water pollution and poor sanitation accounts for one-sixth of reported illness circumstances, and practically 6,000 untimely deaths per 12 months. Additionally, simply over a 3rd or 36 % of the country’s river systems are categorised as sources of public water supply. Up to fifty eight p.c of groundwater sampled is contaminated with coli type and desires treatment. Land Resources
Land resources discuss with a delineable space of the earth’s terrestrial floor, encompassing all attributes of the biosphere instantly above or under this floor, together with those of the near-surface, local weather, the soil and terrain forms, the surface hydrology (including shallow lakes, rivers, marshes and swamps), the near-surface sedimentary layers and associated groundwater and geohydrological reserve, the plant and animal populations, the human settlement pattern and bodily results of past and current human activity (terracing, water storage or drainage constructions, roads, buildings, etc.) (FAO/UNEP, 1997). Arable land (suitable for rising crops) covers just three percent of the world’s surface. Based on historical information arable land decreases by 25 million acres annually – it is estimated that one hectare (one hectare equals 2.forty seven acres) of productive land is lost every 7.67 seconds.
The best causes of misplaced productive land are desertification and urbanization. New deserts are growing at a fee of 51,800 sq. kilometers per yr. As the dwindling forest cover, logically increases rainfall runoff, which favors the floods, soil erosion and reduces the quantity that seeps into the bottom to recharge aquifers. Wetlands often disappear in bits and items as builders fill in small ponds or parts of swamps and deltas.
The cumulative impact, however, may be devastating for wildlife and people. In some states, more than 90 p.c of wetlands have vanished. Wetlands not only support wildlife but in addition filter the consuming provide people rely on. Half of the planet’s plant and animal species reside in rainforests. Less than 2.5 billion acres of tropical forest stay from the four billion acres on Earth only a few hundred years in the past. That interprets to an enormous lack of habitat, and the doubtless extinction of untold species.
Most of the deforestation has occurred in the final few decades. There are many causes of habitat destruction, together with logging, mining, oil drilling, and exploiting other natural sources; clearing land for agriculture and cattle ranches; improvement for residential areas; and roads for folks to do all these actions. If the present fee of destruction continues, today’s forests might be gone by the year 2081.
The total land space of the Philippines is about 30 million hectares, half of which is classed as forestlands, 47% as alienable and disposable lands, and the remaining 3% as unclassified forestlands. Logging has significantly depleted forest cover since the early 20th century. And there are extra problems arising from the reduction of forest cowl, as they’ll facilitate entry to forest roads to select up lumber, and so on., They turn into drier and extra vulnerable to fires, which further reduces more wooded space and this, in turn, makes less rainwater to seep into the ground.
As human population expands, the damaging effects on the environment multiply. Fast depletion of natural assets is just one of the results of overpopulation. In our relentless effort to quench our never ending needs, we’ve destroyed the habitat of so many wildlife that this planet had nurtured to close perfection, through billions of years of evolution. The central problem for us over the subsequent few many years just isn’t local weather change or the worldwide financial disaster – it is whether humanity can obtain and maintain the large harvest we need from this planet to feed ourselves.
The earth is only able to sustaining a certain quantity of life. As the inhabitants continues to rise, the supply of food will proceed to dwindle. We can solely produce a set quantity of meals with the resources we have. The rising variety of people additionally necessitates further land for them to use as habitation. Therefore, the extra land used for us to stay on, the less land is on the market for farming. It is a vicious circle which has no finish if the population development isn’t curbed. The food consumed by human is influenced by big selection of cultural and individual variations, primarily due to ecological as nicely as private causes.
The source of a lot of the meals consumed by man is terrestrial agricultural, which represents the most manipulated of all of the non-urban ecosystems. There are two primary forms of agriculture (1) Crop agriculture by which plant production is harvested for use by man and (2) Animal agricultural the place a crop from extremely manipulated ecosystem is fed to domesticated animals. Food consumption sample is different in different areas. The most important feature is that rice to the staple meals for most Asians. In basic a strong and healthy human consumes about 1.4 kg of food every day. Such a meals serves as a supply of power and alternative of uses. Statement of the Problem
The research centered on the connection between overpopulation and depletion of natural resources that impacts the economic standing of the Philippines. Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions: 1. How does overpopulation affects our pure sources corresponding to: a. Water
b. Land; and
2. How the environmental impacts due to overpopulation do impacts the financial system of the Philippines? Objectives of the Study The study meant to analyze and to enhance the understanding on the relationship between overpopulation and depletion of pure assets that impacts the financial standing of the Philippines. More specifically, the objectives are: 1. To evaluate the effects of overpopulation on natural resources corresponding to water, land and agriculture. 2. To decide the consequences of depletion of pure resources due to overpopulation on economy of the Philippines.
Significance of the Study
The basic definition of economics is choice underneath scarcity. Economists like to check how scarcity of resources and the variations in the distribution of those sources affect selections made by the people. This concept can be utilized and is important to a single individual, a family or a rustic. Natural sources usually are not solely within the Philippines, but in addition in the entire extensive world are limited and scarce. Water, for instance, lots of people want it however there’s a restricted amount of it, and they also see a market develop for it. In addition there are things like land and labor. If people could all have whatever they needed, there can be no have to ration or commerce, and therefore, there might be no Economics.
Another, the administration of pure assets is doubtless one of the most crucial challenges going through the growing nations of at present. The exploitation of high-value natural sources, together with oil, gas, minerals and timber has usually been cited as a key think about triggering, escalating or sustaining violent conflicts around the globe. Furthermore, rising competitors and battle for diminishing renewable resources, similar to land and water, is on the rise. This is being additional aggravated by environmental degradation, population development and local weather change.
The mismanagement of pure assets is contributing to new conflicts and obstructing the peaceable resolution of existing ones. This examine is substantial to all the sectors of the financial system, may it’s the federal government, the personal firms or the commoners and the residents of each nation. This will give them the proper knowledge about how inhabitants impacts the limited natural resources. Aside from being an knowledgeable citizen, this research aims and is significant to make a distinction. This analysis is a qualitative research and never an action. There might be no explicit query to be asked and no certain acts to do. But because of this paper, the readers will suppose and provides ideas inside themselves on the method to protect the pure sources and not ruining it. This is important to give standing to the issues concerning different aspects of the economy. Definition of Terms
Economics – A social science that research how people, governments, firms and nations make selections on allocating scarce sources to fulfill their unlimited needs Macroeconomics – concentrates on the behavior of the combination financial system Microeconomics – focuses on individual customers.
Overpopulation – is a term that refers to a condition by which the population density enlarges to a limit that provokes the environmental deterioration, a exceptional decline within the high quality of life, or a population collapse. Population density – denotes the number of inhabitants dwelling in a selected area, for example: 100 inhabitants per sq. Kilometer. Natural resources – is assets occurring in nature that can be used to create wealth.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – is the entire market worth of all last items and companies produced in a rustic in a given yr, equal to whole consumer, funding and government spending, plus the worth of exports, minus the value of imports. Gross National Product (GNP) – is the entire value of all ultimate goods and services produced within a nation in a particular 12 months, plus earnings earned by its citizens (including earnings of these situated abroad), minus income of non-residents positioned in that country. Desertification – is the conversion of grassland or an already arid land into a desert via indiscriminate human actions magnified by droughts. Resources depletion – an financial term referring to the exhaustion of uncooked materials within a region
This chapter offers a framework for understanding the connection between overpopulation and the pure resources.
Figure 1.1 The Variable and its Relationship Economics deals with the environment friendly allocation of limited sources to satisfy the unlimited consumption of the citizens. Governments intervene on balancing scarce sources through mechanisms such us worth rationing system. They can facilitate financial exercise in sure geographic areas.
There is a direct relationship between inhabitants and sources. Figure 1.1 shows totally different variables in the examine, inhabitants because the impartial and pure resources corresponding to land, agriculture and water as dependent variable. This study will provide adequate information on the consequences of nice inhabitants in the Philippines to the limited and scarce assets that the country is going through. Moreover, it’ll suggest some solutions on how will probably be efficiently allotted to the citizens of the country. Philippines, as one of many developing international locations, contributes on the worldly economic actions, thus, making its personal financial system create a fantastic impact on the financial system of the world.
The Philippines is bounded on the east by the Philippine Sea, on the south by the Sulu and Celebes seas, on the west by the South China Sea, and on the north by Luzon Strait. The Philippine Islands lie off the southeastern coast of the Asian mainland, across the South China Sea from Vietnam and China. The shortest distance to the mainland, from the northern Philippines to Hong Kong, is about 805 km (500 mi). The Philippine Islands prolong about 1,850 km (1,a hundred and fifty mi) from north to south (between Taiwan and Borneo Island) and about 1,100 km (700 mi) from east to west.
Malaysia and Indonesia, which each maintain territory on Borneo, are the republic’s closest political neighbors. The Philippines covers a complete space, not including its intensive coastal waters, of 300,000 sq km (116,000 sq mi). More than 7,a hundred islands and islets are included in the Philippine archipelago. The 11 largest islands make up more than ninety % of the whole area. Only about 460 islands are larger than 2.6 sq km (1 sq mi), and about 1,000 are populated.
The Philippines has in depth mineral deposits of copper, gold, silver, nickel, lead, and chromium. Other necessary, however less plentiful, deposits of zinc, cobalt, and manganese also exist. Copper has been mined extensively and is the main mineral product, however lots of the country’s mineral resources stay unexploited. The Philippines has limited offshore petroleum and natural fuel reserves. About 19 p.c of the Philippines is forested. Logging has critically depleted forest cover for the reason that early twentieth century. The Philippine waters are ample with many varieties of fish, which are an important pure useful resource as a staple of the Philippine food regimen and an export commodity. Johnson (2012) said that one factor all humans on this planet have to survive is sources. Resources like meals and water are bare necessities for all times. The countries which are experiencing the highest development rates are all growing international locations, excluding the United States.
This international locations lack the expertise that other developed countries have and due to this fact things we consider primary they’ve never used. We watch our televisions everyday while they may have by no means seen a TV before. They additionally lack the fundamentals that we take without any consideration like indoor plumbing. Some countries water provide is identical as their sewage. India has one of many quickest growing populations in the world and the Ganges River exhibits their lack of assets out there to the people of India. The Ganges is amongst the most polluted rivers on the earth. It helps over four hundred million people with a inhabitants density of 1,000 individuals per square mile. India is an example of developing country that has a rise in its population development fee.
It can’t support its inhabitants now; lots of the folks in India are forced to wash within the Ganges because they don’t have any access to any other water supply. If this inhabitants continues to develop the river will continue to get increasingly polluted making it unsafe for the hundreds of thousands of folks that depend on it. This is not the only place in the world that the bigger populations are supported by limited assets.
Along with the folks in India relying on the Ganges over three fifths of individuals in developing nations lack primary sanitation, one third don’t have any entry to clean water, and 1 / 4 lack adequate housing. More typically than not the places where the inhabitants growth rates are the highest are the places least in a position to support the rise in population. Only the United States can proceed to help one of the world’s largest populations because we’re a developed nation and the increase comes mostly from immigration.
These international locations that continue to grow, despite being restricted in sources, are the largest areas of deforestation and depletion of pure assets. These areas lack sturdy authorities and are unable to implement the depletion of assets. The United Nations predict that currently 1 billion people lack the basic wants that we take without any consideration every day. With a scarcity of technology developing international locations will proceed to destroy resources at an alarming fee whereas many battle to outlive every day. Freshwater is probably the most fundamental of finite assets. It has no substitutes for many makes use of and is expensive to move. But freshwater sources are dwindling or turning into contaminated throughout the world.
Chronic or acute water scarcity is more and more widespread in plenty of nations with fast-growing populations, changing into a possible supply of battle. However, current technologies provide nice potential for enhancing on the effectivity of its use. Based from the research of Walden Bello, the state of the economy, even some of the administration’s friends have identified, is a thin reed on which to relaxation. In a current article, Peter Wallace, an influential advisor, deconstructed the 7.3 per cent progress rate recorded for the Philippines in 2007, exhibiting that the determine is definitely a statistical fluke that stems from the greatest way the measure Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is computed.
The determine really masks one thing negative: the fall of imports by 5.four per cent. “So as a outcome of we had much less imports, GDP looked good,” Wallace says. “From the place I sit, that does not point out a powerful, rising economy, one of the best in 31 years.” With no less irony, the World Bank agrees:
“Remarkably, weaker import growth made the biggest 1arithmetical contribution to the growth acceleration in 2000-07 compared to 1990-99.” It added that this was not “consistent with sustained fast progress in the longer term.”
The actuality, Wallace factors out, is indicated by the identical brutal numbers: extra poor individuals in 2007 than in 2000, more individuals without jobs, an actual decline in average family revenue, the shrinking of the middle class as extra folks leap ship and swim to other shores. “Notwithstanding greater growth,” the World Bank chimes in, “the newest official poverty estimates present that between 2003 and 2006, when GDP growth averaged 5.4 per cent, poverty incidence increased from 30.zero to 32.9 per cent. This level of poverty incidence is nearly as excessive as it was in 2000 (33 per cent). Indeed the magnitude of poor Filipinos rose to its highest stage in 2006: of a inhabitants of eighty four million in 2006, 27.6 million Filipinos fell beneath the national poverty threshold of P15, 057.” If you pop the well-known “Ronald Reagan” question to most Filipinos—“Do you are feeling higher off now than 4 years ago”—there is little doubt about how they might reply. For many people, the primary drawback confronting the economy is spelled G-MA.
But for those who have spent time learning the Philippine economic system, Arroyo is not the problem, but a part of a bigger problem that extends far into the latest previous. The collective responsibility of the final five administrations for our financial malfunctioning turns into stark when seen in a comparative context. According to the newest Human Development Report of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), with the expansion in GDP per capita averaging 1.6 per cent each year in the period 1990 to 2005, the Philippines’ economic progress document was the worst in Southeast Asia, with even all the so-called lower-tier ASEAN countries considerably to outstripping it. Chapter IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The world’s inhabitants reached over 6.60 billion in July 2007 and will attain 6.sixty eight billion by July this yr and seven.00 billion by July 2012 (according to CIA estimates). Countries with giant populations and few food resources or poor food distribution applications may find yourself becoming desperate refugees transferring to their neighboring countries. One out of every seven people alive, go to mattress hungry. Every day, 25,000 people die due to malnutrition and hunger-related ailments. Almost 18,000 of them are kids underneath 5 years
Figure 4.1 Population in the Philippines
The determine above reveals the rising population of the Philippines. From roughly 80 million, the population increases as much as a hundred million. As inhabitants increases, natural resources also get used up quicker than they are often changed. This can result on economic strain and interrelated web of worldwide environmental problems corresponding to assets depletion. Problem no. 1 How does overpopulation affects our natural assets corresponding to water, land and agriculture. Population and Water Resources
Population influences the freshwater resources, its quality and provide, in each rural and concrete areas through calls for for water and human actions corresponding to irrigation. One major consequence of overpopulation has been the excellent utilization of freshwater, thus resulting in a major freshwater crisis that may positively have an result on the future of our planet. It can be domineering to see the whole issue in perspective and the way the growing number of individuals in the surface of the Earth is relative to the amount of waste being produced. Hence, the constant pollution of the surroundings, together with our bodies of water has exponentially decreased the amount of usable water for the means ahead for our generations. This has critically been a difficulty because the oceans are mistaken for available water, but in actuality, the Earth has a finite supply of recent water which to be able to be converted from saline water to potable water, the quantity of power wanted is prohibited.
Thus water has become quite a scare commodity that few nations and civilizations appear to think about. The National Water Resources Board under the Department of Environment and Natural Resources in Philippines is responsible for guaranteeing the optimum exploitation, utilization, development, conservation and safety of the country’s water resource, in maintaining with the principles of Integrated Water Resource Management.
The nation is endowed with wealthy pure assets – including water – which are essential for the country’s economic growth and in meeting its Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Water resources of the Philippines embody inland freshwater (rivers, lakes, and groundwater), and marine (bay, coastal, and oceanic waters). Overall, there could be adequate water however not sufficient in highly populated areas, especially throughout dry season.
Citing the Environmental Management Bureau (EMB), Israel explains that the number of monitored freshwater bodies which failed the standard by way of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) has been increasing considerably at common annual rates of 22.ninety p.c and 22.30 percent, respectively, from 2000 to 2007. Likewise, he explains that many freshwater our bodies, particularly these in city areas, have been contaminated with suspended solids, heavy metals and other harmful chemical substances.
Population and Land Resources
According to Higgins (1982), carrying capacity presumes that there are critical levels of inhabitants that any given land area can support. This stage is set by soil and climatic conditions. The carrying capability and population has a direct relationship. When population increases in a given space, the elevated demand on production can induce stress and consequent degradation of the land resource. As population grows constantly, the house in a given place remains constant, thus, making it limited.
Land resources can be limited because of land issues and imbalance. In the previous a hundred years the world has lost virtually half its forest space. And, as indicated by stories of the FAO (Food and Agriculture) the Earth is dropping on internet yearly 11.2 million hectares of virgin forest. This is reportedly the World Wildlife Fund, primarily as a result of its use as an vitality supply (about 2000 million folks worldwide depend on wooden as fuel) of agricultural and livestock enlargement and mining and logging corporations activities, often past management. Population and Agriculture
Some theories suggest that inhabitants development would outrun the power to supply meals, thus, main this to famine, illness, and different disasters. The use of land, specifically in agriculture, is an important part of humanity. We rely upon agriculture to supply us with meals, fiber and biofuels. Without a extremely efficient, progressive, and productive agricultural system, our society would collapse and stop to operate.
As the population grows and grows constantly, we are demanding more and more from the agricultural techniques, pushing them to their limits. At this rate, we must double, or triple the agricultural production in our economic system. The rapid increase in population, urbanization, and industrialization has additionally adversely affected the quality of water, especially in densely populated areas and areas of industrial and agricultural actions. The discharge of home and industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff has brought on in depth pollution of the receiving water-bodies. Problem no.
2 How the environmental impacts due to overpopulation do affects the financial system of the Philippines? As the population grows, it pushes the GDP per capita of a nation down. While the government tries to fulfill the needs of its people, with improve in population, the demand for sources retains growing. With not enough meals to take care of its males, such countries can’t even consider producing surplus to export and with this begins the vicious cycle of relying on international debt. With more people and less resources, there is unemployment that results in poverty and increased crime price.
Shrinking habitat is giving rise to elevated battle between man and animals. As the borders between forests and human settlements will get blurred by the day, human beings are being uncovered to viruses which might be carried by wild animals who have the immunity that we lack. This is precipitating in newer and extra virulent strains of microorganisms causing severe diseases in human beings.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The human population has been increasing at a particularly excessive fee in the last century and sadly, not a lot has been done to slow down this course of. Undoubtedly, overpopulation is a global problem. It is world as a end result of it pertains to all of humanity, but world additionally means that it affects the whole world, i.e. the setting. Almost all human actions impact negatively the setting in one kind or another, and as human inhabitants expands, the damaging results on the surroundings multiply. As the population grows, it pushes the GDP per capita of a nation down.
While the federal government tries to fulfill the wants of its people, with improve in inhabitants, the demand for resources retains growing. With not sufficient meals to take care of its males, such nations can’t even think of producing surplus to export and with this starts the vicious cycle of relying on overseas debt. This puts the country in debt at stretches the government’s already meager assets. Furthermore, when a country is overpopulated, there’s a high price of unemployment as a outcome of there just aren’t sufficient jobs to assist the population. This results in a high degree of crime because the people will want to steal issues in order to survive.
As pure assets become scarce, the manufacturing is sure to decrease. However, in a crowded society, demand remains robust. This causes the prices of products improve, to be able to steadiness supply and demand. However, a price change cannot all of a sudden reduce the necessity for a big population of. Therefore, costs remain high and continue to grow whilst people consume costly products. The depletion of pure resources is one of the most crucial problems of the worldwide neighborhood is facing, particularly after the sharp improve in world population over the last century. Each individual has a number of vital (food, drink, clothing) and non-life (education, employment, recreation) wants, which all require the consumption of Earth’s sources.
When the number of individuals making use of to these wants turns into extremely excessive, the shortage becomes a crucial problem in excessive cases can cause a “Malthusian catastrophe” According to the speculation of overpopulation superior by Enlightenment demographer Thomas Robert Malthus, Malthusian disaster is an occasion which results from a interval of unchecked inhabitants progress. Many determining factors build the success or demise of a country. Our forefathers have created that profitable nation with blood and sweat, through trials and tribulations. It is as a lot as this generation to ensure the advantageous outlook of this country for our future offspring. This inhabitants difficulty casts an impending downfall for our nation and should be stopped. Research and evaluation have to be performed, consequently summarizing probably the most favorable actions to be taken.
These actions then need to be embraced by state and federal governments, who in flip need to be aggressive in enacting firm and dynamic policies to thwart this disaster. Food scarcity might be prevented or lessened if we quickly stabilize inhabitants and find some as-yet-discovered agricultural development. Overpopulation causes rural farming individuals to outgrow their lands, so the grown children move to cities. Urbanization eats up farmland, reducing crop production. Also rising seasons have gotten hotter, so many crops fail due to warmth and drought. Overuse of the soils brought on by overpopulation leads poor nourishment for crops and eventually desertification. Overpopulation attracts on out there water to the point that there is not enough to water crops.
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