Audience-Focused Communication Matrix

Associate Level Material Appendix B Audience-Focused Communication Matrix Use the matrix to finish the information. Write 3-4 sentences for each merchandise. * What are some viewers traits you need to consider? * What communication channels could be appropriate and why? * What would you do to ensure your message is effective? * What are some considerations you should keep in mind given the range of the audience? Audience-Focused Communication|

Audience| Audience Characteristics| Channels of Communication| Strategies to Ensure Effective Messages| Audience Diversity Considerations| Managers| Some attribute I can take into accounts when presenting the quarterly gross sales is data.

Even although our manager is above us, at all times make sure to understand how much he/she is aware of in regards to the system and the quarterly numbers. Also, I ought to attempt to know the education degree of my manager. My supervisor might need more experience than me, but may not have the education degree I do. Finally, the language barrier my manger may need. Some channels of communication I would use with my manager can be a written message.

With a written message we are able to give attention to the precise knowledge with out being facet tracked. Also, with a written message I can also bear in mind specific details, as an alternative of speaking about things that do not make sense. Finally, with a written message I can even minimize some undesirable feelings. Some written messages can be in a presentation format. Having a written message introduced in a PowerPoint presentation can keep any individuals targeted, but in addition give me the benefit of exhibiting my supervisor how snug I am with oral communication.

There are several strategies I can use to ensure an efficient message was received. First, I will make sure my presentation or any written documentation handed in to my supervisor is organized. Second, it is extremely important for me to remain on matter. My supervisor or any supervisor will not just like the impression that I am all over. Third, if the presentation is a couple of specific plan, then I should state the motion plan. I shouldn’t go away my manager guessing what’s going to occur. Last however not least, all the time ask if he/she has any questions or considerations.

This can ensure everybody together with the manager has understood what the presentation was about. | Some viewers diversity I should think about is education, age, familiarity of subject, language, culture. For instance, If I was giving a presentation on how the presidential election works. I have to assume about the age groups which might be attending to this presidential meeting as a end result of somebody who is eighteen year old will not be as serious as someone who’s forty-one. Also, we’ve to give consideration to how familiar are these people with the subject.

Some individuals may be there to understand how every step actually works and a few could be there just to ask questions. Third, could be the language limitations. There could be people there from all kinds of cultures, some may not communicate English at all and others don’t converse any language apart from English. | Salespeople| Some characteristic I can think about when presenting the quarterly gross sales for the salespeople is the language barrier. I must know if everybody attending will speak the identical language or if I will need to have a translator.

Also, understanding in regards to the education stage that salespeople have on this monetary department is a must. I can’t clarify the quarterly gross sales to a salesperson doesn’t know what I could be speaking about. | The channel of communication I would use with the salespeople can be oral communication. With oral communication I would be ready to show emotional expressions, which might lead to persuasion. These expressions can also alert the salespeople if I am proud of their response. With oral communication I can get instant action or response to a question being asked.

We can also get modification of plans if we have been to be dissatisfied with the service or care. | There are a number of methods I can use to ensure that an effective message effective therapeutic massage was acquired. First, knowing what I want and understanding how a lot I would want to pay for the product (if the value is negotiable). Being prepared with proper documentation can state I am sure about what I need and it additionally exhibits an effective message. Also, develop a transparent goal in every facet. | | Customers| Some characteristic I can take into accounts when presenting the quarterly sales to a buyer is knowing the age group that he/she could additionally be in.

For example, someone of their early twenties will in all probability not be as severe as someone in their late thirties. Second, figuring out their schooling stage may help determine how experienced and how ready they are going to be with presentation. | With clients I would use each oral and written communication. The purpose why I would use both is as a end result of if I even have a buyer means that this buyer is excited about whatever it is I am offering or presenting, so I would use written communication to keep the customer up to date and of course to remain in contact with them.

However, I would use oral communication to provide out a presentation to the shopper of the latest and greatest technology and quarterly gross sales. Also, to speak about any questions or concerns he/she might be having. | There are several strategies I can use to make sure the shopper has acquired an efficient message. For instance, being updated. Educating myself on the latest quarterly sale can transmit to the customer I know what he/she could additionally be talking about. Second, guarantee active participation. When a customer asks a question about the sales be the first one to reply, whereas making eye contact.

Listening would be the third strategy. When a customer is talking or asking a question pay full attention to the client and answer the question totally. By listening it shows commitment. Last, knowing my viewers. By connecting with the audience and understanding the audience I can build the connection to a more skilled level. | | All| When a presentation is ready regarding salespeople, customers, and managers; the similarities and differences must be taken under consideration. Some characteristics I can take into consideration are schooling, age, gender, religion, and data.

Not everybody holds the same expertise or training. Not everybody has the same beliefs and mentality in phrases of a presentation and an action plan. | Overall, I can use oral and written communication with my manager, salespeople, and even the customers. If I have been to current the quarterly gross sales and take all of the correct documentation as far as financial statements, balance sheets, and revenue statements I may give out an oral presentation as nicely as a written presentation that lets me concentrate on my subject. Oral and written communication can be used with anybody. Several efficient messages I can relate to everyone appears to be understanding the viewers, get facts about everything, watch the tone of my voice, ask questions, and listen. All these methods play an enormous position whether or not I am talking to a manager, salesperson, or even a buyer. Knowing the audience will give me a bonus. Listening can state to anyone I am aware of what somebody desires and may build a relationship. Watching the tone of my voice is very important. Emotion and emotions might be expressed by way of the tone of the voice. Keeping an expert tone at all times can give the impression I can deal with and do properly beneath strain. | |

Assessment on Communication Skills within the Area of Speaking and Writing

People talk nose to nose, and so they listen to one another. They write emails and reports and skim the paperwork that are despatched to them Human beings are communicating. In each decoding and encoding messages, individuals spend virtually 70% of communication time as speakers. (Jaime Gutierrez-Ang 2009).

Communication is two means course of by which info is exchanged between or amongst individuals via a standard system of symbols, science and habits (Martinez 1) Being a two way course of, communication occurs in a orderly and systematic sequence whereby human beings are able to see and hear what transpires of their surroundings.

As a course of, communication is dynamic, adaptive and steady. Being a survival mechanism, communication helps us develop to be unique persons, relating and cooperating with others. It satisfies our physical, ego, social and sensible wants. It is certainly essential in life. (Mely M. Padilla 2003) Speaking and writing are expertise that have similarities. Both require the use of language symbols to specific wants and feelings, they are both ruled by the principles of semantics and syntax.

Both are additionally anticipated to realize communicative purpose- a level of understanding, frequent data and shared expectations. In speech, we monitor what we are saying by listening to the revised or linked ideas, whereas in writing, we monitor what we write by studying and rereading. Furthermore, the speaker and the writer should be capable of decide how simple or complex and formal the statements ought to be. But there are differences in talking and writing too. Writing differs in speech in a number of ways.

According to Vygotsky ,e.f Hughey 1983, composing a written discourse is a “separate linguistic operate differing from oral speech in each structure and mode of functioning. Even its minimal growth requires a excessive level of abstraction”. Writing is significantly totally different from speaking as a outcome of writing requires a more complex and difficult discourse. (Saymo, 2004.)

In reflecting upon and browsing out communication skills, then consider communication as methods and technique of gathering and relying information, and think of info as what there might be to be gathered by any means that is contemplate the widest range of writing and talking as you think about your communication abilities. In relevance to the Department of College of Education, Communication abilities of the scholars have to be enhanced.

The researchers inspired the division that through Speech Laboratory to measure the talking abilities of the scholars in addition to the writing expertise where within the teachers can identify where the energy of the students and of the their weaknesses are within the parts communication abilities in the area of talking and writing. It can be an instrument to detect students’ potential in speech in order that it can be developed and could be a product of the department in the area of speaking and writing.

The researchers look forward for this system that can be developed primarily based on the results of the research. It shall be a common program for the lecturers to have the better and effective educational supplies. The researchers foresee the unbiased treatment of the teachers towards the scholars through the assistance of universal program. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This examine aims to discover out the levels of communication skills of BEED Gen.Ed freshmen college students of Carlos Hilado Memorial State College for the first semester educational 12 months 2013-2014 as Basis for Program Development. Specifically, it’ll goal to answer the following particular questions. 1. What are the levels of Communication Skills of BEED Gen. Ed freshmen college students in the area of talking and writing when they’re grouped based on: a) School Graduated

b) Mental Ability
c) Parents’ Educational Attainment
2. What are the difficulties within the elements of Communication Skills of BEED Gen. Ed freshmen students when they are grouped in accordance with: a) School Graduated
b) Mental Ability
c) Parents’ Educational Attainment
3. Is there a big distinction on the level of communication skills in the space of talking and writing when they are in contrast in accordance with: a) School Graduated
b) Mental Ability
c) Parents’ Educational Attainment
four. Based on the results, what program ought to be developed?

There is not any significant difference on the level of communication abilities of BEED Gen. Ed. freshmen college students within the area of speaking and writing when they in contrast in accordance with where college they graduated, psychological capability and what their parents’ academic attainment. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Communication is the finest way to learn the person. If he is to be disadvantaged of the prospect to speak with others, he ought to have sense of identification. It is thru communication that one will get the chance for affirmation of self-concept and sharing of views about quite so much of things amongst others. People relate socially with one another through communication.

Personal communication is essential for a person’s well-being. Sufficiency or absence of communication has a bearing on one’s state of physical well being. For one, stress is heightened or dissipated relying on communication or lack of it and the character of its content material. So as being a two-way process, communication occurs in an orderly and systematic sequence the place in human beings are able to see and hear transpires of their environment (William Schutz).

These statements emphasize the importance of communication in several space of human wants. Communication may be very essential as a outcome of human being develops their capability to talk through interaction with others. Especially the youngsters ages 1-5, they’re great imitators. They observe the actions of their mother and father, brother and sister, playmates and others. They have a tendency to discover the phrases by their very own through observation.

According to George T. Wilkins Speech is the most important of all means of communication. In the nice authorities politics, and in the expression of our own democratic rights, speech can be most essential. Good speech is important to participate in democracy. As to the scholars, speech can help specific their emotions. It can help through taking part in classroom discussions, reciting in classroom actions and reporting assigned tasks. Effectiveness in speaking is a climb to a ladder of seven steps (Eugine E. White and Claire K. Neudelider).

The quote said that the speaker ought to first analyze and know the viewers that will listen. In connection to the communication skills evaluation, the students that have difficulties in talking will assess by the suggestions and develop program that this study goals to achieve.

For further info, communication is the KEY which unlocks all the doors to a successful and fulfilling faculty life experience, to getting cooperation along with your students, that permits us to feel understood, for resolving conflicts between academics and students, to let students know what your wants are and the way greatest to meet those needs, to fewer conflicts in the classroom and in the playground, to building self-confidence and vanity, to feeling listened to by your college students, mutual respect in the classroom, to much less resistance and extra cooperation, to everyone feeling safe to be themselves and to have more enjoyable within the classroom. ( .

These only show that communication is basically very important in life especially within the instructing and studying process. It is the key to open the instructor and scholar mind and their capabilities to speak and write nicely. C

Assessment task – SHC 21 Introduction to communication in health, social care or children’s and young people’s settings

Communication is about making contact with others and being understood. When communicating, folks send and receive messages repeatedly. As an early years practitioner working with children and younger people, effective communication is important to make sure that I can create the best provision for the youngsters and young individuals I am work with. In my setting, whenever you have a look at all of the interacting and communications between youngsters, young people and adults via the actions, it shows there are such a lot of reasons why individuals communicate.

Making relationships

When we talk, we make new relationships with youngsters, parents, carers or colleagues. I should use constructive communication skills to make a good first impression in relationships, for example, being friendly, smiling, shaking arms once I greet the particular person. Developing relationships

As an early years practitioner, I ought to develop a relationship with youngsters, younger people, their dad and mom, carers and colleagues by sustaining a friendly and supportive method and by being interested in what other people are doing and feeling.

This enables them to feel comfortable and safe, figuring out that they’ll trust and depend on my skilled service. Obtaining and sharing information

As an early years practitioner, I may have to obtain and share details about youngsters and young people who I work for with colleagues and other companies to ensure the staff is fully informed. I additionally want to communicate with children and young individuals or their relations concerning the care and support they acquired or about the sorts of providers and facilities which would possibly be available in our setting.

Expressing ideas and ideas

I might have to speak with my colleagues to share my ideas and concepts about features of follow in my setting, and also I should use efficient communication abilities to encourage children and young individuals to talk about what they have learnt, say what they think or categorical themselves imaginatively. Giving and receiving support

Children and young people typically seek reassurance from adults as a means of creating their self- confidence. As a practitioner, I should use my constructive communication skill to reward them, give them time and a spotlight to reward their efforts and achievements. I also ought to communicate with my supervisor and colleagues to obtain the assist and reassurance about my work efficiency. Expressing emotions, wishes, wants and preferences

As an early years practitioner, I need use my positive communication expertise to encourage children and younger individuals to express their emotions and wishes and to speak about how they wish to be treated, in addition to to say what they like and dislike. In the early years setting, there are so many reasons individuals talk, I should use communication talent positively and effectively to make sure good quality service.

Applied Sciences Models Of Communication Cultural Studies Essay

Communication is the motion of transporting message via the dialogue of ideas, messages, or data, as by voice, or behaviour. Communication want message, sender and receiver nonetheless message besides want a medium to journey or make the occupation. Now with the develops of the communicating in our life everybody can pass on simple, but the job that whatever you will stated you’ll establish as transmitter that receiving system or the individuals do non perceive you, because the factors or shedding element.

with the different ideas which people have and differences they maintain their sentiment base to demo it for the populace. If we take communicating theoretical accounts the motion, Interaction and transactional they complete have shedding issue or elements, in order that I am touring uncover extra about these theoretical accounts and how one of the best theoretical account is that good to work with it.

An action theoretical account of communicating

A theoretical accounts are straightforward method to explicate the totally different speaking methods, so communicating have the three merely theoretical accounts of communications that action, Interaction and transactional.

Action theoretical account is one type of method to pass on with public. In 1960, David Berlo expanded on Shannon and Weaver ‘s ( 1949 ) linear theoretical account of communicating and created the SMCR Model of Communication It includes sender particular person how direct the message or his sentiment to the receiving system with the noise, however the thought on this modals that particular person present his message to the transmitter with out respond from the other individual or receiving system for illustration two particular person one of them wrote in latter to the other individual however no reply for the first individual.

Action theoretical accounts come from telecommunications yearss and signifiers that have been obtained. There are different method to pass on in this action theoretical account is a missive, electronic message, text message, speak which we used in our life. Taking one illustration in our life for action theoretical account that some individuals do non maintain to react as traveling in buying the store proprietor give you the financial worth and you give no reply jest give the money.

This theoretical account can be utilization can be utilized in concern, speaking and IT function. Let ‘s take the first one in concern like selling for merchandise in Television or journal in speaking informing the populace by letters in IT intent like directing electronic message likes in Gmail.

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An interaction theoretical account of communicating

Model figure two is made relationship between the transmitter and the receiving system which cools an interplay theoretical account. This theoretical account is the most effective manner to move on, as a end result of relationships between the transmitter and receiving system are strong like friends relationships the receiving system can took that he does n’t perceive ( the feedback ) . if there is take part from the for illustration: two work forces holding a conversation about what squad is the most effective in the course of the dialog when first adult male giving his grounds the 2nd respond about it and give his sentiment quintessence and the first perceive. ( Weiner, 1948, 1986 ) , regularly without altering any other part of Shannon ‘s theoretical account Weiner made interplay theoretical account. This an of import betterment, and as usually painted, an intensely oversimplified one. Feedback is a message ( or a set of messages ) . The suggestions is an data comes from starting or transmitter. Feedback is carried, caught, and possibly mutable by sound beginnings. None of that is shown within the typical diagram of the synergistic theoretical account.

This theoretical account may be usage can be utilized in concern, communicating and IT purpose. We can make the most of in concern like in run intoing the trough wants new thought in speaking in the college preciously within the category room the trainer does interplay with pupil in IT like face book paste common


A transactional theoretical account of communicating

Model determine three is transactional this theoretical account is straightforward to use from folks. They could make this theoretical account in them life like of their households, pals and society. Transactional theoretical account may restore jobs if the people work it right. In this theoretical account the transmitter can go receiving system and the receiving system turns into sender who? It entails many things foremost in this theoretical accounts have message which the thought and the noise and sender-receiver and the suggestions all the weather are here in this theoretical account, so this consider the most effective theoretical accounts to communicates with quintessence. The account of why the transmitter turns into receiver and the oboist? That transmitter direct the message by channel to the receiving system understands and respond to the transmitter than the transmitter turns into receiver. The greatest illustration for this theoretical account two adult feminine the primary adult female holding conversation along with her friends about something her friend understands and react again or she does or mentioned her thought likes assertion or struggle. Talking in transactional method incessantly that we change message, so we might apart from be interchanging weigh to each other, for case in a beggary where every individual permits the opposite a really feel of alleviation by way of. The dealing could be high rely upon context for illustration: holding dialog in place in stop different with the message or dialog made in work it noisy or in road. In this theoretical account two adult male can move on with multiply message for illustration like in MSN:

Hi there!

Well howdy, how are you?

What are you as much as, today?

I am merely traveling to work. What about you?

The final transactional it utilized in concern like say it concern assembly in this meeting a batch of thought will portion in speaking when making statement with a friend in IT like if you textual content your friend in chat room there might be a batch of message.

cropped communicating theoretical account

In summery these theoretical accounts have many element and losing element, but each one have his advantages and disadvantages. I thing probably the most effectual theoretical account is transactional because this exemplary include a batch part which makes it the most effective theoretical account.

Table of Contentss

Models of Communication

“ Models of Communication. ” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 13 Nov. 2012. Web. thirteen Nov. 2012. hypertext switch protocol: // 1


“ Communication. ” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, thirteen Nov. 2012. Web. thirteen Nov. 2012. & lt ; hypertext switch protocol: // 2

Models of communicating

“ Models of Communication. ” Models of Communication. N.p. , n.d. Web. thirteen Nov. 2012. hypertext switch protocol: // 3

Models of Communication

“ Communication Models. ” Communication Models. N.p. , n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. hypertext transfer protocol: // 4


“ Communication and Leadership. ” Leadership. N.p. , n.d. Web. thirteen Nov. 2012. hypertext switch protocol: // 5

Weiner, 1948, 1986 ) , frequently ( as is the casein Figure 4 ) with out altering some other element of Shannon ‘s theoretical account

Analyzing Misunderstanding in Communication

I. Introduction
1.1 Background
There are many things to do when students are having time along with their friends. They can share ideas and feelings with each other or talk about homework, lessons and so forth. Topics will move naturally when “comfortable zone” within the communication have been reached. Those are a few of evidences which show that individuals talk with others.

Communication is an change of ideas, information, and so on. between people by utilizing language during which all events perceive the language they use.

Communication definitely includes a couple of person, which implies that there are a couple of thought concerned in the communication because everyone has totally different backgrounds, experiences, and so on. There are two positions in communication, they are as a sender and as receiver and they’re going to take turn to those positions. “All communication has two components: a sender and a receiver. The sender has a message he or she intends to transmit, and s/he places it in words, which, to her/him, finest reflect what s/he is considering.

But many issues can intervene to stop the meant message from being acquired precisely.” (Burgess, 2013).

Read extra: Different reasons why individuals communicate essay

Misunderstandings typically happen in this trade of concepts in communication. The receiver hears however he does not hear. He doesn’t take up the points being made. It could because the receiver doesn’t concentrate on what the sender or speaker has stated. “… a couple of misunderstandings are language-related, the supply of most of the misunderstandings could be traced to ambiguity within the speaker’s utterances.

Other reasons for misunderstanding embrace mishearing and lack of world information, particularly, elements that additionally contribute to misunderstanding in intracultural communication.”, (Kaur: 2011). There are another elements which we will discover that may cause misunderstanding in communication if we analyze our experiences in having communication with others.

1.2 Purpose of writing
The functions of this writing are:
a) To discover out the components cause misunderstanding in communication, particularly within the conversation which might be proven by the writer in the retrospective data part.
b) To show what college students normally speak about when they’re gathering with their associates.

II. Retrospective Data
Everyone actually has experienced misunderstanding when have communication with others; associates, family members, teachers, and so forth. Misunderstanding not solely happens in communication involving different languages, cultures, etc. People communicate with different who has the identical language can also expertise misunderstanding during which. It happened to me, I communicated with my friends by utilizing similar language however I nonetheless have misunderstanding in the communication. Thus, on this paper, I try to analyze misunderstanding in communication that I have experienced with my pals.

At that point, we had been going to play card (bridge) whereas speaking in regards to the newest Korean film. Everyone already had their cards that had been dealt. There three players on this game, particularly, I, Ima and Anthi. Ima: “Apa film korea terbaru sekarang teman-teman?” (what is the latest Korean movie, guys?) I and Anthi: “Emergency Couple!”

Ima: “Iiih mau!” (Can I really have the copy?)
Anthi: “Bagus tau Maa” (It is basically wonderful, Maa)
I : “Iya bener dah Maa” (She’s true, Maa)
Ima: “Siapa main?” (Who is the cast?)
I : “Yang punya angka three keriting sih” (Who has the 3-kinky card of course play first) They each looked at me and laughed. I thought for a moment about why they laughed at me and I just need a couple of minutes to know why they did it. I : “Oooh..” (I see)

I and Anthi: “Ji Hyo yang maiiin” ( Ji Hyo is major character/ one of many casts)


III. Analysis/Discussion
Communication is a complex human exercise that is successful more often than not. This, nevertheless, does not mean that understanding is granted or that it’s all the time the case. Misunderstanding is a daily non-extraordinary characteristic of human interplay, whether or not communicative interaction is cross-cultural or not (Dascal 1985; Brown 1995 in BOU-FRANCH, Patricia (2002)).

The knowledge is considered one of examples which reveals that the misunderstanding may nonetheless exist even all of the parties in the communication have the same tradition, language and age. The misunderstanding is occurred when I said “Yang punya angka 3 keriting sih” (Who has the 3-kinky card of course play first). I mentioned that as a outcome of I thought my good friend, Ima, asked who played first or who had turn to start the sport. I thought in that method because at that time I had simply set my card and had prepared to begin enjoying the sport and since I had the 3-kinky card. What is the importance of having the 3-kinky card? The rule of playing “Jenderal” using bridge card in Indonesia, significantly in Lombok, is the one who plays first is the one who has the 3-kinky card.

If we analyze the info more deeply, we will find that misunderstanding within the communication happened as a outcome of I didn’t focus on the conversation when Ima asked, “Siapa main?” (Who is the cast?. I still give consideration to what we have been talking about on the first discuss but for the subsequent I didn’t. It was not attributable to lack of world knowledge as a outcome of we can see from the dialog that on the finish I understood or recognized that I had misunderstanding then I mounted it.

IV. Conclusion
In conclusion, misunderstanding is a standard thing that can occur in whether communicative interplay is cross-cultural or not. Misunderstanding caused by many components similar to ambiguity in the speaker’s utterances, lack of world knowledge, mishearing, and so forth. The information exhibits that the other issue that may trigger misunderstanding in communication is being not give consideration to the dialog. Besides that, the data also reveals certainly one of what students usually discuss when they’re gathering with their friends is the most recent movie.

V. References

BOU-FRANCH, Patricia (2002) “Misunderstandings and Unofficial Knowledge in Institutional Discourse”, in David Walton & Dagmar Scheu (eds) Culture and Power: Ac(unofficially)knowledging Cultural Studies in Spain, Bern: Peter Lang. (pp. 323-341)

Burgess, Heidi. “Misunderstandings.” Beyond Intractability. Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: September 2003 . s

Kaur, Jagdish. Intercultural Pragmatics. Volume eight, Issue 1, Pages 93–116, ISSN (Online) 1613-365X, ISSN (Print) 1612-295X, DOI: 10.1515/IPRG.2011.004, February 2011

Analysis of the MacBride Report on Communication

Many Voices One World

This report on the MacBride Report aims to offer the explanation why the report did have a present-day relevance within the Internet aided-text message enabled- 4G networked World. Although thought-about controversial, the heated discussions on the World Wide Web, books and live arguments amongst communication stalwarts, the MacBride Report has emerged to be the first ever world-re port to have UNESCO support in matters of communication and the proble ms related to international relations and inner conflicts.

The 1979 report has had sixteen committee members from all round the world researching the plethora of appreciable means of communications; potential outcomes of research and the most possible flak that was yet to be acquired with the New Orde r they conjured up to. Here is a report on the identical: The background of inception: Amadau-Mahtar M? Bow (Director-General of UNESCO) was instructed within the 19th session of the UNESCO General Confe rence in Nairobi to undertake a revie w of all the issues of communication with relation to complexities and magnitude of technological advance and worldwide affairs.

He appointed the Irish Nobel Laureate Sean MacBride as the President of International Commission for the Study of Communication Proble ms. Several big brains from nations like USA, France, USSR, India, Nigeria, Egypt, the Netherlands, Canada, and Chile and so on. had been appointe d in the essential research work. The MacBride report and the study per se took over two years to finish an intensive research. Two months went only to draft a final report.

Precisely, eight classes in a span of 24 months are the conferences that took place of the committee of individuals coming from completely different he mispheres, areas and latitudes.

In 1978, in the 20th session of the General Conference of the UNESCO, the MacBride report was unanimously adopted. English, French, Russian, Chinese, Spanis h and Arabic we re the languages initially approved to have the report printed in. “Defenders of journalistic freedom we re labeled intruders on nationwide sovereignty” is a powe rful thing to say, again in 1977 by Sean MacBride. A balanced, non-partisan, within the purview of Objectivity and clearly generic enough to engulf the situation prevalent in the whole world niformly or in any other case was the biggest concern and challe nge, stated MacBride. It is inte resting to note in 2011, the “modern tradition of communication” was pretty much totally different in 1977. The ideas and the custom of communication to be “friendly, collabo rative and cooperative” have been broadly appeared forward to. To include every facet of communication-the people, the need and the means was the first step that the group of intellectuals carried out of their respective nations.

H G Wells mentioned (edited) “History turns into increasingly more a race between communication and disaster. Full use of communication in all its various strands is vital to assure that humanity has greater than a history…that our childre n are ensured a future. ” Sure sufficient, communication in the 21st century is sort of paralleled with de mocracy, dreams and sure, catastrophe. Evidently, the MacBride project with 16 stalwarts of communication and intelligence tried to construct a world order.

A New Order of communication that arrange various requirements defined the m and punched varied information in reference to problems, future value and most significantly, the sustainability of communication for the humanity within the peaceful, war-like or a day in the normal course of the late 1900s even. Indians significantly had a very relevant role to play again in Seventies when the report was being studied upon. Various conferences in numerous generics, cultural and geographical backgrounds were made attainable.

This was followe d by varied pe rspectives on the communication and its absolute want in nations within the Indian sub-continent. This supported by India? s dive rse language culture and the necessity felt by each citizen from the Indian Sub-continent to protect and share his language beyond the realms of culture was what made MacBride actually unique again then. Boobli George Varghese was the Indian who represented the nation in the committee which drafted the MacBride report-right from its initiation to the tip outcome. The Analysis for yesterday? s tomorrow: The MacBride Report may be understood with current day circumstances.

Communication and the Society

Communication has a direct relevance to evolution, says the report. No matter how superior we are, our roots go back to days our ancestors spent hours roaming the jungles to seek for food, preserve their race by copy and save their pores and skin by being akin to the “Survival of the fittest”. The report asserts that in each motion of the early man, communication-oral, bodily, gestural or otherwise performed an enormous half within the development of the species. The pondering social animal later got here to discover the Internet to make Earth seem smaller than before.

Hence, from the earliest centuries of existence to the discovery of language to the making of paper, to the faculties and colleges promoting schooling and to the most recent stories on Mashable. com concerning the human interplay and improvement has a task of crediting the same to Communication as the biggest blessing. Comparing communication from the days of Seventies when the communication aided debates, lectures, motivated and guided folks by way of books, maps, enabled signal language in a documented fashion to the communication today: on cell phones, click on of a button, travel, insurance coverage or health, media or entertainment, MacBride predicted most of it.

The computers have a serious cre dit in the Future part of the historical past of Communication in the MacBride report; and ve ry appropriately so. Communication Today: This part of report concentrates much on HOW the communication has/had/will happens. Naturally, body language, signs, gestures had been the forefathers of short hand, typed words or even handwriting class kids take right now. The alphabet in Chinese, Latin or Sanskrit has a big r share of history rather, unexplored.

The growing nations have been accredited to figuring out more than their nationwide languages due to the economic good that comes their way when they possess „skills of a overseas language?. Beyond economics, communication has been one of many largest employers in creating countries—the Business Process Outsourcing being the newest related instance. The MacBride report explores various ways during which communication takes place-among the demography of people in numerous Diasporas in an alarmingly evolving world. Telephone has an entire chapter devoted to it.

Not surprisingly, even at present, telephone and its youngest cousin, cell phone telephony has the most important market—practically all over the place in the world. The reason? Communication! Proble ms and Issues of Common Concern: “Everyone has a right to freedom of opinion and expression, this proper consists of freedom to hold opinions without interferences and to hunt, receive and impart information and concepts through any me dia regardless of frontiers”. The line aptly conjures up the identical emotion Sean MacBride expressed within the assertion “Defenders of journalistic freedom we re labeled ntruders on national sovereignty”. According to the MacBride report, there’s by no means a complete free move of information for several causes of security and safety, securing essential information rmation behind secure fences or for causes of individual or national inte rests.

Censorship might be broadly criticize d however it ensures that not all information is leaked, particularly the one which does need a non-Wiki Leaks approach. Very curiously, the MacBride report does predict that one of the proble ms that the world could be dealing with in the „near future? s blatant exposes. The moral dilemmas of the world coping with (ref: Wiki Leaks) could be most resourceful to note and examine. In one other current day scenarios, a sure American radio-announce r/ reporter expressed, “nervous ness” within the presence of Muslims. He was immediately suspended from job. Such cases are present day cases of proble ms of communication which could presumably be biased, untruth or clearly blurry. Such communication might result in larger tensions internationally, hints the MacBride project.

The Institutional and Professional Frame work

This is the most interesting a part of the MacBride project hinting at numerous present situations in the communication. Considering Facebook is banned in China and that there are native Chinese variations of the identical we bsite are the most related examples. Economically, China pumps in social community and blogs by means of Chinese-owned (the real owner being the regime, anyway), censored web sites that might ban, block or manipulate information if it is inflammable sufficient to thrust a wind of „free opinion? among the many Chinese.

The MacBride report does point out that having Development Strategies and discussing the m on an international discussion board might give way to debates. It is indeed controversial when communication and entertainment tools like YouTube are temporarily blocked in a democratic India over censorship points. The Governme nt? s interference in people? s communication is rightfully controversial, so also is the Vigilance factor (terroris m). The MacBride report hints that the re wouldn? t be a win-win legislation that could ens ure both freedom and safety in 100% of the circumstances.

Professional frame work of communication is the necessity of the ho ur irrespective of the geographical or historic background of the governance. The facts of the Nineteen Seventies mentioned/studied up on by the committee somehow add totality to the curre nt scenes in communication management. Hence, the elaboration of the current case-studies. The recomme ndations and the flak obtained: This part of the report forms the conclusive recommendations given by the committee in direction of fixing the varied problems discussed and expected within the near future.

However, there have been several criticis ms drawn by the MacBride report. Although supported very we ll by worldwide communities, the United States and the United Kingdom condemned the report on basis of an attack on the liberty of the press. There are reviews of US and UK withdrawing from the UNESCO in protest within the years 1984 and 1985 (later re joined). Making communication an essential a half of growth is maybe the strongest message the MacBride reviews sends across the world order. In the curre nt scene, web has replaced the theoretical “communication device”.

No matter which side of the globe once resides in, connectivity to the web is considered completely essentially in a quickly informed and quick world. Secondly, efforts to protect languages must begin proper from the grass-root stage. No matter how in a position the know-how, the absence of a medium of communication can disable every communicative tweet, Face e-book status or a text message. Communication is language. Third, maybe an important one in the entire world: schooling. Mere literacy ensures statistical ego-boost to the GDP counting economists.

MacBride report hints at education beyond minimum elementary level. In addition to radio, TV and ne wspaper networks, MacBride report focuses its largest advice to the integrity of the media in making an attempt situations of world/national/local ne ws. The communication of the ne w world is ensured true and truthful if the reporting media conjures up enough confidence to call s pade a spade. Utilization of communication devices, research and growth and practical improve of information are the opposite suggestions of the MacBride report.

All about Development Communication

1. Introduction

1.1 Historical background of improvement communication

Development Communication includes the strategic use of communication for alleviation of social problems evolving societies ( wilkins, 1996).

The term ‘development communication’ was coined in 1972 by Quebral, who defines the sphere as: ‘the artwork and science of human communication applied to the speedy transformation of a country and the mass of its individuals from poverty to a dynamic state of financial progress that makes possible higher social equality and the bigger fulfilment of the human potential” (Quebral, Nora, 2001).

This concepts implies that the development communication appear to suggest that the discourse was not nearly informing or educating folks to adopt new attitudes, information, practices or technologies.

It implied the unpacking and uprooting of the root causes of structural inequality, marginalization, disempowerment that prevent people and societies from making radical adjustments to improve lives and welfare.

While the latter are necessary ingredients of communication, they aren’t enough for getting folks to vary long established practices or behaviors.

Though data and knowledge are important for people to respond efficiently to the opportunities and challenges of social, economic and technological changes; together with people who help to enhance agricultural productiveness, food security and rural livelihoods.

According to Manyozo (2012), Development is a conflict over sources and of course, over energy. From a Marxist perspective, growth is a class battle: it is concerning the circulate and contestation of power between antagonistic classes.

The practice of improvement communication started within the Forties, however its widespread utility happened after World War II.

The advent of communication sciences within the Nineteen Fifties included recognition of the sector as a tutorial discipline, led by Daniel Lerner, Wilbur Schramm and Everett Rogers. Both Childers and Quebral stressed that Development Communication includes all technique of communication, starting from mass media to person to person.

The concept was broadly used as a means of communication and to facilitate social improvement. Policy makers establish conductive environment, assesses dangers and alternatives and promotes info exchanges to create positive social change by way of sustainability.

According to (Ramos 1989) The concept has been used to explain Western (particularly European) economic development for the explanation that MIDDLE AGES, as nicely as to elucidate the method via which all societies are expected to attain sure economic, political, social, cultural, and different objectives.

The end result of World War II established the United States as the foremost political energy as nicely. The reconstruction of Europe and the establishment of a functioning world financial system grew to become the principal objectives of U.S. overseas coverage.

Then the United States selected a program of financial and economic assistance to Europe.

Then such kinds of Cooperation have been created structured within the Form on International Organization. Here whereas the earlier League of Nation become united nation and created many Economical and Humanitarian group underneath the Organization.

So, whereas US start to help its friendly nation after the world warfare II, such sorts of exercise had been a toll for Washington to create an important role in world political and economic setting.

The Marshall Plan was successful each in rebuilding the economies of the taking part European international locations and in achieving its main political objective: the ‘containment’ of the spread of communism.

This goal was first superior with the declaration of the Truman Doctrine in March 1947 and was reaffirmed in the Point Four Program of 1949, during which Truman supplied the world ‘the advantages of U.S. scientific advance and industrial progress, Whether one chooses to interpret U.S. actions as derived from humanitarian issues, financial self-interest, or bigger political issues (i.e., confrontation with the Soviets), the offer of technical help and economic and monetary assist Nations and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development-the United States provided the Marshall Plan, which extended monetary and financial help in a multilateral framework of consultation and cooperation between donor and recipient countries.

The Marshall Plan was profitable each in rebuilding the economies of the participating European nations and in attaining its major political objective: the ‘containment’ of the unfold of communism.

1.2 The role of Human improvement in Economic development

The human development strategy insists that the elemental of improvement policy should be increasing the chance that individuals have lead meaningful lives. An financial development is a method towards this finish and not ends by itself.

The effects of economic progress on government human improvement expenditures are bound to enrich personal expenditure channels.

In fact, Anand and Ravallion (1993) find that a lot of the effects of economic development on Human Development are prone to flow through government budgetary expenditures, central or local. However, the power of this effect relies upon entirely on the effectiveness of expenditure focusing on and supply.

The government must establish priority sectors similar to major training and well being that have the very best potential for Human Development enchancment. Government expenditures for Human Development ought to be distributed predominantly to low income groups and areas since it’s right here that the highest marginal impact will be had. Government must also have the institutional capability to efficiently allocate these expenditures.

Human improvement, in flip, has necessary results on economic progress. If a central component of economic development is allowing agents to find and develop their comparative benefit, an increase within the capabilities and functioning’s obtainable to individuals ought to enable more of them to pursue occupations in which they’re best.

In this sense human development could be seen because the stress-free of constraints which can have interfered with revenue maximization. Furthermore, although human improvement represents a broader concept, many of its elements overlap significantly with the more traditional notion of human capital. Thus, to the extent that human development is necessarily correlated with human capital and human capital affects the

Economic development of a nation, human development is bound to have an effect on economic growth.

More specifically, each of the various parts of human growth is prone to have a definite impression on financial growth. Education, for instance, has a strong impact on labor productivity. In agriculture, Birdsall (1993) makes use of data from Malaysia, Ghana and Peru to indicate that every extra year of a farmer’s education is related to an annual enhance in output of 2-5%. In Indonesia, Duflo (2000) estimates a rise in wages of 1.5 to 2.7% for each additional school built per 1,000 kids.

In addition to its direct effect on productiveness, training also impacts the rate of innovation and technological enhancements. Foster and Rosenzweig (1995) reveal that increased education is associated with faster know-how adoption in Green Revolution India.

Despite substantial progress each on fundamental human growth and on many different dimensions, there was much less progress or even regress on necessary dimensions, together with aspects of societal wellbeing, inequalities, and above all environmental elements.

According to Frances Stewart and Emma Samman (2018) there are three challenging problems which need addressing, both via advancing theory and higher insurance policies. The first is macro-economic insurance policies for selling human growth – presently; macro-policies tend to restrict progress, often holding again expenditures on the social sectors due to austerity insurance policies, and generating in egalitarian development and unsatisfactory employment outcomes.

The second drawback is that of lowering inequalities, which are extreme in most parts of the world. These can undermine societal cohesion (sometimes resulting in violent conflict), gradual poverty discount and weaken the sustainability of economic growth. Yet current policies have a tendency to increase quite than scale back inequalities.

The third and most important problem considerations environmental points, similar to local weather change, that are probably greatly to weaken the human development of future generations. Here too, many policies are tending to worsen somewhat than improve the scenario.

1.three Dependency Theorists Argument about Problem of Developing Countries

Dependency principle attempts to clarify the current underdevelopment of many countries in the world by analyzing the patterns of interactions among nations and by arguing that inequality amongst nations is an intrinsic a part of these interactions.

Like of Raul prebish many dependency theorists’ argue that foreign help and investment gradual economic growth, perpetuates a dual economic system for the elite and the poor, and increases revenue differences between the poor and the elite. And the theory acknowledged that underdeveloped international locations usually are not merely primitive versions of developed nations, but have distinctive features and structures of their very own; and importantly are within the situation of being weaker member in a world market financial system.

According to Sunkel (1969) Dependency can be defined as an explanation of the economic growth of a state when it comes to the exterior influence – political, financial and cultural on national improvement policies.

Dos Santos (1971) also Defines; dependency is an historic situation which shapes a certain structure of the world economic system such that it favor’s some nations to the detriment of others and limits the development potentialities of the subordinate economics, a situation during which the economic system of a sure group of nations is conditioned by the event and expansion of another economic system, to which their very own is subjected.

So right here there are common features of those definitions. According to the theorists the international system as comprised of two units of state, numerous described as dominant/ dependent, center/ periphery or metropolitan/ satellite

The dominant states are the advanced industrial nations in the group of economic co-operation and growth (OECD). The dependent states are those states of Latin America, Asia and Africa which have low per capital earnings GNPs and which rely closely on the export of a single commodity for exchange earnings.

According to the dependency definition exterior forces are of singular significance to the financial activities within the dependent states. These exterior forces embrace multinational cooperation’s, international commodity market , Foreign assistance, Communications and another means by which the advance industrialized nations can symbolize financial interest overseas. That’s why all Dependency theorists’ agreed that each one that the relationship between dominant and dependent stats are dynamic as a result of the interplay between the 2 units of state tends to not solely reinforce but also intensify the unequal patterns. Moreover dependency is a really deep- seated historic process, rooted in the internationalization of capitalism.

Bodenheimer ( ) Explains Latin America is at present, and has been since the sixteenth century, part of a global system dominated by the now-developed nations. Latin underdevelopment is the finish result of a particular sequence of relationships to the worldwide methods.

1.4 Modernization Paradigm Vs Participatory Paradigm and Third world nations practice

Modernization principle emerged in the Nineteen Fifties and refers to a progressive transition from “traditional” or “underdeveloped” societies into what is taken into account a Western societies lifestyle (Dhlamini, 2014).

Participatory Theory however appeared in the late 1960’s and early 1970, as one other influential and modern criticism to modernization. This new method was originated from participatory theories and approaches to development communication.

Though right here centralized top-down approach to communication via mass media was criticized and replaced with a relation primarily based on two means of communication ; interpersonal contact, pluralistic form of media and participatory communication.

Modernization theory offers a highly “Eurocentric” view of development (Rice, 2012). It insists that the third world is in and stays in a state of “underdevelopment” because of its resistance and historical failure to industrialize and modernize with the rest of the world. The theory means that these third world countries should “catch-up” to the developed societies by adopting a modern lifestyle.

It states that a transfer from underdevelopment (primitive) to growth (modern) is a necessary stage for growth (Dhlamini, 2014). This transition is called the five phases of economic development which have been developed by W.W Rostow as firstly, conventional societies that are subsistence economies with low ranges of productivity, an ignorance of contemporary technology and an unwillingness to use nature; preconditions to take-off is the place the state begins to develop profit systemization and an international perspective; the take-off the place he describes it as an intensive progress stage where industrialization begins; the drive to maturity which is a prolonged course of where improved residing requirements, machinery and electrical tools are launched and eventually, the age of excessive mass consumption the place productivity features are distributed and urbanization begins (1960: 5).

This means that Rostow developed this solution for the promotion of third world modernization, where it should progress through these growth stages in order to catch-up with the primary world countries,

But Many Believes that Participatory communication plays a very important position throughout the field of improvement. It is widely known after the failure of the modernization and the dependency paradigm. These paradigms think about growth as information transmission. Mass media are the principle software to convey messages from the middle to the Periphery in one-way communication. These have led to a few modifications of development. For this reason, the model new notion based mostly on the people-centeredness paradigm of growth was presented and participatory communication is the core concept of this paradigm.

A World Bank paper by Tufte and Mefalopulos (2009, p. 17) defined that “participatory communication is an approach based mostly on dialog, which permits the sharing of knowledge, perceptions and opinions among the many various stakeholders and thereby facilitates their empowerment, especially for many who are most vulnerable and marginalized.”

A UNICEF paper by Singhal (2001, p. 12) outlined participatory communication as “a dynamic, interactional, and transformative strategy of dialog between people, groups, and institutions that allows individuals, each individually and collectively, to comprehend their full potential and be engaged in their very own welfare.”

Therefore, participatory communication refers to two-way communication based mostly on dialog between individuals, groups, and organizations, which empowers varied stakeholders to equitably share and trade data, information, and expertise.

The developers of the modernization paradigm assumed that the cause for the underdevelopment Originated from inside factors in every nation that could be solved with the help of developed society. But while participatory paradigm permits to stimulate productive energies of individuals, encouraging broader participation of all individuals in productive process, and extra equitable sharing of their Benefits; nations like South Sudan, Libya, Ethiopia and others ought to apply it properly in country’s political course of.

Here Countries in Southern Africa like; Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia Applied the participatory paradigm for their Natural useful resource administration.

According to ( Bessette and Rajasynderam, 1996 ) participatory approaches and grassroots communication has chosen to help NGOs working towards; these approaches with communities and coming from numerous improvement sectors: well being, primary education, literacy, rural development, integration of ladies, and so forth.

While different establishments (governmental, intergovernmental, universities) may be concerned in participatory improvement communication actions — extension providers or specific projects — it is usually the NGOs which might be most active in that domain and in need of support to pursue and reinforce their action with local communities.

In a primary step, this system additionally chose to pay attention its activities in a specific region: West and Central Africa. A participatory methodology was subsequently implemented to information the design of this system. Initially, nine international locations were selected, so as to characterize regional disparities on this region: Mali, Burkina Faso, Senegal, Côte d’lvoire, Benin, Guinea, Ghana, Nigeria, and Cameroon.

More than 100 NGOs from these countries were invited to participate within the means of growing this system, and 70 were visited within the nine goal countries throughout July and August 1994. These visits enabled the identification of the region’s priorities and wishes within the space of improvement communication and the preparation of the agenda for a regional meeting to develop the program.

1.5 The Role of Participation in Development

1.5.1 Meaning

In trendy growth exercise, there’s a basic feeling that the process of development through the implementation of projects and programmers will only purchase full meaning if the local population participates absolutely of their planning and implementation (Sapru, 2002). Therefore, the notion of local people’s participation in development practices that have an effect on their lives has been gaining momentum within the process of human empowerment and improvement.

The importance of participation of the native individuals in growth processes via the medium of development initiatives and packages have emerged and advanced overtime and house. As such, modern-day improvement scholars and practitioners have been advocating for the inclusion of local people’s participation in improvement practices. The underlying idea behind this is the assumption that consideration should be given to poor individuals to take part in tasks and programs that affect their lives.

Aesthetic worth and communication

Aesthetic value refers to the value of a property, largely a bit of artwork. Any piece of artwork has a wide selection of value monetary, sentimental, or historic worth. Valuable pieces of art are believed to have a unique non-utilitarian and non-instrumental value. Most individuals confuse this value with magnificence regardless of the fact, a great number of artworks do not possess elegance. Pieces of artwork possess an aesthetic value that is associated to a unique expertise (mostly a really feel of the natural environment).

Art is claimed to have a optimistic aesthetic worth when it can provide want in high quality of its talent in gracefulness, unity, beauty, and so forth. The vice versa is true. Biodiversity beautifies our planet, unlike different planets that are barren and with adverse aesthetic value. Organic diversity enhances the worth of life. Biological diversity enhances panorama beauty because it provides various putting options of our existence. People utilize these pure features in multiple ways and a number of areas all over the world.

People move to completely different places to have the bliss of various sceneries and wildlife, which could be referred to as eco-tourism. Eco-tourism is used as a significant supply of earnings in a number of nations. Additionally, biodiversity has attracted traditions and culture amongst various communities. This has contributed to the aesthetic values for various areas as mentioned under.

Aesthetic Values

i. Hiking/Exploring

Hiking is the act of exploring varied pure sceneries. Hiking is an aesthetic worth that can be used for social, cultural, or well being advantages (Goldman, 2018). Hiking can be used for social practices where a bunch of associates or relatives go mountaineering together and work together socially.

However, some folks go climbing to get pleasure from nature and have peace of mind. Hiking can additionally be thought to be a big cardio exercise practice that can be used to scale back risks to blood stress and heart diseases. Some people hike to places with distinctive options to pay cultural respect. For instance, visiting a peak of a mountain to wish and worship gods.

ii) Camping

Camping is the act of getting away from the comfort of home and touring somewhere then arrange camps which are then thought-about a residence in the course of the adventure. After deciding on the best place to go for an expertise, people arrange tents close to the positioning of adventure in order that they can use them as their new properties in the meantime. Camping has cultural, social, and health advantages to human beings (Petrovicia, 2016). Some individuals attach cultural meanings to objects in nature, compelling folks to travel from lengthy distances to see the objects. Once folks move to visit one thing they establish with their tradition, they have an inclination to camp close to the place.

Additionally, camping permits people to work together with one another. Human beings are social beings, and socializing is like a therapy to folks. Camping brings collectively people from all walks of life, tradition, age, and race. As individuals socialize, they benefit from exchanging ideas. Finally, tenting is related to outside activities. Outdoor activities provide a platform for exercising; thus, a person participating in camping is healthy due to frequent bodily actions that are concerned.

iii) The great factor about the Landscape

The beauty of the panorama is doubtless certainly one of the aesthetic values derived from biodiversity. The fantastic thing about the panorama has cultural benefits (Ingarden, 1964). Some communities attach cultural significance to a variety of the scenes; for instance, the highest of mountains is used to succeed in to supernatural beings by some people. Additionally, the gorgeous panorama has social advantages to individuals since when folks journey all over the world for journey to see panorama; they have a tendency to interact with each. Interaction with people from different locations will increase one’s network, and this has extra vital benefits of expanding one’s thinking due to the sharing of ideas. Finally, an attractive panorama has health advantages in that a wonderful setting pushes somebody to interact in outside activities. When going for outside actions, a person advantages health-wise by exercising, which is important for good health? Engaging in outdoor activities relieves tensions and contributes to good moods.

iv) Caving

Caving engages human actions inside and round a cave. Caves are a quantity of examples of aesthetic values which might be among the most engaging ones. Caves are pure, thus appeal to people who find themselves disturbed with how the caves came to be. Historically, caves have been used for hideouts throughout wars, used as homes, and for performing cultural rites. Caving has several benefits to human beings. Caving has each cultural, social, and well being benefits. The social good factor about caving is the supply of grounds for performing conventional rites for a few communities. Additionally, the social benefit of caving is enabling human beings to work together with one another. Finally; the well being benefit of caving is providing a chance for individuals to engage in out of doors activities, thus exercising within the process.

v) Bird Watching

Bird watching is the activity the place a big group of people have interaction in the exercise of observing birds in their natural habitat. Bird watching just isn’t only done utilizing naked eyes but in addition by the usage of cameras to supply a more beautiful view. Also, cameras assist in recording pure occasions for future review. Bird watching has each cultural, social, and health advantages to human beings. The cultural advantage of chook watching is that some birds are associated with cultural significance to particular communities. Some birds are related to good luck while others are associated with causing signs of rain or a dry season (Schirpke et al, 2016). The social good factor about chook watching is that it brings individuals from all walks of life together, thus providing grounds for sharing of ideas. Finally, the health advantage of bird watching is that it serves as a therapy, thus relieves stress and rigidity in folks. A stress-free life means a wholesome one.

Question 4

Aesthetic values shall be lost as a end result of human beings have interfered with the ecosystem. Precisely, when folks invade natural forests and websites for an adventure, they tend to make the places unattractive anymore (Silvia, 2012). Once timber are fallen from their natural states, a lot of activities inside the ecosystem is interfered with. Once the ecosystem is unbalanced, it turns into unattractive to folks and what used to stir happiness becomes boring. For example, when individuals intrude with timber, they destroy an aesthetic worth; for instance, watching birds can not happen with out timber.

A lot of people take pleasure in camping close to waterfalls. As days go by, people have slowly interfered with the flow of rivers in order that they’ll interact in actions that use large quantities of water. If a river move is hijacked from the top by selfish individuals, it might cause little or no water to circulate to the waterfall, thus destroy a tenting website. The growing lack of biodiversity has lowered the quantity of water in rivers, thus decreasing the variety of waterfalls that folks can go to, take pleasure in and camp around.

Aesthetic values are lost due to the rising lack of biodiversity. When the ecosystem stability is interfered with, the aesthetic benefits are lost. Human beings have interfered so much with nature by growing social actions around caves which scares away people who enjoy going for journey in caves.

Question 5

My plan on the way to convince individuals on the significance to preserve biodiversity will entail a rigorous door to door campaign. The campaign will involve erecting billboards with conservation messages and organizing mass public education programs to steer conservation.

Door to door actions, involving knocking people’s doorways and creating consciousness on the need to preserve biodiversity, will assist create awareness on conservation of the natural environment. Occupants of different houses shall be reached utilizing this strategy; thus, the message for preservation of biodiversity will reach extra individuals.

Additionally, erecting billboards with a message of conserving biodiversity is the opposite plan to persuade people to care for biodiversity. Eye-catching commercials will entice the attention of street customers, thus making the message of conservation to reach as many people as possible.

Finally, regular mass public education schemes will allow me to teach individuals on the significance of conserving biodiversity. I will prepare flyers carrying the message of biodiversity conservation which I will distribute among the many attendants of my instructional packages. Educating the lots will deliver sense to many of them. Results of the latter strategy are realized inside a brief time. Once one uses pleasant ways of training folks, the concepts stick in their minds.

Adapting Communication for Age of Pupils

When working with children every age group requires a unique stage of help and also a best way to talk, communication doesn’t simply change on the age of the child but additionally the child themselves. When working with youngsters in the basis stage F-1 it is applicable to speak to youngsters n there degree whenever possible this helps the child to really feel more snug as they haven’t received someone towering over them, additionally for the grownup it helps them to hear the child correctly as younger children are likely to not be as loudly spoken and should lack in confidence.

Also another non verbal communication in this age is to make use of a lot of facial features as children will choose up the meaning of a word or what context it’s meant in by facial expression in addition to tone of voice. Younger kids additionally profit from the use of actions to go with phrases corresponding to having a hand motion for howdy waving and so forth.

this makes language more bear in mind able to them and easier for them to make use of.

The verbal communication for this age must be simple, utilizing words which the child will perceive each the meaning of the word and the context it’s meant in for instance clear instructions are useful corresponding to “ go and get your coats on, its cold today, they must be done up, after which line up please” a against “ coats on” the children will not know to do up or line up.

Clear tone of voice I additionally wanted and youngsters rapidly reply to this if a member of employees has a relaxed joyful tone of voice and adjustments to a stern tone the pupils are likely to recognise she is upset about something as her tone of voice has dramatically changed. Where as if a member of staff at all times had a flat tone of voice which doesn’t change kids are prone to be much less aware or in a place to pick up on the contexts issues are meant as they are unable to relate to the changing of tone.

See extra: Mark Twain’s Humorous Satire in Running for Governor Essay

In KS-1 pupils have a lot better language skills and can use extra advanced phrases, Verbally I can use more complex phrases corresponding to time words, and more complicated description words when communicating with them gentle humour can be appropriate as they will be capable of perceive it. In KS-1 pupils are more likely to discover it a little unnerving If I had been to always converse to them on their stage as they are older and may even see this as been spoken to love a child, however eye contact is still essential when chatting with them. Hand actions will not be needed at this stage, additionally facial features is still important but needn’t be as exadrated. As children become old depending on their growth they are doubtless to have the ability to communicate on a extra grownup degree, exploring language and understanding its context and which means, utilizing humour and asking questions if uncertain of how something is meant. The context of the communication.

How I talk with the CYPs within the settiing shall be tailored additionally to the context in which I am speaking for example when in the classroom working with a pupil on a task I will speak in a relaxed relaxed tone of voice, encouraging them whereas they do the duty, if a pupil had been struggling I might change my tone of voice to a more enthusiastic pitch recognising their achievements. When in a classroom and a pupil might talk whilst the trainer is speaking both to myself or another pupil usually saying their name in a stern tone and unsmiling face is enough to get them to appropriate their behaviour. Whilst within the playground chatting with a pupil on a social subject I can loosen up use gentle humour, be thinking about what they are saying without asking inappropriate questions. I can use hand gestures and have a more relaxed pose. Communication differences.

Pupils relying on their individual wants, preferences may have different communication from their peers for instance is a pupil is quiet shy and quietly spoken they may really feel more comfy with the adult to chatting with them in a calm quiet manner whereas a grownup being load and confident might make them really feel very nervous etc.

Pupils who’ve SEN. may have communication to be completely different to go well with their wants for example if they’ve extra learning wants they could have issue understanding language as well as there friends and want simple language with actions and facial expressions to help them. Pupils with sight difficulties may need more physical communication corresponding to leading around the room by hand or being allowed to explore activity’s by touch. Pupils with a listening to difficulties could benefit from visible aids across the classroom similar to faculty guidelines similar to no running. They can also want adults to repeat things to them if they’re uncertain and also for adults to always face them when talking to them to enable them to lip learn, and communicate in a clear load voice.

TDA three.1( 2.3)

The variations between communicating with adults, kids and younger people. The means I communicate with adults and pupils varies relying on the context, nonetheless in a professional scenario lots of the communication is identical corresponding to using a relaxed joyful tone of voice, good eye contact and open body language. Some things that are totally different which can be acceptable for a kid however not for a adult similar to utilizing a stern tone of voice to discipline a baby, wouldn’t be suitable for use on a adult as they are adults and this is able to cause conflict as it isn’t my place to get them to correct their behaviour, Adults don’t want me to speak to them on their stage although in some situations this can be useful for instance in a loud pace to bend down to talk to a different adult who is seated.

Depending on the age of the kid humour used may not be appropriate though as with children as any humour used is more doubtless to be hear by kids it will remain mild and clear so nobody misunderstands its context and in addition humour mustn’t ever hurt someone else’s feelings. Hand actions and exadirated facial expressions aren’t needed with adults as they might be benifitual to speaking with kids. How to adapt my communication with adults to satisfy adults individual communication wants. Adults throughout the setting like kids too could have their own wants, preferences when communicating Also their communication preferences could change relying on the situation/ setting they are in for example if a member of workers is exterior in a busy playground supervising, they have to supervise the pupils so are unlikely to take care of full eye contact which in some situations may be seen as having unhealthy communication nevertheless on this situation the kid is paramount and they’re placing the child’s safety first.

Also in a noisy setting they are more likely to need me to speak louder and clearly. In a scenario where the member of employees could additionally be doing some written work I will method them quietly so not to disturb them because the written word could also be necessary. Adults can also have a disability or need such as a listening to impairment which is able to imply I will want to ensure my face is seen when talking to them in order that they will lip read, also I would by no means talk to them across the room however make certain I am stood in front of them when speaking with them, I may even converse in a clear load voice.

Managing disagreements with CYP.

If I had been to turn into in a state of affairs the place myself and a child came right into a disagreement I would firstly make certain the kid has understood something I stated probably by repeating myself and use simpler words. It may be that I may have misunderstood the meaning of something a toddler stated so to verify I will ask questions to verify I am clear on the context they meant It in. It could also be a achedemic disagreement for instance a child telling me they have already learn a sure e-book, I would check with their home/ school e-book to verify as all books kids learn are written down. Most disagreements by way of myself and a baby can easily be resolved both by clarifying meaning, they gained’t have meant what they mentioned in that manner , or if its about their faculty work I can examine with the trainer or via any written data the varsity has which may be related.

In my setting I will have to maintain skilled communication even when I disagree or expertise any battle with one other adult. I would hold this unobvious to the pupils within the room as a substitute dealing with the issue exterior of the classroom at a acceptable time i.e. within the staffroom at a chosen break time. I feel that in most cases I would be succesful of remedy the difficulty with a verbal open conversation with the opposite grownup explaining to them what I am sad about and why. However if the incidence was severe the place the opposite member of workers showed a misconduct of practise i.e. racism poor well being and safety and so on. I might feel it applicable to consult the head trainer of what has happen/what I even have witnessed. I will chorus from criticizing the member of workers myself. In a more serious occasion I could additionally be asked to write down what I really have encountered if the pinnacle instructor needs to seek recommendation take the incident to the school governors or native authority.

TDA three.1 (3.2)

An clarification of the significance of reassuring CYP and adults of the confidentiality of shared info and the limits of this. As a half of safeguarding I in some instances am required to interrupt any confidentiality if the knowledge could mean a toddler is in potential hurt or in danger from harm. Any disclosures from youngsters regarding adults both within and out of doors of the college setting have to be reported to assist danger to be assessed and prevented. In the case of adults it might be they a adult has considerations over one other adults practise possibly due to a action taken by the adult , their mental health at a certain time or one thing a toddler has knowledgeable them off.

When hearing any regarding information I will at all times firstly reassure the data giver that they’ve done the right factor, I will them inform them that I cannot hold it to myself however should tell a applicable particular person however it wont be informed to anybody just the individuals who must know. It is essential that I inform them this in order that they don’t think of me a misusing their belief, or doing something to upset them, they should know that the children’s security comes first and any information that is handed on is done so solely to guard them and solely the related people might be advised about it.

A Theory of Cross-Cultural Communication

A Theory of Cross-Cultural Communication © Anthony Pym 2003 Intercultural Studies Group Universitat Rovira i Virgili Tarragona, Spain* Pre-print version 3. three The following is a collection of propositions designed to attach a couple of ideas about translation as a mode of cross-cultural communication. The ideas are drawn from a multiplicity of existing theories; the goal isn’t particularly to be unique.

The propositions are instead supposed to hyperlink up three endeavors: an summary conception of cross-cultural communication, an outline of the specificities of translation, and an try and envisage the method ahead for such communication in a globalizing age.

The numerous factors at which the propositions draw on or diverge from earlier theories are indicated in a sequence of notes. 1. 1. 1. 1. 2. On cross-cultural communication normally Cross-cultural communication entails the perceived crossing of some extent of contact between cultures.

Cultures here are minimally seen as large-scale techniques of assumed shared references, linguistic or otherwise1, used for the needs of decreasing complexity. 2 Cultures themselves may idealize one or a number of centers, where the shared references are felt to be so dense that communication can be with none want for reductions of complexities.


Away from such beliefs, cultures have peripheries, the place references are sparse, or sparsely shared, or mixed with references shared by other cultures. The phrases “center” and “periphery” are not to be understood geopolitically. (cf.

Even-Zohar 1990, Toury 1995) The variations between centers and peripheries are operative fictions rather than main empirical information. The very belief that one is in a central position could additionally be enough to curtail complexity, just because the misunderstanding that one is missing in context may improve complexity.

(Pym 1998) The difference between middle and periphery may also be characterised when it comes to effort. When shared references are believed to be dense (all else being equal), the discount of complexity requires less effort than when the references are believed to be sparse.

Effort here is known as being on each the sending and receiving sides of messages, in addition to in any mediating position or funding in the channel. A text sent and obtained close to a perceived heart will thus require much less funding of effort than the same text despatched from a middle to a periphery (assuming that the reduction of complexity is 1. three. 1. 4. 1. 5. to be to an analogous degree in both cases). And additional supplementary effort shall be wanted if the textual content is to be acquired in one other culture. (Pym 1995) 1. 6.

The lines between cultures are marked as cross-over factors the place the communication act receives supplementary effort of a mediating and discontinuous nature. Such factors are usually where translations are carried out. (Pym 2001a) Cross-cultural communication thus marks the factors of contact between cultures, although it alone won’t be a part of up the points to form any type of line. (Pym 1998, 2001a, cf. Chatwin 1987) On complexity and its discount Texts are inscribed objects that might be interpreted in several methods and for different functions, quite independently of any authentic intentions. The plurality of potential interpretations is what we’re calling complexity. The reduction of complexity does not indicate any discerning of a real or primal which means. For instance, a reader at this point may interpret the term “reduction of complexity” as “understanding”, however such a studying will hopefully be deviated by the following paragraphs. In this sense, the reduction of complexity doesn’t entail an act of understanding in any idealist sense. Nor must effort be expended solely to minimize back complexity. Effort can also be used to make texts more complex, preparing them for a higher plurality of interpretations.

Such could be a certain conception of aesthetic pleasure, diplomatic ambiguity, or communicative mechancete. The diploma of applicable complexity is in each case depending on the success situations of the communicative act involved. On success circumstances Success conditions are criteria that make the communicative act helpful for all or some of the members concerned. four Such criteria could also be simple, as in the case of a enterprise negotiation to succeed in mutual agreement on a sales value: the success condition could be that a price is agreed to by all participants.

A Digest on the 7cs of Written Communication

Clarity, completeness, coherence, conciseness, credibility, correctness, and continuity – these are all the 7 C’s of communication – collectively, this is what is required to achieve more effective communication practices which ultimately result in a simpler learning course of. Each C in itself is already an enormous task to hold up however extra so after we think about they don’t seem to be unbiased of each other, all of them work together to help us talk most efficiently.

Clear is once we permit the reader to grasp the that means of our message, as you supposed it to be understood.

When it is mentioned that it should be so even the dullest man ought to understand it, it means we should always simplify our vocabulary. The message, extra importantly, must be crisp and exact. That’s the means it “brings the script alive” and “can convey taste in the most arid and dry information story” as totally, it makes the distinction between a write-up that satisfies and one that doesn’t.

Complete is when a complete picture and all the information required for a reader to take motion and reply is all there.

An adjective can also be taken into consideration here: unified- in individual sentences, individual paragraphs, and the whole totality of the script. Also think about the principle that each simple sentence must answer the who, what, when, why, where, and the way questions as acceptable for every of your communication efforts.

Coherent is intently related to readability – straightforward to read and understand with a logical circulate and sequence – it just means tying up a quantity of ideas in a single matter.

 Concise is omitting all that creates ambiguity. It means saying all that needs to be stated and no more. Credible is clarity, correctness and completeness added up to forceful and direct writing. Correct is the gauge as when readers might refuse your write up due to inaccuracy. Communication ought to be in such a method that it contains making sure that the message you send is appropriate. Your assignments and correspondence should contain correct information. Proofreading can be helpful to handle correctness.

Lastly, continuity might well serve as the final balancing act. Brevity is the magic word: it’s the usage of fewer words. It brings about continuity and style in your writing.


It is such a taxing task to read or listen because it takes so much effort and time. It is thus of utmost importance that the portmanteau of both rules (of unity, coherence and emphasis) alongside different essentials of efficient communication (like language, planning and organization) all make the written communication effective. It then boils right down to the 7 C’s thought of here wherein I have been reminded once again that jargon has no place in a written report if your intention is solely to be effective and forceful. It irritates to read excessive sounding phrases from an article that was supposed to the touch the widespread Juan.

It has additionally stressed the good responsibility on a would-be writer to produce a thought-over, “meaty” script that should never mean to impress but to offer perception.


There are also different C’s that should be considered here like convincing, thoughtful, and courtesy and I am not certain why there should solely be seven.

“Precision of communication is important, extra necessary than ever, in our era of hair trigger balances, when a false or misunderstood word might create as a lot disaster as a sudden inconsiderate act.” — JAMES THURBER

An sincere answer is like a kiss on the lips. PROVERBS 24:26


Essence of the material

Clarity, completeness, coherence, conciseness, credibility, correctness, and continuity – these are all of the 7 C’s of communication – collectively, that is what’s required to realize more effective communication practices which finally result in a more practical studying process. Each C in itself is already an unlimited task to hold up but extra so when we contemplate they aren’t independent of one another, all of them work collectively to assist us communicate most efficiently.

Clear is after we enable the reader to know the that means of our message, as you supposed it to be understood. When it is said that it should be so even the dullest man should perceive it, it means we ought to always simplify our vocabulary. The message, more importantly, should be crisp and exact. That’s how it “brings the script alive” and “can deliver taste in essentially the most arid and dry information story” as completely, it makes the difference between a write-up that satisfies and one that does not.

Complete is when an entire image and all the data required for a reader to take motion and respond is all there. An adjective can also be taken into consideration right here: unified- in individual sentences, individual paragraphs, and the entire totality of the script. Also take into accounts the precept that every easy sentence should reply the who, what, when, why, the place, and how questions as acceptable for every of your communication efforts.

Coherent is carefully associated to clarity – easy to read and perceive with a logical move and sequence – it simply means tying up a number of concepts in a single topic. Concise is omitting all that creates ambiguity. It means saying all that needs to be mentioned and no more. Credible is clarity, correctness and completeness added as much as forceful and direct writing. Correct is the gauge as when readers may refuse your write up due to inaccuracy. Communication ought to be in such a way that it contains making sure that the message you send is right. Your assignments and correspondence should comprise correct information. Proofreading can additionally be useful to address correctness.

Lastly, continuity might nicely function the final balancing act. Brevity is the magic word: it is using fewer phrases. It brings about continuity and beauty in your writing.


It is such a taxing task to read or hear because it takes a lot effort and time. It is thus of utmost significance that the portmanteau of each ideas (of unity, coherence and emphasis) alongside different essentials of effective communication (like language, planning and organization) all make the written communication efficient. It then boils all the way down to the 7 C’s thought of right here wherein I have been reminded once once more that jargon has no place in a written report if your intention is solely to be efficient and forceful. It irritates to read high sounding words from an article that was supposed to the touch the common Juan.

It has also stressed the nice responsibility on a would-be writer to provide a thought-over, “meaty” script that should by no means imply to impress but to offer perception.


There are additionally other C’s that should be thought-about here like convincing, thoughtful, and courtesy and I am not certain why there should solely be seven.

“Precision of communication is necessary, extra necessary than ever, in our period of hair set off balances, when a false or misunderstood word could create as much disaster as a sudden inconsiderate act.”

A Case Study of Domino’s Pizza’s Crisis Communication Strategies

If a company experiences a huge disaster, there is not a shortcut: the companies will definitely suffer and without elaborate strategies, and the company would possibly never be the same again. The level of debate holds that as a substitute of responding to a crisis as a defeat, the corporate should recognize the fact that it’s another alternative window and find one of the best approach out of the disaster, basically, with its brand picture and popularity intact. In reference to Weiss (2009), possessing data of speaking with the company stakeholders could produce major significance for a corporation throughout disaster no matter the severity of the situation.

The organizations managing crisis might disregard the power of social media tradition that is at all times very influential. Social media may be addressed each exterior and throughout the group. Bell, (2010) refers to media culture as crossing boundaries. Therefore, the plans for crisis communication ought to account for the variables of social media tradition. The inclined period of globalization, the world is turning into extra linked, and organizations enterprise into new environments.

The hotly contested matter of communication disaster is naturally cross-social media culture and requires consideration as a half of organizational development and improvement.Social media are at present bridging a serious headache to the corporate world because it has proved the flexibility of exhibiting and spreading information. In the previous years, the elite journalist could assist in breaking dangerous information. However, at present anybody can break unhealthy information and unfold it within the social media. From the company viewpoint, the choices of producing unhealthy information form the company immediately signifies disaster that results in the negative influence on brand, gross sales, and word of advertisements.

Globalization has resulted into the period of social media. Previously, corporations would respond to bad information by releasing public apologies or position statements utilizing the traditional media inside a period of few days. This is now not the case right now. The public is consistently scrutinizing the corporate world and expects the corporate to release prompt apology throughout the shortest time attainable instantly utilizing the social media. This has led to an excellent interest from the businesses to establish the style by which unhealthy news speedily spreads within the social media. Their main issues are establishing the feeling of the public and propaganda that influences the general public sentiments.

The efforts of public relations convey the values, perspectives and norms of organizations that perform collectively to unify the group (Bell, 2010). A disaster can occur anytime anywhere. It could incorporate problems inside any variety of cultures or contain conflicts inside a single tradition. Bell further indicates that perceptions can get swayed with sound group insight and sufficient planning. The organization should adopt a plan that addresses present and future points, nonetheless, in some circumstances, such plans can show to be an invaluable tool in times of crisis within the group. The world practitioners of public relations should provide their collaboration strategies with stakeholders to assist in pooling ideas, assets, and techniques together that gets dispersed in dissimilar methods worldwide. This proposal case examine investigates the strategies on one of the first firms to experience a global critical brand popularity due to spread of unhealthy new within the social media. Particularly, this research proposal investigates Domino’s Pizza’s crisis administration methods. The proposal analyzes earlier studies as a source of secondary data to that may offer a comparability with this examine.

Background of the Study/ Domino’s Pizza’s Communication Strategy

           As of 1997, Domino’s Pizza was the most important firm delivering pizza in the world. Besides, it was the world’s second-largest pizza chain. The company had 4, 431 supply shops for pizza within the United States. Additionally, the corporate had greater than 1, 521 units in fifty nine international investments by the end of 1997(Peeples & Vaughn, 2010). The gross sales of the company had been price $3.sixteen billion providing it with the place as 200th largest private firm on the Forbes personal listing of 500 corporations. The firm sells a number of products together with pan, deep-dish and skinny crust pizzas. Despite the superb worldwide recognition and strong wealth, the corporate skilled a crisis that made it a historic area of studies inside the public relations and communication Domino’s. The crisis of Domino’s pizza started when two company employees produced and uploaded a vulgar video in YouTube in 2009. The video proven the 2 staff partaking in a variety of well being legislation violations, notably, blowing mucous on sandwich, putting cheese on the nostril, and placing a sponge that’s meant to scrub dishes between the buttocks. Within restricted time, the video popularized and gained viral publicity with greater than half 1,000,000 views and the main news media masking the event (Peeples & Vaughn, 2010). It adopted that the public joined the discourse and began discussing the video through social media.Weiss, (2009) reviews that many of the video discussions occurred on Twitter, and investigative research accounts that just about 15, 000 subscribers of Twitter offered their opinion on the occasion. The firm responded by sharing an apology on Twitter by sharing the chief executive officer apology on YouTube. The response from Dominos was too late, approximately 48 hours after the event, according to (Aula, 2011). The video obtained posted on a Monday night time, and the company responded on Wednesday. Despite the short efforts from the internal teamwork to form a strategy on Tuesday, the preliminary intentions of the company were trying to not, as a outcome of it needed to restrict further public data on the video. The company didn’t problem formal press release to the mainstream press and went towards the thought of hiring the external crisis administration consultants to solve the disaster creatively. However, investigations show that it opened a twitter account to deal with the inquiries from the shoppers. Thereafter, the corporate reached a choice to problem a YouTube apology to quell the already intensified public relations nightmare that was performed in t multiple media mainstreams. The crisis caused dire consequences for the corporate. A study however reveals that disaster communication researchers have not validated such case research using a systematic evaluation on public sentiments on social media (HCD Research, 2009).

Literature Review/ Previous Research

           This section presents the analysis done on the consequences of crisis management case studies. The section supplies an empirical evaluate of each tutorial and scholarly knowledge obtained from earlier research. The scholarly work offered in this chapter will present the basis for analysis that will ultimately assist in answering the analysis question. The main literature critiques the previous works on strategies of disaster administration case study, significantly the case of Domino’s Pizza crisis management. The review adopts a communication and mass media approach to providing analysis of effectiveness public relations in the identical context. The literature analysis makes use of principle us and sub-theories to increase the understanding of the social media industry the proposal will examine and supply and comprehend a holistic picture of the phenomena.Schiller, (2007) stories on the analysis on communication disaster literature base on the mechanisms that ought to be employed by the organizations to manage the disaster and based mostly on the four necessities adopted through research validations. According to the examine, the 4 necessities of disaster response administration highlights that the company must be quick to reply within the shortest time attainable, be correct and supply an empirical analysis of the details with absolute care. Additionally, response to a communication disaster requires corporations to keep away from saying no comments and be consistent and keep away from statement contradictions to the company stakeholders. As outlined by Coombs (2008), the content material analysis put emphasis on more resolves and technique around the disaster messages that should be communicated to the shareholders. Research on crisis communication has previously centered on managing the reactions of the stakeholders to a disaster. The students have put more concentration on the actions and phrases used to answer a disaster. Particularly, the researchers have broken the methods into three categories. These are instructing data, popularity restore and adjusting info.Coombs, (2008) asserts that instructing data offers informational energy to the shareholders the degree of bodily preparation within the occasion a disaster emerges. Particularly, this implies the applying of warning indicators that is normally coupled with instructions. Adjusting the information significantly helps the industry stakeholders to develop a coping psychological strategy with the disaster. The repair of reputation entails all of the measures put by the organization to repair or protect the perception of the stakeholders in path of the group. The recent strategy by Dominos Pizza to market itself with sole intentions of enhancing is empirical for this proposal in phrases of repair of reputation. According to Schiller (2007), the group admitted that that they had manufactured an inferior product however offered assurance on quality enchancment. This is an try by the group to repair the status. Researchers agree that the core components intertwined in an organizational disaster together with urgency, unpredictability, vital threats. The researchers further assert that the basic public is usually unwilling to engage in social media discussions when an event is unexpected or important.

The instant precept of communication crisis management is to inform the reality. The company ought to face the common public and provide the actual concern behind the crisis. In the situations of disaster, social constructions and multiple truths of occasions concurrently search public consideration. The firm, prospects and the employees and the media are the vital thing stakeholders for disaster administration. Claeys and Cauberghe, (2012) references that the case of Domino Pizza specifically had watchdog organizations similar to and that had been developing the occasion variations. As established the research article, the reality that Tim McIntyre, the corporate communication vice chairman meant to convey was that the occasion was stage managed and it was a rogue act of two staff who though they were creating fun and that they didn’t present the brand of Domino Pizza. Likewise, they outlined that the 2 employees were not the consultant of the ten, 000 people that tirelessly work for the corporate across the globe (Aula, 2011). Furthermore, the study reveals that the truth that Patrick Doyle had intentions of articulating was that the corporate didn’t do the act and that they have been sorry for the rogue event. Therefore, the corporate moved ahead to restore their status as an attempt to reply to the disaster.

A analysis that studied the case of Domino Pizza recognized two kinds of tweets contents. Likewise, Young and Flowers (2012) write that they had been reality and opinions. The tweets on information had no sentiments, nonetheless, simply said the event. The class included more links with none textual content, simple hyperlink introductions or links with the identical headline of the website linked. On the opposite hand, the opinion class had tweets that were either constructive or negative sentiments. But, based on the incident the character, many of the tweets have been unfavorable. Therefore, the company adopted an apology strategy to resolve the disaster. Discussions from the research define that the officials’ corporate apology dropped the level of unfavorable sentiments from eighty two.8 % to 54.6 %. Still, the level of positive sentiments elevated mysteriously from 06 p.c to 5.5 percent. Claeys and Cauberghe, (2012) reinforces that crisis communication administration practice in situations where corporations provides public apology, they don’t develop high or sudden enhance of praise. Rather, they count on the adverse sentiments from the public to turn out to be more rational because of the apology and settle down sequentially. The evaluation of Domino Pizza confirms the expectations. Peeples and Vaughn, (2010) provides that the variety of factual tweets considerably inclined from 16.7 p.c to 39.9 percent. Therefore, the case of Domino Pizza public apology calmed and reduced the amount of negative opinions and increased positive and information in the Twitter conversations.

A research by Coombs, (2008) concludes that one of the best and the only approach to reduce back the social media impact on the disaster are to integrate the social media into the crisis communication strategies and supply a dialogue monitoring on the social media. Claeys (2012) harmonizes the reality that the brads that have one of the best public notion will be the one that will apply the net tools as their potential clients. Likewise, Young and Flowers (2012) evaluated and concluded that the effective leverage of the social media by Dominos was similar to the style utilized by the pranksters. That is, to transparently communicate the efforts of the corporate to resolve the crisis. Finally, the company emerged from the viral media criticizes and still knowledgeable on the true face of disaster communication strategies within the sensible age of social media. Peeples (2010) asserts that the incident of Domino Pizza was a sensible implication for crisis managers within the globalized enterprise world. He places that when a company experiences a disaster of bad information to the social media; they should reply with a quick response, apology and admit the mistakes appropriately. A study by Coombs, (2008) confirmed the positive effects of corporate apologies to the public in social media, YouTube and Twitter each in Korea and the U.S. secondly, the companies should have interaction in conversations with the social media in the course of the official occasions and not simply after a disaster hits the corporate. Lastly, based mostly on the speed at which social media information spread, the corporate ought to be ready to respond inside hours after the event, rather than within days.

Research Questions

           By conducting an empirical evaluation to the sentiments of the public in social media based on the disaster of Domino Pizza, the study will try to reply the following questions:1. How does the construction of the network determine the effectiveness of communication disaster answer strategy?

2. How can the corporate strategize to scale back the negative sentiments and increase constructive sentiments of social media?

3. What are the temporal and spatial traits of diffusion influences strategic solutions of communication crisis in the company dangerous news?


           This chapter offers a description of scope and methodology of this proposal. This chapter examines the scope of the analysis proposal and builds understanding of the research source of major data and why the information will be adopted for the research. Likewise, the chapter will provide information of the pattern data and methodology of amassing the information for the analysis examine. The proposal methodology provides empirical explanations on how and why the study will employ a quantitative survey to answer the research questions. Furthermore, the methodology explanations present a systemic strategy to analysis of findings, conclusion and the implication sections that will be introduced in the ultimate stage of the research. The scope of the examine focuses on methods for managing communication crisis close to the methods employed by Domino Pizza. The goal shall be based on the methods that were used by the corporate to solve the communication crisis on the basis of social media.The research will conduct a sample survey of assorted main sources of knowledge fro the evaluation. First, the research will use on-line survey on the corporate web site and company stories to determine the first knowledge. It is important to note that online survey of data collection might be instrumental for the analysis provided the time and financial constraints attached to the study/. This proposal supplies that the corporate website will present major information that might be reputable and enhance empirical analysis. Corporate stories on the methods used by the corporate to manage the crisis may even provide primary data that will be important for cross analysis. To establish the validity of the info collected, this section will present data for cross comparability with the previous research that has been performed in the same matter.Furthermore, this proposal will use stay interviews from the professionals and officials from the company to provide major information for analysis. Corbin and Strauss, (1998) explains that stay interviews and phone interviews are a technology facilitated technique of collecting information for evaluation. It relies on the premise that recorded live interviews from the company officers, and professionals such as crisis managers that reacted to the incident through an interview within the social media cannot be distorted. This is an inexpensive method of accumulating primary information utilizing the technological advantages. The professional and firm official interview data are current and simply accessible throughout the website of the corporate and different websites of the social media archives. Close examination of the URLs that the public used to submit their comments and the company used to engage the customers may even be audited. The strategy of auditing the URLs utilized by the corporate and its stakeholders will present the direct response from the company that can primarily constitute the uncooked knowledge for the analysis. Auditing to the URL postings will also present statistical info of the odds of the tweets, each optimistic and negative that got here from the basic public. Likewise, statistical info will be computed primarily based on the discovering of the nature of public response after the response from the company and before the response from company officers. This will show the effectiveness or the ineffectiveness of the method the corporate developed to revive their status and brand (Corbin and Strauss, 1998). Finally, the first data that might be collected will provide evidential info on the methods employed by Domino Pizza in curbing the communication crisis.


Aula, P. (2011). Meshworked reputation: Publicists’ views on the reputational impacts of on-line communication. Public Relations Review, 37, 28-36.

Bell, L. M. (2010). Crisis communication: The praxis of response. The Review of Communication, 10(2), 142-155.

Claeys, A., & Cauberghe, V. (2012). Crisis response and disaster timing strategies, two sides of the same coin. Public Relations Review, 38, 83-88.

Coombs, W. T. (2008, April 2). Crisis communication and social media. Institute for Public Relations. Retrieved December 31, 2012, from

Coombs, W.T. (2008). Ongoing crisis communication: Planning, managing, and responding. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Corbin, J. & Strauss, A. (1998). Basics of Qualitative Research‟, 3Ed, Sage Publications, Inc.HCD Research .(2009). Domino’s Brand Takes a Hit after YouTube“Prank” Video.

Peeples, A. & Vaughn, C. (2010). Domino’s “special” delivery: Going viral by way of social media (Parts A & B). Arthur W. Page Society case examine competition in company communications. Retrieved December 31, 2012, from

Schiller, M. (2007, March 5). Crisis and the web: How to leverage the Internet when a model takes a hit. Adweek, 48(10), sixteen.Weiss, T. (2009, April 22). Crisis management—Domino’s case study analysis. Trendsspotting Blog. Retrieved December 31, 2012, from

Young, C. l., & Flowers, A. (2012). Fight viral with viral: A Case Study of Domino’s Pizza’s Crisis Communication Strategies. Case research in strategic communication, 1, article 6.

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3d Animation, Its Effect on Mass Communication

Intro 3d animation is a sort of Computer system graphics that use a three-dimensional illustration of geometric data that’s stored in the pc for the functions of performing calculations and rendering 2D pictures. 3d is a type of graphics in which its photographs appear like they are real life pictures i. e. omputer video games and animated movies are the common examples of 3d, 3d graphics are designed or stemmed by a process known as 3d modeling, this process is finished by a software program having 3d modeling tools by engineers or artists, either they import real life photographs and then change them into 3d animation or they originate their own ideas and compose them via the assist of the tools, 3d animation [1] is the process of taking a 3D object and getting it to relocate this process u develop 3d gadgets and combine them to make an animation this consists of importing movement seize data and utilizing it to a personality or making the problem follow the artist’s/ engineer’s personal curves.

Texturing is a stage by which the prepared 3d animation is textured or coloured to make it appear as if more reliable in its operate since colours and textures play a vital position in making the animation look extra sensible and efficient to the audience.

Rendering is the last stage during which the animation is lastly exported to a format or copy that can be seen shortly by the audiences, it is a basic a half of 3d animation process, as more effective and good rendering will lead to glorious trying and efficient 3d animation.

A nice 3d animation is based upon Visual Interaction, Excellent Style, and Aesthetics, if these three features are saved in mind whereas creating 3d’s they’ll have great results as expected. 3d animation has truly completely changed today’s market, people are giving extra consideration to 3d due to its wise look, 3d movies are incessantly being viewed in movie show houses, 3d video games are a lot well-liked in today’s age. Uses in Mass Interaction 3d animation is often being used in today’s era like online game which may be made in 3d are extra well-liked than the older ones, Movies in 3d are considerably being seen in movie show houses and specifically 3d animation movement footage are getting the eye of people significantly, area of mass interaction is having an excellent impact of 3d animation i. e.

Advertisement is a significant a part of mass communication by which merchandise are advertised in numerous ways so the buyer and vendor meet their needs, Now a day’s all commercials are majorly being produced in 3d because of the fee effectiveness and distinctive look of 3d animation, viewers are more attracted towards 3d advertisements as in comparability with the adds that are shot and produced in 2d, Digital 3d Advertising a new media to focus the viewers sight on when composing a shot, they rely on a powerful instrument the closeness of the objects. Before, the creators needed to direct the viewer’s sight using the 2nd composition. Now, we will use deepness to accentuate the factor we need to emphasize. Higher tendency of the viewer to obtain the messages this media requires the usage of glasses. When a viewer puts such parts on, there is a larger tendency of the viewer to obtain the messages.

The viewer is receptive to see the spot, just due to the immersion format of its exhibition. Greater detail within the volume and shape of the objects How many times we’ve heard it is not the same to see, for instance, a automobile on tv and personally, this revolution has made 3d a lot in style amongst people, new television’s supporting 3d view are being launched in market in an excellent number by leading corporations like Sony, JVC and Samsung etc.

Mass media organizations are utilizing 3d extensively in their programs and commercials, there are properly established studio’s by which 3d modeling/designing is being accomplished for these functions, Artificial Rides are additionally common i. e. n which viewers expertise real life scenes of a roller coaster ride in a man-made 3d environment that appears so realistic,3d Movies are a lot well-liked in today’s period and are broadly being watched all around the world that has improve the number of 3d cinema houses.

3d know-how is extensively being utilized in Movies and brief films to realize the outcomes which weren’t potential in old times, before this technology movie makers used to have stunt Mans and proper coaching and a excessive finances to carry out motion and horror scene’s for the movies that consumed more time, extra money and generally harmful stunt’s took life’s of many stunt males, however now it’s simple to have these scenes designed and animated in 3d setting which provides extra pleasant look to the viewer’s as a outcome of now acial structure’s and actual life scene’s can simply be regenerated in 3d environment extra effectively because of new 3d know-how human, animal or any facial expressions can easily be recreated and animated based on the wants After technology of 3d face mannequin subsequent necessary stage is the proper recreation of human expressions.

One of the ways of attaining realism is modeling of facial expressions and animation on synthesized human face. However, this task was complicated to achieve in a method that everybody has his own type of expressing so one mannequin can’t fulfill the requirements however the new means proposed by Narendra Patel & Mukesh Zaveri in reference paper [1],examine of this analysis show a new methodology of re creating the facial expressions of 3d fashions that is more practical and practical in 3d world especially for its use in animation like films and so on Other than these usages 3d is now being utilized in medical fields additionally i. e.

He remedy of mentally injured people[2],on this course of patient is subjected to a 3d surroundings the place a virtual therapist is used to deal with the affected person this reduces price of the therapy system’s and rehabilitates the situation of the sufferers sooner, Patients see a clone of them and a therapist in this setting, what he sees is called digital reality, by which he sees his wrist transferring quicker than the precise movement accomplished by him by doing so, he’ll activate the coupling between the perceptive and motor circuits hence bettering the recovery, Virtual reality helps in improving the condition of affected person in such a way that it makes him notice that he is progressing slightly more than the normal condition so this ends in sooner rehabilitation, this is helping the medical specialists as they’ve a laboratory managed 3d setting so they can change it in accordance with the restoration needs of the patient. Virtual reality know-how has been used for a number of decades for quite so much of psychosocial purposes. zero The most widely used feature is to create realistic simulations for the sufferers according to the therapist’s want for example(HDM)[2] Head mounted display by which affected person see’s what the therapist desires to make him see, different visions are blocked on this case. This helps in curing diseases like cognitive disorders, consideration issues and so forth.

Another form of illness caused by a cerebral vascular accident CVA can be being cured by the use of 3d animation expertise, in this disease mind performance is misplaced briefly or permanently relying upon which areas of the brain have been affected a few of them get paralyzed. This type of stroke can affect their capacity of reading writing even swallowing, These sort of issues are frequent in western nations, by method of 3d technology it has been discovered that sufferers are recovering more fastly as in comparability with older therapies 5-10% of them recovered a completely useful higher limb nonetheless 80% of them recover their full capacity to walk

Promote communication in health and social care setting

 Identify the different reasons why people communicate when working in a care setting communication is a key factor, you need to be able to communicate with a wide range of people such as service users, families and/or carers, other members or staff and management, you will also have to come into contact with other professional from time to time such as; doctors, nurses and social workers. Communication is the basis of all relationships, regardless of weather the relationships are personal or professional, and regardless of the nature of the communication.

Reasons why people communicate

Explain how communication affects relationship within the work setting Communication affects relationships in many different ways in the work setting. Relationships are important and relationships are built of trust and understanding between people makes it easier to get things done. The benefits of effective communication in the workplace are that it is:- A happier, less-frustrating workplace experience.

Frees up employees to focus on other more productive activities. An increase in satisfaction from workplace activities and workplace relationships. An increase in productivity can lead to an increase in pay, promotion, and prestige The key relationships are with the people that I support. The skills that I have learned as a care assistant will help me to build relationships and this will be important to ensure that the right outcomes are met, for example somebody may have identified that they would require support in their lives and they need to sure that the people they are working with are honest and trustworthy.

Relationships with colleagues and other professionals are vital if people are to work together effectively. Showing respect for the work that other professionals undertake is an essential building block of a good professional relationship. It is important to take the time to find out what other people do and think about what you could learn from them, and remember that everybody makes a contribution.

Demonstrate how to establish the communication and language needs, wishes and preferences of individuals. All relationships start through communication, when providing support for people you must ensure that you are a good communicator. You will have to gain an understanding of messages that are being communicated from others and be able to communicate back when you’re not always able to use words. When you first meet somebody and talk to them you would usually be using two language systems to enable communication and thy will be verbal and non-verbal communication. Verbal communication: is when we communicate our message verbally to whoever is receiving the message.

Nonverbal communication: is usually understood as the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages. Such messages can be communicated through gesture, body language or posture, facial expression and eye contact. Body language is very important when you communicate as it affects the way people interoperated what you are trying to say. Effective communication requires you to have the ability to understand you’re own and other peoples non verbal behavior. Your body often sends messages to other people unintentially.

Describe the factors to consider when promoting effective communication When people communicate they tend to take notice of somebody’s tone of voice and facial expressions first other than what is actually being said.

As a care assistant being able to understand the factors that contributes to good communication is very important as this will allow me to gain an understanding of every service user and also be able to tell if anything is affecting them or causing them upset or pain. Demonstrate a range of communication methods and styles to meet individual needs.

There are many different ways to communicate and ensuring that you are using the right level and type of language is very important to ensuring that you are being understood fully. Communicating with people may not always be about speaking or even non-verbal communication, you can communicate in a wide of different ways these are:- Email audio (speaking, singing) telephone conversation texting using a mobile (short messages) visual (seeing pictures, slides, artwork, written words) kinesthetic (teaching someone by showing them how to do something, hands-on instruction, texture) face-to-face vs. long distance  Interperators (if you are trying to communicate with somebody who’s language you do not speak) technological (some people prefer reading books, other prefer reading them via electronic screen)

Demonstrate how to respond to an individual’s reaction when communicating A response during communication is important for the communication to take place. If someone is talking to you and you are not responding, it is difficult for communication to take place. When you respond to someone, it shows that you are listening to them, which then shows that you understand what they are saying and are interpreting it correctly.

However, the response doesn’t need to be verbal. A simple nod can even be considered communicating, as long as both participants are aware of each other and understand what is being said. When communicating it is important to remember that when communicating you can often learn as much by observing as by what you hear. It is important to learn to listen with your eyes. An important part of responding appropriately to communication is recognizing when people are distressed and know how to deal with it. It is importing to have an understanding of the effects of emotions, as they can often be an indicator of a potentially highly charged or dangerous situation. There are some general indications that a person is becoming distressed and these can be obvious to see:- i. breathing patterns

ii. excessive sweating
iii. face and neck become red and flushed
iv. body language
v. eyes for example pupils dilate
vi. change in facial expressions
vii. change in tone of voice for example voice may become raised Explain how people from different backgrounds may used and /or interpreter communication methods in different ways When you are first communicating with somebody it is important to find out about communication issues the person you are communicating with. You can discover a great deal about possible communication issues by simply observing somebody’s behavior. Observation should be able to establish

What language is being used
If the person is experiencing any hearing or visual impairment If they have any physical illness or disability
If they have any learning disabilities
Any of these issues could have a huge affect on how well we communicate and can allow you to put steps in place to help communicating easier. Identify barriers to effective communication Hearing Impairment- A service user that has a hearing impairment in one or both ears. Visual sight- A service user that has no visual sight or poor vision or sight in one eye. Disability/learning difficulties- A service user that might have a condition that might stop them from communicating effectively and might need visual aids to help them communicate. Learning and speech impediment- A service user that finds it hard to communicate through speech and gets frustrated because they are not understood. 0ther languages (cultural backgrounds or English as an additional language)- you may need an interpreter or find other means of communicating with service user that do not speak English. Different family background personality.

Demonstrate ways to overcome barriers to communicate
Physical barriers

Physical and environmental factors can cause problems when we communicate. When you are communicating it is important to consider the surrounding that you are in when you’re communicating, for example people find it difficult to talk in noise and crowded places. Understand what could be barriers to
communication can allow myself to ensure that communicating id done effectively these could be:- Hearing loss

Physical disability
Visual impairment
Learning disability
Language differences

Demonstrate how to access extra support or services to enable individuals to communicate efficiently. If I am having any communication problems with a service user I would seek advice straight away as the longer I leave It the longer the problem will take to get resolved. Also the service user may become upset and frustrated and this can cause more barriers when communicating. The person I would go to first is my organiser and if they are unable to resolve the problem they will get in touch with people who can. These could be:- Translation services- can help with changing written txt from one language to another. Interpreter services – they convert spoken language from one to another. Speech and language services- support for people who have had a stroke or have problems with speech. Advocacy service- support people who are unable to speech for themselves. This service try’s to understand the needs and wishes of people and will argue on their behalf.

Explain the meaning of the term confidentiality
Within the care sector there are legal requirement under the data protection act 1998 to ensure that all records are confidential. This act gives people the right to see all the information recorded about them weather it’s their medical records or the social service file. Confidentiality means keeping all information with the work place safe and only be passed on where there is a clear right and need to do so if it could cause half to an individual.

Confidentiality is an important right to everybody and it is very important as a care assistant to remember this as because service users might not trust a care assistant who can not keep things private additionally by breaking confidentiality you may be putting service users at risk if their personal details get out for example home address. All service users records will be kept in a locked office and they will also be kept on the computer which will be password protected and there will be policies on record keeping within the office place. Demonstrate ways to maintain confidentiality in day to day communication. The principle of confidentiality is about trust and confidence that people might have in care workers.

Care workers need to ensure that they do not discuss one person who you support with another person that you also support. The most common way in which confidentially is breached is by people talking about work issues with family and friends. It is done very easy and very tempting to discuss the days events especially if you have had a stress full and it is often therapeutic. But by doing this if you don’t keep peoples details confidential and anonymous this could break confidentiality. Every organisation will have policies on confidentiality and the disclosure of information. As a care assistant it is important that I know where the policies can be found and what information is in the policies.

Why Effective Communication is important in developing Positive Relationships

A positive relationship will enable a Child, Young Person or Adult to flourish with confidence in the security of knowing that the significant adult or carer in the position of authority respects and understands them and has their best interests at heart. This can be an adult to child or adult to adult relationship. This is a consequence of Effective Communication. We should treat all as individuals without preconceptions, assumptions and stereotypes. When intentions are clear and transparent a bond of trust can be formed. To communicate this successfully we must first take into account to whom we are speaking to. For example if it is a child, to be effective we must speak at their level, physically and verbally. Children learn how to communicate from significant adults in their lives and the world around them. We must be the role models that they can learn from. Children gain confidence through praise and encouragement and also constructive correction.

A child who is assured that you understand their feelings and will not be taking sides or dismissing them will be more willing to open up to you and in turn listen to what you have to say in return. My 7 year old daughter and her friends have disagreements occasionally and instead of me just telling her to ‘play nicely!’ and ‘because I told you so!’ when I calmly explain at a similar physical and verbal level to them and say ‘sharing can be double the fun’, and ‘how would you feel if….?’ This has proven a lot more effective for diffusing issues that children concern themselves with. They feel secure that they have been heard and that no sides were taken and have learnt that a problem can be solved by discussing it with each other. Effective communication with ‘Young People’ can be more challenging because there are other issues such as ‘raging hormones’ and changes in their lives such as school expectations and family responsibilities.

As children grow up and develop they are expected to be more mature. This can be frustrating, and can generate feelings of anger and negativity. Trust and empathy are huge factors when communicating with Young People. It is important to have an adult that they can approach and feel safe talking to. Young People will have formed their opinions and morals from their world around them and are more articulate at sharing them than younger children. However, now can be a time of conflict with authority figures and it can be emotionally difficult. They need to feel that they are respected and listened to and that they can communicate without being judged, it is also important that they are not left feeling vulnerable. Adults have had a wealth of life experiences that make us the individuals that we are. It is likely that most adults will be more confident and secure in their opinions and choices that they have made in their lives. Being respectful and listening to each other and ensuring that all parties understand, whether it is a colleague or parent will reinforce the relationships they hold.

Telephone Communication

About Telephone Communication

Telephone communication is the transmission of information, over significant distances using a phone. Telephones are a point-to-point communication scheme whose most basic function is to allow two people separated by large distances to talk to each other. It is one of the most general appliances in the developed world, and has long been considered indispensable to businesses, households and governments.


1. We get immediate feedback to things we say.
2. The conversation is relatively private between us and the caller.

3. We can call someone anywhere on the planet.
4. Calls can be made 24×7.


1. The person must be available to take your telephone call. 2. The line might be engaged when we call so we can’t speak to the person when we want 3. We generally have to pay for every minute we spend on the call. In the case of overseas calls, that can be expensive


Three key telephone skills are:
• Listening
• Questioning
• Speaking

These three skills are the basis for audible human communication and form the core of any business conversation. Mastery of these skills guarantees improved business telephone communication.


Listening is not the same thing as hearing. Hearing is a physical ability that requires no intellectual effort. As long as you are physically equipped to receive sounds, you can hear. Listening on the other hand, is more than simply hearing sounds. It is an active process that requires both hearing and thinking.

Listening during a Conversation: A conversation implies two-way exchange of information. In real-life conversations, of course, the sender and receiver continually switch roles. People engaged in conversation spend some of their time talking (sending information) and some of their time listening (receiving information). Normally one person speaks while the other one listens, and vice versa. In an average telephone conversation, you can expect to spend about 50% of your time listening. Why does this fact shock us? It is because when we think about a telephone conversation we think about talking and not really listening. Listening is a critical communication skill that can make a difference in your ability to do business on the telephone.

What Happens When You Don’t Listen? Most of us tend to be impatient. We go through the motions of listening because we can hardly wait for our turn to talk. An initial comment made by the speaker often triggers an on-target response in your mind. Most of us have a tendency to seem to be listening by making appropriate facial expressions or by staying quiet during a telephone conversation. We get so wrapped up in thinking about our response that we often fail to listen. That can be disastrous in a business telephone call.

Some serious risks are associated with failing to listen during a telephone conversation. When you don’t listen effectively, you may…

• Misunderstand the speaker’s problem or concern.
• Jump to conclusions without knowing all the facts.
• Give incorrect information to the caller.
• Confuse the caller with an inappropriate response.
• Appear to be rushing the speaker and cutting off conversation.

• Fail to understand the business situation.
• Misinterpret the speaker’s comments.

Do you want to take those risks? Will your co-workers and customers be impressed with your telephone skills?


Questioning is a systematic process that enables you to discover information.

There are 2 basic types of questions, namely direct and indirect. Direct Questions: Sometimes your telephone call will be designed to find out specific pieces of information. In those instances, you need to ask a series of direct questions.

Indirect Questions: In some telephone conversations, you need to uncover more general information, share ideas or discuss opinions. For these situations, you would ask a series of indirect questions.

Principles of communication in adult and social care settings

Ai Identify four different reasons why people communicate

Making and developing relationships

People communicate to make new relationships. The way I first speak and listen to a newcomer can make them feel welcome or overlooked. As I speak or comment, listen and watch, take an interest, smile and nod, whether to a service user, a member of their family, a colleague or a visiting practitioner I am building and developing my relationship with them. Communication will continue to be the main way I nurture and develop my relationships at work.

Giving and receiving information

At work I will be expected to give and receive different types of information. Perhaps a service user confides in me, or a member of their family asks me a question. A colleague could give me instructions a visiting practitioner might make an observation. The information I give, receive and pass on will help me to carry out my work effectively.

Expressing needs and feelings

Expressing needs and feelings is part of being human and these are communicated through behaviour as well as speech. Most people need to share needs and feelings with each other and in this way build up a sense of trust with the person they confide in.

Sharing thoughts and ideas

Human process many of their thoughts by discussing them. If I have ideas, questions and opinions about my work, sharing them with colleagues helps to clarify, develop and even change the way I think and act. The way in which I respond to the thought processes of service users could encourage or discourage their sharing with me.

Affirming one another

Affirmation is about acknowledging and encouraging each other and reassuring individuals of their worth and value. Affirmation is communicated through positive words, praise and gestures. Some care settings use support groups, staff meetings and appraisals as ways of affirming practitioners about their work performance.

Aii Describe two ways how communication can affect relationships in an adult social care setting between individuals using the service, their carers, colleagues and other practitioners.

The ability to communicate well is a key skill that enables me to work effectively with others. Communication process is much about listening and receiving messages as it is about talking and giving messages. As a care worker I need to be skilled in both aspects. My communication skills will develop and become more effective as I gain experience in my work role, learning from observing more experienced colleagues. Learning from others, seeking for advice and using support are all part of this process. During my work with service users there will be specific situations where good communication skills are particularly necessary.

Sharing information

In a care setting it is vital that information is shared appropriately between workers to enable each member of team to carry out his or her role effectively. I will also need to share information with service users and their relatives. Sometimes the information might be of a sensitive nature, such as when breaking bad news or dealing with private information, and I will need to be especially sensitive. In the course of my work I will need to find out information, pass on information and listen information.

Providing support

Communication is the main way in which I continue to sustain relationships and build this up. As a health and social care worker I will need to offer support to service users and their families and this is enabled through both verbal and nonverbal communication. I will need to listen, as much as I speak and the use of appropriate and non intrusive touch can add to sense of being supportive.

Aiii Using the table below, identify three ways of finding out the communication and language needs of an individual. For each method, describe how effective it is at establishing the needs of the individual.

Asking/Observing the Individual. Asking/Observing is probably the best way of establishing the individual’s communication and language needs as this would immediately allow me to establish their usual language, if they are visually or hearing impaired etc.

Check the Care plan for the individuals communication needs. The Care plan can be a good source of information on the needs of the resident, but if documented incorrectly due to human error this method becomes ineffective.

If the first two don’t provide me with the needed information I could ask resident’s family, friends, doctor or other professionals who have worked with the individual. This is another effective method, only to be used if the first two fail.

Aiv Describe three factors to consider when promoting effective communication


Physical distance: the better you know a person the closer I am likely to be physically. Closeness can encourage sharing. Positioning chairs at an angle rather than side by side makes it physically easier to talk to another person. Sitting directly opposite is more formal and can feel confrontational. Sometimes a table between me helps a person feel protected. Yelling from one room to another doesn’t aid communication.


Body position: leaning forward can communicate that you are interested, but too close might invade “body space”. Turning away can show lack of interest , but standing directly opposite a person can be too direct, where being at an angle can provide a helpful space.


Behaviour: folded arms can look defensive and discourage communication. Friends and family without realising, often mirror the other person’s posture during conversation, which is thought to increase a sense of familiarity. Standing over a person who is seated might feel patronising or threatening.

Av Describe three verbal and three non verbal communication methods and styles that a social care worker may use in an adult care setting.

Communication is a complex process made up of many different elements to do with verbal and non verbal language. These are reflected in a range of communication styles and methods. Communication is also a two-way process that must take into consideration the reactions of others and respond appropriately. To be a skilled communicator and interpreter of communication I must pay close attention to my words and actions, as well as the words and actions of others.

Verbal communication. It’s about the choice of words being spoken, but also the way the words are said.

Vocabulary. Choosing words that are appropriate to the service user’s level of understanding is important. Perhaps English is not their first language, or they have communication difficulties associated with a physical condition. At the same time, I need to be aware of not being too simplistic and coming across as patronising.

Tone of voice. Tone of voice concerns the emotional message being conveyed alongside the spoken words. When these don’t match, people can become aware of my emotions and will pick up whether I am irritated or anxious, for example.

Pitch of voice. Pitch of voice concerns how low or high my voice sounds.

Speaking in a low voice can be calming and soothing, but too low and I can sound boring. In contrast, a high pitch can sound shrill and be unpleasant to listen to.

Non verbal communication
Non-verbal communication is a form of communication that take place almost subconsciously, that is, without being aware of thinking. It provides clues about the meaning of spoken language.

Body language. Body language relates to the way my body reflects my thoughts and feelings. This can add emphasis to my words, but if I don’t really mean what I am saying it can also reveal a truer and contradictory message beneath my words. For example, exclaiming, “how fascinating” might sound as though I am interested, but body language of tapping fingers, poor eye contact and stifled yawns betrays I am actually bored.

Gestures. Gestures are signs made with the hands and arms to illustrate or emphasise my words or to stand in place of words. People often gesticulate during conversations without really thinking about it. I might see someone gesticulating while talking on the phone, even though the person receiving the call cannot see their gestures. Some gestures are understood across many different countries of the world, such as thumbs up, meaning “good news”, but not all the gesture are universal and instead of clarifying a message, could create a confusion.

Eye contact. Eye contact is very important and sometimes it is difficult to know if a person is telling the truth unless I can look into their eyes. Holding someone gaze is a sign of intimacy, but to do so with a person I don’t know well can feel uncomfortable, even threatening. During most conversations it is normal for my gaze to flit to and from another’s face. When working with service users who have communication difficulties it can help to exaggerate elements of non-verbal communication to provide more clues about my spoken message.

Avi Explain why it is important to respond to an individual’s reactions during communication.

The following qualities will help to respond appropriately to the communication of others. Awareness of how my communication is being received. Look for nonverbal cues that indicates the recipient’s interest and understanding and equally those that indicate misunderstanding or boredom.

Sensitivity to tune into my recipient’s emotional responses to my words. Flexibility to change the way I am saying something in order to clarify my meaning and increase understanding.

Communication techniques. Some communication techniques assist with the process of responding to the reactions of others.

Echoing. Echoing is a technique where I repeat back what a person has said in a way that both checks my understanding of their words and also affirms the underlying feeling being expressed. For example, if a distressed resident of a care home tells me she thinks someone has stolen items from her room, I might say, “It must be upsetting for you to think someone has been interfering with your personal belongings.”

Mirroring. Mirroring is a communication technique used to improve rapport with another person. In many cases it happens naturally, where one person reflects the other person’s physical positions and mannerisms, their tone of voice, word use and communication style.

Asking questions. If I want a person to express their ideas and feelings I am best to ask open questions which invite broader responses. ‘How are you feeling today’ Is and example, where a service user is free to respond in a way they choose. If I ask a closed question the answer is usually reduced to one word, for example ‘Are you feeling better today?’ Invites a ‘yes’ or a ‘no’

Avii Explain how an individual’s background can influence the way they communicate.

Communication is all about sharing with one another and yet each person communicates slightly differently according to their different background and experience.

The impact of differences. Diversity is something to be celebrated and enjoyed, but our differences can also lead to misunderstanding and different interpretations of the same communication

Cultural background. Cultural differences refer to a variety of different influences, such as family background, peer group, religion, and ethnicity. These all play a part in shaping the way a person views the world and spin dot it. Cultural differences are revealed by particulars attitudes, values and practices, all of which have bearing on how a person communicates and understands the communication of others. For example, if an individual comes from a family where it is usual to make decisions through noisy and heated discussions, this person might find it difficult to accept an order without question.

Individual personality. Although individuals share personality traits in common with others, the unique make-up of these and the way they operate together is individual to that person. One individual might be quiet and reserved, another enthusiastic and bubbly and this will affect the way each communicates and responds to communication.

Levels of confidence. All communication requires a certain amount of confidence to speak up, make a statement, or share with others through spoken or written words. Sometimes a person has had their confidence undermined by a previous experience of communication, such as being misunderstood, or laughed at for mispronouncing a word, or perhaps an experience from childhood, such as failing their English exams. Confidence builds up over time but can be knocked down in seconds by a thoughtless or unkind response.

Competence in communication skills

Literacy skills refer to a person’s competence in reading, writing and speaking in a particular language. The service users I work with may be a different levels of competence in literacy and need to be communicated with a level they can cope with. Some adults struggle with literacy and may feel embarrassed by their difficulties. As well as literacy skills, some individuals will have better access to and be more competent using information and computer technology (ICT) than others. I should not assume that everyone I have dealings with at work has access to the internet and email, or mobile phones, or that they are competent in using such technology.

Aviii Identify three examples of barriers to communication and explain how you could overcome each barrier.

Barrier: sender speaks different language. Overcome: to have a translator or a dictionary Barrier: poor or incomplete information selection. Overcome: to give as many details possible Barrier: hearing difficulties, visual difficulties. Overcome: to seek for medical advice and find a way of communication Barrier: sender cannot express message clearly, I speech or writing. Overcome: to use body language and sign language Barrier: distraction. Overcome: to change the environment, to focus

Aix Describe two strategies that you could use to clarify misunderstanding

Communication is a complex process and Health and social care is a complex area, so it is inevitable that misunderstandings will arise from time to time. When a. Is understanding happens it is important to have a range if methods to clarify the situation and improve communication.

Adapt my message: Sometimes the message needs to be said or written in a different way. Perhaps the tone need to change, or the message style. The language I have used might need to be simplified. Maybe a phone conversation has been unsatisfactory in some way, but a face to face meeting would help establish better communication.

Change the environment: It might be necessary to make changes to the environment to enable better communication. For example, if I am conducting a meeting in an office where people are constantly coming in and out, or the phone keeps ringing, I will need to find a quieter place to speak.

Ask for feedback: In most situations it is acceptable to stop the flow of conversation with the person I am speaking with to check that I have understood correctly what is being spoken about. Equally, I can check that the person I am communicating with can hear me or understand me.

Ax A social care worker wants to enable more effective communication with individuals using the service. Explain how they could access extra support or service that they may be helpful.

There is a range of support available to enable effective communication with the service users I work with and members of their family. Importantly, individuals need to be informed about these services and be able to access them. For example: – support available via local authorities and services, such as NHS and adult social services departments. Help is also available from national charities, such as ICAN, for speech and language needs and the national Autistic society for those with autism. – The Citizens Advice Bureau (CAB) is another source for advice and assistance on advocacy, translation and interpretation. – in addition there may be projects operating in local areas and these are likely to be advertised at a local library or community centre, or in a health centre. Communication support tends to include these categories:

– speech and language services
– translation and interpreting services
– language service professionals (LSP)
– advocacy services.

Task B case study

You are a social worker and a service user, Hannah, tells you she is unhappy taking her medication. She thinks she does not need it and so she is throwing it away. You know from her care plan that Hannah does not need to take the medication regularly and gets confused. Hannah begs you to keep this confidential and not to tell anyone especially her daughter, who she sees regularly, as her daughter will be very angry.

Bi How would you explain the term ‘confidentiality to Hannah’

I would say to Hannah that confidentiality refers to the need to handle personal information in ways that are appropriate, safe and professional and meet legal requirements. And it is my duty of care to look after her and to inform the appropriate people about possible situations when she might be at risk. In this case, not taking medication could be a risk for her mental health and I need to report to my managers in first instance and to seek for medical advice or other professional advice if need it and to explain all this to Hannah. And also that might need to involve family if necessary or if it specified in Care plan.

Bii Describe the possible tensions that may arise between telling others or Hannah’s decisions and keeping this information totally confidential.

The relationship I built with service users and their families are central to my care role. If I share their personal information with others who have no need or right to know I risk breaking their trust in me. Hannah also needs to know thee are secure systems and procedures operating in the care stating to protect confidential information. Some information must be kept confidential for safety reasons. For example, some service users as categorised as vulnerable adults, such as a person with special needs whose wearer outs might need to be protected from a relative who abused them in some way in the past.

Biii Describe ways to maintain confidentiality in day to day communication

A great deal of information will pass around at my work placement through conversations, hand-over reports, letters, written reports and emails. Some of it will be confidential and I need to know how to manage this appropriately in a care setting. If I am unsure whether information is confidential, ask a senior member of staff.

Spoken information: Oral information can be transferred via face to face conversations, or over the phone. These might take place during meetings, or in less formal settings. If I need to discuss a confidential matter with a service user, family member, or with a colleague or visiting practitioner, I have to make sure I find somewhere private where I will not be interrupted or overheard. In care settings it is not generally the policy to discuss confidential matters over the telephone, unless I can verify the person is who they claim to be. Never leave confidential messages on an answering machine. Do not at any time be tempted to gossip about confidential work matters.

Paper information: Personal records including notes, reports and letters concerning individual service and their families should be kept together in a file which is locked in a safe place. A lockable filing cabinet is inky safe if keys are not left lying around. Equally, rooms with keypads are not secure if the door has been propped open. To be aware of leaving documents around such as diaries, telephone messages and faxes if these contains confidential information. Many organisations have a policy that personal records must not be removed from their workplace, because could be lost, seen by others, damaged, or the information could be taken and used wrongly.

Electronic information: These days great deal of information is stored and transferred electronically, via computer. Computer files should be protected using passwords which are only shared with authorised individuals. Care must be taken to close private documents after use, to prevent individuals who are passing from catching sight of the screen. To be vigilant when transporting information between computers via memory pens or discs. To make sure the memory pen doesn’t get lost and that the information doesn’t remain on the hard drive of the computer it was played on.

Biv Explain when and how a social care worker should get advice about confidentiality

Anytime need it.
We can always ask our superiors for advice, read policies and procedures and talk with appropriate bodies. When we are not sure about a situation or a person we should always double check first with our manager and to go to their files or documents and find out more information. We can always ask HR department as well.

Promote communication in health, social care

Learning outcomes:

Outcome 1

Understand why effective communication is important in the work setting

1.1 Identify the different reasons people communicate.

The main reason we communicate is because we want or require something.

This may be for comfort: We may require something for our comfort in the form of food or drink, keeping warm or cool, the use of the toilet, bathing etc. or emotional comfort. Exchange of information: We may need to give or receive information about ourselves and the choices we may need to make. Expression of our emotions: We communicate our emotions so that the people around us know how we feel and how to support us whether we are happy, sad or scared.

Communication may be verbal, non-verbal, formal or informal. All communication should remain confidential on a need to know basis whatever the type of communication that has taken place.

1.2 Explain how communication affects relationships in the work setting.

Communication plays a vital role in the care of an individual. I need to know what I am required to do at each service user’s call. This information is communicated to me in a variety of different ways. The service user may tell me, it is written in the care plan and in the assessment when a package is taken on. I may speak to family members or be left notes by family or other carers. If a service user is unable to communicate verbally they may gesture to me to let me know what they need or how they feel. Effective communication helps to build a trusting relationship which allows care to be successful.

Communication between carers is very important as we need to make sure that care is continuous and we work as a team. Discussions about how a service user likes their care, how difficulties can be overcome, safeguarding and general tips can and should take place via the appropriate forum. Without this communication the care team cannot function at its best. A good working relationship with open communication will lead to a good level of care for our service users.

Communication from line managers is vital for me to carry out my role well. I need to be aware of situations that have occurred and the outcomes so that I can give the best care possible to my service users. As a senior carer I also need to be able to communicate well with my team of care workers. If information is not passed on this can lead to failures in the care we provide.

Outcome 2 Be able to meet the communication and language needs, wishes and preferences of individuals.

2.1 Demonstrate how to establish the communication and language needs, wishes and preferences of individuals.

2.2 Describe the factors to consider when promoting effective communication. I need to be clear of the subject that I am communication. I need to know the person has the ability to understand what I need to communicate I need to know if I need someone to interpret for me.
Is there any way that I need to adapt my communication for the individual I need the environment to be suitable
Does the individual need someone with them for support?
I need to actively listen to what the individual is communicating to me.

2.3 Demonstrate a range of communication methods and styles to meet individual needs.

2.4 Demonstrate how to respond to an individual’s reactions when communicating.

Outcome 3 Be able to overcome barriers to communication 3.1 Explain how people from different backgrounds may use and/or interpret communication methods in different ways. There are a few different ways that differences in background can affect communication. Different cultures have different views of acceptable behaviour regarding verbal and non-verbal communication for example eye-contact, distance between individuals communicating or patterns of formal conversation. In some cultures a woman should not speak unless spoken to. Different cultures also show different levels of emotion in their conversation or discussions. I some cases some cultures seem to get very emotional whereas some are encouraged not to show emotion. Language differences between cultures can cause problems.

Words that are similar or even the same may have different connotations to different cultures. For example it is unacceptable for certain words to be used by certain people but fine for others to se them. Differences in body language and gestures can cause problems. For example in some cultures the nod of the head actually means no and a shake means yes. These differences mean that we need to research the cultures of the people we work with to promote effective communication.

3.2 Identify barriers to effective communication.

Differences in languages, cultures and dialects including slang and jargon. Hearing or visual impairment.
Relationship between those communicating.
Generation difference.
Physical environment e.g. noise levels, light levels and distance between those communicating. Emotion or distress.
Mental health problems.
The pace of communication.
Learning disabilities.

3.3 Demonstrate ways to overcome barriers to communication.

3.4 Demonstrate strategies that can be used to clarify misunderstandings.

3.5 Explain how to access extra support or services to enable individuals to communicate effectively. If I come across a difficulty in communication I would consult my line manager for advice. Depending on the barriers to communication I could always contact the service user’s doctor or talk to the local authority about support services that are available.

Outcome 4 Be able to apply principles and practices relating to confidentiality

4.1 Explain the meaning of the term confidentiality.

‘Confidentiality is a set of rules that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information’. Confidentiality relates to the duty to maintain confidence and respect a person’s privacy. I have a duty to keep any information given to me by a service user on a need to know basis. The service user’s personal information that they share with me should not be shared by myself unless it is in the interest of the service user for me to share with an appropriate professional or person with a proven need to know. There are a number of legislations which cover confidentiality within care work.

4.2 Demonstrate ways to maintain confidentiality in day to day communication.

4.3 Describe the potential tension between maintaining an individual’s confidentiality and disclosing concerns. Care work is all about supporting an individual’s choices and allowing them to live their life as independently as they can, but, our duty of care sometimes interferes with this if their choices mean that they are in harm’s way or suffer a loss. If we suspect a service user is in harm’s way, suffering abuse or that they could cause harm to another person we need to disclose this information to those who are in a position to help. If we do disclose confidential information the individual needs to know why we need to share the information and that we are obliged to do this. Policies and procedures we are given to follow help us to understand what we should and should not disclose about someone in our care.

TDA 3.1 Communication and professional relationships with children, young people and adults

Effective communication is very important. It helps develop positive relationships that benefit the children and allow them to participate and learn within the setting. It is also important in many other ways; It prevents misunderstandings that can lead to bad-feelings and/or bad working relationships. It can help engage and involve parents/carers in their child’s learning. If we model effective communication skills the children are more likely to follow and to understand what is acceptable. It means important information will be passed on to the relevant people e.g. If a child has a medical condition such as asthma and needs an inhaler at certain times. All staff who may work with the child must be made aware of this. Positive relationships don’t just exist, they must be built. In order to communicate effectively you must think about the way you relate to others.

Communication is more than just what you say. Often non-verbal communication speaks the loudest yet it is that that we are least aware of. The main forms of this are body language, facial expressions, gestures and posture. For example, you are talking to a new parent about how their child has settled in and you say “She is doing very well and has made lots of friends” but you stand with your arms folded, avoiding eye-contact and frowning. Instead of being re-assured the parent is likely to feel upset and worried. Principles of relationship building

Effective communication – This is the most important point and should go hand-in-hand with all other principles. Showing respect – Listen to and respect other people’s point of view. If you show respect to others it is likely they will respect you. Being considerate – Be understanding about possible factors behind people’s behaviour and don’t be too quick to make judgements. Remembering issues which are personal to them – A good way of building positive relationships is to show an interest in things that are important to others.

Be clear on key points – Nods of the head and repeating words/phrases show that you are clear on what is being said. When you are giving information ensure that the other person understands. For example, if speaking to a young child ask them to repeat what you have said.
Active listening – Listening is a skill and requires a certain amount of self-control. You have to ignore your own needs and focus on the person speaking. You must pay attention to what is being said and follow it closely. Make eye-contact and keep your body open. Sometimes you need to adapt the way you communicate depending on the situation; Different cultures

Some cultures have different norms on what is offensive or polite. It is important to understand this but ensure you do not assume or stereotype. Where possible you should try to have an awareness of the culturally acceptable behaviour of the person you are communicating with and adapt your approach accordingly. For example, if it is not acceptable to them to have eye-contact do not keep trying to do this. Also be aware of language barriers. You may need to use other non-verbal forms of communication to ensure they understand. Social and professional contexts

You should make sure you use the appropriate language and behaviour dependant on the situation. For example, if you were in a meeting with a parent and other professionals you would speak a lot more formally than you would in the staffroom at dinnertime. You should also remember other factors such as your body language and the way you dress. Other forms of communication

Non-spoken forms of communication can be mis-read. Be sure to be clear and prompt when responding to e-mails or phone messages. If you are unsure of the message ask questions or para-phrase. It is often useful to make notes as you may need to pass the message on or refer back to it at a later date. Skills needed to communicate with children and young people

Children learn how to communicate by example and by the responses of others. All children should have the opportunity to express their thoughts and opinions and be listened to. You should ensure you give them sufficient time to do this. Just saying you are listening isn’t enough. You should show that you are interested in what they are saying by giving them your full attention. It is important to show you are approachable. Use positive body language and facial expressions. Speak to children on their level and repeat key words to show your understanding. It may be necessary to question them further, if this is the case give them time to answer. Children may lack confidence and may need to be prompted. Adapting communication for children

Some children may have difficulty communicating; thought should be given to individual needs. You may have children who have a speech impediment or have English as a second language. You should give them plenty of time to speak so as not to make them feel pressurised. Some children may not be given time to talk outside of school and may feel anxious. Others may lack confidence. Gently prompt children to join in discussions, ask them open-ended questions and encourage children to take turns in speaking and listening. Always be mindful of the age and/or stage of the children.

You will need to adapt your vocabulary and the way you respond. For example, older children may be offended if they think you are speaking to them ‘like a child.’ Although it is important to develop positive relationships through communication you should ensure that you remain professional. When the children are on task you should try to prevent interruptions and keep the conversation to do with the activity. In other situations give the children time to talk freely but always maintain boundaries.

Communicating with adults and children/young people
Adaptations for children/Young People
Maintain carer to child relationship and remain formal.
Maintain eye contact
Communicate what is expected of them.
Respond to what is said
Age/stage appropriate
Show interest
Ensure they understand.
Positive body language
Don’t encourage physical contact.
Active listening
Give praise and encouragement

Sometimes you may encounter adults who have different communication needs and will need to adapt the way you communicate with them accordingly; Hearing impaired – Face them and maintain eye-contact as they may need to lip read. Use hand gestures to enhance what you are saying. Write down important information. English as an additional language – You may require a translator. Sometimes if the child is older they can translate messages. If there isn’t a translator available speak slowly and clearly. Visually impaired- Often schools send out letters and forms to parents. These may need to be in large print or Braille or you may need to speak to the parent/carer directly. Disagreements

Disagreements are often down to miscommunication. There may have been a misunderstanding with a member of staff, information may have been perceived wrongly or it may be differences of opinion. Sometimes disagreements occur with parents. This could be due to information not being passed on, a lack of time to talk at the start/end of the day or different views to how situations should be dealt with. It is important that any disagreements are resolved as quickly as possible so as to maintain positive relationships. Children pick up on negativity and it makes an uncomfortable environment for all. You should talk only with the person involved and find a way forward. Do not ignore the problem as the longer it is allowed to go on the more difficult it will be to resolve. Confidentiality, data protection and the disclosure of information All adults that work in a school environment should be aware of the legislation regarding confidentiality and data protection. Data Protection Act 1998

It is essential for schools to hold certain information so that children can be cared for effectively. This may include; Health or medical records Records from previous schools Records for children with special educational needs Any organisation which holds information on individuals needs to be registered with the information commissioner. This is designed to ensure that confidential information cannot be passed on to others without the individuals consent. The eight principles of practice are that information must be: Processed fairly and lawfully

Used only for the purpose for which it was gathered
Adequate, relevant and not excessive
Accurate and kept up to date where necessary
Kept for no longer than necessary
Processed in line with the individual’s rights
Kept secure

Not transferred outside the European Union without adequate protection As a teaching assistant I have access to a wide range of information about the children in my care. I ensure that I keep all information confidential unless otherwise necessary and if I am unsure I speak with my line manager. Sometimes when people think of passing on confidential information they think of to other adults outside of school but it involves professionals, other parents and even other children in the school. Any of these would be a breach of confidentiality.

In some instances parents may be wary about giving out private/personal information that the school needs. In this instance every effort should be made to reassure them about confidentiality and that the information will not be passed onto anyone else without their permission. Each school should also have a confidentiality policy that can be referred to. Sometimes you may attend meetings with other professionals. Parental consent should be gained before any information about the child/family is shared unless the child is ‘at risk’ or there is a legal obligation on the school to disclose such information. You must be mindful of students, helpers or visitors in the school and what information is revealed in their presence.

Some information must be passed on such as if a child is asthmatic or has an allergy but the majority of information should be on a need to know basis. It is always important to remember there may be a situation where you will need to tell others. If a child confides in you about certain issues and you suspect child abuse or that the child may be ‘at risk’ you should ensure the child knows that you cannot keep the information confidential. You must pass the information on to the delegated person. In cases such as this you should makes notes on what the child has told you and allow them to speak freely but do not push them for information or ask leading questions.

How does communication device helps students in their studies


Over the years as technology keeps improving, more and more people are using it in their daily lives. Over these past few decades, there has been a significant advancement in the field of technology. What is more obvious in the public eyes nowadays is the advancement of communication devices. Communication devices are equipment or hardware designed to move or convey information or data from one place to another. In other words, allowing one person to communicate with another. In the olden days, there is only one form of communication device which is the telephone. At that time, the phones can only be used to make calls or receive them. However, in this modern age, phones can do much more than that. In fact, there are many more sophisticated communication devices available besides phones.

Communication devices have evolved over time. Besides making and receiving calls, phones nowadays are equipped with abilities such as taking pictures and connecting to the Internet. Humans have also developed various types of communication devices such as computers, smartphones, tablets and many more. What’s more is that most of these communication devices can access to the internet. Internet is what makes these communication devices flourish. This is because the internet is the most powerful, global data communications system making it the greatest invention of science because of its wide range of benefits and uses in the world today.

The biggest benefit of the internet can be found in the educational sector. Educators can obtain learning material from it, prepare courses online and deliver audio and visual information to students. It is a valuable source for referencing material and tool in enhancing their knowledge. Example of one of the most effective and most used form of internet technologies in the educational sector is E-learning. According to (Ove, Salleh & Iahad, 2010):

“E-learning is the use of Information and Communication Technology e.g. Internet, Computer, Mobile phone, Learning Management System (LMS), Televisions, Radios and others to enhance teaching and learning activities. E-learning is a unifying term used to describe the fields of online learning, web-based training and technology delivered instructions.”

E-learning is a popular learning approach in higher educational institutions due to the fast growth of internet technology. Nowadays due to the competitive advantage, many universities have implemented E-learnings. By doing so, it left a huge positive impact on the students’ performance. The internet also provides a faster and more efficient ways of communication such as video conferencing, emails and more. With just the click of a mouse a person can be connected to someone who is in another city or even halfway across the world. Distance is erased within seconds and spatial boundaries have come crashing down due to instant messaging services.

For a student, information such as the student details, notes, documents and etc. can be transferred instantly from anywhere with the help of internet. Besides that, students can also leave short messages or notification to others by using e-mails. This is both convenient for students, lecturers and also faculty staffs of the university. However, communication devices are needed in order to access to the internet. There is no way to connect to the internet without using communication devices these days. Therefore, this shows the importance of communication devices for people especially in the workplace and educational sectors.

1. N.D.Oye, Noorminshah A. Iahad, Madar, M. J., NorZairah Ab. Rahim (2012). The impact of E-Learning on students performance in tertiary insitutions. Accessed on 29th July 2014.

2. Shamsul Arrieya (2012). Student perspectives on M.Learning for local cultural studies in Malaysia. Accessed on 30th July 2014.

3. Computer Hope (2014). Communication devices. Accessed on 20th July 2014.

4. Teach-ICT (2014) Communication devices. Accessed on 20th July 2014.

Effective communication unit 1 D2

(D2) –
Whist taking part in both group interactions and one to one interactions there are many factors that influence the effectiveness of each. This essay will therefore evaluate the factors in which I came across which were an influence to my effectiveness in the interactions.

Firstly in the one to one interaction I feel the factors that came across which made my interaction effective was my speech as I feel that I used a clear pronunciations to the service user which allowed her to understand me better so that they weren’t confused with the words I spoke. I also took my time when speaking to her so that she didn’t feel I was rushing her, I did this in order to try and make her open up slightly as she would know I am there to help and spend time focusing on her and her needs so that she didn’t feel that I had better things to do with my time and that I didn’t want to be with her. Also this may make her gain a level of trust with me during the duration which will make her feel like she has someone she can rely on is not alone. I also feel that in my interaction making myself aware of her needs/situation before hand made it easier for me to understand why she was in that state as a service user in the first place and so therefore I didn’t have to recap over the bad parts of her life as that may of got her upset and made her not want to talk even more.

This also helped me as I was able to think of advice beforehand so it could be better thought out advice which would hopefully be helpful to her and if she felt the advice was good then this may make her feel that I actually can help her and that there is hope in overcoming her situation. Whilst talking to her I showed my full interests into the communication and interpersonal skills that were taking place and I did this by looking interested and being focused on just her and not having any distractions around me. This would hopefully have made her feel like I am not interested in something else as that may have made her feel that I am not there to help. I felt by doing this it was a strength as it made her open up slightly due to acting as though I want to hear what she has to say and giving her the time to say it and that I was defiantly listening to her. Throughout the period of talking to her I showed assertiveness which made me portray that I was positive and confident.

This hopefully then made her feel like I am not going to give up on her and that would make her have hope in herself that there is a positive outcome. This then would hopefully have made her open up and talk due to wanting to give me information which I can then help her with in order to get her back on track and to have the positive outcome she wants. She spoke about her past in the interaction and about how her mother and father were in prison, at this point she showed a sense of embarrassment and disappointment in them and so therefore I portrayed an appropriate attitude by not judging what is being said to me and saying that this is all in confidence. So that she felt that there is nothing to be ashamed of. When speaking to her I used reflective listening as this would make her understand that I have taken into account what she has been telling me due to me repeating it in a different way, this also lets her know that I understand what she is trying to tell me and will get her to speak more in depth so that I understand exactly what she wants to happen and how she feels. When we were talking I was sitting upright in order to show that I was alert and listening as I would need to look alert in order for the service user to feel that I am aware of what they are saying and that I am bothered about the conversation.

I feel that weaknesses to my one to one interaction was that I repeated myself slightly in some conversations due to her body language looking as though she wasn’t listening and this made her feel frustrated as her tone changed acting as though I was patronizing her and that she heard it the first time and wasn’t stupid, to improve this I would therefore give her time to answer what was said and not repeat myself even if she looks like she isn’t listening, if she still doesn’t answer after some time I will repeat the question again although word it in a different way so that it is not the same. I also feel I could of improved on a part of the interaction as I entered a sensitive subject quite early on in the interaction about the death of her auntie which seemed to have put her in an upset frame of mind as I feel that she hadn’t got comfortable enough with me at that time of the conversation to talking about a close subject so I feel that this was a weakness to the interaction, although I brought it back to being effective by showing her the support networks available to her which put her mind at rest and made her feel like she wasn’t alone. In the group interaction I feel the factors that came across which made my interaction effective was the way in which I spoke out in the group to make my point clear to the other professionals, this also broke the barrier of silence between one another and this brought the others to speak out and share what they feel would be best so I felt that I was an influence on the group here.

As a group I feel are strength was that we had good eye contact with one another when speaking which made us realise that we were all listening and interacting so therefore it kept the conversation going. We expressed our thought on things that we felt were negative and explained why so that we understood why we shouldn’t do certain things in certain ways. I feel that I had good use of body language in the group as I sat up straight when speaking and used hand gestures to bring the others to understand more about what I was explaining. Also I feel that my use of nodding my head to indicate that I agree with what people were saying was a good effective interaction as then people in the group knew that I was keeping on track with what they were saying and understood. Also the way in which we worked effective as a group was the way in which we were all aware of the needs and preferences of Mrs.Signh so that we understood about her past and therefore could go straight into what we are going to do with her. I also feel that I made the communication and interpersonal skills effective in the group due to asking questions in order to verify things so that I understood them correctly so that no faults in the system occurred when the meeting was over, as if we go the wrong idea about something then Mrs.Signh’s health may be at risk.

In this meeting jargon was used due to it being with 3 professionals in the same profession of health care so they therefore understood the jargon used in the conversation as it was medical terminology. This helped us understand certain aspects of her health in more depth. I also feel that an effective way of communication in the meeting was that we respected each other’s opinions on Mrs.Signh and then came to a conclusion as a group with the final decision, also if we did not feel that someone else’s thoughts were very good we did not put them down we just suggested how we could improve them. I also feel in the meeting that I had a good clear voice with a calm tone so that the meeting stayed at a calm level and stopped it from becoming an intense discussion when disagreements on the care plan occurred, as an intense discussion could of lead to an argument and that would not have been professional. This also helped the other people in the group understand me clearly so that there was no miscommunication or misinterpretations as these could of lead to the wrong inappropriate care plan which may not have benefitted Mrs. Singh. Ways to improve the meeting as a group in order to gain more effective communication and interpersonal skills may be to not rush the meeting as much as we did and to make it go on for longer stating more information in it.

Also we could have introduced ourselves and our care profession at the start of the meeting and shook one another’s hand showing courtesy and politeness. Other ways which we could of improved it is by not having our coats on and so that we are more comfortable and can move about easily for use of good body language. Another way which we could have improved it in our group would be by sitting in more of a closed circle so that we can hear one another efficiently and can see each other clearly in order to see body language and facial expressions.

This will help make communication effective and avoid misinterpretations so that no mistakes in the meeting are made. I feel that I could of improved the way that I acted with the group as I feel that I took a direct approach which made me out to be the main person/leader of the group who was in charge due to be speaking up and setting up the topic for discussion. By speaking up in the group with my opinions this may have made the others in the group shy and they may not feel as confident in expressing their opinions. Therefore I would improve this by making it all equal between one another so that others feel that they are on the same level and can speak up and say what they would like to discuss. References:

– Robinson, L Segal, J . (2012). Effective Communication. Available: Last accessed 17th October 2012. – Skills you need . (2011-2012). Interpersonal Communication Skills . Available: Last accessed 17th October . – Stretch, B Whitehouse, M (2010). Health and Social Care Level 3 Book 1. England and Wales: Pearson Limited Education – Collins Education . (2011). Developing effective communication in health and social care. Available: Last accessed 17th October 2012.

Communication Methods

As a manager of a large rehabilitation center that provides short term care rehabilitation services, adding long term care services will require hiring and training new employees. It is important that managers understand the appropriate communication methods, why they are important, and what internal and external relationships that must be considered. There are a few appropriate communication methods manager can use in this organization such as emails, memos, team meetings, flyers, and powerpoint presentations. A mailing list can be implemented to send out emails with information or by sending flyers via USPS. Holding team meetings is a great to provide information to staff members as well as receiving employee feedback and suggestions to improve the quality of care. Although there are many methods of communication, holding staff meeting is the best way for information to flow from managers to employees, and employees to managers.

Communication is important in the rehabilitation center as many services are provided by multiple physicians. “Communication between provider and consumers affects every facet on the health continuum from health promotion and disease prevention to assessment, diagnosis, and treatment” (Jones & Bartlett, 2014). The quality of care is dependent upon staff members working together to provide care. This requires effective communication to pass health information, and share knowledge with each other to find the proper treatment plan. The use of flyers in the community allows for communication between the organization and the community, informing them of the addition of long term care services. This is important to reach the organizational goals. There are many internal and external relationships that must be considered when expanding services. Internal relationships include managers of other departments such as marketing, and staff members.

Marketing managers have knowledge of the demand for long term care services in the community and can provide the manager with that information. Staff members may be useful to help provide long term care services or train new employees. “The success of new organizational forms depends on managing inter-organizational relationships through external communication” (Johnson & Chang, 2000). External relationships such as other organizations in the community as well as the community should be considered. Other organizations can provide insight on what services are currently available locally and the need for long term care.

Reaching out to the community by hosting or attending events will help to draw in customers for the new service and gain information on cultural needs of the community. Communication is key to providing quality care in a busy rehabilitation center. The use of emails, flyers, and team meetins are great ways to effectively communicate with staff members. Communication is important to ensure proper care is provided and the patient is satisfied with the outcome. Internal and external relationships must be considered receive feedback on internal operations, and understand the demand for care in the community.

Johnson, J., & Chang, H. (2000). Internal and External Communication, Boundary Spanning, and Innovation Adoption: An Over-Time Comparison of Three Explanations of Internal and External Innovation Communication in a New Organizational Form. Journal Of Business Communication, 37(3), 238-63 Jones & Bartlett ( 2014). Retrieved from

Cross cultural communication

There are six principals in cross-cultural communication. The first principal states that the greater the cultural difference the greater the chance is for the communication ti break down. The second principal says that when communication breakdowns occur during cross-cultural encounters, the breakdowns are most often attributed to cultural differences. The third principal states that communicating across cultures often leads people to be more conscious about their own communication. The fourth one states that cultures vary with respect to the number and kind of “do’s and taboos” that are required of its members.

The fifth one states that a person should remember that learning what is normal in the culture the are communicating with helps you understand that group. The last principal states that as long as you see others as friendly and cooperative barriers will easily be broken down (Cheesebro, O’Connor, & Rios, Chapter Chapter 3, Cultural Diversity, 2010).

I chose to write about Hispanics. There healthcare experience is similar to African American, which is my race. First there is the language barrier. They speak another language and it can sometimes be hard to explain things when there is not a translator present. Things get lost in translation. Another issue is that they don’t have healthcare. They don’t have insurance so they don’t go to a doctor and in turn they have poor health (Bzostek, Goldman, & Pebley, 2007).

When it comes to communications, there are many barriers. Providers communicate differently when it comes to Hispanics. Studies have shown that when providers deal with the Spanish speaking patients they ask less open ended question and probes for patient understanding because of the language barrier (Mayo, Windsor, Sundarwaran & Crew 2007). A seconds study states that when providers relied on interpreters for communicating with their patients, but lack of availability of the interpreters and patient waiting were reported as barriers in using interpreters effectively (Mayo, Windsor, Sundarwaran & Crew 2007). This barrier led providers to turn to English speaking family n members and bilingual staff who made the communication dull (Mayo, Windsor, Sundarwaran & Crew 2007).

In my opinion these are just some of the barriers that stand in between Hispanics and non-Hispanic providers. To me language is the most common one. When people have this barriere they are less likely to want to communicate because they don’t thing the other party will understand the message they are trying to send. So if they do communicate there will be a lack of enthusiasm and the message will not come across correctly.


Cheesebro, T., O’Connor, L., & Rios, F. (2010). Communicating in the Workplace. Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection.

Bzostek, S., Goldman, N., & Pebley, A. (2007, September). Why do Hispanics in the USA report poor health?. Social Science & Medicine, 65(5), 990 – 1003.

Factors of communication

Own working practice can affect children and young people’s development in many ways. Children learn trough impersonation, so it is important to always keep in mind that they need to have good role models. When I am working with children, I always remember to be encouraging and trust worthy. When working with children I’m always evaluating and noticing them so that I will be able to suggest for any child and their requirements by adapting the activities for them. It is very essential for me to observe the children that I’m working with competently, so I will know what activity I can plan for them, because sometimes some children might find the activity uncomplicated and get bored. Carers are the children’s role models and they should give them examples to pursue and affect their development in a good way.

Shouting can influence a child’s development so when I’m with them I should always remember not to yell. If I am always shouting, children might not ask me any questions as they panic that they would be shouted at or even worse they might start copying me and develop a shouting habit. I have to shield the children from difficult situations when working with them and to always be aware, that is why when there is a problem I share it with my colleagues so we can deal with it and any other difficulties that may arise. While operating with the children I always provide important aspects of care, have good relationship with my colleagues, mind my language, possess suitable material and equipment, and have an appropriate behaviour.

When my teammate and I are doing an activity and crafts in the nursery some of the children might find it harder than other children to use scissors to cut out paper, this might lead the child to be disappointed, get bored and sometimes they end up not wanting to take part in the activity, so to improve those children out we give them proper scissors for those who have more difficulties gripping normal ones. This way our children can proceed together as a group with the activity that has been stated.

There are other materials that assist a child’s development and help them take part in the activities, like pencil grips, triangle shaped colours and many more. That is why it’s very important to have quality equipment, know what they’re for and how to apply them. I must always keep in mind that not all children develop the same way, some may require more time whilst others may need less, that’s why it’s important to be tolerant and regard the child’s personal needs. So I should always remember to use appropriate equipment, be skilled and accomplished in my job to make it easier in children’s development.

Tassoni, P., Beith, K., Bulman, K., Griffin, S. (2010). Pearson Education Ltd. Children & Young People’s Workforce. Essex: Heinemann pg. 81-95

Explain how institutions, agencies and services can affect children and young people’s development:

Institutions, agencies and services can affect children development in many ways. If there are good components that meet with the children needs this off course will help a lot in there development. Some of the children might have some sort of disability so it is important for the institution to have appropriate equipment and skilled carers. Institutions must always meet the needs of the children either if they are socially, emotionally, physically and intellectually. This might include people like teaching assistants or advisors to provide support and train staff. Youth justice this is based on children with behavioural problems these people will work with them and also social workers to help them. Social workers are there to help vulnerable children and young people and their families this might include children on the child protection register or disabled difficulties.

They provide teachers and practitioners with aimed support programmes for that child once they have identified the child’s needs. Some institutions also provide specialist nurses who support for the family and child especially if that child suffers from medical conditions that need specialist care and also health visitors come under this title for measuring and assessing a child’s development. As well as a psychiatrist, a doctor who is trained in mental health problems. This person works alongside other professionals to help diagnose or support children and young people with mental health problems.

They have also a Physiotherapist, this professional help the children with their movement especially those who have little or no movement. They are trained to get the maximum movement and skill level. In a well equipped environment children can develop important factors such as emotional development, social and interactive development, self development and much more. Though it is always important to have the right components and safe equipment, it is also very important that the children are always supervised by a responsible and skilled carer. Carers in an institution or agency should always be professional and responsible. They should always keep in mind that they need to create a safe and nonthreatening environment, should always monitor closely the reaction of children, keep records and be careful and follow good practice when using any type of equipment. Like this they are helping in the children development while keeping them safe.


Tassoni, P., Beith, K., Bulman, K., Griffin, S. (2010). Pearson Education Ltd. Children & Young People’s Workforce. Essex: Heinemann pg. 80 – 87

Advantages of Verbal communication

Verbal communication- The sharing of information between individuals by using speech. Individuals working within a business need to effectively use verbal communication that employs readily understood spoken words, as well as ensuring that the enunciation, stress and tone of voice with which the words are expressed is appropriate.

Read more: We all communicate on a daily basis either with others or ourselves. Verbal communication is one approach for individuals to communicate in a straight forward manner. There are multiple basic components of verbal communication such as audio, words, dialog, and language. Whatever technique of interaction is used, written, body language, or verbal, each is considered a form of communication and is needed for us to communicate. In order to be a success in the world we live in today, possessing clear communication skills are essential for an individual to have strong comprehension skills and an aptitude for communicating effectively. Lacking these, abilities can be a great setback and may create concerns contingent given the situation.

When communicating verbally, one of the most essential things not to forget it that our voice itself can communicate more about us than our actual message. Some superlative mechanisms exist while engaged in verbal communication, which are sound, language, and vocalizations. Throughout dialogues we often attempt to exclude any likely chance of misunderstanding and instead be specific and to the point. However, many times that is quite arduous to those who are not as skilled in communication as others are.

Mostly, we hope and presume that the message we conveyed has been fully accepted by our speaking audience, since to us the information being transmitted may be important and so we assume that this information is be seen as important to those who receives it. While words only account for approximately 7% of the meaning people ascribe to your communication, tone of voice accounts for 38% of the m eaning. So, it’s obvious that to be a successful communicator, you need to be aware of your verbal cues and clues (e.g., everything from words to sighs, moans, grunts).

Inflection refers to ups and downs in talking. Inflection helps you signal to your partner what’s important and may even indicate your emotional state (especially combined with volume and pitch). Volume indicates the degree of loudness to your voice. Again, volume can indicate your energetic involvement with a topic and gives your spouse clues about your temperament and mood. Pacing deals with your rate of speech or the speed of your talking. Matching your rate of speech and your intensity to that of your partner creates rapport and connection.

Word choice of course means what words you use to convey your message. Though words may have specific definitions, our lifetime of experience with a word means that our meaning for the word and someone else’s meaning might be quite different. Silence refers to those gaps in our conversations. (Though silence is “non-verbal” it’s the absence of verbal communication, that’s why I’ve included it in this list.) Allow room for your partner to absorb what you’ve said and give yourself the space to take in what he/she is communicating to
you. Advantages:

Some of the advantages of the oral communication are:
1. Its easy and simple and saves a lot of money because oral communication is the less expensive way to communicate with each other. 2. It allows feedback on the spot so if the receiver is not 100 percent sure what the message meant, then that feedback will be answered right away. 3. Because the message is instantly, it helps in avoiding time wasted. 4. It brings personal warmth and friendliness and develops a sense of bonding because of these contact between the people.

Some of the disadvantages of the oral communication are:
1. There is no instant feedback between the messenger and the receiver and that the messages could be misunderstood. 2.Long and wordy type of communication cannot be as effectively as verbal messages. 3.The receiver might understand the message differently.

4. responses on the spot might not be carefully thought of. 5. More or less or a different meaning might be conveyed by manner of speaking,tone of voice and facial expressions.

Verbal communication refers to the use of sounds and language to relay a message. It serves as a vehicle for expressing desires, ideas and concepts and is vital to the processes of learning and teaching. In combination with nonverbal forms of communication, verbal communication acts as the primary tool for expression between two or more people. Types

Interpersonal communication and public speaking are the two basic types of verbal communication. Whereas public speaking involves one or more people delivering a message to a group, interpersonal communication generally refers to a two-way exchange that involves both talking and listening. According to Robert M. Krauss, professor of psychology at Columbia University, signs and symbols are the major signals that make up verbal communication. Words act as symbols, and signs are secondary products of the

Communication cycle

Human spoken and pictorial languages can be described as a system of symbols (sometimes known as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated. The word “language” also refers to common properties of languages. Language learning normally occurs most intensively during human childhood. Most of the thousands of human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them. Languages seem to share certain properties although many of these include exceptions.

There is no defined line between a language and a dialect. Constructed languages such as Esperanto, programming languages, and various mathematical formalisms are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by human languages. Communication is the flow or exchange of information within people or a group of people. A variety of verbal and non-verbal means of communicating exists such as body language, eye contact, sign language, haptic communication, chronemics, and media content such as pictures, graphics, sound, and writing.

Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities also defines the communication to include the display of text, Braille, tactile communication, large print, accessible multimedia, as well as written and plain language, human-reader, augmentative and alternative modes, means and formats of communication, including accessible information and communication technology.[3] Feedback is critical to effective communication between participants. Nonverbal communication[edit source | editbeta]

Main article: Nonverbal communication
Nonverbal communication describes the process of conveying meaning in the form of non-word messages. Some forms of non verbal communication include chronemics, haptics, gesture, body language or posture, facial expression and eye contact, object communication such as clothing, hairstyles, architecture, symbols, infographics, and tone of voice, as well as through an aggregate of the above. Speech also contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage.

These include voice lesson quality, emotion and speaking style as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation and stress. Research has shown that up to 55% of spoken communication may occur through non verbal facial expressions, and a further 38% through paralanguage.[4] Likewise, written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words and the use of emoticons to convey emotional expressions in pictorial form. Oral communication[edit source | editbeta]

Oral communication, while primarily referring to spoken verbal communication, can also employ visual aids and non-verbal elements to support the conveyance of meaning. Oral communication includes speeches, presentations, discussions, and aspects of interpersonal communication. As a type of face-to-face communication, body language and choice tonality play a significant role, and may have a greater impact upon the listener than informational content. This type of communication also garners immediate feedback. Business communication[edit source | editbeta]

Main article: Business communication

A business can flourish only when all objectives of the organization are achieved effectively. For efficiency in an organization, all the people of the organization must be able to convey their message properly.[citation needed] Written communication and its historical development[edit source | editbeta] Over time the forms of and ideas about communication have evolved through the continuing progression of technology. Advances include communications psychology and media psychology, an emerging field of study. The progression of written communication can be divided into three revolutionary stages called “Information Communication Revolutions”.[5]

During the first stage, written communication first emerged through the use of pictographs. The pictograms were made in stone, hence written communication was not yet mobile. During the second stage, writing began to appear on paper, papyrus, clay, wax, etc. with common alphabets. The third stage is characterized by the transfer of information through controlled waves of electromagnetic radiation (i.e., radio, microwave, infrared) and other electronic signals.

Communication is thus a process by which meaning is assigned and conveyed in an attempt to create shared understanding. This process, which requires a vast repertoire of skills in interpersonal processing, listening, observing, speaking, questioning, analyzing, gestures, and evaluating enables collaboration and cooperation.[6] Misunderstandings can be anticipated and solved through formulations, questions and answers, paraphrasing, examples, and stories of strategic talk. Written communication can be clarified by planning follow-up talks on critical written communication as part of the every-day way of doing business.

A few minutes spent talking in the present will save valuable time later by avoiding misunderstandings in advance. A frequent method for this purpose is reiterating what one heard in one’s own words and asking the other person if that really was what was meant.[7] Effective communication[edit source | editbeta]

Effective communication occurs when a desired effect is the result of intentional or unintentional information sharing, which is interpreted between multiple entities and acted on in a desired way. This effect also ensures the message is not distorted during the communication process. Effective communication should generate the desired effect and maintain the effect, with the potential to increase the effect of the message.

Therefore, effective communication serves the purpose for which it was planned or designed. Possible purposes might be to elicit change, generate action, create understanding, inform or communicate a certain idea or point of view. When the desired effect is not achieved, factors such as barriers to communication are explored, with the intention being to discover how the communication has been ineffective. Barriers to effective human communication[edit source | editbeta] Barriers to effective communication can retard or distort the message and intention of the message being conveyed which may result in failure of the communication process or an effect that is undesirable.

These include filtering, selective perception, information overload, emotions, language, silence, communication apprehension, gender differences and political correctness [8] This also includes a lack of expressing “knowledge-appropriate” communication, which occurs when a person uses ambiguous or complex legal words, medical jargon, or descriptions of a situation or environment that is not understood by the recipient. Physical barriers[edit source | editbeta]

Physical barriers are often due to the nature of the environment. An example of this is the natural barrier which exists if staff are located in different buildings or on different sites. Likewise, poor or outdated equipment, particularly the failure of management to introduce new technology, may also cause problems.

Staff shortages are another factor which frequently causes communication difficulties for an organization. While distractions like background noise, poor lighting or an environment which is too hot or cold can all affect people’s morale and concentration, which in turn interfere with effective communication.4444 System design[edit source | editbeta]

System design faults refer to problems with the structures or systems in place in an organization. Examples might include an organizational structure which is unclear and therefore makes it confusing to know whom to communicate with. Other examples could be inefficient or inappropriate information systems, a lack of supervision or training, and a lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities which can lead to staff being uncertain about what is expected of them. Attitudinal barriers[edit source | editbeta]

Attitudinal barriers come about as a result of problems with staff in an organization. These may be brought about, for example, by such factors as poor management, lack of consultation with employees, personality conflicts which can result in people delaying or refusing to communicate, the personal attitudes of individual employees which may be due to lack of motivation or dissatisfaction at work, brought about by insufficient training to enable them to carry out particular tasks, or just resistance to change due to entrenched attitudes and ideas, it may be as a result delay in payment at the end of the month.

Ambiguity of words/phrases[edit source | editbeta]

Words sounding the same but having different meaning can convey a different meaning altogether. Hence the communicator must ensure that the receiver receives the same meaning. It is better if such words are avoided by using alternatives whenever possible. Individual linguistic ability[edit source | editbeta]

The use of jargon, difficult or inappropriate words in communication can prevent the recipients from understanding the message. Poorly explained or misunderstood messages can also result in confusion. However, research in communication has shown that confusion can lend legitimacy to research when persuasion fails.[9][10][11] Physiological barriers[edit source | editbeta]

These may result from individuals’ personal discomfort, caused—for example—by ill health, poor eyesight or hearing difficulties. Presentation of information[edit source | editbeta]
Presentation of information is important to aid understanding. Simply put, the communicator must consider the audience before making the presentation itself and in cases where it is not possible the presenter can at least try to simplify his/her vocabulary so that the majority can understand. Nonhuman communication[edit source | editbeta]

See also: Biocommunication (science) and Interspecies communication Every information exchange between living organisms — i.e. transmission of signals that involve a living sender and receiver can be considered a form of communication; and even primitive creatures such as corals are competent to communicate. Nonhuman communication also include cell signaling, cellular communication, and chemical transmissions between primitive organisms like bacteria and within the plant and fungal kingdoms. Animal communication[edit source | editbeta]

The broad field of animal communication encompasses most of the issues in ethology. Animal communication can be defined as any behavior of one animal that affects the current or future behavior of another animal. The study of animal communication, called zoo semiotics (distinguishable from anthroposemiotics, the study of human communication) has played an important part in the development of ethology, sociobiology, and the study of animal cognition.

Animal communication, and indeed the understanding of the animal world in general, is a rapidly growing field, and even in the 21st century so far, a great share of prior understanding related to diverse fields such as personal symbolic name use, animal emotions, animal culture and learning, and even sexual conduct, long thought to be well understood, has been revolutionized. Plants and fungi[edit source | editbeta]

Communication is observed within the plant organism, i.e. within plant cells and between plant cells, between plants of the same or related species, and between plants and non-plant organisms, especially in the root zone. Plant roots communicate in parallel with rhizome bacteria, with fungi and with insects in the soil. These parallel sign-mediated interactions are governed by syntactic, pragmatic, and semantic rules, and are possible because of the decentralized “nervous system” of plants.

The original meaning of the word “neuron” in Greek is “vegetable fiber” and recent research has shown that most of the microorganism plant communication processes are neuronal-like.[12] Plants also communicate via volatiles when exposed to herbivory attack behavior, thus warning neighboring plants. In parallel they produce other volatiles to attract parasites which attack these herbivores. In stress situations plants can overwrite the genomes they inherited from their parents and revert to that of their grand- or great-grandparents.[citation needed] Fungi communicate to coordinate and organize their growth and development such as the formation of Marcelia and fruiting bodies.

Fungi communicate with their own and related species as well as with non fungal organisms in a great variety of symbiotic interactions, especially with bacteria, unicellular eukaryote, plants and insects through biochemicals of biotic origin. The biochemicals trigger the fungal organism to react in a specific manner, while if the same chemical molecules are not part of biotic messages, they do not trigger the fungal organism to react. This implies that fungal organisms can differentiate between molecules taking part in biotic messages and similar molecules being irrelevant in the situation.

So far five different primary signalling molecules are known to coordinate different behavioral patterns such as filamentation, mating, growth, and pathogenicity. Behavioral coordination and production of signaling substances is achieved through interpretation processes that enables the organism to differ between self or non-self, a biotic indicator, biotic message from similar, related, or non-related species, and even filter out “noise”, i.e. similar molecules without biotic content.[13] Bacteria quorum sensing[edit source | editbeta]

Communication is not a tool used only by humans, plants and animals, but it is also used by microorganisms like bacteria. The process is called quorum sensing. Through quorum sensing, bacteria are able to sense the density of cells, and regulate gene expression accordingly. This can be seen in both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. This was first observed by Fuqua et al. in marine microorganisms like V. harveyi and V. fischeri.[14] Communication cycle

Effective Communication

1.1 Explain why effective communication is important in developing positive relationships with children, young people, and adults. Communicating effectively within the children, young people and adults are very important to enable strong relationship to build between children, young people and adults. We should consider both we you approach other people and how we respond to them. We are more likely to communicate information to one another if we have positive relationships. (Burnham 2011). To developing positive relationships with the children is the main key to a happy and calm environment. Without a positive and supportive attitude there will be no trust and honesty between ourself and the children. They will not feel like they can talk to us which may mean they could be keeping something important inside, which could affect their learning or social skills.

Having good communication skills will help us develop better relationships especially with younger people. Some students who lack in confidence may find it hard to communicate at all with us, so if we come across to that student in a positive and gentle manner they are more likely to open up to us and talk. We would not like to be spoken to in a negative way so therefore we should also be careful of how we speak to others too. To Communicating positively with adults is an important part in helping build a strong and trusting relationship with each other. Communicating in the right way will show adults that we are able to talk to them about any aspects of our role as a teaching assistant or show them that we are willing to take on any task within that role.

It will also help to discuss about concerns about a child, discuss about lesson planning or activities. If good communication exists between everyone involved (the child, the staff, and parents/carers) it may prevent misunderstandings and unnecessary worry. For example if a child is having problems at home which is not being communicated to staff then it may affect that child’s behaviour or attitude to school. By being open to all involved, we can prevent this and be immediately aware of any issues and therefore assist that child in coping. If communication is effective parents/carers are more likely to contribute to and offer support to the school. It is so important that good relationships are developed with pupils, parents/carers.

Communicating effectively within the children, young people and adults are very important to enable strong relationship to build between children, young people and adults. To developing positive relationships with the children is the main key to a happy and calm environment. Without a positive and supportive attitude there will be no trust and honesty between yourself and the children. They will not feel like they can talk to you which may mean they could be keeping something important inside, which could affect their learning or social skills. Having good communication skills will help us develop better relationships especially with younger people.

Some students who lack in confidence may find it hard to communicate at all with us, so if we come across to that student in a positive and gentle manner they are more likely to open up to us and talk. We would not like to be spoken to in a negative way so therefore we should also be careful of how we speak to others too. To Communicating positively with adults is an important part in helping build a strong and trusting relationship with each other. Communicating in the right way will show adults that you are able to talk to them about any aspects of your role as a teaching assistant or show them that you are willing to take on any task within that role. It will also help to discuss about concerns about a child, discuss about lesson planning or activities.

Promote Communication in Health, Social Care or Children’s and Young People’s Settings

Communication is a central part of everyday life for most people and is particularly important when you work in a care setting. Communication means making contact with others and being understood. We all communicate continuously, through a two-way process of sending and receiving messages. These messages can be: verbal communication, using spoken or written words. Non-verbal communication, using body language such as gestures, eye-contact and touch. People communicate to make new relationships. The ability to communicate well is a key skill that enables you to work effectively with others. Working in a care setting means working in a team.

A team with members who communicate well with each other is a strong team. When you work in a care setting an important part is to enabling individuals to express themselves and understand the communication of others. There are many different influences that affect communication such as their culture, ethnicity, nationality and any particular needs. When you are communicating with others the content of the message needs to be clear, but it also needs to be said in a clear way. There is no one combination of factors that provides the ideal way to communicate a message. However effecting Communication methods include: Non-verbal communication: eye contact, touch, physical gestures, body language, behavior. Verbal communication: vocabulary, linguistic tone, pitch.

Services may include: translation services, interpreting services, speech and language, services advocacy services. It is important to respond an appropriately to an individual’s reactions when communicating, this includes: verbal responses (tone, pitch, silence), non- verbal responses (body language, facial expressions, eye contact), emotional state, signs that information has been understood. Communication is all about sharing with one another and yet each person communicates slightly differently according to their different backgrounds and experiences. Cultural differences refer to a variety of different influences, such as family background, peer group religion and ethnicity. These all play a part in shaping the way a person views the world and responds to it. Cultural differences are revealed by particular attitudes, values and practices, all of which have a bearing on how a person communicates and understands the communication of others. Barriers to effective communication can be:

health problems or medical condition
sensory impairment
effects of alcohol or drugs
learning disabilities
emotional and behavioural difficulties
cultural differences.

To avoid barriers during communication we can use technological aids, human aids, use of age-appropriate vocabulary, staff training, improving environment, reducing distractions. When a misunderstanding is unavoidable it is important to have a range of methods to clarify the situation and improve communication, such as: adapt your message, change the environment, ask for feedback, allow time, repeating, apologise. There is a range of support available to enable effective communication. Importantly, individuals need to be informed about these services and should be able to access them. For example: local authorities and services such as the NHS, education and children and families services, third sector organisations,

interpreting service,
translation service,
national charities.

Work in a care setting you will regularly deal with information to do with the children or young people in your care and their families. Some of this is personal and private. Confidentiality refers to the need to handle personal and private information in ways that are appropriate, safe and professional and meet legal requirements. A great deal of information will pass around place of work through conversations, hand-over reports, letters, written reports and emails. We need to deal appropriately with confidential information of various types when working in a care setting. If we are unsure whether information is confidential in nature ask a senior member, NIC, unit leader or management. There are some situations when confidentiality needs to be breached to report information to a higher authority. The disclosure of private and personal information should only take place when: – withholding the information is likely to threaten the safety and wellbeing of others – a crime has been, or is likely to be, committed.

It is our responsibility to check the policy and procedure in our place of work about disclosure of confidential information, in order to be clear about how to act and who to contact should the need arise.

1.2. Explain how communication affects relationships in the work setting.

I need to build relationships with clients that I work with, their families and colleagues to enable to work effectively. Relationships and communication skills are closely linked, as good communication will help to build good relationships. Relationships are influenced by the way we communicate this not only includes the language we use and how we listen to others but also our body language, gestures and facial expressions. It is important that we find ways to communicate with clients that are new to the setting so that they quickly feel comfortable, settled and feel secure, the early relationship we build with a client also helps build the parents/family confidence and trust in us that we take good care of the child and that the child will enjoy the experience.

3.1 Explain how people from different backgrounds may use and/or interpret communication methods in different ways.

Communication can be slightly different when using it with other people from different backgrounds. Communication can be interpreted in different ways by different people, this is because they may not speak English, if from a different country, or they may not understand you. This is also a barrier to communication. Other people may think that if they’re being listened to, they will express their beliefs and their opinions about life. Different people from other backgrounds may use verbal communication to express what they think, however they could also use non-verbal communication to put their point across. Communication can be used in many ways by using different methods.

Client from different backgrounds can communicate by doing what they like best. Client could use body language and facial expressions to express their needs or what they want to do in the workplace. People from different backgrounds can use communication by being confident. This shows their personality and will help the communication between them and others around. Different backgrounds of different people can cause misunderstandings when using communication. However, they will be able to interpret the communication they’re using by using hand gestures, facial expressions or maybe body language. The personality can also affect the way an individual communicates. For example, if a person is shy he/she may not want to speak clearly and may use a little bit of verbal communication.

4.3. Describe the potential tension between maintaining an individual’s confidentiality and disclosing concerns.

The issue of confidentiality and disclosure is a legal requirement. While confidentiality is highly regarded, disclosures of certain information is vital. Any information disclosed without recourse to the service user must be one that portent anger either to the service user or others. As a care worker, before I pass on any information about any service user to other person(s), I must seek consent from the service user. However, the exception to that rule is that information can be passed on when others have a right and a need to that information.

Use and Develop systems that promote Communication

Unit 5 Use and Develop systems that promote Communication

Learning outcome 1
1.1 I communicate with a wide range of groups and individuals on a daily, weekly, and less frequent basis within my role as care home manager. These include other managers, operations manager, managing director and company owners as well as support workers, clients, team leaders, social workers, care managers, families, health and educational professionals, learning disability team members from 6 different boroughs etc. I communicate with all of these people in writing and verbally and also by listening. I have to utilise different skills when communicating with the different individuals mentioned, for example clients may need to feel valued supported and understood when I am looking at their daily activities or dietary needs, I may need to adapt the way I communicate to ensure I am understood, using Makaton, pictures of reference or objects to reference. This is when I usually speak to some clients who are nonverbal. I believe there may occur the barriers to communication if I do not assess how to communicate with every individual I have to deal with.

When I am speaking with people who I am the manager of I need to know they understand my instructions, and understand that as their superior they have to do the duties that I request of them, this also has to be communicated with a mutual air of respect to ensure people are happy to carry out the tasks I have requested of them. I am happy to use visual aids and also to communicate by example, therefore if I am discussing an issue with the staff I will quite happily show them what is required and how to achieve the desired result to ensure there is no misunderstanding of the request. It also believe that it is vital that I listen to their suggestions and ideas and act upon them to ensure they are always happy and comfortable communicating with me. When talking to parents it is important to portray empathy and understanding as opposed to sympathy. Listening to what parents have to say is vital to ensure the client receives the best care available in the eyes of the parents especially. It is important to develop the trustworthy relationship with the family, which can only be done by an effective communication. In our care home we ensure to keep a very close contact with the parents and share the thoughts that best suits the clients. We ensure that parents feel their opinions are valued as well as the best care decisions are made for the clients we care for.

Our client groups are mainly nonverbal and do require extra input to ensure they are explained their care needs as well as day to day things. Our company has a private speech and language therapist who has been assessing out clients for few months to help us understand their needs and how to best communicate with them. They helped us develop the activity boards, that has the pictures to reference of all the activities they undertake weekly basis. The board is updated twice a day and the clients are given the opportunity to choose what they want to do or where they want to go etc. this helps myself and the carers to understand them and also to communicate effectively with the clients.

As I have mentioned above I also communicate with the wde range of professionals on regular basis, through my years of experience as a care home manager I have developed the skills to be very professional and to communicate with all professionals confidently. The effective communication is the key factor when speaking to them which can only be done with a very clear verbal speech. When I am leading the meetings with the professionals I ensure that I am very prepared for the speech to ensure I pass on right information to them, which is a brilliant example of an excellent communication and this also helps for them to develop a professional relationship with me. I have learnt from experience that if you do demonstrate your knowledge of the subject you are describing, people around you will gain trust in you, which is an excellent way of building a trustworthy and professional relationship.

1.2 my job role as a care home manage, it is important to have good communication skills to develop positive relationships and share information with people using services. I also need to be able to communicate well with client’s families, carers, colleagues and other professionals as mentioned in 1.1. Good verbal communication is an inseparable part of professional communication. In a business, I believe you come across people from various ages, cultures and races. Fluent verbal communication is essential, to deal with people in important meetings or other events/situations. I also think that a self-confidence plays a vital role which when clubbed with fluent communication skills can lead to success and I make sure I don’t forget this when communicating in my job role. I carry out the supervisions to my team leaders as well as support workers to promote and support an effective communication within their role.

I ensure they undertake the relevant training to help them communicate better to lead our company to a success. Within my role I sometimes had to do public speaking which I had to address a group of people and as we already know this is another form of verbal communication. I always ensure I am well prepared and organised for an effective speech. I do strongly believe In public speaking, my speech must be prepared according to the type of audience I are going to face. The content of my speech should be authentic and I must have enough information on the topic I have chosen for public speaking. I ensure all the main points in my speech are highlighted and these points are delivered in the correct order.

I use Interpersonal skills, as those skills that enable me to interact with another person, allowing me to communicate successfully with them. Good communication skills are vital for working in Health & Social Care as they help to: * Develop positive relationships with service users and their family and friends, so they can understand and meet their needs. * Develop positive relationships with work colleagues and other professionals. * Share information with people using the services, by providing and receiving information. * Report on the work I do with people.

1.3 Analyse the barriers and challenges to communication within own job role Communication is at the heart of everything we do in our society. It’s central to our learning, our work and our leisure interests. But it’s particularly important in health care, where patients/clients can feel vulnerable, alone and frightened, and where you’ll be working with colleagues in the health care team who rely on good communication to help them deliver safe, coordinated and effective care. I believe effective Communication is significant and a fundamental relationship-building skill in the workplace for any employee especially for managers to perform the basic functions of management, i.e., Planning, Organising, Leading and Controlling. If people don’t communicate well they limit their ability to connect on any meaningful level which can create conflict.

As a care home manager, It is important that for any employee I work with show respect to those he or she works with. The general social care council’s code of practice states that communications should be conducted in an appropriate, open, accurate and straightforward way. By communicating in this way others will have trust and confidence in any employee and their abilities. I think the workplace relationships become a lot stronger when people can clearly and effectively communicate one another. There are several barriers that may affect the flow of communication in any organisation. These barriers interrupt the flow of communication from the sender to the receiver, thus making communication ineffective. It is essential for managers or all employees to overcome these barriers.

Common Barriers to Effective Communication:
The use of jargon. Over-complicated, unfamiliar and/or technical terms. Emotional barriers and taboos. Some people may find it difficult to express their emotions and some topics may be completely ‘off-limits’ or taboo. Lack of attention, interest, distractions, or irrelevance to the receiver. (See our page Barriers to Effective Listening for more information). Differences in perception and viewpoint.

Physical disabilities such as hearing problems or speech difficulties. Physical barriers to non-verbal communication. Not being able to see the non-verbal cues, gestures, posture and general body language can make communication less effective. Language differences and the difficulty in understanding unfamiliar accents. Expectations and prejudices which may lead to false assumptions or stereotyping. People often hear what they expect to hear rather than what is actually said and jump to incorrect conclusions. Cultural differences. The norms of social interaction vary greatly in different cultures, as do the way in which emotions are expressed. For example, the concept of personal space varies between cultures and between different social settings.

To communicate effectively, you must be fully attentive. Anything that distracts your attention serves as a barrier to effective communication. These distractions can come in many forms. At times the distractions are physical, such as noise that makes the otherwise simple task of hearing the message difficult. At other times, the distraction can be internal. For example, if you allow your thoughts or emotional response to the message to get in the way of your listening to the full content, you may be internally distracted. While overcoming distraction is challenging, you can accomplish the task if you select settings conducive to communication and dedicate yourself to active listening from the start to the end of the communication session. I always ensure to have a quiet space away from busy environment when speaking to staff and giving them the instructions, this promotes the full concentration and clarity of the conversation/communication.

People may think that they are doing everything possible to assist communication, but they should make sure that they are not making it difficult for people to understand what they say for instance using abbreviations another person does not understand. People should avoid professional jargon and terminology, which I strongly promote in our care home by Minimize the use of slang and idioms when delivering the message, Keep the language used in the message simple and as free as possible from business speak , Make clarity and simplicity the goal over showcasing linguistic ability. As mentioned above there are also the cultural barriers,there are many factors that make up what we refer to as “culture” but to me, cultural difference is about attitudes and beliefs that come from our personal environment and experience. As such, two people could get the same message but interpret it in two entirely different ways simply because their frames of reference and language differ. Assumptions sabotage effective communication and have the potential to lead everyone down unintended paths. For instance, you may assume that because people are nodding while you speak, they understand and agree with what you are saying. Similarly, if you invite questions about your message and get none, it would be easy to assume there are none.

The truth is, few people will risk the potential embarrassment of being the only one who doesn’t agree with or understand your message or doesn’t know what to ask. To assume they do would be a mistake. Usually I always think and analyse that all assumptions could be false, I make the assumption known to determine their validity. I also anticipate questions and concerns that could come out of my message and bring them up to encourage conversation. Here’s also other barriers that I believe that can affect the communication: Time-Communicating effectively takes time. If I fail to dedicate the time necessary, but instead attempt to share my thoughts and ideas in a hurried manner, I run the risk of not communicating effectively or creating misunderstandings.

I always try to void this barrier by making communication a priority, as it is a powerful workplace tool. Distance-If the people you are trying to communicate with are all situated in one office, you will likely find communication easier than you would if these communication partners were scattered across the state or even the country. When distance prohibits face-to-face communication, communicating effectively can be extra challenging. Remedy this challenge with the aid of tech-tools by tele-conferencing or using technology-aided written communication. I feel lucky in this sense as we do not work on a far distance basis. I have an opportunity to see all my staff on weekly basis and discuss any important issues or businesses.

1.4 Strategies for effective managerial communication and listening Interpersonal communication plays an important role not only in our personal life but also in business field since interpersonal communication is the procedure that we can receive information and feeling from someone immediately and then to lead us to express our opinions, feeling, and emotion back. People defined interpersonal communication as having three characteristics. First, communication is from one person to another. Another characteristic is communication which is face-to-face.

Last, both the form and content of the communication reflect the personal characteristic of individuals, their social roles, and relationship. Thus, effective skills in communication are necessary to maintain and increase the quality of our lives and relationships with our family, friends and coworkers. If we cannot communicate effectively, we may have misunderstandings within relationships. Besides, it would be very easy to become confused, frustrated and disappointed simply if we are unable to communicate appropriately with someone.

Likewise, in business management, the process of communication between managers and employees would dramatically affect morale, teamwork, productivity, employee retention, and customer relation, and so on. Therefore, to sustain long term relationship with either employees or customers and to reduce managerial frustration about subordinate error, it is extremely significant for a manager to understand what and how the managerial communication strategies and skills can be applied effectively when interacting with colleagues, employees, and the public as well. There are a lot of communication barriers faced these days by all. The message intended by the sender is not understood by the receiver in the same terms and sense and thus communication breakdown occurs. It is essential to deal and cope up with these communication barriers so as to ensure smooth and effective communication.

As, I have discussed the major barriers of communication I think it’s important to talk about how to overcome these barriers of communication. 1 Eliminating differences in perception: I believe the organization should ensure that it is recruiting right individuals on the job. It’s the responsibility of the interviewer to ensure that the interviewee has command over the written and spoken language. I always thought that working for a small company would give me an opportunity as a care home manager to be involved in recruiting process. Working for LCP gave me this opportunity and I have widely been involved in decision making when employing staff in my care home. We also have a very thorough Induction program for new staff and this helps the policies of the company to be made clear to all the employees in a right manner. We also have a very well scheduled trainings for all staff available to develop their knowledge in care field.

2 Use of Simple Language: Use of simple and clear words should be emphasized. I also promote the use of ambiguous words and jargons to be avoided.

3 Reduction and elimination of noise levels: Noise is the main communication barrier which must be overcome on priority basis. It is essential to identify the source of noise and then eliminate that source.

4 Active Listening: Listen attentively and carefully. There is a difference between “listening” and “hearing”. Active listening means hearing with proper understanding of the message that is heard. By asking questions the speaker can ensure whether his/her message is understood or not by the receiver in the same terms as intended by the speaker.

5 Emotional State: During my communication with staff one I try to make effective use of body language. I pay an extra attention to ensure I don’t show my emotions while communication as the receiver might misinterpret the message being delivered. If I notice that the individual I want to speak seems upset or in a bad mood I would use another time to ensure the effective communication takes place.

6 Simple Organizational Structure: I strongly believe that the organizational structure should not be complex. The number of hierarchical levels should be optimum. There should be a ideal span of control within the organization. I think “Simpler the organizational structure, more effective will be the communication”, I think LCP has done a very good job in this area and that’s why I greatly enjoyed working for them for past 5 years.

7 Avoid Information Overload: I think the managers should know how to prioritize their work. They should not overload themselves with the work. They should spend quality time with their subordinates and should listen to their problems and feedbacks actively. I believe every manager will be successful if they take this into consideration.

8 Give Constructive Feedback: As a manager I always try to avoid giving negative feedback. The contents of the feedback might be negative, but I try my best be delivered constructively. Constructive feedback will lead to effective communication between the superior and subordinate.

9 Proper Media Selection: The managers should properly select the medium of communication. Simple messages should be conveyed orally, like: face to face interaction or meetings. Use of written means of communication should be encouraged for delivering complex messages. For significant messages reminders can be given by using written means of communication such as : Memos, Notices etc.

10 Flexibility in meeting the targets: For effective communication in an organization the managers should ensure that the individuals are meeting their targets timely without skipping the formal channels of communication. There should not be much pressure on employees to meet their targets.

1.5 We communicate with others all the time, wherever we may be, often without even realising it and sometimes without intending to. I think the interpersonal skills enable us to interact with another person, allowing us to communicate successfully with them.

As I have already mentioned the good communication skills are vital for those working in health and social care as they help them to:

develop positive relationships with people using services and their families and friends, so they can understand and meet their needs develop positive relationships with work colleagues and other professionals share information with people using the services, by providing and receiving information report on the work they do with people.

Now I am going to be talking about the different means of communication which I and my staff use day to day basis depending on the situation and also to meet different needs. As we already there’s different ways to communicate. Please see examples below:

1 Formal communication: In our organisation the formal conversation is often used when a professional person, such as a health or social care worker, speaks to someone using a service. It is clear, correct and avoids misunderstanding. Also the formal communication is used during important meetings such as safeguarding meetings, reviews, parental meetings or meetings with managers. Communication with a manager is usually formal. I believe a manager should be usually more distant from those they manage so that if they need to, for example, issue a formal warning to someone, it is less awkward for both parties than if they are friends. I always ensure not to cross the professional boundaries which help me on a day to day basis to carry out my duties as a manager.

2 Informal communication: The informal communication is often used between people who know each other well, like friends and family People usually communicate more informally with friends, including those they work closely with on a day-to-day basis.Informal communication is very important when working with people, but also it can cause crossing the professional boundaries.

I have had lots of experiences in this area and many conflicts have been caused due to this in a care home, as usually staff work with each other on daily basis, this helps them to develop friendly relationship, which then develops further into friendship outside of work place. There can be certain aspects in the health care when friendship can be fatal e.g if there is a case of abuse and friends support each other etc. I am very vigilant as I am aware of consequences, so I use my observation skills to ensure this doesn’t occur.

There are also three main forms of communication, verbal, non-verbal and the written word. We can also use technology to communicate.

1 Verbal communication: Verbal communication uses words to present ideas, thoughts and feelings. Good verbal communication is the ability to both explain and present your ideas clearly through the spoken word, and to listen carefully to other people. This will involve using a variety of approaches and styles appropriate to the audience you are addressing. The managers have to have this skill to be able to carry out their duties effectively.

2 Non-verbal communication-This refers to the messages we send out to express ideas and opinions without talking. This might be through the use of body language, facial expressions, gestures, tone of voice, touch or contact, signs, symbols, pictures, objects and other visual aids. It is very important to be able to recognise what a person’s body language is saying, especially when as a health or social care worker you are dealing with someone who is in pain, worried or upset.

This is a very important aspect in our care care due to most of our residents being non-verbal. We use different forms of communication such as makaton, signs, pictorial tools as well as objects to reference. This helps us to better communicate with those who have limited verbal skills and understand their needs on daily basis.

3 Written communication-This is central to the work of any person providing a service in a health and social care environment when keeping records and in writing reports. Different types of communication need different styles of writing but all require literacy skills. A more formal style of writing is needed when recording information about a client. Our company helps staff to develop their skills in those areas by providing the training, also I as a care home manager I support staff to how to carry out record keeping etc.

4 Technological aids-Technologies is moving so quickly now that we have many electronic aids to help us communicate. For example, mobile phones can be used to make calls but we can also use them to send text messages and emails; and we have computers on which we can record, store and communicate information very quickly and efficiently over long distances.

Learning outcome 2

2.1 Effective communication is such an essential part in a care sector. It is crucial for staff to have a right practice to have in place that will best meet our client’s needs.

I use different practices to help staff and myself to communicate effectively. We have a “handover” system put in place, when AM team members pass the information to a PM shift members. The information they share/pass on has to be very accurate and factual.

The information they share is about the client’s daily living and their well-being. Due to us having 3 teams in the care home and our rota has two shifts a day AM & PM, it’s important for staff to understand the importance how to communicate and pass onto the other teams the relevant information, We also use the communication book where day to day activities are communicated to rest of the teams.

On top of all the communication practices I have mentioned above we also have the staff meetings once a month as well as individual team meetings to ensure the best practice is performed. This is to develop the effective communication amongst all workers which helps to provide the best personal centred needs to all our residents.

Our organisation also has developed the “Quality Assurance Group” the group consists of managers, team leaders or support workers from all of our 5 care homes. The group meets once a month where they discuss the working practices within the organisation and how to improve the services to our service users. This discussion is quite broads and usually consists of following areas of developments: individualised communication needs to clients, independence skills and how to help them to improve their social or daily living skills, training, activities, educational needs etc.

All these meetings help us managers and the whole organisation to identify and monitor the strength and weakness of our current practices and systems, once the weaknesses are identified then we work on improving them with new ideas to ensure the best support and care is provided for those who uses the services.


The factors to consider when promoting effective communication

Use of language is important when talking to children. Factors you need to consider when trying to communicate effectively with others could be their age. For example, In my childminding settings the first thing I consider when working with children is simplifying my language. In order to communicate with the child effectively, I meet them at there level, this insures that we maintain eye contact and the child doesn’t feel patronized. I am aware of my own posture and body language, whilst also assessing theirs so that I am able to gauge their emotions, this gives me the opportunity to be able to respond appropriately. It is important that I show that I am listening to the child and interested in what they are trying to communicate to me. Sometimes it takes a while for a child to communicate there needs, so I continuously focus on looking interested. If I seem uninterested or bored, the child is less inclined to carry on communicating which may affect their confidence for when communicating in the future. Communicating with an adult is different, the language we use will be more complex and the sentences will flow much faster. Good eye to eye contact and facial expressions still remains important to help communicate with one another. Adults also need to feel valued, so good listening skills are key to effective communication.

Allowing the other person time to respond before you start to talk again is also an important factor in effective communication. Effective communication isn’t just achieved by verbally expressing yourself. Modern technology can also used to exchange communication such as feelings, choices, wants, needs and information. This can be particularly useful for children with speech delay or learning difficulties. For example, In my setting photos of the toys/equipment on the front of the boxes and draws tells the children where the items are to go after use. Or at snack time the children can see the choices available on the snack chart in photo or picture form. Phone calls, emails and reports are also factors to consider when promoting effective communication. A louder more direct communication maybe required, if trying to get the attention of a group of children to come back inside from the garden/ outdoors. However, this would not be suitable in a situation where a child is upset, a more calm and understanding tone is needed in a sensitive situation such as wetting themselves.

Ways of non verbal communication are:

Facial gestures, again this must be tailored to the situation or topic. For example: in the case of a child wetting themselves, a smile and a gentle hand on their shoulders is sufficient to the situation whereby a frowning and waving arms as if annoyed would be detrimental to the feelings of the child. Eye contact is an important factor as this engages the audience, keeping them focused on the discussion. By making eye contact your are directing your conversation at that person and showing that you are devoting your time to listen. Body language: Your body language can indicate a number of ways of communication like folded arms can indicate you are defensive or not open to suggestions. In the case of a deaf or hard hearing child/adult, Lip reading is a vital form of communication to avoid the person feeling isolated. It is important that the person is able to read the sound of speech and clearly see the movement of the lips, this enables the communicator to effectively communicate with the deaf person in a way that produces a desired result.