APUSH chapter 39-41 terms

APUSH Chapter 36

APUSH Chapter 21

Apush Chapter 6 Outline Notes

I. The Urban Frontier
By 1890, New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia all had a population larger than 1 million. Louis Sullivan contributed to the event of the skyscraper. City limits have been prolonged outward by electrical trolleys. People were interested in the cities by facilities similar to electrical energy, indoor plumbing, and telephones. Trash became a big downside in cities due to throwaway bottles, bins, baggage, and cans.

II. The New Immigration
The New Immigrants of the 1880s came from southern and jap Europe. They got here from countries with little historical past of democratic government, where individuals had grown accustomed to harsh living situations.

Some Americans feared that the New Immigrants wouldn’t assimilate to life in their new land. They began asking if the nation had turn out to be a melting pot or a dumping floor.

III. Southern Europe Uprooted
Immigrants left their native countries as a end result of Europe had no room for them. The population of Europe nearly doubled within the century after 1800 as a end result of ample provides of fish and grain from America and the widespread cultivation of Europe.

“America fever” caught on in Europe as the United States was portrayed as a land of great opportunities. Persecutions of minorities in Europe despatched many fleeing immigrants to the United States. Many immigrants by no means supposed to stay in America endlessly; a large number returned house with money. Those immigrants who stayed within the United States struggled to preserve their traditional tradition.

IV. Reactions to the New Immigration
The federal government did virtually nothing to ease the assimilation of immigrants into American society.

Trading jobs and providers for votes, a strong boss might claim the loyalty of 1000’s of followers. In return for his or her assist on the polls, the boss provided jobs on the city’s payroll, discovered housing for brand new arrivals, and helped get colleges, parks, and hospitals in-built immigrant neighborhoods. The nation’s social conscience gradually awakened to the troubles of cities. Walter Rauschenbusch and Washington Gladden were Protestant clergymen who sought to apply the lessons of Christianity to the slums and factories.

Jane Addams established Hull House, probably the most outstanding American settlement house. Addams condemned struggle in addition to poverty. Hull House supplied instruction in English, counseling to help immigrants cope with American big-city life, childcare companies for working mothers, and cultural activities for neighborhood residents. Lillian Wald established Henry Street Settlement in New York in 1893.

The settlement houses became centers of women’s activism and of social reform. Florence Kelley was a lifelong battler for the welfare of ladies, youngsters, blacks, and shoppers. The pioneering work of Addams, Wald, and Kelley helped to create the trail that many ladies later followed into careers in the new occupation of social work. The city frontier opened new prospects for girls. The vast majority of working girls have been single as a result of the truth that society considered employment for wives and moms taboo.

V. Narrowing the Welcome Mat
Ant foreignism, or nativism, arose in the Eighties with depth. Nativists nervous that the unique Anglo-Saxon inhabitants would quickly be outnumbered and outvoted. Nativists thought-about japanese and southern European immigrants inferior to themselves. They blamed the immigrants for the dreadful circumstances of urban government, and unionists attacked the immigrants for his or her willingness to work for small wages. Among the antiforeigner organizations formed was the American Protective Association (APA). Created in 1887, it urged to vote against Roman Catholic candidates for workplace.

Organized labor was quick to show its unfavorable perspective towards immigrants. Immigrants had been incessantly used as strike-breakers. In 1882, Congress handed the first restrictive law towards immigrants. It compelled paupers, criminals, and convicts again to their home nations. In 1885, Congress prohibited the importation of international employees under contract-usually for substandard wages. Federal legal guidelines had been later enacted that were made to maintain the undesirables out of America. In 1882, Congress barred the Chinese fully from immigrating to the United States (Chinese Exclusion Act).

VI. Churches Confront the Urban Challenge
Protestant church buildings suffered considerably from the inhabitants move to the cities, where many of their conventional doctrines and pastoral approaches appeared irrelevant. A new technology of city revivalists stepped into this spreading ethical vacuum. Dwight Lyman Moody, a Protestant evangelist, proclaimed a gospel of kindness and forgiveness.

He contributed to adapting the old-time religion to the details of metropolis life. The Moody Bible Institute was based in Chicago in 1889 to carry out his work. Roman Catholic and Jewish faiths have been gaining enormous power from the New Immigration. By 1890, there were over one hundred fifty non secular denominations within the United States. The Church of Christ, Scientist was founded in 1879 by Mary Baker Eddy who preached that the true apply of Christianity heals illness.

VII. Darwin Disrupts the Churches
Published in 1859 by Charles Darwin, On the Origin of the Species stated that people had slowly developed from lower forms of life. The principle of evolution cast severe doubt on the concept of religion. Conservatives stood firmly in their beliefs of God and faith, whereas Modernists flatly refused to accept the Bible in its entirety.

VIII. The Lust for Learning
During this time period, public training and the thought of tax-supported elementary colleges and excessive schools were gathering power. Teacher-training colleges, known as “normal schools”, experienced great growth after the Civil War. The New Immigration in the 1880s and 1890s brought new strength to the personal Catholic parochial faculties, which have been fast turning into a serious a half of the nation’s academic structure. Public faculties excluded hundreds of thousands of adults. Crowded cities usually provided higher academic facilities than the old one-room rural schoolhouses.

IX. Booker T. Washington and Education for Black People
The South lagged far behind different areas in public training, and African-Americans suffered probably the most. The main champion of black schooling was ex-slave Booker T. Washington. He taught in 1881 at the black regular and industrial faculty at Tuskegee, Alabama. His self-help approach to fixing the nation’s racial issues was labeled “accommodationist” as a end result of it stopped in want of directly difficult white supremacy.

Washington avoided the problem of social equality. George Washington Carver taught and researched at Tuskegee Institute in 1896. He turned an internationally famous agricultural chemist. Black leaders, together with Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois, attacked Booker T. Washington as a end result of Washington condemned the black race to guide labor and perpetual inferiority. Du Bois helped to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910.

X. The Hallowed Halls of Ivy
Female and black schools shot up after the Civil War.
The Morrill Act of 1862, passed after the Southern states had seceded, offered a beneficiant grant of the common public lands to the states for support of training. The Hatch Act of 1887 extended the Morrill Act and provided federal funds for the institution of agricultural experiment stations in connection with the land-grant faculties. Millionaires and tycoons donated generously to the tutorial system. Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, maintained the nation’s first high-grade graduate faculty.

XI. The March of the Mind
Due to new scientific gains, public health increased.
William James made a big influence in psychology by way of his quite a few writings.

XII. The Appeal of the Press
The Library of Congress was founded in 1897 from the donations of Andrew Carnegie. The invention of the Linotype in 1885 increased the manufacturing of texts. Joseph Pulitzer was a pacesetter within the methods of sensationalism in St. Louis. William Randolph Hearst constructed up a series of newspapers starting with the San Francisco Examiner in 1887. The Associated Press, founded in the 1840s, was gaining strength and wealth.

XIII. Apostles of Reform
Magazines partially satisfied the public urge for food for good studying. Possibly the most influential journal of all was the New York Nation.

Started in 1865 by Edwin L. Godkin, it crusaded militantly for civil-service reform, honesty in government, and a moderate tariff. Henry George, one other journalistic creator, wrote the book Progress and Poverty in 1879, which tried to unravel the association of progress with poverty. According to George, the stress of growing population on a fixed supply of land unjustifiably pushed up property values, showering unearned income on owners of land. He supported a single tax. Edward Bellamy wrote the socialistic novel, Looking Backward, by which the year 2000 contained nationalized huge business to serve the general public interest.

XIV. Postwar Writing
As literacy elevated, so did book reading. “Dime novels” were brief books that usually advised of the wilds of the West. General Lewis Wallace wrote the novel, Ben Hur: A Tale of the Christ, to combat Darwinism. Horatio Alger was a Puritan-driven New Englander who wrote greater than one hundred volumes of juvenile fiction involving New York newsboys in 1866.

XV. Literary Landmarks
In novel writing, the romantic sentiment of a youthful era was giving method to the crude human comedy and drama of the world. In 1899, feminist Kate Chopin wrote about adultery, suicide, and women’s ambitions in The Awakening. Mark Twain was a journalist, humorist, satirist, and opponent of social injustice. He recaptured the bounds of realism and humor within the genuine American dialect. Bret Harte was additionally an creator of the West, writing in California of gold-rush tales. William Dean Howells became the editor in chief of the prestigious Boston-based Atlantic Monthly.

He wrote about odd individuals and about up to date, and generally controversial, social themes. Stephen Crane wrote about the unpleasant underside of life in urban, industrial America. Henry James wrote of the confrontation of innocent Americans with delicate Europeans. His novels incessantly included girls as the central characters, exploring their inner reactions to complicated situations with a ability that marked him as a master of psychological realism.

By 1900, portrayals of modern-day life and social issues have been the literary order of the day. Jack London was a famous nature author who turned to depicting a potential fascistic revolution in The Iron Heel. Black writer Paul Laurence Dunbar embraced the usage of black dialect and folklore to seize the richness of southern black tradition. Theodore Dreiser wrote with disregard for prevailing ethical requirements.

XVI. The New Morality
Victoria Woodhull wrote the periodical, Woodhull and Clafin’s Weekly in 1872, which proclaimed her belief in free love. Anthony Comstock made a life-long struggle on the immoral. The Comstock Law censored “immoral” material from the public.

XVII. Families and Women within the City
Urban life launched the era of divorce. People within the cities have been having fewer youngsters because more youngsters would mean extra mouths to feed. Women were rising extra unbiased within the urban surroundings. Feminist Charlotte Perkins Gilman called upon ladies to abandon their dependent standing and contribute to the bigger lifetime of the neighborhood through productive involvement within the economic system. XVIII. In 1890, the National American Woman Suffrage Association was founded. The re-born suffrage movement and other women’s organization excluded black girls. Ida B. Wells helped to launch the black women’s membership motion, which led to the institution of the National Association of Colored Women in 1896.

XIX. Prohibition of Alcohol and Social Progress
Liquor consumption had elevated within the days of the Civil War and had continued to flourish afterwards. The National Prohibition Party was fashioned in 1869. The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union was fashioned in 1874 by militant ladies. The Anti-Saloon League was sweeping new states into prohibiting alcohol, and in 1919, the national prohibition modification (18th) was handed.

XX. Artistic Triumphs
Music and portrait painting was gaining popularity.
The phonograph, invented by Thomas Edison, enabled the replica of music by mechanical means.

XXI. The Business of Amusement
The circus, arising to American demand for enjoyable, emerged within the Eighteen Eighties. Baseball was additionally rising because the national pastime, and in the 1870s knowledgeable league was shaped. The move to spectator sports was exemplified by soccer.

Basketball was invented in 1891 by James Naismith.

APUSH Chapter 35 – War

APUSH Chapter 25

APUSH Chapter 25 Vocab

Applying Anomaly Detection TechnqiuesSo far in this Chapter we now have decreased the

6.3Applying Anomaly Detection TechnqiuesSo far in this Chapter, we’ve decreased the info into a extra approachable information setrepresented by what we now have recognized to be key variables. We have also seen whatknown bots appear to be and compared these to the rest of the data. To see if we will findany anomalous information points that might be explained by bots, we’ll now carry out bothglobal and native anomaly detection techniques.6.3.1K-NN Anomaly DetectionLet’s first apply K-Nanomaly detection to the standardized knowledge, using the K = 44nearest neighbour as 1965 ‰€ 44.

Doing this, we discover the three data factors which incurthe largest K-NN scores are the information factors 345, 661505 and 727589. These three datapoints are the three anomalous knowledge factors that had been seen as a collective anomaly in theK-means clustering of the information. However, as stated previously all of these knowledge pointshave a excessive common time spent on a web page per session and it is very unlikely that theseanomalous points are explained by bots. So as a substitute, we look at the 50 knowledge points whichscored the best K-NN score, which are given by the pink crosses in Figure 6.

7. Thisdiagram illustrates how the K-NN anomaly detection approach is a world methodology, aseach knowledge point represented by a pink cross does certainly seem to be isolated from therest of the info. We can also use this determine to match the collective anomaly found inK-means clustering with the three data points that are the furthest right in Figure6.7. If we examine these 50 knowledge factors, it again turns out all of which have a veryhigh worth for the common time (most being over 500 seconds), and are therefore unlikelyto be bots.

In reality, none of those 50 knowledge points are identified as identified bots, whichindicates that they most likely don’t have the required statistics to be classed as a bot.Figure 6.eight: 50 information factors which scored the highest K-NN rating If we examine the 50 knowledge factors which scored the highest KNN rating to the pointswhich have been recognized as outliers/noise within the DBSCAN algorithm, we find that 7 outof the 20 information points didn’t match. As we beforehand noticed, international anomalies suggest localanomalies but native anomalies do not suggest global anomalies and that is what we haveseen right here. It is unlikely that we are going to find anomalous factors that can be explainedby bots from world anomalies, as for a worldwide anomaly to be identified it has to be faraway from the remainder of the information .In the mannequin we are using, this implies a really largeaverage time. Therefore, to try and find some anomalous points that could be explainedby bots, we will now flip to local anomaly detection.6.three.2LOF Anomaly DetectionNow let’s calculate the LOF rating for every of those 1965 data factors. When calculatingthe LOF score we once more need to specify the worth of K, for which we will use K = forty four, dueto the rule of thumb of utilizing the square root of the variety of knowledge factors we consider.In Chapter 5 we noticed that any knowledge level with a LOF rating higher than 2 would meanthe point is ln an area of low density and due to this fact likely to be an anomalous point. Ifwe establish all these knowledge points in which their LOF rating is greater than 2, we find thatthere are 181 information points that are thought of to be possible anomalous points. If we thenidentify these 181 points, we discover that in fact not considered one of the identified anomalous pointsare known bots. If we evaluate these data points with the 20 data factors identifiedas noise/outliers by the DBSCAN algorithm, we discover that only three of the 20 knowledge pointsdidn’t feature in each lists. Note that the three data factors which didn’t have a LOFscore higher than 2, all featured in the 50 information points with the highest KNN score,therefore clearly being global anomalies. The plot of this data is proven in Figure 6.9 (a),where the pink factors point out the data factors which have a LOF rating larger than 2.If we examine this plot with Figure 6.8, we are ready to really spot many variations. Both ofthe methods pick the data factors which are considered to be clear global anomalies,however the LOF technique picks out a lot more knowledge points inside the primary bulk of the information.This major bulk of the info has a mean time nearer to zero and hence is far morelikely to be anomalous data which could probably be explained by bots.Unfortunately, LOF anomaly detection does additionally decide up world anomalies, as we cansee in Figure 6.9(a) and as we’ve seen so far on this chapter it appears obvious thatwe are on the lookout for local anomalies. Therefore, to try and compensate for this we willnow look for data level which give a LOF score larger than 10 as these factors willalmost actually be counted as native anomalies. It turns out there are 6 information points witha LOF score larger than 10, with one knowledge level actually having a LOF score equal to22.58668, so much bigger than 2, the value at which an information points becomes suspicious. Ifwe plot these 6 values, once more marked in purple and proven in Figure 6.7 (b), we see thatthey are within the dense area of the data. These points have been recognized as clear localanomalies in the knowledge, all of which having a low average time per page visit, a relativelyhigh variety of page visits per session and a history score around zero.5. They also seem tobe in a very related area of the graph to which the recognized bots had been plotted in Figure6.4. Earlier in this chapter, it was made obvious that the anomalies that had been going to be defined by bots have been going to come from native anomalies. We have now identified6 knowledge points that are clear local anomalies and likewise correspond to behavior that weknow is defined by bots. Hence, these 6 information points identified, are very likely localanomaly points which can be explained by bots.6.4SummaryIn this chapter, we now have condensed a very massive knowledge set into a much more approachable,where we have recognized the essential variables. From analysing what known bots looklike, we condensed the info additional by figuring out what we had been in search of and excludingdata which didn’t have the required features. Discarding a variety of the knowledge means thatsome bots will go unidentified, but we purposely centered on the bots which would havethe greatest impact to the net page, that means the bots which might be prone to be left undetecteddidn’t consist of a high number of page visits and therefore wouldn’t choke up the net web page.When wanting on the remaining knowledge, we recognized many world anomalies, nonetheless itwas pretty apparent from the definition of a bot that these wouldn’t have been causedby a bot. When investigating local anomalies, we recognized 6 data points which weremuch more prone to be anomalies which could be defined by bots. Although withoutany verification, we can’t ensure that these anomalous points had been bots, which againillustrates the difficulty of the problem.

AP World History Chapter 23 (Strayer)

AP Government Chapter 2 Summary

Within the primary pages of this chapter, we are launched with the subject of the constitution and actions of Gregory Lee Johnson. The case of Gregory Lee Johnson is about that of him burning an American flag and protesting that when the government grew to become concerned, it was towards his freedom of speech. This is where the constitution of the United States comes into play and supersedes the odd law.

The query although, what exactly is a constitution? A structure is a nation’s basic laws.

Essentially it creates political establishments, offers rights for citizens and holds energy throughout the authorities. The structure also holds the unwritten traditions and precedents that have been established. Most people do not at all times agree with how the constitution is written and don’t always agree with how the federal government is ran, but this structure is the premise of how all issues are ran.

Next is the Declaration of Independence. Between 1775 and 1776 there was an amazing quantity of discontent with the English and the Continental Congress was in session for that steady yr.

When all the boys were arising with concepts and a basis for the Declaration of Independence, most concepts and propositions were adopted from John Locke who argued that people have all natural rights and usually are not dependent upon the government. Later this Declaration was written primarily by Thomas Jefferson and adopted on July 4th, 1776. Essentially this was written to announce and justify the revolution that was occurring. Lastly, all of the colonists needed international assistance to conquest essentially the most powerful nation on the planet.

Going back to completely perceive Locke and his ideas, we take a glance at the concept Locke was some of the influential philosophers of this time. John Locke constructed most of his philosophy on the thought of pure rights. Natural rights are rights inherent of people and who usually are not dependent on the federal government. Also, John argued that the government must be built upon the consent of the governed, meaning that folks agree on who their rulers
are. He also argued that our nation should have a limited authorities in order that there are restrictions on what a ruler can do. As Locke was developing along with his philosophy, he got here up with an excellent concept that governments ought to have standing legal guidelines by which individuals know if an act is acceptable or not earlier than doing it.

Now we come to the point of the federal government the failed. Congress was needed to make a plan for the permanent union of the states and the first plan to the structure was the Articles of Confederation. The Articles solely initially established a legislature with one home which was a giant problem on the time and can be a giant problem at present. There was no president on the time, no national courtroom and the powers had been extraordinarily restricted for the national legislature. After the states ratified this Article, issues were nonetheless proceeding. This included that Congress was solely capable of keep a military and navy, no more. All in all, Congress had no power. The only benefit to the Articles of confederation was that when the new Constitution was written, the writers knew the things to avoid.

Next was the difficulty of economic turmoil and the Shays revolt. After the warfare, many farmers have been left with a debt that could not be paid and had been threatened that their farms would be misplaced. So so as to try and pay this, many printed paper cash which was worthless and tried to pay the excellent debt back. Now the farmers felt a sigh of reduction when the Shays rebellion happened. This was a series of assaults on courthouses to forestall the judges from having farmers and their families foreclose on the farms.

Now we officially decided to make a structure on the Philadelphia convention. Fifty 5 delegates had been chosen to put in writing what turned the us Constitution. Most these folks had been rich planters or successful retailers and lawyers. Most issue differed in the facet of debates on big-issues to the self-interest of very small points. Most males actually did not share the same political aspect and a few issues arose from this. In fact, all these males had a really cynical view point of human nature and believed that men love power. As the phrases of this doc had been written, factions arose up. Factions are parties or interest groups. Most of the delegates believed that if a government is ran by factions, the government could be susceptible to instability, tyranny and that of violence.

So, within the Declaration of Independence, there are three issues that come up. First was the problem of equality. This problem was principally that of states arising with completely different plans and hoping it might work. The New Jersey Plan, the Virginia Plan and the Connecticut Compromise were all completely different in elements of what ought to be accomplished. Another problem was that of the economy. The writers of the Constitution dedicated to a powerful nationwide government and agreed that the economy was in full catastrophe and disarray.

The problem was that paper cash was worthless in some states and Congress was having points raising money due to the reality the economy was in a recession. And lastly have been the rights of a person. The Founders agreed that it was important to safeguard individualism and maintain threats away from private freedom. The Constitution presents protections, together with that of upholding the proper to a trial by jury and that of not taking a glance at a person’s religion to withhold them from a governmental place.

Now we take a glance at the ratification of the Constitution. In order for this Constitution to be processed, it wanted to be ratified by 9 of the 13 states. But there were issues that occurred for this to be ratified as a result of there were federalists and anti-federalist. Federalists supported the Constitution and anti-federalists did not. This is where the massive concern arose. Some of the variations these teams confronted were one being that anti-federalists most popular a robust government while the federalists preferred a weak one. Another drawback was that the anti-federalists wanted a direct election of governmental officials and the federalists didn’t.

Lastly was the inclusion of the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights was the first ten amendments to the Constitution in response to the concerns of the anti-federalists. The amendments actually give us the basic liberties, that of freedom of speech or faith. Yet the road to the Constitution and the ratification of it was not easy, the work of those males made it possible and fought to make it work. Without the work of these men, We wouldn’t be the place we’re at present and life as we all know it would be completely different.

A&P 1 chapter eight study guide

1)What is a joint?
Functional junctions between bones
2)How are joints classified?
Structurally: fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
Functionally: immovable, barely moveable, freely moveable
3)Describe the 3 types of fibrous joints.

•Syndemosis: sheet or bundle of dense connective tissue
•Sutures: solely between flat bones of skull
•Gomphosis: binds tooth to bony sockets
4)What is the operate of the fontanels?
Allows the cranium to barely change which allows the infant to cross by way of the start canal extra easily.

5)Describe two forms of cartilaginous joints.
•Synchondrosis: bands of hyaline unite the bones
•Symphysis: bones are lined by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage, and the cartilage is attached to a springy fibrocartilage.

6)What is the perform of an intervertebral disc?

They take up shocks and help equalize stress between the vertebrae when the body moves 7)Describe the structure of a synovial joint.
Two bones are held collectively by a joint capsule composed of two layers. Ligaments assist reinforce the capsule. The cavity between the bones are filled with a viscous fluid called synovial fluid.

8)What is the operate of the synovial joint?

Allow free movements
9)Name six kinds of synovial joints and describe the structure of every. •Ball + Socket: globular shaped head articulates with a cup formed cavity •Condylar: Ovoid condyle of one bone fits into the elliptical cavity of one other •Plane/Gliding: practically flat or barely curved

•Hinge: convex floor of 1 bone fits into concave surface of one other •Pivot: the cylindrical floor of one bone matches rotates in a hoop fashioned of a bone and a ligament.

•Saddle: articulating surfaces have each convex and concave surfaces. 10)Define the next movements and provides an example.

Flexion-bending parts, angle decreases, parts come closer
Extension-moving components, angle increses, parts move farther away Hyperextension-extension beyond anatomical position Dorsiflexion-movement at the ankle that brings the foot nearer to the shin Plantar flexion-moves the foot farther from the shin Abduction-moving part away from the midline, elevating the arm Adduction-moving half towards the midline
Rotation-moving half around on an axis
Circumduction-moving a part so the end follows a circular path Supination-rotation of forearm so the palm is upward

Pronation-rotation of forearm so the palm is downward Eversion-turning the foot so plantar floor is going through laterally Inversion-turning the foot so the plantar surface is dealing with medially Protraction-moving a component forward Retraction-moving a component backward
Elevation-raising a part
Depression-lowering a part

11)Describe how a movement happens at a joint when a muscle contracts. The fibers pull the moveable finish (insertion) towards its fixed end (origin) 12)What part helps to maintain collectively the articulating surfaces of the shoulder joint? •Coracohumeral ligament

•Glenohumeral ligament
•Transverse humeral ligament
13)What factors permit an especially big selection of movement in the shoulder? •The looseness of its attachments
•Large articular surface of the humerus compared to the shallow depth of the glenoid cavity 14)What structures form the hinge joint of the elbow?
Trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna

15)Which parts of the elbow permit pronation and supination of the hand? The head of the radius

16)Which constructions help maintain the articulating surfaces of the hip together? •Iliofemoral ligament
•Pubofemoral ligament
•Ischiofemoral ligament

17)What types of movements does the structure of the hip permit? •Flexion
18)What types of joints are within the knee?
•Modified hinge joint
•Plane joint

19)Which elements help hold collectively the articulating surfaces of the knee? •Patellar ligament
•Oblique popliteal ligament
•Arcuate popliteal ligament
•Tibial collateral ligament
•Fibular collateral ligament

20) Describe the next joint problems.
Sprain -over streching or tearing the connective tissues
Bursitis-overuse of a joint or stress on a bursa
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)- immune system attacks body’ wholesome tissues. Synovial membrane becomes inflamed and thickens. Then articular cartilage is damaged, fibrous tissue infiltrates and interferes with joint motion. Osteoarthritis-articular cartilage softens and disintegrates gradually Lyme Arthritis-casues intermittent arthritis of a quantity of joints 20)Which type of joint is the first to level out indicators of aging? Fibrous

21)Describe the loss of function in synovial joints as a progressive progress (while aging). •Begin in 30’s but progresses slowly
•Fewer capillaries serving synovial membrane; slows circulation of synovial fluid; leading to a chance of stiffening •More collagen cross-links shorten and stiffen ligaments; affecting range of motion

AP Human Geography: Chapter 1- Section 3&4 Notes

Ap Human Geography Chapter 1 Outline

Intro to Human Geography
Field Note: Humans are geographers by nature. They can think territorially or spatially and have an awareness of, and curiosity about the distinctive nature of locations. Even children possess qualities of geographers, creating carefully mapped realms in tiny locations. Places possess an emotional high quality, and we all must belong someplace.

Humans’ insatiable curiosity and the place-centered element inside us gave birth to geography as a tutorial self-discipline. Conquest and commerce generated a must know about the world and pragmatism was added long ago by traders and explorers.

Geography actually means “to describe the Earth,” and the practical aspects of geography first arose among the many Greeks, Romans, Mesopotamians, and Phoenicians.

I. What is Human Geography?
A. Human Geography: How individuals make places, how we organize space and society, and how we work together with one another across space
B. Globalization: Worldwide integration and development

II.What Are Geographic Questions?
A.Physical Geography: The branch of geography concerned with pure features and phenomena of the earth’s floor, as landforms, drainage features,climates, soils, and vegetation.

B.Spatial: Existing or occurring in space

C.Spatial Distribution: The arrangement of a phenomenon across house D.Pattern: What relationship exist between completely different places and things E.Medical Geography: The distribution of a disease F.Pandemic: An epidemic of infectious illness that has unfold via human populations throughout a big area (sometimes unfold as a lot as worldwide) G.Epidemic: A widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a group at a selected time.

H.Spatial Perspective: A technique utilized in geography to establish, predict and
clarify the physical and human patterns in space
I.Location: Geographical position
J.Location Theory: An element of up to date human geography that seeks answers to a extensive range of questions-some theoretical, some sensible K.Human-Environment: A spatial perspective that invitations consideration of the relationship among phenomena in particular person places-including between humans and the world

L.Region: An space on Earth’s floor marked by a level of formal, functional, or perceptual homogeneity of some phenomenon M.Place: A location
N.Sense of Place: State of thoughts derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering necessary occasions that occurred in that place or by labeling a spot with a sure character. O.Perception of Place: Belief or “understanding” about a spot developed by way of books, motion pictures, tales or pictures.

P.Movement: The mobility of people, goods and ideas throughout the surface of the planet. Q.Spatial Interaction: Both Complementarity ( A condition that exists when two areas, through an trade of raw materials and/ or completed merchandise, can specifically fulfill every other’s demands) and Intervening Opportunity (The presence of a nearer alternative that significantly diminishes the attractiveness of net sites farther away). R.Distance: Measurement of the physical area between two places. S.Accessibility: The diploma of ease with which it’s possible to succeed in a certain location from different locations. T.Connectivity: The degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other areas in a transport network. U.Landscape: The overall appearance of an area

V.Cultural Landscape: The visible imprint of human activity
W.Sequent Occupance: The notion that successive societies depart their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape.

III. Why do geographers use maps, and what d maps inform us?
A.Cartography: The artwork and science of making maps, including data
compilation, structure, and design. Also involved with the interpretation of mapped patterns.
B.Reference Maps: Maps that show the absolute location of places and geographic options determined by a body of reference C.Thematic Maps: Maps that inform tales, usually displaying the degree of some attribute of the movement of a geographic phenomenon.

D.Absolute Location: The place of place of a certain item on the surface of the Earth as expressed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude
E.GPS: Satellite-based system for figuring out absolutely the location of places or geographic features.
F.Geocaching: A hunt for a cache, the GPS coordinates that are placed on the Internet by different geocachers.
G.Relative Location: The regional position or situation of a spot relative to the position of other places.
H.Mental Map: Image of image of the finest way space is organized as determined by an individual’s notion, impression, and information of that house. I.Activity Space: The space inside which daily exercise happens.

J.Generalized Map:When mapping information, whether human or bodily geographers, cartographers, the geographers who make maps, generalize the data the present on maps. K.Remote Sensing: A methodology of accumulating information or data via the use of instruments which are bodily distant from the realm or object of study.

L.Geographic Information Systems: A collection of laptop hardware and software program that allows spatial information to be collected, recorded, saved, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and exhibited to the user.

IIII. Why are geographers involved with scale and connectedness? A.Rescale: Involvement of gamers at different scales to generate assist for a place or an initiative
B.Formal Region:A type of region during which the housing inventory predominantly reflects types of building which would possibly be explicit to the tradition of the people who have inhabited the realm.
C.Functional Region: A region outlined by the particular set of activities or interactions that happen inside it.
D.Perceptual Region: A region that solely exists as a conceptualization or an thought and never as a physically demarcated entity. E.Culture: The sum whole of the information, attitudes, and recurring conduct patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society. F.Culture Trait: A single element of normal practice in a culture G.Culture Complex: A related set of cultural traits, such as prevailing costume codes and cooking and consuming utensils

H.Cultural Hearth: Heartland, source area, innovation middle; place of origin of a major culture. I.Independent Invention:The time period for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of one another J.Cultural Diffusion:The enlargement and adoption of a cultural factor, from its place of origin to a wider area. K.Time-Distance Decay:The declining diploma of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or supply.

L.Cultural Barrier:Prevailing cultural attitude rendering sure innovations; concepts or practices unacceptable or unadoptable in that exact culture.

M.Expansion Diffusion: The unfold of an innovation or an thought through a inhabitants in an space in such a way that the number of those influenced grows constantly larger, leading to an increasing area of dissemination.

N.Contagious Diffusion: The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other merchandise by way of an area inhabitants by contact from individual to individual.
O.Hierarchical Diffusion: A type of diffusion during which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most linked locations or peoples.
P.Stimulus Diffusion:A type of diffusion in which cultural adaptation is created because of the introduction of a cultural trait from one other place.
Q.Relocation Diffusion: Sequential relocation process by which the objects being relocated are transmitted by their service brokers as they evacuate the old areas and relocate new ones.

IIIII. What are geographic ideas, and how are they used inanswering geographic questions? A.Geographic Concept: Ways of seeing the world spatially that are used by geographers in answering research questions. B.Environmental Determination: The view that the natural surroundings has a controlling affect over various elements of human life, together with cultural development.

C.Isotherm: Line on a map connecting factors of equal temperature values. D.Possibilism: Geographic viewpoint- a response to determinism- that holds that human determination making, not the surroundings, is the important factor in cultural development. E.Cultural Ecology: The multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural environment. F.Political Ecology:An method to studying nature-society relations that’s concerned with the ways during which environmental points both replicate, and are the result of, the political and socioeconomic contexts by which they’re located.

Anthropology (Chapter 1: What Is Anthropology?)

Anth-1510 Chapter 11

Animal Farm Study Questions Chapter 6-10

1. The animals are doing a lot of work because they should get the windmill accomplished. 2. Napoleon decides to trade with the neighboring farms as a result of the can’t afford to let the windmill go undone and the animals are starving. 3. The animals’ reaction is that they’re shocked but decide it’s needed that Napoleon trades with the neighboring farms. four. The windmill is destroyed by the wind that knocked it over. Napoleon blames Snowball because he wants to make Snowball seem like a good worse person.

5. Napoleon orders that the hens’ eggs be offered as a outcome of the farm wants extra grain and for hundred eggs every week is what they want to get the grain they should survive until the summer season. 6. The way Napoleon acts is that he makes it where anybody who takes the hens meals or any supply will be punished and he wants the eggs. 7. The animals confess to being traitors as a result of they imagine that they deserve what the opposite animals obtained from them.

Chapter VII and Chapter IX

1. The objective is to show that the animals usually are not living off worse than before they rebelled towards Jones. 2. Napoleon is changing into increasingly more like a typical dictator because he is taking over the animals’ natural rights and he’s making it where they can’t do certain issues. He’s turning into just like Jones. 3. Napoleon outwits himself by making sure he had cash up front except for a pay-me-back and when he does that, he will get counterfeit money instead.

four. What makes the battle in opposition to Frederick’s men totally different from the Battle of the Cowshed of that Frederick’s males had guns this time and were in a place to kill more animals than last time.

5. The whiskey incident is when Napoleon drinks too much alcohol and is on his deathbed however he quickly recovers. 6. The dwelling conditions are harsh contemplating the pigs and canines can take what they want as a end result of they should vicious dogs to regulate the other animals. 7. Napoleon permits Moses to come back and inform his tales as a result of it retains the animals working hard and it retains them from realizing what a jerk and over highly effective man Napoleon is turning into and it
keeps them from having thoughts of revolt.

Chapter X

1. The adjustments that the years have dropped at the farm are that Jones has died and it may not be as bad as Jones’s time but it’s nicely on it’s way there. 2. Orwell makes fun of forms by exaggerating the way Napoleon is changing into human. three. The animals really feel that their farm is best off than it was before the revolt but they are nonetheless not getting what they deserve from the upper animals. four. They kill off the animals because they betrayed them.

5. The new commandment is All animals are equal. But some are more equal than others. It has been true from the start because the pigs took over at first and so they began taking more and more of the animals’ rights away as they went . They started to consider that they had been higher than everyone else. 6. The pigs’ appearance begins to vary after they begin strolling on their hind legs and on the end, the pigs become human; their faces change completely.

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Analysis of The Man at the Well Chapter

Some say it’s not what we do however what we don’t do that can truly outline who we are. In the tenth chapter, “The Man on the Well”, from Tim O’Brien’s memoir, If I die in a Combat Zone, O’Brien manages to painting one of the most powerful messages throughout his entire journey. It’s about American ignorance, the lack to help these in need, the true that means of humanity and whether we, as a inhabitants, are capable to break down obstacles and walls that we, ourselves, have constructed.

“A blustery and silly soldier, blond hair and large belly, picked up a carton of milk and from fifteen ft away hurled it, for no purpose, aiming on the old man and hanging him flush within the face. The carton burst. Milk sprayed into the old man’s cataracts. He hunched foreword, rocking precariously and looking for his stability. He dropped his bucket. His arms went to his eyes then dropped loosely to his thighs.

His blind gaze was fastened straight forward, on the silly soldier’s feet” (Page 100).

O’Brien’s language it’s purposefully proposed and constructed to paint one of the vivid images in the whole memoir. He creates a scene which the reader’s progressive mind engulfs and produces it into one of the most charming and coronary heart wrenching photos easily proven like a movie in our own heads. His undeniable selection of descriptive words can’t help but have the impact of a film-like picture flowing by way of the reader’s creativeness.

O’Brien uses this fastidiously disguised writing method to finally grasp the hearts of his followers and use their sacrificing vulnerability to engrave a philosophical idea in their minds – similar to humanity’s opinion of right and incorrect.

“The Man on the Well” produces a basis of disgrace and disbelief to think that a human being, an American soldier who is appeared as much as by children, Vietnamese and American, can fabricate such a hurtful scene. The audacity to even act out the horror and hate is appalling to any reader it makes he or she question the motives of several American soldiers and whether or not their morals are politically correct. It is a nice line between what is right and wrong – there might be little gray in a scenario similar to this. It’s clear the anecdote was an act of hatred. There was no query as to if the ignorance of the “stupid soldier” was proper – it was far previous right. However why then, did nobody do or say anything? Instead an audience watched as a man, a blind and aged man, who voluntarily was serving to them, suffered from one man’s intolerable actions.

People are afraid and that fear creates a boundary. It changes people’s beliefs – and ideas one thought at all times to be proper and those concepts might change in an instance with the doubt worry carries. People come to a crossroads in their lives; where what they as quickly as thought their morals have been, what they once thought they would rise up for is no longer as a result of concern created a wall – a wall that’s unbearable to take down. It is a wall in-built front of various people nevertheless sharing a typical moral sense. These folks can not see previous their very own selfish fear to unravel a disaster exterior of themselves. If just a few attempted to demolish this imaginary roadblock the outcome might be tremendously helpful, however, it’s impossible to attain unless people step outdoors of themselves and into a world they desire.

The chapter argues one’s sense of humanity and the stress that individuals really feel and generally are burdened by. However, O’Brien places himself, as an creator, able which he makes an attempt to interrupt down the wall. He asks you, “What is and what is not right? What are you going to do? Stand there and watch? Or are you going to do one thing about it?” I discovered the section powerful, transferring and inspirational, and even more so if those who did reply his underlying questions, answered with an optimistic, “yes we can do this” viewpoint.

Analysis of Chapter from Dickens” Novel Oliver Twist

The title of the chapter ‘Pursuit and Escape’ is a cliff-hanger itself, as a result of the title instantly provides you the impression that Bill Sikes escapes, and that’s what the whole viewers doesn’t want, so it makes it more attention-grabbing and makes folks need to learn on and discover out if Sikes does escape or not, which is dramatic entertainment.

The story itself is gripping, which has many meanings, the e-book displays Dickens’s life and how he grew up, Dickens was born in Portsmouth in 1812, his dad and mom have been poor and he had a very upsetting younger part to his life, after spending a happy crammed time in Chatham his father John Dickens fell into monetary issues and had to move to a derelict area of Camden Town, Charles needed to get a job and he labored in a blacking manufacturing unit, which is relevant to the story, as Oliver labored in a single.

Charles labored onerous and for a dwelling, visiting his dad one day per week in debt prison and working the rest, you cant help to think that Dickens work comes from his personal background and the finest way he grew up, but with a tale concerned.

The time this book was printed was in 1838, however the e-book took shape within the Bentleys Miscellany, which was some of the popular papers round in that point, which was where Dickens entered an episode every two weeks, every episode was about 9000 words in size.

The guide actually showed its viewers about London and what issues lie there.

Dickens entry’s each two weeks have been always ended on a cliff hanger, take chapter 50 for example, it ends with Sikes’s dying and his dog Bulls Eye leaping off a building and dashing its brains on the floor, which is a surprising ending however needs the reader again to want to buy the next concern and read on.

Dickens use of dialogue to create realism and variety by way of be in a position to change an individual by their criminal language, or ‘flash’, when you hear Kags, Chitling and Toby Crackit speaking, you right away can discover a distinction in speech in comparability with all the opposite characters in the e-book, words used like, ‘blunder -head, made our lucky up the wash’ us chimney’, which suggests a chimney that’s filled with traps, you see Dickens couldn’t swear or use blasphemy in his work due to the viewers he was sending it out to, the Victorians didn’t take very prone to such phrases, so Dickens used substitutes for it, corresponding to ‘by G–!’ which is meant to say by God! Also the utilization of slang, the language of the felony class, ‘strait-wescut which is a straight jacket or ‘this is a smash’ which is typical cockney rhyming slang in east end London frequent among thieves. Dickens dialogue additionally provides the reader additional data, e. g.

Fagin being arrested at The Cripples which was a pub all the locals went to, especially the felony cockney sorts, and the destiny of the rest of the gang, Dickens didn’t write about them immediately as a result of he wanted suspense and use a flashback scene , on page 488 Chitling has a flashback, ‘you should of heard the people groan’, mentioned Chitling, ‘the officers fought like devils, or they’d have torn him away. He was down as soon as, but they made a ring spherical him, and fought their way alongside.

You should have seen how he seemed about him, all muddy and bleeding, and clung to them as in the event that they were his dearest associates. I can see ’em now, not capable of stand upright with the urgent of the mob, and dragging him alongside amongst ’em; I can see the people jumping up, one behind another, and snarling their tooth making at him; I can see the blood upon his hair and beard, and pay attention to the cries with which the women worked themselves into the centre of the group on the avenue corner, and swore they’d tear his heart out!

Which is displaying Bets ordeal when she was dragged away in a straight jacket in a flashback that was not described within the early elements of Oliver Twist, this is used to explain to the reader and kind of add more items, or the missing pieces to the ‘puzzle’. Also Dickens informs the reader about the brutality of Nancy’s homicide so the death of Sikes was a justice for her demise and it reveals how the Victorian society cope with murderers and criminals.

He uses dialogue to indicate the different relationships between the characters, the arrival of Sikes web page 491 into the higher room is essential, Sikes is sarcastic in his manor towards the other three criminals, former pals, they appear afraid of Sikes due to the ear that Sikes is a murderer and that he can get them in deep trouble. The intimidation of Sikes changes the whole scene, ‘Damn you all!’ which is showing Sikes aggression, ‘Have you nothing to say to me? ‘ Sikes presence keeps the men silent, the state of affairs Dickens has created with a darkish room with only one candle and three men just ready round, hanging low for some time immediately offers the scene a way of concern and uneasiness, and the climax of the scene is when Sikes comes in and then the scene benefit’s the character and exploits the intimidating aspects of Sikes.

When Bates stands as a lot as Sikes, it’s a key turning point, the dialogue used is heroic from Bates, speeches similar to, ‘ witness you three – im not afraid of him- if they come here after him, ill give him up; I will. I inform you out directly. He may kill me for it if he likes, or if he dares, but if I am here sick give him up. Id give him up if he was to be boiled alive. Murder! Help! If there’s the pluck of a person among you three, you’ll help me. Murder! Help! Down with him!’ this speech is so inspiring and heroic that the reader will get actually excited at this level and is left with astonishment that a younger boy may do such a speech and the actions the comply with when he pounces on Sikes. This is used to move the story on and create rigidity in a really gripping way.

Another traditional of Dickens’s work is the descriptions he provides of characters for example, Kags who is described in a means that reminds the reader what criminals really look like and offers the reader a very edgy feel, ‘the third a robber of fifty years whose nose had been virtually overwhelmed in in some old scuffle, and whose face bore a frightful scar which could most likely be traced to the same event. This man was a returned transport, and his name was kags’. A very lengthy description but gives you plenty of concepts of what life was like in these times, a returned transport which is a time period used to explain convicted thieves which have been despatched to other British colonies corresponding to Australia and serve a certain period of time there for his or her felony.

The instant impression of Kags whenever you learn the outline is that he will not be a likable character, I suppose dickens’s has used this character to indicate that in Chapter 50 Page 490/491 when Sikes enters the darkness crammed room how much, you would say status in a means but not in a good way, a kind of fear and status, showing that even the meanest wanting and ‘hard’ characters in a sense are baffled and afraid of Sikes and this all is making a temper and feeling in a scene.

Aint No Making It Chapter Summaries

Chapter 1

Our achievement ideology relies on the concept that the U.S. is full of alternative and anybody can accomplish success in our society in the occasion that they work exhausting sufficient. Many develop up pondering schooling is the ladder that can allow for this social mobility and all you have to do is be prepared to work exhausting sufficient to earn it. But what about children who develop up considering differently? Why do some try for prime paying careers while others refuse school and are seemingly comfortable with staying working class? MacLeod challenges the notion that America is the land of alternative with analysis he conducted while in school.

He makes use of the analysis of several copy theorists to show that colleges not solely aren’t great equalizers, as most suppose, however really reinforce social inequality.

Chapter 2

Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis, both Marxists, imagine the American schooling system builds off of and reinforces the structure of sophistication relations in the united states by coaching the rich to take up area at the top of the economic system while conditioning the poor to just accept their standing. Their “correspondence principle” attracts the comparison between the social relations of manufacturing and personal interplay in schools. They argue that robust structural similarities may be seen in following: The group of power and authority in the school and in the office The student’s lack of management of curriculum and the worker’s lack of management of the content of his or her job The position of grades and different rewards at school and the role of wages within the workplace as extrinsic motivational methods Competition among college students and the specialization of academic topics and competitors among employees and the fragmented nature of jobs.

They argue this concept with how faculties differ in instruction based on their location. Schools serving low-income working class neighborhoods are emphasize rules and behavioral control (similar to what we now have mentioned within the Gilbert e-book about social mobility and class structure) whereas faculties serving suburban neighborhoods favor extra student participation and fewer direct supervision. By reinforcing social norms, schools socialize college students to occupy the same position in class construction as their dad and mom. Pierre Bourdieu believed that cultural capital was passed down from technology to generation. His four main points are: Each social class has distinct cultural capital

Schools systemically valorize upper-class cultural capital whereas depreciating decrease class capital The job market reinforces the superior academic credentials earned primarily by the higher lessons Schools legitimize the method by converting social hierarchies to academic ones Basil Bernstein uses language patterns to hyperlink micro and macro sociological issues. Bernstein argues that one’s class will determine a distinct form of speech through family socialization. This ends in working class youngsters being surrounded by a restricted code of linguistics while center class kids use more elaborate codes. Bernstein’s linguistic codes refer to the underlying regulative ideas that govern the selection and combination of different syntactic and lexical constructions that are derived from social relations and roles inside households.

Shirley Brice Heath additionally focuses on linguistic patterns however uses race to explain her concept that black working class children usually are not socialized at house to make use of the language patterns used in faculty which hurts them academically. White working class children fare higher as they develop many of the cognitive and linguistic expertise required at school. Paul Willis’s analysis determined that students’ background, location, local job market and academic attainment affect their job choice. Henry Giroux developed a resistance theory that implies working class subordination isn’t a reaction to the logic of capitalist rationality but that cultural patterns draw on elements of working class tradition in a artistic method.

Chapters 3-5

MacLeod dives into the Hallway Hangers and the Brothers, two groups of youth that reside in Clarendon Heights. The Hallway Hangers are a gaggle of largely white boys (with the exception of 2) who are involved in criminal exercise (robbery, drug dealing) drink, smoke marijuana and largely don’t favor faculty with solely of the boys within the group having graduated high school. Despite they felony activity, a lot of the Hallway Hangers want to make sufficient cash to move their families out of the initiatives. The Brothers are a gaggle of mostly black boys (with the exception of one) who so not smoke, drink regularly, and worth training as all of them attend high school. Though they are merely a peer group and not their very own subculture as they value teachers and athletics and aren’t as bothered by the stigma of residing in the initiatives. Describing the differences in the Hallway Hangers and the Brothers, the MacLeod factors out that the Hallway Hangers not often have parental supervision, many have lived in public housing for a quantity of years, many have absent fathers, and the tutorial attainment of their households may be very low.

The Brothers on the other hand have extra mother and father and siblings who graduated highschool and attended a minimum of some school, extra have father figures living in the house, and their common time living in Clarendon Heights is lower than the Hallway Hangers. The Hallway Hangers view their own job experiences and people of their members of the family as foreshadowing for their very own future jobs and contribute to an entrenched cynicism. They imagine their preferences will have no bearing on the work they’ll actually end up doing. To this group, work is given and it’s all primarily the identical: boring and unrewarding. The Brothers, nonetheless, value careers and are more optimistic about their futures. They see training as their ticket out of the initiatives and into a greater future. The Brothers attribute lack of success on to personal inadequacy whereas the Hallway Hangers see lack of alternative as simply the finest way American works.

Chapter 1-5 QUESTIONS:

1) Do you agree that our instructional system reinforces America’s class structure? Which social reproduction theorist do you agree or disagree with most? 2) What do you assume needs to change to guarantee that our instructional system to function properly and never reinforce class structures? 3) Why do you think our educational system has remained the same with no main structural changes for therefore lengthy regardless of the precise fact there’s loads of evidence to recommend it is not working? 4) On web page forty two the author says that racism in lower-class communities can be attributed to competitors for scarce assets and financial alternatives. Do you assume there’s some value on this statement?

5) How do you think the variations within the two groups’ (Hallway Hangers and the Brothers) life-style and background form their lives and impact their future decision? 6) Why does the mentality of work differ so much between the 2 groups? Why do you assume they have totally different views on social mobility? 7) Do you agree with the Brothers that the united states is an open society in which everyone can attain success and failure to do so is as a end result of of one’s own failure to work hard enough or do you agree with the Hallway Hangers and think one is destined to follow within the footsteps of their family? How does race relate to all of this?

Source URL: http://class.courseserve.info/?q=node/58

Chapters 6-8 Summary:

Lincoln High School (LHS) is a predominantly middle-class institution with a big student inhabitants segregated into several subprograms of study which are tracked both internally and in relation to one one other. (88) MacLeod’s main curiosity lies with the lower-rung programs into which the academic system places most Hallway Hangers and Brothers: the Occupational Education Program, the Building Trades and Services Program, the Enterprise Co-Op, and the Adjustment Class. Following an interracial, fatal stabbing, LHS augmented its staffing of black instructors, which in flip led to accusations of favoritism by white college students, summarized by Slick because the view that now “the white kid’s all the time wrong”. (89, 96) The highschool is also a web site for the common demonstration of disciplinary preoccupations, each overt and delicate in its exercise. (98) Of observe on this regard is the ever present promotion of an achievement ideology (the “worth of schooling”) inside its halls as reward for good conduct predicated on the efficacy of education and equality of alternative (98-9).

The achievement ideology establishes that individual merit and achievement are truthful and equitable sources of social inequality with out resorting to coercive means to make the purpose (113). In doing so, social cohesion is maintained through legitimation of the complete class order and persuasion of people so classed to accept their positions within the hierarchy. (114) MacLeod argues that, when working unhindered, ideological legitimation of this sort leads these of low class to self-blame, internalization of personal failure, keen acceptance of sophistication standing, and an incapability to kind broad social critiques (114). Simply put, these of low class are ideologically subjugated into a state of low vanity. The notoriety of LHS, though, derives from how college officials refrain from interceding within the social copy of class, accepting it as a fact of life, and exacerbating extant classed aspirational variations. (116) For instance, counselors remodel the obscure preferences of eighth graders for guide labor or to stay alongside friends into a definite commitment by enrolling them in the Occupational Education Program and slyly coercing them to stay it out afterwards. (89, 116-7) This secure course of studies, matched by earnest funding, mediocre academic success, and involvement with extracurricular actions characterize the Brothers, who resemble “typical highschool students”. (92)

For the Hallway Hangers, unruly conduct, boredom with classwork, and the like lead them either out of faculty altogether or into the Adjustment Class, where they come to respect Jimmy Sullivan, the streetwise and financially unbiased teacher, and recognize the flexible environment and light-weight workload. In the phrases of Frankie, “if you do your work [there], you are in a place to do no matter [you like]”. (94) MacLeod understands the Brothers, who unconditionally buy into the achievement ideology, commit themselves, and but wrestle to acquire respectable grades, as proxies for the problem of the “educability” of the decrease classes. (127, 100) Rejecting cultural deprivation theories, explanations that treat these difficulties because the product of working class household life, as inconclusive and prone to victim-blaming, MacLeod wishes to concentrate on the operations of LHS itself, for its standards of achievement decide whether or not to evaluate a pupil deficient (101).

These definitions are set by the dominant social classes to reward “appropriate cultural capital” within the classroom and implement class-linked instructional gains. Instructional expectations, the structure of valid data, teacher-student interplay, and program monitoring every contribute in turn. (101) The Brothers, presently oblivious to those operations, attribute their shortcomings in school to personal inadequacy, lowering their shallowness in consequence. (102) Ironically, the instructors who educationally devalue the Brothers additionally function role fashions for his or her aspirations, after whom the Brothers pattern themselves in the process of “anticipatory socialization”. (111) MacLeod means that the sheltered work experiences of the Brothers to date, aside from Juan, have merely postponed realization of the achievement ideology as a veil obscuring their objective life probabilities. (127) This potential to “cool out” sooner or later, nonetheless, is offset in part by a social legitimation so entrenched within the Brothers that even the “controlled mobility” of sporadic success encourages further self-reproach amongst those that come up brief. (127-8)

The manifest disaffection and lack of self-discipline towards LHS among the Hallway Hangers possesses an underlying logic that challenges the worth of education via rejection of both the achievement ideology and education itself. Its members, primarily based on life expertise already informing them that jobs with little instructional want lie ahead, rationally foresee obstacles to social advancement unaccounted for by the achievement ideology (103). They interact in a calculus of costs and advantages inside the social world of the street, where the “name of the sport is money”. (107) The costs of obedience, deferred earnings, disrespect, and lowered vanity that schooling represents are hardly ever, if ever, offset by its benefits in terms of quick financial success in the face of an unsure future. (107, 109) In order to attenuate such costs, the Hallway Hangers drop out, fall into a minimal course of examine, or undertake a common perspective of detachment from training. (108) Thus, the subculture of the Hallway Hangers shields its members in opposition to judgments of failure by way of withdrawal from actions potentially harmful to their shallowness and by offering a model new context within which to foster self-respect through the provisioning of alternative criteria for success (118).

Yet, the protection afforded to the Hallway Hangers is partial at best, for inside American society one cannot absolutely escape contact with dominant cultural beliefs at work, college, or in public. (119) Moreover, MacLeod finds that the group doesn’t perform solely to supply solace, for the Hallway Hangers espouse values which might be removed from defensive in nature. (118) Beyond inversion of conventional mores the place unhealthy is sweet lies a communitarian solidarity that speaks out against the individualism so appreciated in America. (119, 123) In this climate particular person pursuits, notably the possession of excessive aspirations for oneself, erode the loyalties that bond one member to the following. Says Jinx of this state of affairs, “if we can’t make it together, fuck it” (120). Despite the popularity of exterior forces limiting their options to get forward, the Hallway Hangers often categorical ambivalence in whether or not to assign blame to structural factors or to themselves when confronting failure (121). Their renting of the material of ideology is incomplete insofar as they continue to merely accept its disparagement of the decrease lessons to which they belong. Blinded by racism, alleging that the rise of blacks has worsened their very own situation, the Hallway Hangers are unable to stage comprehensive expenses in opposition to the social order (122).

The employment of reverse racial discrimination as an explanation for misfortune pardons both their actions and society at giant. (123) In the opinion of MacLeod, the “fundamental incongruity” between the Hallway Hangers and the Brothers rests with the acceptance or rejection of the achievement ideology (129). Yet, its precepts run counter to the lived expertise of each groups, so then what accounts for this divergence? MacLeod points to race as decisive, arguing that the ethnic separation of the two groups is much from coincidental. The Hallway Hangers are compelled to reject the achievement ideology as a end result of they are white. They cannot level to racial discrimination as an alternate trigger for their class place, and so acceptance can be tantamount to indicting themselves and their households as unfit to compete socially. The Brothers can conform to the ideas of the achievement ideology as a result of they’re black.

They can not only attribute their lack of privilege to racial prejudice, but additionally excuse their parents’ instructional and occupational faults (despite clear evidence of effort) through belief that race relations have dramatically improved, however imperfect they continue to be. (130-1) Holding low aspirations betrays the intergenerational gains of blacks. (131) Certainly, MacLeod’s stance just isn’t that divergence between the 2 peer groups is solely and strictly racialized. The Brothers are additionally buoyed by a sense of collective upward social trajectory stemming from an abbreviated tenancy in Clarendon Heights that for so much of represents a step up (from the South, from the Caribbean), quite than a step down. (132) Oppositional definition of 1 group to the other also promotes acceptance of the achievement ideology among the many Brothers, whose disassociation from the hostility of the resident Hallway Hangers pushes them toward conventionalism. Objectively, MacLeod observes, this antagonism between groups favors the Brothers within the job market, for it solely is smart to evolve when another group, the Hallway Hangers, not chooses to compete for employment underneath circumstances of shortage. (132) MacLeod concludes Part I by revisiting the social copy theories from Chapter 2 in order to determine their explanatory match with the findings of his ethnographic fieldwork.

Given that comparable circumstances produce two divergent paths that body the social copy of sophistication, MacLeod readily discharges financial determinist models as too mechanistic to account for the open-ended, although not necessarily positive, responses to structural and ideological factors he has uncovered. (138) Theories of unfettered cultural autonomy are additionally dismissed, for MacLeod finds due consideration of structural constraints on occupational outcomes lacking in them. (139) Instead, MacLeod believes that social reproduction should be understood via investigation of the interface between cultural and structural forces, where the two interpenetrate each other. As talked about earlier in Ain’t No Makin’ It, the bridging idea in his analysis is aspiration, linked in MacLeod’s work to the class-based tendencies Bourdieu locates inside the habitus (139). However, dissatisfied with its authentic formulation, which varieties a closed loop between structure and company, MacLeod attracts upon Bourdieu’s own ethnographic accounts to enrich habitus as a theoretical device.

His favored interpretation is versatile both in its accommodation of social interplay and within the dynamic interaction of mediating parts throughout the habitus that let its periodic restructuring. (140) “Working upward from ethnography to analysis”, starting as he does with peer cultures, MacLeod holds that qualitative fieldwork leads researchers to find such mediating elements on the cultural degree. (149) Even although pre-existing structural forces circumscribe particular person alternative, limits that are certainly internalized, MacLeod stresses in his writing that the method is exposed to subjective influence by way of which individuals “wrest that means out of the flux of their lives”(141). From this perspective, then, sociologists could retain the autonomy of subjective situational interpretation whereas still placing them as responses to the target limitations of social class. (142)

Although what interests MacLeod most within the current research is “the way ethnicity mediates the limitations of class”, he demonstrates the power of his approach by way of consideration of people that differ from his subjects alongside one dimension of the habitus. Drawing upon the ethnographic work of Jane Rosegrant and Anne Campbell, MacLeod discusses the restrictions patriarchy places upon disadvantaged women, with respect to mothering as a path to social acceptance and the inability of ladies to type subcultural options to standing formation, respectively. (144-5) Recognizing that the Brothers are unrepresentative of impoverished black men on the entire, he additionally dissects how project youths lack the “ambiance of improved life chances” that propel the Brothers to embrace conformity. (146)

MacLeod then turns to demonstrate how his theoretical position could make sense not only of groups, however of specific people as well. Points of meaningful divergence emerge between half-brothers Boo-Boo and Derek with respect to grammar school peer group interactions and, within the case of Billy, serve to reorient his life course in response to personal tragedies. Unsurprisingly, Part I ends on a downbeat. MacLeod summarizes the situations of the Hallway Hangers and the Brothers by observing that poor whites and blacks have nobody to look down upon, so they activate each other in plain view of others who think of them solely as “fucking animals” (152).

Chapters 6-8 Questions:

1. Student monitoring is offered as pervasive on many ranges at Lincoln High School, such as when counselors assign to each Occupational Education pupil his/her main “on the premise of curiosity, aptitude, and behavior” (p. 85). How may class-based perceptions and institutional requirements shape these qualitative evaluations? How do choices reached on these merits exacerbate existing variations in occupational aspirations amongst students? 2. Given the centrality of race to MacLeod’s understanding of the attitudinal variations between the Hangers and Brothers, is his portrayal of racial tension at Lincoln High School sufficiently detailed? How may you full his account? 3. MacLeod states that the Hangers’ “approach to highschool assuredly just isn’t based mostly on a rational cost-benefit analysis”. (p. 108) Do you agree along with his assessment? What does MacLeod intend to communicate about what constitutes rationality on this context? 4. What elements combine to inhibit the Hangers’ oppositional subculture and its “alternative criteria for success” from reaching “radical significance”, as outlined by Henry Giroux? (p. 119, 21)

5. MacLeod establishes a powerful hyperlink between ideological domination and private estimation of worth as the social legitimation of inequality unfolds. When it capabilities smoothly, low-class people internalize failure, producing low vanity (p. 115). What are the strengths and weaknesses of this mannequin of legitimation as a process? Can you consider alternate mechanisms by which the method may operate among the lower classes of American society? 6. Among the constituent factors MacLeod considers with respect to the habitus is neighborhood social ecology. (p. 140) He additional argues that changing even a single mediating component of the habitus can “mold a special outcome” for individuals (p. 149).

How would possibly the tendencies of impoverished youth such as the Hangers and Brothers differ were they as a substitute situated in both the regional South or a rural setting? Do you think ensuing differences would produce outcomes distinct from these presented in Ain’t No Makin’ It? 7. MacLeod conducted the fieldwork introduced in Part I during the Eighties. In your estimation, how nicely does his analysis of race as a mediator of classed perceptions amongst disadvantaged youth hold up thirty years later? Among Blacks, does the “ambiance of ascension” stay as very important today? (p. 133) 8. Given what we all know of the particular circumstantial limitations confronting the youth of Clarendon Heights, what structural cures may you recommend to improve their life chances? Would your proposals differ in strategy to the Brothers and Hangers?

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Chapter 9: The Hallway Hangers: Dealing in Despair

In 1991, MacLeod went back to Clarendon Heights to look at the achievements of Hallway Hangers and the Brothers who had different expectations and aspirations when they were teenagers. He found that members of both teams are struggling to search out steady employment and each did not get themselves out of the poverty. MacLeod realized that the dynamic of the neighborhood and its environment have changed as blacks took over doorway #13. As anticipated, MacLeod re-interviews with members of the Hallway Hangers revealed that they don’t have any profession of household stabilities. Most of the Hangers are working hourly waged dead-end jobs with very limited opportunities for advancements. On the personal stage, they’re still alcoholics, drug addict, racists, criminals, and treat girls like objects. Following the trail of their parents, members of the Hangers are having no respect for family life and romantic relationships. Most of the Hangers don’t have regular relationships and treat their ladies as objects. As a results of such attitudes, some Hangers are fathers to children that they hardly see and care for. Not to say the problem of child support and the neglect of the importance of being a task mannequin of their children’s lives.

How may they be in their children’s lives if they’re economically devastated? Looking at their career path, Hangers’ job historical past they have been holding unstable “Shitty” with small corporations, which have a high probability of failure and downward mobility. Although they understand the importance of having union jobs or no less than jobs with benefits they claims that the current politics are favoring black and that restricted their opportunity within the labor marker. Also, the Hallways partly hanged their profession failure on their skin. They claimed that race insurance policies such as Affirmative Action supplied blacks with higher opportunities in the job market. “Well I look right now, and if anyone ought to have a chance to make it, it’s fuckin’, and its black folks. They obtained an opportunity to make it. Cuz there’s fucking quotas to be filled.” MacLeod defined the Hangers’ failure to keep steady employment to their background and using their social community “Informal networking”.

As a end result, they were hardly capable of get any unionized or secure jobs. Also, members of the Hangers revealed the issue of sophistication control of the job market and the way the center class youths with their privileged background, have entry to superior social networks and therefore higher jobs. Under such social points and material demands, the Hangers supplemented their income using the drug market where they imagine they came earn more money with out out the pressure of being intently supervised and micro-managed. Even the relationship between members of the Hangers themselves are misplaced and the notion of being tied collectively for even is misplaced to the survival struggle of the late discovery of the want to change to and worry solely about their own problems individually. One of causes to such break via their relationships is the life of the neighborhood and the difficulty of gentrification inside and around Clarendon Heights.

Chapter 10: The Brothers: Dreams Deferred

In this chapter, MacLeod, was shocked to seek out members of the Brothers who hoped to be on their method to middle class by 1990s are similarity struggling within the job market identical to the Hangers no matter their instructional attainment. When they were youngsters, the Brothers had high expectations and aspiration believing that faculty would provide them higher life than their ancestors, their life did not go as they hoped. Although, the Brothers held academic levels between highschool diploma and a few college they are career struggling just like the Hangers. But, they didn’t lose hope for better future and try to achieve their teenage objectives. Facing actuality, the brothers are conscious of their social class and the political obstacles enforced by the (Republicans and Ronald Reagan administration) the hold the social class gap) that create extra obstacles to achieve their dream of moving up the social class by attending to middle class life via their jobs. When MacLeod appeared on the Brothers’ romance and household life, he found them, opposite to the Hangers, the Brothers have steady relationships with girlfriends and nearly none of them have youngsters with their companions except one. It seemed that the brothers’ background and the best way they were raised have been they explanation why indicated their full awareness of the ethical and monetary requirements to boost children.

Even with Juan who has two daughters from two completely different relationships is a proud and supporting father. Derek who was married after finishing high school did it as a end result of his girlfriend at the time was pregnant and he felt obligated to marry her. Generally, they’ve more respect to girls and recognize their romance friendships than the Hangers. However, the Brothers failed to attain their desired success and blame themselves for this failure. There are several key elements behind the two groups’ struggle. First, there are numerous obstacles within the society that blocked their quest of getting themselves out of poverty in addition to the issues of politics, racism, poverty, gender, schooling and social mobility. There is an issue of generational mobility the place members of the two teams could not discover their way to the subsequent social class. There are several faculties of ideas that could clarify the 2 groups’ wrestle.

The decrease class household historical past of the 2 groups dictated how far they might go in life. Some members of the Hangers used drug dealings as a shortcut to make some money and avoiding the results of poverty after their failure of maintaining common jobs which displays the social class background. A little enchancment in the lifetime of the Brothers is a end result being raised by a male determine of their life they tend to appreciate household. Also, although the Brothers aren’t in any higher situation than the Hangers, they still dreaming about a better future by maintaining their motivation and good thoughts. After wanting at the lives of the two groups, there are crucial evidences that regardless of poor people’s ambitions and motivations to have higher lives, there are a quantity of social forces will maintain pushing them to pass poverty from technology to a different. MacLeod showed the impact of social welfare policies, incarceration, racism, drug and alcohol abuse, and insufficient instructional credentials explain why the entire males struggle to search out steady employment in the major labor marketplace for most of their adult lives.

Chapters 9- 10 Questions:

1. By trying at the intersection between construction and company for the Hallway Hangers and the Brothers, how will you explain how social class, race, education and family dictate life outcome? 2. MacLeod indicated that the experiences of the Hallway Hangers and the Brothers with the job market are the results of their social community and social capital. Do you believe that in today’s job market it is “who you know and never what you understand.”? 3. Out of your individual experience, do you imagine within the American Dream? Explain why or why not? four. What is one of the best social theory that might explain the employment struggle of the Hallway Hanger and the Brothers? Why do you think it’s the best? 5. How the social copy of poverty affected the dreams of the brothers are evaluate to the Hallway Hangers? How the training system decided the social roles of the Hallway Hangers and the Brothers. How social and cultural capital interacted within the lives if the two teams.

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Chapter 11 Outclassed and Outcast(e)

Chapter eleven starts with an interaction between MacLeod and a BMW driver. While this man describes these in Clarendon Heights as ignorant, it appears as if the shoe is on the other foot so to talk , he is the one to actually appears ignorant because of lack of knowledge regarding the complexity of the issue of poverty .He is raring to position the blame on a poor work ethic. Poverty can’t be explained through solely the individual. The construction should additionally, be considered. MacLeod states, “Our society is structured to create poverty and extreme financial inequality” (241).This is an ongoing theme on this chapter. While an excessive variety of African Americans stay in poverty, it is now not an issue of race. It seems to be better described as a problem of class rather than race. MacLeod goes on to clarify how the white poor face simply as bleak an consequence as do minorities. Because of their class historical past, each the Brothers and the Hallway Hangers have trouble discovering jobs that may provide a residing wage.

The Hallway Hangers did medication and dropped out of faculty. And sure, the Brothers averted medicine and stayed in class, however neither group could elevate themselves out of the working class (with the exceptions of James and Mike). This does not mean that race doesn’t play a task in attaining or sustaining employment. In the case of one mother, a job was lost because of her pores and skin colour. Boo Boo was advised that an establishment was “not hiring” (248). MacLeod additionally mentions the higher social community of the Hallway Hangers, leading to more employment opportunities. Within sure jobs (with the instance construction), folks of color have much less of an opportunity of promotion.

Even as we’re presented with this evidence of economic sources of discouragement, the Brothers and Hallway Hangers blame themselves for their lack of success, often saying how they “fucked up.” These outlooks are caused by their scenario, not the other method round. Their failures are so usually attributed to their stage of desert, they start to agree. They consider they are leaping, when really they’re being pushed. The chapter ends with a look to what may be accomplished. Schools could be improved, as can our welfare system (more help with less regulation), but what actually wants to change is our society. MacLeod makes a strong argument for distributing wealth more equally. MacLeod urges that we become much less like the Eiffel Tower and more like an onion.

Chapter 12 We Don’t Fall Down

In this chapter McLeod uses edited transcripts of recorded interviews to relay the later life particulars of the Hallway Hangers and the Brothers. By this time several of those on the fringes have been of the Hangers have been deceased along with Boo Boo. However, many of the Hallway Hangers are nonetheless alive at this point. During his interview Frankie spoke of connections, “I applied. You understand how them jobs come, Jack just one way you get those jobs. You have fifteen thousand functions; they don’t simply pull your name out. Connections. That’s the method it works” (279). , Frankie acknowledges the facility of social capital in touchdown a good position of employment. He provides that everyone doesn’t have an opportunity for achievement on this country as a end result of a lot success is derived from privilege. He sees financial disparity as a class concern quite than a racial problem. Frankie’s son Darren even sheds some light on the race vs. class problem. He states that there’s a lack of unity between poor blacks and poor whites and the two teams are pitted towards one another by the government. This causes many people to view race because the conflicting issue nonetheless the actual problem is class differences. The controlling powers make all out makes an attempt to painting race because the prevailing issue this prevents the decrease lessons from recognizing that the actual issue is class.

Jinx recognizes how the upper classes amass revenue from f the labor power of the working class. “If it wasn’t for us little fucking peons, down there in the fucking trenches, busting our balls, guess what: You wouldn’t be a fucking millionaire. The raises you get – ten, fifteen cents a year – the value of living goes up greater than fifteen cents an hour” ( 295) . He sees that the higher (owning) courses do not make any makes an attempt to bridge the gaps which end in financial disparity. Steve expressed that he is unhappy with how his life has turned out; substance use has triggered his downward spiral. He has carried out jail time , lost his car , he isn’t able to hold any licenses that would allow him to turn out to be gainfully employed because of nonpayment of child help .He now lives with his mom .

If he have been in a place to change anything thing about his life, he would worth schooling and refrain from substance use. He realizes that his life probabilities have been in distinction to these of different kids as a outcome of his family was poor. He states “Money will get you the great faculties. Money brings you power …….If you’re a wealthy child, then you might have mother and father and shit to fall again on, or some sort of stability” (315). With Stoney we see that his youngsters are following the identical path of destruction that he did as a toddler. I see this as being extremely representative of the copy of sophistication “My kids are out and in of trouble. Same story as me possibly worse, starting a bit younger …….” (319). although Stoney had a very troubled childhood it seems that music and his sturdy relationship with his wife has made constructive adjustments in his life. He feels that successive generations are getting worse and worse. If he had it to do all over again he would have concentrated extra on his training and avoided substance use.

His sentiments are much like those expressed by Steve. At the identical time Stoney is of the opinion that education isn’t at all times a guarantee of monetary success “ When I was nineteen , working at Carlucci’s and making a decent paycheck for a child , I obtained a waitress that’s standing over there that simply did six years in school however she’s making twenty bucks much less every week than I am. It’s like 4 years of faculty doesn’t get you shit anymore” (323). Toward the top of this chapter McLeod poses the query “́To what extents are they, they people responsible for what happens to them and to what extent is it the society and the alternatives obtainable to them”? Slick believes that you can solely blame society to a certain extent he adds that it’s as a lot as the person to take responsibility for themselves However , at the similar time he seems responsible society when he speaks about the universities within the space where he grew up , he states “ They’ll take curiosity in the folks that received cash . But these motherfuckers don’t want the help. It’s these folks which might be poor that need help” (348).

Chapters 11-12 Questions:

1. McLeod argues that race and class are incapable of being disentangled; do you imagine that to be true? Why? 2. What major component is to blame for the lack of successes among these two groups of kids? Is it structure, culture, or agency? 3. What ideas does McLeod provide for how society might address the difficulty of social reproduction of the category system? 4. Are you in agreement with McLeod’s recommendations on how society can tackle the social replica of the class system? , please clarify your answer! 5. What do you see as an explanation for the place the lads ultimately finish up? Which matters more with regard to their situation, race or class? Please clarify your answer! 6. Do you imagine that an individual is ready to change their life possibilities by way of the attainment of higher education? If so why, If not why? 7. What is meant by becoming less like the Eiffel Tower and extra like an onion?

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Chapter 13: “The Brothers. Finally Finding a Foothold”

In chapter 13, writer, Jay Macleod summarizes what every brother from Clarendon Heights ends up doing as an occupation and in the end overall the place every finally ends up and what residing scenario each results in. Their circumstances are fairly related. Each of their jobs and situations stems from their pasts, selections, networking alternatives and mainly from the place they started in high school in Clarendon Heights. They all seem accepting if not glad of what they have turn into. Mokey

Jay Macleod follows up with Mokey in 2006. Mokey finally ends up as a salaried evening shift manager at a scanning machine firm that produces and scans paperwork. He was in a place to handle to work his method up by paying close consideration and doing nicely. They favored him and due to this fact moved him up. He moved from Clarendon Heights to Colorado. Macleod describes Mokey’s bodily appearance as “evidently fatigued” based on Mokey’s darkish eye circles and his total tired wanting face. He leads to a contented long term inter-racial relationship together with his companion Karen. They stay in a two bed room condo with their son Rayford. He is accepting and cozy of what his life has turn out to be. Super

Super is the one brother who continues to wrestle financially because of his lack of steady employment. His instant past is crammed with drug dealing. Macleod labels him as “The Hustler” as a end result of poor scenario that he continues to face. His job in the meanwhile is moving furniture at a moving company during which he earns eleven dollars an hour. He expresses that he feels that he can do better job clever. His boss refuses to pay him more. He is divorced and has three kids, considered one of which isn’t in his custody. Mike

Macleod finds Mike in the trade of Real Estate after having been working for the postal service earlier than. Mike manipulated and networked his means into Real Estate Brokerage truly earning a decent substantial 5 digit revenue within the business. He is by far some of the profitable of the entire men- both Hallway Hangers and Brothers. He has been along with his girlfriend for fourteen years. They decided to not get married. She has two daughters that Mike assists her with looking after and elevating. Juan

Juan winds up as a mechanic and engaged to his fiancée Brenda. They stay in an old “Mill Town”. Together they reside with 4 of his 5 children. He continues to work at “Jim’s Tow”. He drives trucks there on at eight to 5 schedule working forty hours per week. He continues to resent having to be “dirty” on an everyday basis as a outcome of nature of the work. He admits to Macleod that he yearns for a cleaner job where he gets to look higher and wear a go properly with. He says that people choose you purchase the way you look. He is joyful that he has a home and a mortgage that he can afford and his youngsters will benefit from however he doesn’t have a automobile. James

Macleod follows up with James in New York City the place James now resides. He labored for several years working part time as a tape librarian at a bank for a temp company. James mentions that he labored at Calvin Klein for several months however was laid off. James discusses how dynamics in workplaces and in the work place are sometimes complicated. They may be ample, immoral and detrimental. He also discusses how race plays an element. People judge him primarily based on the truth that he is black. Nonetheless he’s ended up as a Help Desk Administrator making about fifty two thousand a yr with full benefits. James married a pre-school teacher and so they have two children. He tries to inspire his kids to do properly. Derek

Derek lives within the basement bedroom of “a small house in a working class neighborhood.” Derek went from one main airline, “Commercial Airlines” to another, “Travel2.com” from 1996 to “the current.” He now works as a “trainer”. He trains new-hires and he has always made an hourly wage. Derek explains that he has had a number of serious relationships with girls and none of them actually worked out. He explains that he just gets bored and ends the relationships. He doesn’t thoughts feeling lonely.

He needs area typically. Sometimes he just wants to be alone. He has a quantity of kids with the different girls and he is a grandfather as properly. He has paid baby help to the mothers for the kids that he fathered despite his low wages. He is unhappy that he isn’t making extra money however has come to merely accept his monetary scenario as it’s. He feels comfortable doing customer support and is looking forward to being “a helicopter pilot within the subsequent yr.” Derek prides himself for being optimistic and being a great particular person. Boo-Boo

Boo-Boo is actually unfortunately no longer dwelling. He and his family all died AIDS. He was hospitalized and bedridden till his situation led to his demise.

Chapter 14: “Reproduction, Redemption, and Respect. Introduction by Jay Macleod”

Before the following analysis of the guide, Macleod briefly expresses his astonishment on the true harshness of social inequality. He says “It is more entrenched in the United States than he thought”. However, lots of the men succeed in becoming one thing more than they began as. They are now working class and some may even be center class. They don’t go so far as they’d hoped but they do make important progressive improvement from the 1980’s, 1990’s to the 2000s. Macleod mentions that when he discusses the outcomes of the lads with his good friend Isaac who read the e-book and grew up in Emerson Heights, he was shocked and unhappy because he feels that the brothers are way more succesful than their outcomes suggest. He says that a lot of them have been academically gifted (talented) and clever. Macleod comes to the conclusion that particular person company is severely inferior to social conditions and structural constraints. The truth of their outcomes has more to do with their social environment. That is where the patterns and true meanings of their outcomes lies.

He then introduces the subsequent section of the chapter, an analysis of the lives of the lads based mostly on social construction, and issues like stratification, social class and the reproduction of social class. My Summary and Analysis of Chapter 14: “Analysis” by Katherine McClelland and David Karen This evaluation is in regards to the environment that the men faced in addition to how their lives shaped due to their environment and who they’re. First we heard about their lives through their views and now we’re in a place to understand their lives from a sociological and social class standpoint. McClelland and Karen begin by analyzing all of the males, both the Brothers and the Hallway Hangers altogether. They state that one’s primary social class has a serious impact on life’s locations. Social company isn’t as highly effective as structure and social replica. McClelland and Karen focus on elements and motivations on two totally different ranges as lenses in order to perceive why issues turned out the best way that they did for the boys. Social and cultural capital are essential in relation to understanding what happened to the Brothers and the Hallway Hangers because social and cultural capital that all of them had are the primary determinants of what alternatives they had to start with.

Their lack of sophistication consciousness causes them to have elevated social agency- regardless of the positivity that the brothers have they seem to, for essentially the most part, end up in the same types of monetary situations as the unfavorable Hallway Hangers. The circumstances of the economy contributed to the hardships that the lads faced. Minimum wage fluctuated between the 1980’s and early 2000’s. Housing costs rose, and so forth. These conditions combined with race, class, culture and capital all contributed to the ending circumstances of all of the men. The achievement ideology states that a good training will bring an excellent profession and wealth. However, it’s established that having the proper contacts is even more essential in phrases of profitable a well-paying job. Who you understand is essential in addition to “who knows you”. A(n) (potential) employer’s perception of who you’re matters in relation to whether or not or not they need to hire you to work with you.

Although a few of the Brothers and Hallway Hangers are capable of work their ways up by way of the best connections, their backgrounds, individuals they know, CHR, and so forth. still maintain them at a distance from achieving the success that they want. Despite their motivations, without cultural capital, the Brothers have been unable to obtain their dream jobs and the Hallway Hangers’ conduct at school deprived them in the labor market. However, McClelland and Karen additionally state that the best cultural and social capital aren’t at all times enough to open the proper doors to success. “Choices [and actions] are constrained by available opportunities”. They state that if their examples, Derek and Stoney have been in a greater scenario from the very beginning, then they’d have had more practical sources to resist hardships and bother and try toward their objectives. Drugs, crime and alcohol additionally performed major roles within the lives of the boys. The males were negatively influenced by the drugs, crime and alcohol that was present and highly abundant in their neighborhoods growing up.

There had been in fact many invitations for them to affix the scene. The socialization involving medication, crime and alcohol in Clarendon Heights influenced participation in drug and alcohol activity for the Brothers and Hallway Hangers. This too is one other social contributor to hardships and failure in their futures. This main ground that they are born on is an original offender of social inequality. When it involves race, the Hallway Hangers all seem to agree on the same idea that racism is reversed as a end result of blacks are allowed jobs over whites because of affirmative motion. They solely see race so far as how it negatively impacts them versus contemplating an even bigger picture of what race really means and the way society manages it. The Brothers are all aware of racism and racial tensions in relation to work and life. Each merely acknowledges it and simply minds their issues to the most effective of their capacity. They seem to just settle for race for what it’s.

When it comes to race, Karen and McClelland conclude that race can damage an individual extra when it comes to run-ins with the regulation. They state that the Brothers discover private methods of accepting and dealing with race but the Brothers seem to be ignorant or neglectful in understanding the structural aspects of race and the influence of race. Class copy is likely to proceed to happen in relation to the men’s kids and following generations. They all seem to love their children regardless of any absences however they can not rescue the youngsters from social structure. Their children are more doubtless to end up in similar conditions due to social structure and social factors. Unlike middle class youngsters, poor children do not have social and financial capital to fall again on in times of want and throughout weak life events. This is a major threatening drawback. Close knit family/ relationships make for a private inner strength that is extraordinarily useful in order to deal with life obstacles. Many of the lads usually are not lucky enough to be born into such sorts unbreakable relationships.

Class Consciousness is a vital concept when it comes to where folks stand in a given society as a result of it’s an account of not necessarily where an individual stands, what their social class or socio-economic standing really is, but it is instead actually, what one thinks their class is. Many individuals may think of themselves as working class when they are actually center class or vice versa. Our perceptions of where we predict we stand and the place we really do stand are each very important elements in relation to understanding socialization, habits, affect, aspirations and social company. Personal notion is necessary as well. The Hallway Hangers had somewhat of an thought of sophistication consciousness, significantly Jinx. He blamed many of his failures on employers, politics and social structure. They rejected faculty and some of them had goals when it came to succeeding with respect to class consciousness. They all appeared to comprehend that there is some type of a social construction that dominates and as individuals, there might be solely a lot we are in a position to control with our social agency. The brothers believed that as individuals, they may overcome many elements of racism and racial tension. They never seem to really see not to mention understand social construction and social class.

Awareness of/ class consciousness can permit for an individual to set practical attainable goals corresponding to owning a pizza shop (like one of the Hangers aspires to do) however an entire unawareness of it could trigger lifelong detrimental disappointment. It’s troublesome for all of the men to see the world by way of the lens of race and class. They just see issues as they do and that’s it. Unfortunately social copy is extremely likely to re-occur for the youngsters of those males. Despite any optimistic relationships that any of the lads have with their female companions and kids, their offspring are routinely born into social inequality contemplating their neighborhoods and even bodily components such as untimely start due to parents’ drug points. Despite whether or not or how much they assert their discovered upbringing or any rational parenting strategies that they determine on, social inequality nonetheless exists all around them, of their pasts most undoubtedly and in the present for some of them as well.

A penetration into the center class could forestall their youngsters from experiencing social inequality of the same magnitude but sadly, their children usually are not born into that much luck. Karen and McClelland conclude that the odds of reaching success are closely dependent on luck and structural circumstances. The achievement ideology does by no means teach this reality. They explain that, way of life selections matter but are tremendously inferior to the larger social setting that we all inhabit. The United States has many applications to help lower earnings folks, those that need assistance due to medicine, etc. but many things are limited as politics and occasions change. This modifications what resources can be found for individuals like these males. Karen and McClelland refer again to Bourdieu. The given society determines what takes place in it. If the Brothers and hallway Hangers lived elsewhere their life experiences can be different. Another thing is that social buildings arrange selections and affect selections as properly.

We are mostly influenced by our major dispositions and then our pasts stick with us for life. For example, one’s childhood plays a significant position in who one could most likely develop as a lot as be as an grownup. No matter how a lot or how little he makes of himself, he will all the time be considerably influenced by his childhood and his previous. Anything that created an enduring impression throughout a time of vulnerability (an whole childhood can fairly be understood as a interval of vulnerability contemplating that youngsters can solely control little or no about their homes, faculties and overall surroundings. They are required to observe their parents, and faculties pointers and are unable to effectively dispute and alter their surroundings). Karen and McClelland conclude with hopes that our society can come to an settlement of what it means to be revered and hopes that we are able to use the assets that we do need to create healthcare and programs that may assist people like the Brothers and the Hallway Hangers.


1. Why do you think that just about the entire brothers mainly blame themselves for their present monetary and personal situations? What does this say about who they’re inside and how they view the world? 2. Considering their aspirations social agencies, motives, efforts and then their outcomes, what conclusion do you come to in regards to the Brothers in general/ about who they are as people? Do you think that they should blame themselves for not being more successful? If so, to what extent do you assume they should blame themselves? Why do you think they never contemplate social boundaries and the larger societal image in terms of understanding their life outcomes?

3. What role if any, do you believe race, racial rigidity and institutionalized racism and basic racism has played in the lives of the brothers? How vital is race in the United States when it comes to a person’s disposition? four. Based on the literature we’ve read/ this book, how effective do you feel education after highschool is? How much do you assume a given major or program matters when it comes to obtaining an training to find a way to get a better job? How related do you are feeling schooling in general is when it comes to coming into the labor market? Do you think that education and significant employment go hand in hand quite as much as the achievement ideology suggests? If education isn’t a primary determiner of sophistication status and financial success, as this book suggests, then do you think that education must be marketed in a extra realistic way? Should it encourage individuals in a unique way? If so, how?

5. Knowing, understanding and analyzing are the primary steps in treating and curing social problems and conflicts. Now that we have examine social inequality from root to tip, that’s, from sensible particular person standpoints (the views of the Brothers and the Hallway Hangers) and likewise from the larger sociological lens (Macleod’s, Karen’s and McClelland’s general views), what are some first steps do you assume can be taken to effectively help socially susceptible folks (the individuals in Clarendon Heights) and first steps to ending social class inequality? 6. Assuming that you view poverty as a major social concern, are you able to think of any major floor methods of stopping issues like crime and drugs among low revenue people (such as educating low-income people concerning the influences of road life) or can you consider any extra widespread social methods of serving to low revenue people, similar to by providing packages and issues like affirmative action and awareness to assist low-income people. What do you assume can be carried out or ought to be done?

Source URL: http://class.courseserve.info/?q=node/64

ACC 302 – Chapter 21 Class Prep

Essay, Pages 6 (1480 words)

A Clockwork Orange: Chapter One Analysis

One will get an initial impression of Alex and his pals from the primary page: Alex says, “There was me… and my three droogs”. Immediately this implies that he and his friends are shut, like a gang, and this leads on to the thought of battle. The closeness of Alex and his associates is elaborated upon throughout the chapter. He regularly uses the phrase “The 4 of us” and, when talking to Pete, Georgie and Dim, he says, “Oh my brothers”. Their shut camaraderie is summed up on web page six, where Alex describes it as being “usually one for all and all for one”.

Then he begins to explain three “devotchkas”, whom one presumes to be members of a rival gang (the reader is told that Alex and his friends are “malchicks”). There isn’t any brevity in Alex’s description, and he goes into element when describing the clothes and make-up. It is likely here that Alex has a certain respect for these gang members, indicated by his prolonged description of their bright uniforms, and by the fact that he speculates on the massive value of those uniforms.

But there could be additionally a clear factor of mockery. This is especially apparent in the sentence “These had been supposed to be…

“, with an emphasis on the word “suppose”. He is putting the credulity of the gang into doubt, debunking their claims. This is type of infantile in some respects, and reminds the reader of his tender age. Alex and his “droogs” also put on uniforms, and Burgess describes them in a method that makes them unique to these 4 – by telling the reader what design every of the 4 had for their “jelly mould”, he’s placing them aside from the relaxation of the world, giving them a uniqueness and elegance that nobody else possesses.

The uniforms are additionally a barrier between them and the rest of the world.

This can be true of the “maskies” that the 4 usually put on. As nicely as the extra sensible use of hiding their face from recognition, the masks separate the boys from the rest of society, making them stand out, and perhaps feel superior. Also, the outrageous costumes, to choose a better word, are a transparent image of revolt. It is ironic, subsequently, that the boys wear them, as uniforms have all the time been associated with conformity. The language of the boys is essentially the most profitable at suggesting battle with the skin. To begin with, the words are very harsh.

Hard sounds, particularly obvious with the many Ks, make the phrases infinitely extra savage. The language used to describe different people is degrading: old girls are “ptitsas” and men are “vecks”. The boys don’t use this language when chatting with people who discover themselves not concerned in gang warfare. To the person popping out of the library, Alex is well mannered and uses largely understandable language. It is clearly because he is mocking the man, but it is also presumably as a end result of he wouldn’t perceive (since it seems that evidently he speaks normally). So that is their language, something they use to one another.

This is a simple example of their battle with the “outside”. But the language not only acts as a barrier between the four boys and the older members of society: it additionally acts as a barrier between the boys and the readers. For anybody beginning the guide for the first time, the phrases used are baffling, and it takes a lot of getting used to. What is extra, Alex feels the need to explain what a few of the words mean: “… a rooker (a hand, that is)”. It is at this point that the readers become, in impact, part of the society that Alex is rebelling against. We are on the surface.

Finally, the language is utilized in such a unprecedented method, that it alienates us even further. It is in some instances fairly chilling. Words like “poogly” are very childish; the best example is “appy polly loggies”, which is a few corrupted child version of the word “apologies”. It contrasts the stark violence of the guide, giving it an much more savage tone. It is an odd mixture for Alex to make use of, reminding the reader that he’s younger. Plus, not only does it make the reader conscious of the battle Alex has with society, but in addition the deep battle that is occurring in Alex’s mind. 1.

What impressions are we given of the society and the environment introduced in chapter one? Use examples. (10 marks) The first impression one gets when studying about Alex’s world is what a fully seedy place it must be. The “Korova Milkbar” sounds very entertaining however rather run down, and one is knowledgeable that it’s one of many “mestos”. Obviously it sells milk, but reading additional on, one is told that this milk is “plus one thing else”, that one thing else being hallucinogenic medication of some kind. It is then that one will get an idea of the depravity of the society during which Alex lives.

Alex then mentions what he and his pals do to acquire cash: both they will beat somebody up in an alley and empty his pockets, or they will “do the extremely violent” on an elderly woman in a store and steal the cash from the till. One realises that, pretty obviously, one thing has gone mistaken with the world in Alex’s time. Various violent and legal matters observe, similar to gang warfare and the description of a drug-induced “high”. It paints a morbid picture of a world in which violence reigns supreme, the place there are not any rules any extra and society has disintegrated.

This is backed up by the fact that any kind of legislation enforcement isn’t talked about until later in the chapter. These “millicents” are obviously not essential and Alex and his friends can simply outsmart them. So, in effect, there is no law enforcement. Early on, the only indication that some sort of authorized system exists is the truth that “mestos” were not licensed to sell liquor (which doesn’t appear to stop them any way). Another facet of society that isn’t lacking, however seems unpopular, is that of literature.

Alex stories that “newspapers {are not} learn much” – whether that is due to illiteracy or just lack of interest, one is not sure. The Public Biblio, which is the derelict-sounding municipal library, was something that “not many lewdies used these days”. Again, the reason why just isn’t clear. Owing to the opposite “past-times” of the day, namely ultra-violent criminal activities, it’s doubtless that no person is interested in literature any extra. This definitely matches in with the way in which during which Alex and his associates persecute a person just because they saw him coming out of the library with books in his hand.

However, there are references to establishments that appear very lively within the Alex’s world. The first is the well being service. A “rozz” informs the gang that there have been “two hospitalizations”. The proven reality that the hospitals in Alex’s world are busy is blatantly obvious, because of the top of criminal activity. One is not sure of how environment friendly these hospitals are. In a State-run society corresponding to this, one would imagine they had been very inefficient indeed. The different institution that’s still up and operating is college.

Alex himself tells us that he should go to school the next morning, and we later be taught that it is a corrective college. Overall, the world in Alex’s day appears extremely bleak. Wherever Alex is, it is clearly a police state, the place particular person rights and freedoms do not stand for a lot. The older, and in some methods, pointless establishments, such as the library system and newspapers, appear to have lost attraction utterly, presumably replaced by “worldcasts” and “Milkbars”. It doesn’t sound like someplace anyone would actually wish to stay.

A model new college new town to discover and new chapter of

A brand new college, new city to explore, and new chapter of life imply new study habits. Freshman 12 months is a whirlwind of new, exciting experiences, however you can’t overlook the actual reason you’re here, to get that degree! College is a competitive setting where each pupil desires, or ought to need, to be the most effective they can be. Whether meaning having all A’s, graduating with honors, or even just being accepted into their program of choice, most college students have a drive to succeed.

We all want to reach our targets, however it’s essential to know how to do so, quite than going in blind and having to determine every thing out by yourself. We’re right here to give you some the low- down of how faculty actually works and some tips and tricks from some other college college students on the means to earn those “A’s”, and have a fantastic first semester.


You’re an unbiased younger ladies, and also you don’t (think) you need somebody to inform you what to do.

With all the model new found freedom, you should maintain your concentrate on lessons, even when all your associates wish to have women night time in or you get invited to that tremendous enjoyable date celebration. You control your personal success now. Learning time management is a significant a part of school, and without it it’s onerous to succeed.

Go To Class

As exhausting as it may be waking up for an 8am class that’s all the way across campus, you have to go.

Attending class is amongst the first steps to a successful school career. Although, attending class supplies you with attendance points (an simple grade booster), it can make facilitate learning in many ways. Even if you read all assigned chapters or supplemental materials, the profesor can provide a greater understanding of fabric by explaining a subject in a model new way or offering a special utility of it. Professors may also give particular examples in class, that are not supplied in the textbook, which is in a position to greater than doubtless come up on an examination.

” I’d say that the final info is primarily in the book, and theoretically if a pupil has an ideal understanding of it, simply from studying, they may cross the test. Out of the fifty questions on every test I’d say about 35 may be answered from the textbook, the opposite 15 come from examples given in school or subjects not in the e-book. So coming to class is actually important.”

-John Shadwick, Biology Professor at the University of Arkansas

Additionally, if you go to class you’ll, or ought to, be taking notes. Writing your personal notes in a way you understand, as opposed to utilizing a pals, can help you in learning later on. Writing down information is shown to assist retention of material, thus resulting in a high examination rating.

Set Time To Study

College lessons are a much greater time commitment than a high school class, because of the quantity of assigned studying, length of required papers, and sheer amount of material lined. The amount of examine time needed for each student varies, but as a rule of thumb expect three hours of finding out every week per 1 credit hour. The average school freshman take between 12 and 15 hours of enrollment, therefor a median of 36- forty five hours of out of class studying ought to be anticipated. This virtually a full time job! Just as you write down your work schedule, you should pencil time in your calendar for set examine time. Setting time to study ensures you don’t overbook your self, or overlook about assignments. Furthermore, writing down the due dates of all quizzes, exams, papers, and any other assignments will help you hold monitor of them all and hold you organized. Don’t know the due dates? Look at your syllabus or consult your professor.

Alex Dickson, a fellow faculty students from the University of Arkansas, wish to “make a to-do listing each morning with every thing I need to get carried out by the top of the day. I prioritize assignments which are due soonest, take probably the most time to finish, however one I end what I want to turn it it’s time to check. I prefer to read over the notes from that days class as a little evaluate session every day, this really helps me when it’s time to prepare for a test. This keeps the information contemporary in my mind and helps me remember it more.”

Lecture Is Hard

Lecture type courses are an enormous transition from participation based mostly high school lessons. Say goodbye to worksheets, small groups, and at school dialogue for the most part. Unfortunately, you’re thrown in the the world of lecture in your first day, and can continue to be taught this manner for the following four years, prefer it or not. It’s a challenge to get used to lecture at first, however it can be done.

My First Lecture

My first few weeks of school courses have been a whole blur, but I bear in mind my first lecture clearly. Principles of Biology was identified to be one of the hardest classes offered for freshman on the University of Arkansas, and fortunate me it was my first college class ever. Walking in to an enormous lecture corridor was a nerve wracking expertise because I had absolutely no concept what to anticipate. I shortly found a seat on the entrance of the room and pulled out my laptop computer preparing to take notes, the class started a couple of brief minutes later. The professor launched himself and briefly went over the syllabus, then moved promptly into the first chapter. He lectured for fifty five minutes straight, taking few breaks to answer questions. I frantically wrote down notes from the powerpoint projected at the front of the room while the professor talked. It was tough to maintain tempo with listening and writing down every thing. This is precisely how I imagined faculty; professors lecturing and students writing, nothing more and nothing much less.

Learn To Tackle The Lecture

Being talked at for 55 minutes at a time can be boring, making it troublesome to pay attention the entire time. Although talking is the primary part of class there are a number of others, “… It’s extra than simply speaking, there’s a PowerPoint projected with diagrams and main points of my lecture. That helps some youngsters simply understand it higher. I use clicker questions so that, one, I can take attendance, and two, students will be actively engaged with the lesson,” says John Shadwick, Professor on the University of Arkansas. Using these different techniques during lecture helps to serve: auditory, visible, and reading/writing learners

The key to understanding the lecture, it would not matter what studying type you’re, is being ready for sophistication, always read assigned materials before class as a result of they provide a base for understanding what is going to be lined in the lecture. Taking notes additionally aids in being engaged with the lecture. Sometimes you may find it hard to keep up with how rapidly the information is being taught at (don’t worry I did too). You may be tempted to write down down every little thing that comes out of the professor’s mouth, however don’t try this. Robotically copying down each word defeats the aim of taking notes. Write down major subjects and key examples only. Refer to this web page, , if you’ll like extra tips on how to take unbelievable notes.

Enroll in SI

Never heard of SI before? I hadn’t both before going to varsity. Supplemental Instruction (SI) classes are weekly tutoring meetings supplied to students who are enrolled in traditionally difficult courses. Enrolling in these classes presents college students the chance to evaluation material taught at school with a peer coach that had beforehand earned an “A” in the class being taught. These session are usually free to college students, and supply new understandings of material, further examples, and hands on actions.The University of Arkansas claims, ” college students who attend ten plus classes [of SI] throughout a semester earn larger grades in course than students who do not.”

Why SI?

Asking a question in front of four hundred peers could be uncomfortable. But what about asking a question in front of 15 peers? The small group setting of SI encourages college students to ask questions on matters they’re confused on, and likelihood is if one you’re confused no much less than one different scholar is merely too. Never be embarrassed to ask a query. The small group setting makes conversations extra personalized and intimate, for the students. Additionally, SI is not a lecture, but a extra various learning environment. Students who usually are not primarily auditory listeners can benefit from worksheets, movies, and group exercise offered throughout SI.

Being Prepared is A Huge Confidence Boost.

Being assured in your talents results in higher performance, and on this case this implies check scores.A research performed at the University of Iowa showed that confidence can influence tutorial efficiency by up to 12%. Reviews or pre- exams are offered, and are a incredible approach to gauge how prepared you’re for an exam.SI presents evaluate sessions before checks, along with weekly meeting, only for students enrolled in SI. This give you one last likelihood to know a difficult topic and master it earlier than you will be examined on it. Nothing beats the sensation of understanding you’re fully prepared for an examination forward of time. This also eliminates all night cram periods the evening before the check, a giant no-no.

You Can Do It

College is a giant adjustment out of your highschool life, and could be actually difficult at occasions, but it is potential to succeed. With dedication, onerous works, and an entire lot of studying you possibly can earn that “A” you’ve been dreaming of. You are your individual boss now, so make smart selections and hold your goals in mind. Going to class and time management are the biggest keys to success in faculty. Eventually you’ll master the artwork of lecture studying, however enrolling in SI sure does assist, particularly in a troublesome class. SI is a hidden gem on the planet of faculty, so be positive to take benefit if your school presents it. Using the following pointers and tips you possibly can earn your first ever school “A’s” and be on observe to a successful school career.

Summary of Chapter One of the book “Half the Sky”

In the Chapter One of the book “Half the Sky,” published in 2009, the authors Nicholas D. Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn mainly argue about modern sex slavery and other nations’ assistance for women education in poor countries. The exigence of this chapter is the fact that sex slavery has worsened and is worsening; the created capitalism, the developed transportation and the fear of AIDS make trafficking easier and increase demand for young girls because customers believe young girls would not infect with ADIS. The authors use mainly pathos and logos to describe sex slavery situation. First, they emotionally appeal to their audiences with Meena Hasina’s horrific experience; she was kidnapped and trafficked, and then she was forced to prostitute.

If she resisted serving customers, she was beaten, threatened with death and even drugged by the owner of the brothel. As a result of prostitution, she gave births one girl and one boy; however, her babies are deprived by the owner of the brothel. Later, she could take her children back from the pimp by assistance of an organization that helps people suffer from sex slavery in India, but her daughter Naina has already drugged and forced to prostitute. Next, the authors also provide logic data to convince how serious sex slavery is in the world. For example, there are 2 or 3 million women prostitute in India and many of them are trafficked and forced to sell sex. Also, according to the authors’ estimation, there are 3 million women and girls are enslaved in the sex trade all over the world, and they could be killed by their owners because they are treated as one of the owner’s properties.

The authors aim everyone in the world as their audiences because this sex slavery issue is global problem not just happening in a particular country. The main purpose of this story is accusing how seriously and terribly women enslaved are treated by their pimps and encouraging assistance from public and organizations to prevent and stop the sex slavery. The authors also provide the example that Frank Grijalva and his students in the Overlake School have helped for Cambodian girls’ education. Their assistance makes young Cambodian girls stick to the school and have a yearning to live in wealthy county like the United States. Moreover, this voluntary support provides valuable lesson for the Overlake School students.

Chapter 1 analysis of Daisy Buchanan – The Great Gatsby

Daisy Buchanan is Nick’s cousin and Toms wife. She lives with the rich old-money population of New York on East Egg. From Nick’s first visit, Daisy is associated with otherworldliness. For example, the first image we have of Daisy in Chapter One is as one of a pair of women, lying on a couch and surrounded by fluttering, moving material – from the curtains to their white dresses, nothing is safe from the breeze blowing through the room.

This sense of constancy in a sea of movement – indicated by her being sat on “the only completely stationary object in the room… an enormous couch” – and the hints of purity or innocence attached to her – her white dress, “buoyed up” as though “though they had just been blown back in after a short flight around the house”, like an angel or fairy – combine to create an image of delicate beauty. This is furthered when Daisy makes “an attempt to rise”, but contents herself with uttering “an absurd, charming little laugh”, and the declaration that she is “p-paralysed with happiness.”

All of these things make her seem childlike and thus add to her appearance of purity. She speaks in a “low, thrilling voice”, a voice that holds an “excitement” that is “difficult to forget”: “a singing compulsion, a whispered ‘Listen’, a promise that she had done gay, exciting things a while since and that there were gay, exciting things hovering in the next hour.” She is routinely linked with the colour white (a white dress, white flowers, white car, and so on), always at the height of fashion and addressing people with only the most endearing terms. She appears pure in a world of cheats and liars.

As the story continues, however, more of Daisy is revealed, and bit-by-bit she becomes less of an ideal. Given that she is fully aware of her husband’s infidelities, why doesn’t she do anything about it? Because he has money and power and she enjoys the benefits she receives from these things, she is willing to deal with the affairs. Another incident that calls Daisy’s character into question is the way she speaks of her daughter.

“I hope she’ll be a fool,” she says, “that’s the best thing a girl can be in this world, a beautiful little fool.” Clearly, she has some experience in this area and implies that the world is no place for a woman; the best she can do is hope to survive and the best way to do that is through beauty rather than brains. Daisy, however much described and elaborated on by Nick, is constantly not who she is described as and thus creates a feeling that the more she tells Nick about herself or the more Nick describes her the less we
know leaving us unsure of where she stands.

Her gayness and complete and utter satisfaction poetically described at the start of their encounter is completely wiped out by the end of the night though the way Daisy describes herself to Nick on the porch outside her house: “Well, I’ve had a very bad time, Nick, and I’m pretty cynical about everything.” Although we are almost certain that Daisy is not always cynical and more disillusioned than she thinks she is. we are uncertain on who she actually is and where her place is.

Her purity is our main aspect established in this encounter except we find it hard to understand the purity when she is exposed to a very harsh and cruel life due to Toms affair and treatment of her. Overall, we can see much of Nick’s view of Daisy summed up merely in the way that he speaks about her; he uses many emotive adjectives to excite a feeling within the reader so as to make Daisy’s energy almost tangible (“thrilling”, “glowing”, “singing”) and oxymoronic phrasing to develop some of the tension underlying her character, e.g. “tense gaiety”.

The main point we achieve in the seemingly lengthy meeting although apparently short thing that we gain from examining Daisy’s character is the first inklings of one of the major themes of the book: that riches do not seal happiness.

The Great Gatsby First Chapter Essay

Fitzgerald casts Nick Carraway as our narrator and guide throughout the Novel, The Great Gatsby. Immediately we discover that he is from an affluent socio-economic background and makes attempts to prove that he is from “good stock”, boasting about his family being descendant from “The Dukes of Buccleuch” illustrating the American obsession with lineage, and how it was often used to measure whether you possessed the “fundamental decencies” that made you a worthwhile member of 1920’s American society.

Contrastingly though, before we find out about his own heritage, Nick himself quotes his father on saying that; “Whenever you feel like criticizing anyone – Just remember that all the people in this world haven’t had all the advantages that you’ve had” This really sets a standard of expectation that we have as readers for our guide; that we expect him to be impartial and indeed “inclined to reserve all judgements” upon the characters in the Novel. At first one can suppose that his narration would be reliable, from a non-biased stance, yet it becomes increasingly clear that due to his personal involvement with others, there is no way that Nick as an omniscient narrator could possibly detach from his predisposed views and biases. To outline this, he talks of Gatsby as having;

“Something gorgeous about him” and “a romantic readiness such as I have never found in a person and which is not likely I shall ever find again” This is indicative of Nick over exaggerating to us as readers (or Fitzgerald using hyperbole to match Gatsby’s own eccentricity, channelled through the narrator). It is unlikely that Nick thought that Gatsby was especially gorgeous in the literal sense of the word, nor that it would be impossible to find romantic readiness in another person – which allows us to dispute his reliability once again. In fairness towards Nick, by doing this he sets the tone for the rest of the story, and creates an area of suspense for what one should expect the protagonist (Gatsby) of the book to actually be like. Nick also mentions;

“Life is more successfully looked at from a single window” Which one could use to interpret as Fitzgerald again trying to mislead the reader into believing that what Nick says represents the whole truth – when it is actually more of Nicks own attempt to produce a truthful account of the story. However, it also demonstrates his desire to be worldly and have an open mind, whether or not his opinions conflict with the actions of others. Despite this, I believe that many readers would still trust what he says about the events and characters whilst reading the book, then eventually coming to make their own informed judgements once they had reached the end, having seen the full picture.

One is also introduced to Nicks overwhelming sense of propriety, issued as an effect of returning back to America after spending his formative years at war in Europe (WWI). He talks of his desire for the “world to be in uniform” and “at a sort of moral attention forever”, making his former life seem whimsical and facetious. Nick wanted to abandon all that lacked seriousness, only regard himself with practices and past times that he felt were proper for a man of his age – getting a job in the Bond Business and reading books on subjects such as investment securities and banking – all in pursuit of becoming “the well rounded man”.

From what he tells us of his life before he went to war, one learns his candid nature lead him to become “victim to not a few veteran bores” implying that he was often bombarded by “the secret griefs of wild, unknown men” of which he made clear his distaste and detest, adding that “most of the confidences were unsought”. The idea that he was surrounded by men who possessed a hedonistic streak in their nature had driven him further towards morality and even to a point, seclusion.

During the first chapter, one gets the impression that his relationships are not very strongly tied, “two old friends whom I scarcely knew at all” referring plainly to Tom and Daisy Buchanan. He appears to be very much alone on the island, whether on West Egg or East Egg, and doesn’t quite fit in with his neighbours, as he lacks the excessive wealth and status. Interestingly though, he appears to be accepted into the community by others with better assets than he, even if Tom does insist on pointing out that he is “stronger and more of a man” than Nick.

Regardless of this, Nick is docile to the irreverent comments made by Tom and takes them on the shoulder. He also seems to gravitate particularly more towards Daisy, possibly having something to do with the fact that they are distantly related (“second cousin once removed”) or that he found Tom physically intimidating but equally lacking in intellect. In fact, the couple themselves are almost juxtaposed in the physical description that Nick gives of them, for Tom; “A rather hard mouth” And “Two, shining arrogant eyes.” Whilst for Daisy;

“Bright eyes and a bright, passionate mouth.” These comments show that even though his judgements were meant to be reserved and not imparted, by giving a less than flattering description of Tom and a slightly more flattering one for Daisy, in spite of its truth or lack of, Nick has given us an insight into his own opinion of the couple. He even goes as far as suggesting that the first thing he thought that Daisy ought to do “was to rush out of the house, child in arms”. This appears to me as a subtle way of him suggesting that Tom is an unsuitable husband and father, due to his racist remarks and very little attempt at hiding the fact that he has a mistress – who rings the house whilst they are all having dinner. In a rather satiric tone, Nick finds it more surprising that Tom “was depressed by a book” than discovering that he had “some woman in New York”.

I think that it is this blunt, ironic, almost “matter of a fact” kind of humour that makes him attractive as a narrator even at times when it may not be necessarily funny. He tends to write in a complex kind of way, not always using basic conversational language. Some of his descriptions suggest decadence and their elaborate nature gives us a rich insight into his experiences, both when he talks of the past and also his current situation. It could be argued that if Fitzgerald had not written in such a way then it may not have been considered to be such a literary exploration and more of a drab fable.

The description that Nick gives as he drives towards the Buchanan’s house is a majestic one, describing the lawn as; “Running toward the front door for a quarter of a mile, jumping over sun dials and brick walls and burning gardens” Of course, a lawn doesn’t really “run”, or “jump”, for that matter, but the sheer imagination that you would need to have to personify what is essentially an extensive piece of grass is relatively impressive. And for that, he deserves some amount of recognition
for what may be the most exciting description of some grass that I have yet to of read.


The Great Gatsby First Chapter Essay

Fitzgerald casts Nick Carraway as our narrator and guide throughout the Novel, The Great Gatsby. Immediately we discover that he is from an affluent socio-economic background and makes attempts to prove that he is from “good stock”, boasting about his family being descendant from “The Dukes of Buccleuch” illustrating the American obsession with lineage, and how it was often used to measure whether you possessed the “fundamental decencies” that made you a worthwhile member of 1920’s American society.

Contrastingly though, before we find out about his own heritage, Nick himself quotes his father on saying that; “Whenever you feel like criticizing anyone – Just remember that all the people in this world haven’t had all the advantages that you’ve had” This really sets a standard of expectation that we have as readers for our guide; that we expect him to be impartial and indeed “inclined to reserve all judgements” upon the characters in the Novel.

At first one can suppose that his narration would be reliable, from a non-biased stance, yet it becomes increasingly clear that due to his personal involvement with others, there is no way that Nick as an omniscient narrator could possibly detach from his predisposed views and biases. To outline this, he talks of Gatsby as having;

“Something gorgeous about him” and “a romantic readiness such as I have never found in a person and which is not likely I shall ever find again” This is indicative of Nick over exaggerating to us as readers (or Fitzgerald using hyperbole to match Gatsby’s own eccentricity, channelled through the narrator).

It is unlikely that Nick thought that Gatsby was especially gorgeous in the literal sense of the word, nor that it would be impossible to find romantic readiness in another person – which allows us to dispute his reliability once again. In fairness towards Nick, by doing this he sets the tone for the rest of the story, and creates an area of suspense for what one should expect the protagonist (Gatsby) of the book to actually be like. Nick also mentions;

“Life is more successfully looked at from a single window”
Which one could use to interpret as Fitzgerald again trying to mislead the reader into believing that what Nick says represents the whole truth – when it is actually more of Nicks own attempt to produce a truthful account of the story.

However, it also demonstrates his desire to be worldly and have an open mind, whether or not his opinions conflict with the actions of others. Despite this, I believe that many readers would still trust what he says about the events and characters whilst reading the book, then eventually coming to make their own informed judgements once they had reached the end, having seen the full picture.

One is also introduced to Nicks overwhelming sense of propriety, issued as an effect of returning back to America after spending his formative years at war in Europe (WWI). He talks of his desire for the “world to be in uniform” and “at a sort of moral attention forever”, making his former life seem whimsical and facetious. Nick wanted to abandon all that lacked seriousness, only regard himself with practices and past times that he felt were proper for a man of his age – getting a job in the Bond Business and reading books on subjects such as investment securities and banking – all in pursuit of becoming “the well rounded man”.

From what he tells us of his life before he went to war, one learns his candid nature lead him to become “victim to not a few veteran bores” implying that he was often bombarded by “the secret griefs of wild, unknown men” of which he made clear his distaste and detest, adding that “most of the confidences were unsought”.

The idea that he was surrounded by men who possessed a hedonistic streak in their nature had driven him further towards morality and even to a point, seclusion. During the first chapter, one gets the impression that his relationships are not very strongly tied, “two old friends whom I scarcely knew at all” referring plainly to Tom and Daisy Buchanan.

He appears to be very much alone on the island, whether on West Egg or East Egg, and doesn’t quite fit in with his neighbours, as he lacks the excessive wealth and status. Interestingly though, he appears to be accepted into the community by others with better assets than he, even if Tom does insist on pointing out that he is “stronger and more of a man” than Nick. Regardless of this, Nick is docile to the irreverent comments made by Tom and takes them on the shoulder.

He also seems to gravitate particularly more towards Daisy, possibly having
something to do with the fact that they are distantly related (“second cousin once removed”) or that he found Tom physically intimidating but equally lacking in intellect. In fact, the couple themselves are almost juxtaposed in the physical description that Nick gives of them, for Tom; “A rather hard mouth” And “Two, shining arrogant eyes.” Whilst for Daisy;

“Bright eyes and a bright, passionate mouth.” These comments show that even though his judgements were meant to be reserved and not imparted, by giving a less than flattering description of Tom and a slightly more flattering one for Daisy, in spite of its truth or lack of, Nick has given us an insight into his own opinion of the couple. He even goes as far as suggesting that the first thing he thought that Daisy ought to do “was to rush out of the house, child in arms”.

This appears to me as a subtle way of him suggesting that Tom is an unsuitable husband and father, due to his racist remarks and very little attempt at hiding the fact that he has a mistress – who rings the house whilst they are all having dinner. In a rather satiric tone, Nick finds it more surprising that Tom “was depressed by a book” than discovering that he had “some woman in New York”.

I think that it is this blunt, ironic, almost “matter of a fact” kind of humour that makes him attractive as a narrator even at times when it may not be necessarily funny. He tends to write in a complex kind of way, not always using basic conversational language. Some of his descriptions suggest decadence and their elaborate nature gives us a rich insight into his experiences, both when he talks of the past and also his current situation. It could be argued that if Fitzgerald had not written in such a way then it may not have been considered to be such a literary exploration and more of a drab fable.

The description that Nick gives as he drives towards the Buchanan’s house is a majestic one, describing the lawn as; “Running toward the front door for a quarter of a mile, jumping over sun dials and brick walls and burning gardens” Of course, a lawn doesn’t really “run”, or “jump”, for that matter, but the sheer imagination that you would need to have to personify what is essentially an extensive piece of grass is relatively impressive. And for that, he deserves some amount of recognition for what may be the most exciting description of some grass that I have yet to of read.



Background of the study
(DISCUSSION OF MAIN TOPIC, PROBLEM STATEMENTS AND SPECIFIC TOPIC) VoIP is a revolutionary technology that has the potential to completely rework the world’s phone systems. VoIP is often referred to as IP telephony (IPT) because it uses Internet protocols to make possible enhanced voice communications. Objectives of the study

General Objectives:
The general objective of the study is to develop a Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) program generator. It specifically aims: 1. To design a system that (FEATURES)
2. To create a prototype as designed
3. To test and improved the developed prototype.
4. To evaluate the prototype (REFER TO ISO STANDARD)
5. Document the result

Scope and Limitation of the study
This study is limited to a voice over internet protocol program generator that generates and customizes phone services, phones and devices, voice mail managing, notifications, and call management. A phone service manages calls, faxes and has a Caller ID tools for both making and receiving calls. In an event a call maybe diverted to a personal number if permitted. Significance of the study

VOIP program generator is a system that generates steps and instructions. The proposed project is a generic program that can be used by any Office
VOIP Program Generator in the offices generates set of instructions to be used by the office staff in managing and organizing voice calls. School
The use of VOIP program generator in school generates VOIP program that may reduce the costs of telephony communication. The Future Researchers
This will give information and knowledge that serves as a guideline to improve their project development.


This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies underlying the framework of the study. It includes the conceptual model of the study and the operational definition of terms.



VOIP is a digital telephone service that uses the public Internet and private backbones for call transport. VOIP applications are used mostly by the call centre company or an individual for a cost cutting and managing of calls. Program generator is a software program that enables an individual to easily create a program of their own with less effort and programming knowledge.


Subtopics of this major topic identify what communication is all about. It also discusses what and how communications are sent and received. There are different types of communications discussed in this section.

On the basis of the foregoing concepts, theories and findings of related literature, studies presents and insights taken from them, a conceptual model is developed as shown below:

Figure 1: Conceptual Model of the proposed project VOIP Program Generator.

Knowledge Requirements. This includes the knowledge of the researchers to develop the proposed project. And also, it includes basic ideas a user needs to know in able to understand easily the proposed project..

Software Requirements. These are the computer programs that are going to be used in the system. The proposd project will be created in the Linux operating system. Trixbox will be used as the Trixbox is an iso image of a pre-configured Asterisk server which makes installation and deployment easier. Trixbox contains a full version of Asterisk and other pre-configured applications considered add-ons.

Hardware Requirements. It includes the technical requirements of the proposed project. A network interface card and network interface devices will be needed to for the connection of different calls. And the computer unit, with at least 512Mb RAM, Pentium 4 processor and 10Gb space for the hard disk, where the users interface with data, through a database, is actually seen.

Operational Definition of Terms
VOIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) is a voice communication over the network the bridging the gap of communication IP (Internet Protocol) is a numerical label assigned to the device participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication


This chapter presents the sequence of project development. It also includes the discussion of methods and actions in developing the project. It also includes some related information, development procedures and the definition of a number of viewpoints on how the application was evaluated by the users and Information Technology specialists.


Figure 2 shows the Context-level Data Flow Diagram of the proposed project. The process is initiated by the user by entering the configured details. The system then processes the generated program to the user.

Figure 2.0 Context Diagram of the proposed project.

Figure 3.0 Shows the low level Diagram of VOIP Program Generator

The figure above shows the process of Voice over Internet Protocol Program Generator. New user needs to create an account before selecting a program. Upon selecting a program whether school or office selected programs may be configured depending on the requirements of the user. Every Program configured will be checked and update for verifications and clarification. All programs that are configured and updated may be viewed by the user.


In developing the project, the researchers undergone different activities shown in figure 5 which identifies the analysis, resources and in designing the project. The activities involved are illustrated below:

Data and Information Gathering
Data and information gathering related to the development of the study were conducted. Several tools were used to perform this task. This includes playing existing games, researching new and existing game concepts, observing gaming trends, evaluating successful games and researching in different school libraries. Study and Analysis of the Information Gathered

The pieces of information gathered were analyzed. Useful information was comprehensively utilized. Data flow diagrams and conceptual diagrams were used as tools. System Design
In the system design, all pertinent input data and required outputs were determined and planned. The design was made according to JMonkeyEngine’s Application API game loop, this creates multithreaded game loops. Making the game fast and the source code is much more maintainable. System Development

This is the process of writing algorithms and coding with a specific
programming language. Java programming language was used. This is the phase of the development where Object Oriented Programming knowledge and skill are required. System Evaluation

User participation is very important. The system was evaluated by would-be users. Documentation
Documentation is the last phase in project development. The preparation of the users’ manual to guide the end-users in manipulating the game was the main activity of this phase.


Operation Procedure

1.Identify the problems that will be encountered in the development of the system. 2.Establishment of timelines, schedules and the cost of project development. 3.Warehouse system related data.
4.Conduct interview with call center agensts, team leaders and some IT professionals. 5.Creation of screen design based on the defined requirements. 6.Program Coding.
7.Testing and evaluation of the system.
8.Creation of user support documentation.
9.Perform user’s training.
10.Implementation of the developed system.
Testing Procedure

1.The proponents will create test cases for each component of the VOIP Program Generator functionality and expected output in various developments. 2.The proponents will perform input testing wherein the inputted set of instructions manages and customizes calls properly. Invalid inputs will also be examined to test the efficiency of the system. 3.The proponents will perform module testing for the daily reports to check if it produces accurate data.

Foundations of Information Systems chapter 1 notes

Case Study #1 – Information Technology Helps LCBO Transform Itself Information Technology has helped improve LCBO to become a sophisticated Canadian retailer by helping the organization become more organized (if a bottle is sold, it is deducted from the inventory), it has helped them attract the interest of more customers by introducing Vintages.com where customers could choose from a variety of unique wines and have it delivered to their nearby LCBO store.

LCBO.com helped make the company more interactive with their customers by giving them cocktail recipes etc… LCBO’s app allows customers to be able to search inventory and closest store on the go. Information Systems (IS) – Computer based tools that people use to work with information and that support the information and information-processing needs of an organization. Information systems have helped benefit customer service, finance, sales and marketing, etc…

A type of information systems is: Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) which is a system that performs or records daily routine transactions such as sales order entry, payroll, employee record keeping, and shipping. Information Technology (IT) – is the acquisition, processing, storage, and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual, and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications.

Management Information Systems – it is a business function just like marketing and finance. This function plans for, develops, implements, and maintains IT hardware, software, and applications that people use to support the goals of an organization. It monitors and controls the business and predicts future performance. Information and business success depend on three things: people, processes, information systems. If one fails, they all fail. Information Cultures Found In Organizations

Information-Functional Culture: Employees use information as a means of exercising influence/power over others. For example, a sales manager refuses to share information with marketing which means marketing would need the sales manager’s input every time a new sales strategy is developed. Information-Sharing Culture: Employees across departments trust each other to use information, especially about problems, to improve performance.

Information-Inquiring Culture: Employees across departments search for information to better understand the future and align themselves with current trends and new directions. Information-Discovery Culture: Employees across departments are open to new insights about crisis and radical changes and seek ways to create competitive advantages. Roles And Responsibilities In Information Systems

Chief Information Officer (CIO) – an executive-level position that involves high-lever strategic planning and management of information systems pertaining to the creation, storage, and us of information by a business. Chief Technology Officer (CTO) – responsible for ensuring the throughput, speed, accuracy, availability, and reliability of an organization’s information technology. Chief Security Officer (CSO) – responsible for ensuring the security of information systems, and developing strategies and technical safeguards against attacks from hackers and viruses.

Chief Privacy Officer (CPO) – responsible for ensuring the ethical and legal use of information within an organization. Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO) – responsible for collecting, maintaining, and distributing an organization’s knowledge. The CKO designs processes and information systems that make it easy for people to reuse knowledge. These systems create repositories of organizational documents, methodologies, tools, and practices, and they establish methods for filtering information. Competitive Advantage: a product or service that an organization’s customers place a greater value on than similar offerings from a competitor.

First-mover advantage: when an organization can significantly impact its market share by being first to market with a competitive advantage. Ex. FedEx was the first to create a self-service software, then other companies started doing so after. Now, customer self-service through the internet is standard in the parcel delivery business. Environmental Scanning: the acquisition and analysis of events and trends in the environment external to an organization. Ex. Frito-Lay sends its representatives to grocery stores to record information about competing products to help them gain knowledge on how to increase the sale of their products.

How To Develop A Competitive Advantage:
Buyer Power: it is high when buyers have many choices of whom to buy from and low when their choices are few. Organizations prefer to reduce the buyer power of customers by making it more attractive for customers to buy from them over the competitor. An IS-based example is loyalty programs where customers are rewarded with the amount of business they do with a particular organization. Supplier Power: is high when buyers have few choices to buy from and low when they have many choices. When it comes to customers, organizations act as suppliers and want supplier power to be high.

When it comes to relationships with suppliers, organizations act as buyers and want the supplier power to be low. When organizations act as buyers, an IS-enabled business-to-business (online marketplace) is used where buyers take place in a private exchange and they post their needs. Suppliers then offer their services in a reverse auction where their bids go lower so that the buyer is more interested in their goods.

Threat of Substitute Products or Services: it is high when there are many alternatives to a product or service and low when there are few alternatives from which to choose. Organizations prefer to be in markets with fewer substitutions so that customers would go for their product.

When there is competition, organizations create a competitive advantage through switching costs which makes it harder for a customer to switch to a competing organization. An example is offering better prices or creating a cost that’ll ensure customers won’t leave the organization. For example cell phone company contracts – if you leave before the contract is over, you pay a “cost”.

Threat of New Entrants: is high when it is easy for new competitors to enter a market and low when there are significant entry barriers to entering a market. An entry barrier is a product or service feature that customers have come to expect from organizations in a particular industry that must be introduced by competing organizations in order to survive.

Ex – new banks must offer a variety of IS related services such as online banking. Rivalry Among Existing Competitors: is high when competitions is fierce in a market and low when there is less competition in a market. The Three Generic Strategies – Creating a business focus

1) Broad cost leadership
2) Broad differentiation
3) Focused strategy
http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newSTR_82.htm (explains the three generic strategies) The value chain – views an organization as a series of processes, each of which adds value to the product or service for each customer. CHAPTER 2

Common Company Structure
Operational – employees develop, control, and maintain core business activities required to run day-today operations. Operational decisions are structured decisions which arise in situations where established processes offer potential solutions. These decisions are made frequently and affect short-term business strategies. Ex. Recording and creating employee staffing and weekly production schedules. Structured decisions are situations where established processes offer potential solutions. Managerial – Employees evaluate company operations

Strategic – managers develop overall strategies, goals, and objectives. Metrics – Measurements that evaluate result to determine whether a project is meeting its goals Common types – KPIs (Key performance Indicators), Efficiency and Effectiveness Benchmark – Baseline values the system seeks to attain Benchmarking – A process of continuously measuring system results, comparing those results to optimal system performance (benchmark values), and identifying steps and procedures to improve system performance.

Chapter 2 Quiz + Answers

1. When business embrace the strategy-making as well as method implementation process it requires they begin by
establishing a tactical vision, mission and also values

2. The strategic management process is shaped by
outside variables such as the sector’s financial and also affordable problems and also interior aspects such as the company’s collection of resources and capabilities

3. When a firm is faced with significant market modification that mandates radical revision of its strategic course, the firm is claimed to have encountered
a tactical inflection point

4. A business’s critical strategy includes
a vision of where it is headed, a collection of efficiency targets, and a strategy to attain them

5. Top management’s views regarding where the firm is headed as well as what its future product-customer-market-technology will be
comprises the tactical vision for the company

6. Well-conceived visions are
details to a specific organization
free of generic, feel-good statements
not harmless one-sentence statements
Every one of these

7. Efficiently interacting the tactical vision down the line to lower-level supervisors and also employees has the value of not only discussing “where we are going and why” but, more significantly, likewise motivating as well as invigorating firm workers to unite to get the company moving in the designated instructions

8. A firm’s objective declaration typically addresses which of the complying with concerns
That we are, what we do, and why we are here

9. A business’s values connect to such things as fair therapy, integrity, moral behavior, innovativeness, synergy, superior high quality, premium customer care, social duty, and community citizenship

10. The managerial objective of setting purposes consists of transforming the strategic vision into specific efficiency targets using the purposes as benchmarks for tracking the company’s progression and performance testing the organization to do at its full possibility and also provide the best feasible results developing deadlines for attaining performance results

11. A business needs economic goals because without appropriate earnings and financial toughness, the business’s best survival is endangered

12. Strategic purposes relate to reinforcing a firm’s total market standing as well as competitive vitality

13. A well balanced scorecard for gauging company performance
entails striking a balance in between economic purposes and also tactical objectives

14. A balanced scorecard that consists of both tactical and also economic efficiency targets is a conceptually solid technique for evaluating a company’s overall performance because
monetary performance actions are delaying signs that mirror the results of previous choices as well as business activities whereas strategic performance measures are leading indicators of a firm’s

future financial efficiency

15. A company needs performance targets or goals
for its operations overall as well as additionally for each of its different services, product, useful departments, and private work units

16. Company approach worries
ensuring uniformity in critical strategy amongst the businesses of a varied business

17. In a single-business firm, the strategy-making hierarchy includes
organisation approach, useful techniques, as well as operating approaches

18. Useful strategies
worry the activities, methods, as well as techniques connected to particular functions or procedures within a service

19. Running techniques issue
the reasonably slim calculated initiatives and also approaches for taking care of key running units within a service as well as for doing strategically considerable operating jobs

20. Management is obligated to keep track of new outside growths, examine the firm’s progress, and make restorative changes in order to
choose whether to continue or transform the company’s tactical vision, goals, method and/or approach implementation approaches

Chapter 2 Review Questions – Information Systems

1. When determining the appropriate hardware components of a new information system, what role must the user of the system play? a. People involved in selecting their organization´s computer hardware must clearly understand current and future business requirements so they can make informed acquisition decisions.

2. Identify two characteristics of RAM and ROM.
a. Random Access Memory is temporary and volatile. Read-Only-Memory is nonvolatile and permanent.

3. What is RFID technology? How does it work?
a. Radio Frequency Identification is a technology that employs a microchip with an antenna to broadcast its unique identifier and location to receivers. The purpose of the system is to transmit data by a mobile device, called a tag, which is read by an RFID reader and processed according to the needs of an information system program.

4. Identify the three components of the CPU and explain the role of each. a. The arithmetic/logic unit (ALU): The part of the CPU that performs the mathematical calculations and makes logical comparisons. b. Control Unit: The part of the CPU that sequentially accesses program instructions, decodes them, and coordinates the flow of data in and out of the ALU, the registers: the primary storage, and even secondary storage and various output devices. c. Register storage area: special, high-speed area within the CPU; temporary storage area. It works under the control of the control unit.

5. What is Solid State Storage technology? What advantages does it offer? a. A flash drive is an example of SS technologies. It stores data in memory chips rather than magnetic or optical media. b. Memory chips need less power and provide faster data access, and have only few moving parts, so that they are less fragile.