Automatic Fan Speed Control System

This chapter covers the ideas, generalization, conclusions, methodologies, and others. Those that were included on this chapter helps in familiarizing info that is related and much like the present research.

According to Kunla Singh (2015), Automatic Fan Speed Control system utilizing Arduino as we all know that we are slowly moving toward automation and Automation is among the trending topics. Basically in this project will be controlling the fan speed with respect to the temperature. The system will get the temperature from the temperature sensor and it’ll control the speed according to the temperature, set by the person.

In this project, microcontroller varieties the processing parts, which firstly senses the temperature and the controller then compares the information with the set temperature. If the current temperature is larger than the set temperature, the controller turns ON the fan and the set pace shall be proportional to the difference between the set temperature and the current temperature. If the present temperature is less than the set temperature, the fan shall be turned OFF.

The fan’s velocity will change according to the temperature.

Moreover, RipunjayChachan (2015), said designing an clever Temperature-Cum-Humidity monitoring gadget is depicted in this present project. The designing of the absolutely practical prototype is developed in-house. Once the humidity of the temperature will get out of the range talked about by the consumer the device sends an SMS to the user’s predefined number. This SMS contains data on the present temperature and the humidity. The developed system is also in a place to ship the data to the monitoring station for recording and graph plotting for analyzing functions on the later stage.

The developed system has been tested beneath numerous simulated conditions.

Jeffrey Alan Siegfried (2016) Remote Sensing to Quantify in-field soil moisture variability in irrigated maize manufacturing, Agriculture is the biggest shopper of water globally. As strain on out there water resources will increase, the want to exploit know-how so as to produce more meals with much less water becomes crucial. The technological hardware requisite for precise water supply methods corresponding to variable rate irrigation is commercially available. Despite that, strategies to formulate a well timed, accurate prescription for these systems are inadequate. Spectral vegetation indices, particularly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, are sometimes used to gauge crop vigor and related parameters (e.g. leaf nitrogen content and grain yield). However, research rarely addresses the affect of soil moisture on the indices. Canopy temperature measured using cheap infrared thermometers could additionally serve as an indicator of water stress, however present methods which exploit the data may be cumbersome

Local

According to RogobertoSolorio (2015), a web-based temperature monitoring system for the faculty of arts and letters The Web-Based Temperature Monitoring System for the College of Arts and Letters helps customers hold track of the College of Arts & Letters’ server room temperature from a remote location. The project’s mission is to inform system administrators through email/text if a important temperature has been reached inside the server room, in addition to provide a technique for displaying the current server room temperature.

Base on Robert Jaron (2016) in conclusion, our integrated board design has been accomplished and tested effectively. The system is intended to combine the temperature measurement part using temperature sensors, heater management unit utilizing PWM output and resistance change reading part utilizing the Wheatstone bridge principle for software of gasoline sensor know-how. Results show that the design standards have been glad to maintain the fuel sensing material at a predetermined temperature of 200°C and skim the resistance change of gas 39 sensors efficiently. However, there are few limitations relating to with accuracy and get in contact with space of the heater with a temperature sensor that have to be addressed in future works by making use of more tuning methods and efficient design. This work could be extended and optimized to achieve its final objective and high-level performance

Jeane A. Rodrigo (2015) Automatic soil moisture sensing water irrigation system with water stage indicator, the event of our project which is the Automatic Soil moisture Sensing Water Irrigation System with water level indicator is the gadget that may present the needed water when the soil moisture sensor detects if the soil is dry. LPU-Laguna Journal of Engineering and Computer Studies Vol. three No.1 September 2015 179 The development of program is obtained to operate the automatic irrigation system, given the scheduling course of that’s provided by the RTC, the amount of appropriate water(based on range of its soil moisture) needed to deliver for the crops is being managed so there is not any extra water, which mainly contributes to conservation of water.

Related Study

Foreign

MD. Niamul Hassan (2015), an automatic monitoring and management system contained in the greenhouse in this work, we’ve proposed a framework that can collect the info recognized with greenhouse surroundings and yield status and control the system automatically in view of the gathered information. By throatily observing periodic situations, this examine has the reason for securing a connection between sensors flags and reference estimations. Control programming will give information finding of an ongoing present. Through a long-time running and functional utilizing, the framework has been demonstrated that it has numerous points of interest. To monitor the setting inside greenhouse completely different parameters have been thought-about corresponding to gentle, temperature, humidity, soil moisture etc. using completely different sensors like DHT22 temperature and humidity Sensor, LDR, grove-moisture sensor and so forth. which might be interfaced with the microcontroller. It is a closed loop system that can execute management action to adjust temperature, humidity, light intensity, and soil moisture if any unwanted errors (high/low) happen.

Daniela Atalla (2015) an Automated Greenhouse temperature and Soil Moisture Control. In this thesis an automatic greenhouse was built with the aim of investigating the watering system’s reliability and if a desired range of temperatures could be maintained. The microcontroller used to create the automated greenhouse was an Arduino UNO. This project utilizes two totally different sensors, a soil moisture sensor, and a temperature sensor. The sensors are controlling the two actuators which are a heating fan and a pump. The heating fan is used to alter the temperature and the pump is used to water the plant. The watering system and the temperature control system were examined each individually and together. The outcome confirmed that the temperature could probably be maintained in the desired vary. Results from the soil moisture sensor were uneven and subsequently interpret as unreliable.

M. Aziza (2015) Smart greenhouse fuzzy logic based mostly management system enhanced with wireless information monitoring Greenhouse climate management is an advanced process for the reason that number of variables concerned on it and which are dependent on each other. This paper presents a contribution to combine greenhouse inside local weather key’s parameters, leading to advertise a cushty micro-climate for the plant’s development whereas saving power and water resources. A good fuzzy logic based control system was introduced and improved via the precise measure to the temperature and humidity correlation. As well, the system management was enhanced with wi-fi knowledge monitoring platform for knowledge routing and logging, which provides real-time knowledge access. The proposed control system was experimentally validated. The effectivity of the system was evaluated showing important energy and water saving

Local

Based on Tiger Print Philippines (2015) Automated Wireless Greenhouse Management System There are many Sensor Based Projects for Engineering Students. And out these tasks, Greenhouse monitoring and controlling project is used to measure the assorted parameters like Temperature, Humidity, and light-weight and soil moisture. Microcontroller shows these parameters on an LCD. Temperature, Humidity, and Light are sensed by respective sensors, soil moisture is sensed by 2 thin metal rods or metal wires. Sensor output of Temperature is amplified and along with different three sensors, it’s given to Analog to Digital Converter ADC. The microcontroller controls these parameters and keeps them below predefined levels using relay interface and motor drivers. These relays can be related to Fan/Heater and DC motors could be linked to respective units. For demo function, we’ve connected a 12 volt DC fan and a 12 volt DC bulb and two 12 volt DC motors. Values of temperature, humidity, and light-weight and soil moisture are sending to a pc via serial port. These values can be displayed on the PC utilizing a hyper terminal.

Edwin Basnet (2016) Smart Greenhouse Automation system Applying moving common algorithm, Automation of greenhouses has proved to be extraordinarily helpful in maximizing crop yields and minimizing labor costs. The optimum situations for cultivating crops are often maintained by means of programmed sensors and actuators with fixed monitoring of the system. In this paper, we’ve designed a prototype of a smart greenhouse utilizing Arduino microcontroller, simple but improved in feedbacks and algorithms. Only three necessary microclimatic parameters namely moisture stage, temperature, and lightweight are considered for the design of the system. Signals acquired from the sensors are first isolated and filtered to scale back noise before it’s processed by Arduino. With the assistance of the LabVIEW program, Time domain evaluation and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the acquired alerts are carried out to research the waveform. Especially, for smoothing the outlying data digitally, Moving average algorithm is designed. With the implementation of this algorithm, variations within the sensed information which might happen from quickly altering surroundings or imprecise sensors could possibly be largely smoothed and steady output could be created. Also, actuators are controlled with fixed feedbacks to ensure desired conditions are all the time met.

Marien M. Medalla (2017) Greenhouse Monitoring and management system, coming into the period of Productivity 4.zero, the agriculture business faces a need to remodel from the traditional production-oriented methodology to a brand new worth chain-oriented method. Information and communications technologies must be employed to create high-value markets and preserve international competitiveness. ITRI’s greenhouse monitoring and management system implement sensor monitoring of environmental parameters including temperature, humidity, illumination, and wind velocity. Greenhouse conditions for crop culturing can, therefore, be optimized via real-time analysis and control of things corresponding to shade and water. This technology has been subject tested and verified in greenhouse cultures of strawberries. The system is extremely customizable and features low operating costs, straightforward operation, and remote management functionality. It can assist farmers in automating their crop manufacturing management and enhancing the quality of produce.

Authoritarian Methods of Control in Brave New World & V for Vendetta

People shouldn’t be afraid of their authorities. Governments must be afraid of their folks. The proper to rule. What offers somebody such a power you ask? Well there is a variety of various factors and qualities one will need to have such as strength and leadership however there is a single item that each one need and that’s control. Without the obedience and submission of the people governments will fail. The movie “V for Vendetta” and the novel “Brave New World” each touch upon the difficulty of misuse of know-how and the management of the individuals.

V for Vendetta is the 2006 movie adaptation by the Wachowski’s of the comic book of the same name created by Alan Moore. It is about in a futuristic dystopian world by which Britain is ruled by a totalitarian-fascist party, and follows the events triggered by a masked shadowy revolutionary recognized only as the letter V. Brave New World is Aldous Huxley’s controversial masterpiece, revealed in 1932 and is about a futuristic-dystopian world the place the government has outlawed free-speech and individuality and makes use of psychological conditioning to control the individuals.

Now let me refocus on the theme at hand: control. The Norsefire celebration in V for Vendetta rises to power by providing the solution after a string of biological attacks on various institutions: a college, water plant and an underground train station. The concern impressed by these assaults was what made folks give them the power to rule. The Wachowski’s have in contrast and likened the Norsefire celebration to the Nazi’s the world’s most well-known fascist regime.

The image of the Norsefire uses the same colours and an analogous symbol to that of the standard swastika. The Norsefire also had a similar rise to power as the Hitler regime. First Chancellor Sattler was seen as the saviour before revealing his true colours as a villain “fear grew to become the tool of this government”. The Norsefire additionally engaged in genocide of homosexuals, Muslims, and ethnics. Rather than concentration camps these captured were positioned in detention centres with the aim of testing biochemical and viruses. The Norsefire government represents what V is rebelling in opposition to and that’s oppression and the abuse of power.

Similarly in Brave New World, the World State is built upon from the devastation of the Nine Year War, fear and confusion had been the help of both these governments and allow them to create and enforce their ideals. Both governments have destroyed and banned any material that goes against celebration coverage. Brave New World has taken this to the acute with all literature and arts having been destroyed since the beginning of the World State. The software of management used by the World State is science, kids are born from laboratories and are conditioned, and their lives are predetermined to create a unified machine. The motto of the World State accurately displays this ideology “Community, Identity, Stability”; it calls for every class to establish inside their rating and to support the neighborhood with the purpose of achieving stability. Characters like John and Valorie rebel and detest the notion of conformity.

John needs to expertise the world as it really was meant to be “But I don’t need comfort. I need God, I want poetry, I want actual hazard, I need freedom, I want goodness. I need sin.” He hates the protected and sheltered state of the people of the world state and their dependency on soma. “Valorie is proud of being a lesbian and was captured due to it all through her time on the detention centre she continues to struggle whilst attempting to remain true to herself and her identity. She leaves a note which turns into a source of inspiration for each V and Evey as she says “it was my integrity that was important…we must never lose it, or promote it, or give it away. We must not ever let them take it from us”. By using the variety of his room at the Larkhill detention centre V becomes a living symbol of Norsefire’s genocide and a motive for his vendetta past V’s rebellious goals, he also needs to remind the individuals of Valerie’s message about their identity, their integrity and that they’ve the freedom to be themselves, no matter what anyone tells them they’ll or can’t be.

Annotated bibliography – Gun Control

1. News article

McNeil, Harold. “City governments group elect repeal of state’s weapon safety regulation.” Buffalo News, The (NY) 02 Mar. 2013: Points of View Reference Center. Web. 18 Apr. 2013. This brief article demonstrates how an act known as the Secure Ammunition and Firearms Enforcement Act changed by the State Senate and Assembly of New york metropolis break the constitutional 2nd Modification of all people. The act was hurried to be signed into regulation on the very same day, however quickly rescinded by state regulation makers, who desire to stress weapon legal guidelines for the psychological unwell and lawbreakers.

2. Peer reviewed scholastic journal short article

Domenech, Benjamin. “The Reality About Mass Shootings and Weapon Control: Criminal activity and killings have fallen as gun possession has really increased.” Commentary 135.2 (2013 ): 25+. Opposing Perspectives In Context. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.

It demonstrates weapon control by depicting how as soon as tragic occurrences take place, the first intuition of individuals is to instantly purchase a weapon, which in flip results in a reduced legal offense fee because the Second Change protects citizens from the restrictions of gun possession put in place by government.

More residents with guns end in much less violence. Americans concern if weapon purchases have been restricted to most of the people, they might be defenseless. Effectively examined Americans must be armed for their own safety and the mass media must tone down their technique of exposing disasters to most people.

3. Book published after 2000

Lunger, Norman L. “Weapon Laws: What a Labyrinth!.” Big Bang: The Loud Dispute Over Weapon Control. fifty four.
N.p.: Lerner Publishing Group, 2002. Points of View Recommendation Center. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.
The guide publish pertains to the weapon management due to controversies relating to differentiation of laws included with weapons in different states throughout the nation.

The United States has greater than 20,000 laws and ordinances for weapons, nevertheless relying where one takes a visit not all the rights to carry or have a weapon are the very same across sate strains. There are conversations on the constraints to amass a gun, the talk of including background checks to requirements to purchase, with youngster safety in thoughts and the protection of the consumer relating to if the gun is misplaced or taken.

4. Popular Magazine Article

Begala, Paul. “Me and a Gun.” Newsweek 4 Jan 2013: 1. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web.
18 Apr. 2013.
This journal article discusses gun owner condone tougher gun controls for the aim of safety for gun operations so that they know the right procedures to take when using and concealing a weapon safely without injuring others. The legal guidelines are acknowledged as “ Common-sense gun-safety laws.”

5. Editorial

“The forces arrayed in opposition to gun controls.” Globe & Mail [Toronto, Canada] 3 May 1991: A14. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.
The editorial defines the proposal of the Brady Bill, which would permit for a seven day grace interval for anyone selling a handgun to attend for the information of the purchaser to be reviewed by the native law enforcement to differentiate if they have a legal history placing them at risk to own a gun.

Analyse how “Brave New World’ makes use of the themes of control, morality and individuality to alter the method in which we think about society

Brave New world is Aldous Huxley’s fourth novel. It is a science fiction novel based mostly in “this yr of stability” AF632 (632 years after the Ford Model T was first put into mass production). It is about one mans try and try to match into society which has a really strict but widely accepted way of conducting oneself. By attempting to slot in, Bernard Marx brings again a savage (John), from a North American Savage Reservation a spot where folks reside without science in a poor however less complicated way of life to supposed ‘civilisation’.

At first John is awed by this spectacle of innovation and expertise but then with the premature dying of his mom attributable to Soma (a drug distributed freely by the Government to control the public). His original admiration makes him see this ‘Brave New World in fully different mild.

This e-book was published in 1932. It conveys – in a satirical means – Huxley’s views on the society of the 1920’s – 1930’s where individuals have been beginning to loosen their puritanical views and ways of life.

This novel is Huxley’s means of raising his concern in regards to the fee of change in society. I feel that he wished the people in his day to be shocked by the practises in AF632 so they’d slow down the social change. This enforces a lot of people’s ideas (York Notes) that this could be a e-book of concepts.

This novel relies on using ideas and themes, quite than character plot and setting.

The proven reality that this novel is ready 600 years after publication does not affect the principle operating of the story, it is just a platform for Huxley to put across his philosophies and is a approach to reinforce, the metaphors and images plausible. For example the graphic portrayal of babies being ‘decanted’ – poured type a bottle, like alcohol which has been fermented for a purpose – somewhat than born, is rather more believable in a science fiction novel. Therefore Huxley is ready to make the reader assume realistically in regards to the scenario rather than dismissing it at first look. So it permits the reader to have a second thought and skim more in depth. It is obvious that Huxley’s strengths lie in the messaging and ideas quite than a fiction writer. This is type of reasonable to assume as a end result of his early work consisted primarily of novels, which he later known as vehicles for his ideas and in 1972 he launched his volume of essays, ‘Proper Studies’, to specific his philosophical and social views.

In Brave New World control has emphasised dramatically to specific Huxley’s views. Soma is a drug, which makes all of your troubles go away, and propels users into ecstasy. This is used as a way of controlling the general public and preserving social order. Soma is a metaphor, which relates to the savages of Samoa off the coast of New Guinea. The tradition there’s much like that of Brave New World, in that the people have been in a neighborhood of an entire and not in households with mothers and fathers and which childbirth was the work of ancestral gods. These ‘ancestral Gods’ are what thee people of Brave New World would take to be folks like Henry Ford who changed industrialism an a sensational way – that of mass production and standardisation – and unwittingly worship them in a non secular method. Huxley tries to demonise Soma so that we’ll look upon it as a scourge and tries to enforce the idea that having management of our senses is highly essential and nearly sacred factor. For example soma causes the untimely demise of Linda (the savage’s mother) this enrages the savage to start throwing Soma capsules out of the hospital window which finally ends up in a hoard of Deltas to attack him in mindless zombie-like trend. This is likely one of the key moments in the book and Huxley has used John the Savage to lift his issues about society directly and show how folks can get carried away with out pondering of the consequences of their actions.

Other than Soma, society is controlled by rigid social prejudices, which have been engraved within the publics’ minds through the years of social conditioning. This social conditioning – teaching individuals philosophies, emotions and reactions to issues by way of intense repetition while asleep – is doubtless considered one of the ways that Huxley makes us take into consideration how propaganda and our social stigmas can be used to influence our views and the finest way the media may be manipulative to use us for its own ends. In Brave New World the individuals are moulded to socialise with folks of their own caste, just like the things that may profit society, and co-ordinate themselves so that they have the socially beneficial position. This relates to how we in daily life are pressured by society, the media and organisations to buy certain products, have the actual image applicable to ones class.

At the very high in Brave New World issues are kept the way they’re by means of totalitarianism, and the effect of this, is that anybody who goes against the grain of society gets shunned by their caste and in extremes will be exported to a far colony in order to preserve social stability. Here, Huxley is criticising governments and organisations for being too powerful and corrupt.

Being alone in Brave New World is looked on as a taboo. The view is that if are not around individuals or are having a quantity of companions then you’re a social outcast. In the 1920’s there was a cultural unease due to a loosening of morals. I feel that Huxley, by taking the morals of the time, turning them the other method up and blowing them out of all proportion to realize a supposedly ridiculous state of morality, is breing overtly satirical to shock the general public and is attempting to sluggish this modification in morality. He uses John as a mediator in the e-book so that individuals will grasp Huxley’s philosophies and not mistake his viewpoint. I doubt that Huxley, when writing Brave New World would have expected that in seventy years time, some of the way out scientific elements of the e-book, like infants being engineered for a objective would ever have become a realistic risk. But that is precisely what Brave New World is trying to warn against earlier than it becomes a risk. I imagine that Huxley believes life is a thing that shouldn’t be tampered with and pre-ordained by exterior components like social class, upbringing, variations and social strain. He believes it is as much as the person to have the final say of their standing on morality and selections in life.

Aldous Huxley has used the theme of individuality to specific how he feels about the greatest way society treats people. Brave New World has no singular focus on one particular character. Having a decentralised character scheme permits individuality to be expressed on a spread of ranges to indicate how oddities are viewed by society. Bernard Marx is excluded from society as a result of he’s shorter than the common Alpha Plus male and he acts in another way to other folks. He has a dislike of Soma as a outcome of firstly, it does not have the effect on him that it has on different individuals and secondly, Soma reminds him of his social impotence. For instance in Brave New World ‘solidarity services’ are held as an different to spiritual ceremony involving the consumption of Soma. Once the service is over a picture of Bernard’s feelings is constructed up. “He was as miserably isolated now as he had been when the service began – extra isolated by causes of unreplenished is useless satiety. Separate and unatoned, whereas others have been being fused into the higher being”. This exhibits how he has been made to feel like an outsider. It expresses Huxley’s ideas on how society as a complete can make individuals feel isolated, alone and suicidal.

Brave New World is an excellent example of a novel that’s so clogged thick with concepts and imagery that it does not should depend on the characters and plot. The characters in Brave New World are comparatively flat, they are there as a tool for Huxley to voice his opinions satirically and plainly depending on the character. The plot is fairly drab and doesn’t hold any unexpected twists, it’s obvious that Huxley has paid much less attention to creating this a clean working novel and has concentrated extra on the message of his work. Huxley’s use of images and ideas is highly thought scary. He uses themes of management, morality and individuality to vary the best way we take into consideration society. His very satirical and didactic tone is a key issue behind Brave New World’s effectiveness. As a outcome I actually have been left with widend view of society and my awareness of the social temperament of the 1920’s and 30’s.

Analyse the Political Implications of Concentrated Media Ownership and Control

The media is primarily used to disseminate information. It is a platform for communication between the individuals and those who hold authority. In today’s world the media has an immense function within the functioning of society and has the power to achieve a mass audience by way of technologies such as print, Internet, television, film and radio. There has been rising concern over the rising focus of media ownership as well as how this increased media management influences and shapes democracy.

Concentrated media possession refers to the variety of individuals or corporations who management an growing share within the mass media market, which at current could be very few.

For instance, eleven out of twelve major Australian Newspapers are owned by Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation or John Fairfax Holdings (Independent Australia, 2011). Society has seen media moguls, corresponding to Rupert Murdoch, dominate cross-media ownership with corporations in print, television, movie and so on.

The media and politics are carefully intertwined and with a rise in concentrated media possession and management, issues such as political bias; the trivialisation and sensationalism of political issues within the pursuit of profits; and the reducing amout of editorial range and expression, have turn into issues of concern for the consumers of this mass media.

Street describes bias as “the idea that the practices of journalists and editors lead to articles and programmes that favour one view of the world over another, providing sustenance for one set of interests whereas undermining an alternative” (Street, 2011).

Bias is a big concern inside all media, and authorities enforce a myriad of regulations and restrictions on media corporations to try and eliminate it.

With an increase in media concentration, and the ability that the media yields, eliminating political bias throughout the media has turn into an essential problem. Since many of the media institutions are owned by firms, corresponding to Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation, the commonest assumption is that the media as a complete may be influenced by its house owners.

For occasion, there are occasions when the owners’ decision could have an effect on the type of data that media would confide in the basic public. Wagner makes the point that “the information media distribute a lot of the knowledge we receive in regards to the world round us. Thousands of politicians, policy researchers and opinion makers wish to transmit info to the common public at giant. The information media function intermediaries in this information market, selecting to transmit a fraction of the tens of millions of potential messages to an audience” (Wagner, 1997).

For example, Rupert Murdoch’s Fox News channel was been criticised for its right-tilted news coverage. Murdoch has at all times been seen to favour the conservative aspect of politics and the Fox News channel has been seen to level out preference toward the Republican Government in America. Fox Founder and president Rodger Ailes was a republican political operative in Washington. He helped with The Nixon and Reagan campaigns as properly as the elder Bush’s media strategy for his presidentiary marketing campaign in 1988 (Ackerman, 2001).

David Asman, The Fox News Channel’s daytime anchor was recognized for his association with the right- wing Wall Street Journal. Another anchor for Fox News, Tony Snow, was a conservative columnist and also the chief speechwriter for the first bush administration (Ackerman, 2001). The Fox News Channel also hosted workers and presenters similar to Eric Breindel, John Moody and Bill O’Reilly, all of whom were recognized for his or her conservative, proper wing views (Ackerman, 2001). Rupert Murdock stated, “ “I problem anybody to indicate me an example of bias in Fox News Channel. (Ackerman, 2001)

However, looking at the people that had been in control of disseminating the news at Fox, it is hard to imagine that not considered one of the political stories covered by Fox did not favour the extra conservative facet of American politics. Media conglomerates, similar to News Corporation, have the ability to sway public opinion and with the increasing control they’ve entry to, it’s naive to think that they would not use this power to influence and sway public opinion to suit with their very own agendas and ideologies.

The measurement of the large media corporations of at present exceeds the size of the most important firms fifteen years ago by an element of ten. (McChesney, 1999). With this enhance in the measurement of the main media firms also comes the increased pursuit of earnings by these companies. Sometimes, this pursuit of revenue may be to the detriment of information and in flip democracy. Corporations look for stories that will attract and entertain readers and viewers, sometimes neglecting tales that maintain excessive info content material and reflect political policies and agendas.

McChesney refers to this must aximise earnings when he states “With the tremendous pressure to attract audiences however to maintain prices down and never take possibilities, the usual route of the media giants is to show to the tried and true formulation of intercourse and violence, at all times consideration getters” (McChesney, 1999, p34). With the elevated emphasis on revenue maximisation and the commercialisation of news media, there’s a danger that consumers of news media will cease to have entry to information concerning smaller points in society corresponding to local political policy/s and different extra localised issues.

Because these points are small and aren’t seen as income earners, or important issues, they may be sacrificed to make method for big stories and scandals. In other phrases, profit and revenue may turn into more essential, in the eyes of media conglomerates, than data. The pure dimension of the media and its affect over info has large impacts on democracy and politics. Meier (2011) sites Giddens in his work. Giddens talks in regards to the trivializing of political points and personas and states “ The media… have a double relation to democracy. On the one hand … the emergence of a global info society is a strong democratising pressure.

Yet, tv, and the opposite media, are inclined to destroy the very public house of dialogue they open up, through relentless trivializing, and personalizing of political points. Moreover, the growth of large multinational media corporations signifies that unelected enterprise tycoons can maintain enormous power” (p 298). In essence, Giddens is stating that whereas information media and media companies may broadcast political issues and policies, these views are somewhat destroyed with the constant emphasis on the politicians themselves. Because of this a substantial quantity of emphasis is taken away from the actual political issues.

An example of that is the constant criticism of Julia Gillard and her way of life. For instance, she is an single woman; her companion is a hairdresser. There can be constant analysis of her hairstyle, wardrobe, her figure and her voice. Gillard is constantly known for stabbing Kevin Rudd in the back. She has also been portrayed as untrustworthy in addition to a liar. Instead of the media evaluating and critiquing her insurance policies and looking out critically at her as a frontrunner, we see the media sensationalising the above trivial points as a substitute of concentrating on what she is doing for the nation politically.

As Media concentration and management increases, diversity of expression decreases. In all wholesome democracies, a wide range of assorted opinions are supplied, and media offer a big number of different positions, values and biases. No individual is obliged to simply accept any particular place or argument, but they’re encouraged to have put their very own views and criticisms forward. The core problem that comes with media focus is that it diminishes ideological variety within the media system.

Studies have been conducted that present that though there may be more media shops, there’s not essentially more info or variety in media. “Rather than the new platforms resulting in a diversity of voices, voices are actually being snuffed out… An evaluation of unbiased media confirmed that ninety six per cent of tales merely got here from recycling tales found within the mainstream press. However, The research additionally confirmed that the mainstream press was producing seventy three percent less information than 10 years ago” (independent Australia, 2011).

Curran states that “they can use their monetary power to drive new entrants out of the market by launching expensive promotional campaigns, offering discounts to advertisers or buying up key artistic personnel” (Curran, 2005) Because of the elevated energy of media companies, they have the ability to remove their competitors and therefore decrease the quantity of variety available to the patron. Robert W. McChesney outlines in his e-book Corporate Media and the Threat to Democracy that there are three factors that allow democracy to work at its greatest.

The first is “ it helps when there aren’t vital disparities in economic wealth and property possession throughout the society” (1997, p5). The second requires there to be “ a way of neighborhood and a notion that an people well- being is set to no small extent by the community’s well-being” (1997, p5). Finally McChesney states “democracy requires that there be an efficient system of political communication” (1997, p5). Media concentration and control works to the detriment of each of those components.

Firstly the multi billion greenback media corporations, do not characterize economic equality inside the society, in fact they help to make the gap between the working courses and authority enhance. Media concentration disputes McChesney’s second issue as media moguls and companies have become increasingly centered on the pursuit of huge income and personal acquire, and aren’t heavily influenced around society’s wellbeing. Finally, an efficient system of political communication ought to be based round variety of reports protection and diversity of political issues, both domestically and nationally, large and small.

However, with the increasing measurement of firms the diversity of expression has steadily decreased. Australia has one of many highest media concentrations in the free world. With the growing control held by mass media conglomerates varied political points arise corresponding to political bias; the trivialisation and sensationalism of political issues within the pursuit of earnings; and the decreasing quantity of editorial diversity and expression. The above issues threaten democracy and the media have to be regulated and managed earlier than it threatens how the political system in Australia capabilities.

Governments need to handle media moguls, such as Rupert Murdock before they achieve an excessive amount of energy, and management, over political points and coverage. The key to a democratic society is freedom of knowledge, constructive political debate and communication. These key functions of a democratic society are being threatened by concentrated mass media and the rising control held by these corporations.

An Argument Against Gun Control

Gun management has turn out to be increasingly more of a hot-button matter within the United States, especially after events just like the Sandy Hook taking pictures in 2012, when many individuals questioned the need of the second modification in this day and age. Indeed, upholding the second amendment continues to be a tough prospect when it does not appear to be these guns are being used for good. However, the overwhelming majority of individuals not only use them responsibly, but additionally shield themselves and their households, utilizing these guns.

For this cause, weapons should not be limited by the federal government. Essentially, the issue of gun control boils down to 2 main points which have been in battle with each other since the founding of America: freedom vs. safety. In particular, you possibly can examine it at Argumentative Essay Examples. Anti-gun control advocates insist that their weapons are essential for their very own security, but in addition fulfill the liberty requirement by permitting them to freely practice their second modification rights.

Anti-gun advocates see issues differently, nevertheless, since, to them, having most people in America brandishing a firearm represents a profound security threat to them. However, this safety danger that’s touted by pro-gun management activists is negated by the need for weapons to be able to guarantee security, and that the odd shooter is a problem with society at giant, not the guns themselves.

If gun control had been in full effect, and it have been made unlawful to own a firearm, criminals would merely purchase guns illegally, and would just about have free reign of whoever they needed to kill, since law-abiding residents would not have the means to cease them.

Evidence of the effectiveness of firearms as a self-defense device may be seen in numerous research. For instance, based on a research in 2000, an estimated 989,883 U.S. citizens used some form of gun to defend themselves (Agresti and Smith, 2). In addition, in 1993, 3.5% of households had used a firearm to defend themselves “for self-protection or for the protection of property at residence, work, or elsewhere” (Agresti and Smith, 3). These numbers put gun management in a means more constructive gentle, particularly from the angle that they want to be used to extend security in an increasingly insecure country. The finest method to prevent taking pictures incidents just like the Sandy Hook shooting is to not merely take away all weapons, as that will not repair the underlying downside, but to focus on rehabilitating people who either have had violent tendencies up to now, or exhibit signs which are according to mass shooters.

Those who assist gun management see every particular person in possession of a firearm, particularly these with a hid weapons license, as another potential Sandy Hook or Virginia State shooting simply waiting to happen. That is a legitimate claim, for the explanation that potential is certainly there. The argument that “people don’t kill individuals, guns kill people” is one other popular quote heard within the pro-gun control group, and whereas it has some merit, it requires some closer examination to be able to decide the validity of the assertion. While it is actually true that a gun has the potential to kill somebody, it’s only a software. The greater issue when it comes to violent crimes, especially gun-crimes, is the person behind the gun. To this end, one of the most effective options to the problem of gun violence on this nation is to fix the underlying drawback, to not simply take away the guns, as a result of that would only invite more violence, particularly from the more hardcore gun activists. And, after all, many deaths and injuries from violent crime come from firearms. For example, in 1996, sixty five percent of all murders between spouses have been carried out with a firearm (Rand, 3).

This is the place the idea of firearms as a device comes into play. A felony who was determined to commit a felony offense would likely commit the identical crime, no matter whether or not or not firearms have been allowed. Limiting firearms solely succeeds in making everyone a possible helpless sufferer in the event of a taking pictures. In order to grasp how firearms truly work as a deterrent to gun crime, it’s essential to understand that those who use guns for violent functions (i.e. not in self defense) ought to be grouped into a different section than those that solely use firearms for sport and self-defense. This has actually been done earlier than, and refers to two forms of gun possession: legal gun ownership and non-criminal gun ownership. For instance, a study taken in 1995 confirmed that “Where non criminal gun-ownership is larger, criminal gun ownership can additionally be greater; and where criminal gun possession is greater, the % of crimes which are dedicated with guns is higher” (Squires, 197).

Essentially, because of this weapons beget more weapons, which, in turn, beget more violence, or a minimum of that’s what this examine exhibits. However, the difficulty is a little more complicated than that. For instance, many areas of the nation are merely violent by virtue of their inhabitants, and, even when guns have been outlawed, they would nonetheless fight amongst themselves utilizing whatever weapons are obtainable. In addition, it’s possible that many who reside in these areas with large quantities of violence really purchased guns themselves for the sole purpose of self defense, so that in the event that they themselves had been attacked by an assailant utilizing a gun, they’d not be fully helpless. Although firearms work nicely as a way to protect oneself, they also act as a risk of instant vengeance by the sufferer, assuming the victim is in possession of a firearm. “A study showed that, in a survey of male felons in 11 state prisons, 34% had been “scared off, shot at, wounded, or captured by an armed victim,” whereas 40% said they determined not to commit against the law as a outcome of they knew or believed that the victim was carrying a gun, and 69% stated they knew of one other felony who had not dedicated a criminal offense as a result of the victim had a firearm” (Agresti and Smith, 6).

This helps to show what gun-advocates call the brighter aspect of the gun-control debate: that weapons can, and oftentimes are, used as a self defense or deterrence measure, somewhat than a pure instrument of violence. This principle seems to carry some water, since a research exhibits that, in 1988, only about 30% of residents owned weapons. Yet, in 1996, that quantity had elevated to 50% (Lott, 38). In 2004, that quantity remained steady. The fascinating factor about these figures is that violent crime in America has actually been reducing at a sluggish rate. While it might be foolish accountable this entirely on guns, it’s a good indicator that weapons no less than operate, on some level, as a deterrent and personal protection software. The only problem, in fact, stems from the truth that criminals have guns as nicely, however allowing nearly anybody to own a gun levels the enjoying field to an extent. If guns were totally outlawed, encounters would be much more one-sided, as criminals might assault residents with little to no worry of immediate reprisal on the a half of the victim. Gun control is a fairly black-and-white problem, yet seems to only have extremists on one side or the opposite. While it will be simple to simply dismiss all pro-gun management arguments, they do have some advantage.

For this cause, there should be consolations made so as to make guns a little bit safer for everybody. The finest way to deal with this concern is proceed permitting residents to use firearms, however perhaps restrict access to guns so as to guarantee security for the greatest number of individuals. Allowing firearms if the gun user registers and carries a allow for the firearm would assist to reduce the variety of homicides with firearms, if not as many individuals have them. Each action has its own drawbacks, nonetheless, and you will want to understand that, particularly for this problem, which has undergone something of a deadlock within the latest previous. Freedom and safety must be balanced in equal measure, and it is important to provide you with solutions to this problem with that in mind.

Works Cited

Agresti, James D., and Reid K. Smith. “Gun Control Facts.” Just Facts (2008). 2-3 Lott, John R. More guns, much less crime: Understanding crime and gun management laws. University of Chicago Press, 2013. 37-38 Rand, Michael R., et al. “Violence by intimates: Analysis of information on crimes by current or former spouses, boyfriends, and girlfriends.” (1998): 1-30. Squires, Peter. Gun Culture Or Gun Control?: Firearms and Violence: Safety and Society. Routledge, 2002. p.197

Aircraft Industry and Boeing Control Mechanism

Boeing is a market chief within the aircraft manufacturing business. The success of Boeing can be attributed to effective administration and specifically the efficient software of control mechanisms to result in desired change. As a market chief in plane manufacturing, Boeing constantly engages in an ongoing seek for enchancment of each its inside and external processes. A good example is the 2002 laying off of workers which was aimed at promoting effectivity . Boeing uses 4 broad control mechanisms. The first one is Budgets.

Budgets are necessary to any given group as a outcome of they result in higher utilization of sources considering the reality that every given organization is confronted with the constraint of finances, the price range turns out to be useful to keep away from overspending and misappropriation of assets. Boeing makes use of well-crafted budgets to break down the company’s expenditure and to prioritize areas requiring urgent attention . Budget as a control device is appreciated as a method of guaranteeing financial self-discipline in addition to guaranteeing accountability.

In addition, Boeing makes use of budgets as a measure of guaranteeing compliance not only to the principles and laws of the corporate, but additionally nationwide and international requirements.

Another helpful control mechanism which Boeing applies is Schedule management mechanism. Usually, Boeing providers clients each within the industrial sector and the military. Therefore, scheduling is very central to the functioning of Boeing contemplating the reality that clients have deadlines to satisfy when it comes to phasing off of some flight fleets and acquiring new fleets.

Most clients schedule such acquisition of new fleets to coincide with launching of recent products as part of ongoing, restructuring or process enchancment.

This is a clear indication that schedule as a management mechanism is very important to Boeing. Proper scheduling ensures that production and project completion are achieved in time and wastage is minimized. For purposes of scheduling, Boeing utilizes tools of scheduling similar to Gantt Charts as well as project network diagrams.

Boeing has put in place market management mechanism which is a type of management device used to monitor performance of competitors, the threats in addition to opportunities available within the market. This has enabled Boeing to give you strategies which reply to market threats and capitalize on market opportunities. The other widespread control mechanism utilized in Boeing is information system based mostly management mechanism. Boeing understands the significance of knowledge in the trade. Therefore, Boeing has invested in modern data applied sciences and methods which make inside and external processes simpler and subsequently causes reduction of wastage.

As a result of the knowledge primarily based management mechanism, Boeing has been in a place to predict future trends and therefore avoid errors which might value the corporate earnings or even its place in the business. Control mechanisms at Boeing are utilized for the purpose of increasing efficiency and specifically to boost manufacturing, employee morale, employees interrelations in addition to elevated output. The management mechanisms as utilized to Boeing are specifically geared toward guaranteeing that Boeing addresses the threats it’s confronted with particularly the threat from competitor exercise contemplating its commerce wars with Airbus.

For Boeing, quality is one thing that it can’t underestimate. The business surroundings is quick changing as technological development calls for higher and more suitable products which often cost corporations plenty of investment. To achieve the desired results, Boeing has put in place control mechanism on the organizational degree whereby the manager establishes targets and aims revolving across the company’s mission statement. This means that the control mechanisms in place should assist in the achievement of the mission of the corporate.

The management mechanisms also apply to the middle stage management by method of efficiency indicators which the corporate makes use of to watch progress. Some type of control measures which exist at this stage include setting of quotas/targets which people and teams must meet. In conclusion, Control mechanisms serve to ensure financial self-discipline and so they have succeeded in serving to Boeing evade some money scandals especially in terms of tendering.

Reference

  1. http://www. socialistworker. org/2002-2/420/420_05_Boeing. shtml Access 28/04/2007
  2. Nicholas, J. 2004. Managing Business and Engineering Projects, Prentice-Hall International.

Aircraft Secondary Flight Control Surfaces in Airplane

 in AirplaneIn order for an plane to maneuver and maintain its stability, this required for aircraft to have control surfaces. Mainly, the plane are divided into two primary control surfaces which are the first flight management and the secondary flight control. The primary flight management is a basic control surfaces used to maneuver corresponding to rolling, pitching and yawing. Meanwhile, secondary flight management surfaces are designed to enhance stability, help pilot management and ease the work-load. Some of the plane does not essentially to have the secondary flight control, but for a jumbo and high efficiency jet it is very crucial to have the secondary flight management surfaces.

Secondary flight control surfaces are sometimes works mechanically or by way of pc programming by sensing the correction should make in order to maintain the plane stability. Older plane doesn’t have as many secondary flight management surfaces compared to the most recent jet design. This is as a outcome of, over the time the engineer working exhausting enough to extend the plane capability, efficiency and capability.

Nowadays, all the most recent aircraft design are fitted with refined units to increase its performance and reliability.

Boeing 747-400 Flight Control Surfaces

Boeing 747-400

This aircraft consists of major flight control surfaces and secondary flight management surfaces. The main flight control surfaces are aileron, elevator and rudder. This plane uses spoilers, trailing edge flaps, forefront flaps, and an adjustable horizontal stabilizer for its secondary flight management surfaces. Secondary Flight Control Surfaces

Wing Flaps

It is gadgets used to improve the carry characteristics and are mounted on the trailing edges of the wings.

It additionally can be utilized to reduce back the speed at which the aircraft could be safely flown and to increase the angle of descent for touchdown.

Flaps throughout take-off

Flaps are extended at a particular value in accordance to the guide. Flap at this configuration are used to commerce runway distance for climb rate.

Flaps during landing

Flaps could additionally be totally prolonged for landing to give the aircraft a lower stall velocity so the strategy to landing could be flown extra slowly, which additionally permits the aircraft to land in a shorter distance.

Types of flap

This plane consist of two triple slotted trailing edge flaps and 14 leading edge flaps on every wing. The three inboard forefront flaps on every wing are krueger flaps with a folding nostril which extends because the flaps are prolonged. The remaining eleven leading edge flaps on every wing are variable camber flaps with camber which is changed by mechanical linkages because the flaps are prolonged.

Wing Spoilers

Spoilers are hydraulically powered. When used for lateral control, the spoilers are managed by a mechanical output from the aileron control system. When used as speed brakes, the spoilers are managed from the speed brake lever on the pilots’ management stand. There are 6 spoiler panels on each wing the place 2 are floor spoilers ant the rest are flight spoilers.

Trim

The lateral management system

The lateral management system is trimmed by shifting the neutral position of the aileron management system with an electric motor-driven aileron trim actuator. The actuator is managed by switches on the pilots’ management stand.

The directional management system

The directional control system is trimmed by shifting the impartial place of the rudder control system with an electrical trim actuator managed by the rudder trim knob on the pilots ‘control stand.

Pitch trim management system

Pitch trim of the airplane is about by the position of the horizontal stabilizer. The horizontal stabilizer is positioned to offer pitch trim. Stabilizer trim is set by a hydraulically powered drive mechanism.

Slat

Slats are aerodynamic surfaces on the forefront of the wings of fixed-wing plane which, when deployed, allow the wing to operate at the next angle of attack. A larger coefficient of raise is produced as a end result of angle of assault and velocity, so by deploying slats an plane can fly at slower speeds, or take off and land in shorter distances. They are usually used while touchdown or performing maneuvers which take the plane near the stall, however are often retracted in normal flight to minimize drag.

Conclusion

For the conclusion, the secondary flight control surfaces in Boeing 747-400 are virtually the identical as the other plane. The secondary flight control floor plays very important position for a big aircraft. It’s used to maintain up stability and assist the pilot control. Without this flight control surface the plane would be a lot tough to be operated.

Advertising and Behavior Control

In the article “Advertising and Behavior Control” there were many arguments for and against promoting. The first and the most important downside Robert L. Arrington has against promoting is “puffery.” The reason/reasons why Arrington has an issue with puffery is as a result of of the truth that the seller makes exaggerated, or suggestive claims a few product. His general argument on puffery is that it isn’t simply “bragging” but it is bragging that is designed to steer you to want the merchandise or product being offered.

The bragging goes as far as they convince the viewer (of the advertisement) they need the product. Puffery in the end results in manipulation, exploitation, and control over what individuals consider the product.

Although Arrington has reasons towards puffery, he additionally factors out examples as to why puffery is good for promoting. As acknowledged on web page 284 “businesses simply give the consumer what he/she needs; if they didn’t they wouldn’t keep in enterprise very lengthy.

Proof that client wants the precuts marketed is given by the reality that he bus them, and certainly often returns to by them many times.” Puffery in the end results in the customer buying the product. If puffery just isn’t used then as Arrington states companies would go out of enterprise in a short time. Puffery just isn’t the one argument for or towards promoting Arrington had however undoubtedly was is strongest one.

Another argument in opposition to advertising that Arrington had was credibility of an commercial. He makes use of Philip Nelson’s ideas and theories to raised clarify his ideas.

His argument states that even when the message is not credible, we as a society give it validity by permitting ourselves to see the advertisement, and the truth that we continuously see them makes us believe that things are true.

Simply put as said on page 285 “advertised regularly, is effective indirect data for the patron. The reason for that is that the manufacturers advertised most usually tend to be better buys-“ Although the constant streaming of false or oblique data from ads makes us believe one thing that may be unfaithful, there is a counter argument as to why this type of promoting is legitimate, One of the counter arguments is in the type of a thought scary query on web page 285 “do the advertising techniques we’ve mentioned involve a violation of human autonomy and a manipulation and management of consumer conduct, or do they simply provide an environment friendly and cost effective means of giving the consumer information on the premise of which she or he makes a free selection.” This could seem like so much to understand, but in essence the meaning of that thought scary query is: is promoting information, or is advertising there for us to create desires and wishes in our life?

These are simply a few the arguments for and towards advertising, and Arrington continues with many extra thought provoking and legitimate arguments. All in all, Arrington makes claims for and in opposition to promoting, and eventually comes to the conclusion that he doesn’t know what is true. If advertising is certainly good or bad as he says on page 289 “I do not fake to have the reply. I only hope that the above dialogue, in displaying a few of the sorts of harm that can be carried out by promoting and by indicating the doubtless limits of this harm, will put us in a greater place to grapple with the query.”

In my very own opinion I don’t assume that promoting ought to be controlled anymore than it’s now. My cause for thinking this fashion is as a outcome of products are made to be sold and along with that merchandise are additionally made for us (the customer) to make use of, and enjoy. If merchandise weren’t marketed/advertised to the shopper as pleasant, or brings you the next satisfaction in life what would be the point of any particular person shopping for the product? Sure puffery may appear to be it is a scam by “extending the truth” but at the similar time when you had the cash, and the time, and the buddies to stay a life like a business then it is very nicely attainable to realize that success from a product. Unfortunately not everyone is able to doing this, however a product that’s advertised is at all times going to be represented higher than it actually is, because of the reality it’s there to make a revenue, and to be offered.

My next point is the fact that commercial falls into our liberties. We all have the proper to freedom of speech. By advertising, or advertising one is free to say, promote, speak, etc. how they want as long it is not in an offensive or demeaning method. This is why I imagine there must be no more restrictions or limitations (if any) on advertising/marketing.

Access Control Systems that Avoid Leaked Information

Type of entry control by which the operating system constrains the flexibility of a subject or initiator to access or typically carry out some type of operation on an object or goal. In apply, a topic is normally a course of or thread; objects are constructs corresponding to recordsdata, directories, TCP/UDP ports, shared reminiscence segments, IO units and so on. Subjects and objects each have a set of security attributes. Whenever a subject attempts to entry an object, an authorization rule enforced by the working system kernel examines these safety attributes and decides whether the access can happen.

Any operation by any subject on any object might be tested towards the set of authorization rules (aka policy) to determine if the operation is allowed. A database administration system, in its access control mechanism, also can apply mandatory entry management; on this case, the objects are tables, views, procedures, etc. With mandatory access management, this safety coverage is centrally controlled by a security coverage administrator; customers wouldn’t have the power to override the policy and, for instance, grant access to recordsdata that might in any other case be restricted.

By distinction, discretionary entry control (DAC), which also governs the flexibility of subjects to entry objects, allows users the flexibility to make policy choices and/or assign security attributes. (The conventional UNIX system of users, teams, and read-write-execute permissions is an instance of DAC.) MAC-enabled methods enable policy administrators to implement organization-wide safety policies. Unlike with DAC, customers cannot override or modify this policy, either by accident or intentionally.

This allows safety directors to outline a central policy that’s assured (in principle) to be enforced for all customers. Historically and traditionally, MAC has been closely related to multi-level safe (MLS) methods.

The Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria[1] (TCSEC), the seminal work on the topic, defines MAC as “a means of proscribing access to things based on the sensitivity (as represented by a label) of the knowledge contained within the objects and the formal authorization (i.e., clearance) of subjects to access data of such sensitivity”. Early implementations of MAC corresponding to Honeywell’s SCOMP, USAF SACDIN, NSA Blacker, and Boeing’s MLS LAN focused on MLS to protect military-oriented safety classification ranges with strong enforcement. Originally, the time period MAC denoted that the access controls were not solely guaranteed in precept, however in reality. Early security methods enabled enforcement guarantees that have been dependable in the face of national lab stage assaults.

Data classification awareness

For any IT initiative to succeed, significantly a security-centric one similar to information classification, it must be understood and adopted by management and the employees utilizing the system. Changing a staff’s information handling actions, particularly relating to sensitive data, will probably entail a change of tradition across the organization. This sort of movement requires sponsorship by senior administration and its endorsement of the need to change present practices and ensure the essential cooperation and accountability. The safest method to this type of project is to begin with a pilot. Introducing substantial procedural adjustments all of sudden invariably creates frustration and confusion. I would pick one domain, similar to HR or R&D, and conduct an information audit, incorporating interviews with the domain’s customers about their business and regulatory requirements. The analysis will give you insight into whether or not the data is enterprise or personal, and whether or not it is business-critical.

This kind of dialogue can fill in gaps in understanding between customers and system designers, in addition to ensure enterprise and regulatory necessities are mapped appropriately to classification and storage necessities. Issues of high quality and data duplication also wants to be coated throughout your audit. Categorizing and storing every thing could appear an obvious approach, however information facilities have notoriously excessive maintenance costs, and there are other hidden expenses; backup processes, archive retrieval and searches of unstructured and duplicated information all take longer to carry out, for example. Furthermore, too nice a degree of granularity in classification ranges can rapidly turn out to be too complicated and expensive.

There are a quantity of dimensions by which information may be valued, together with financial or enterprise, regulatory, authorized and privateness. A helpful train to assist determine the worth of data, and to which risks it is susceptible, is to create a knowledge circulate diagram. The diagram reveals how data flows through your organization and beyond so you presumably can see how it is created, amended, saved, accessed and used. Don’t, nevertheless, simply classify data primarily based on the application that creates it, corresponding to CRM or Accounts.

This type of distinction may avoid lots of the complexities of data classification, however it’s too blunt an approach to achieve appropriate levels of security and entry. One consequence of data classification is the necessity for a tiered storage structure, which is in a position to provide totally different ranges of security within every sort of storage, such as main, backup, catastrophe restoration and archive — increasingly confidential and priceless data protected by increasingly sturdy security. The tiered structure also reduces costs, with access to current knowledge saved fast and environment friendly, and archived or compliance information moved to cheaper offline storage.

Security controls

Organizations need to protect their information assets and should determine the extent of threat they’re willing to simply accept when figuring out the value of safety controls. According to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), “Security must be acceptable and proportionate to the value of and degree of reliance on the pc system and to the severity, chance and extent of potential harm.

Requirements for security will differ relying on the particular organization and pc system.”1 To present a standard physique of data and outline terms for information safety professionals, the International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium (ISC2) created 10 safety domains. The following domains provide the inspiration for security practices and ideas in all industries, not simply healthcare:

  • Security administration practices
  • Access management techniques and methodology
  • Telecommunications and networking security
  • Cryptography
  • Security structure and models
  • [newline]

  • Operations security
  • Application and methods development security
  • Physical security
  • Business continuity and disaster restoration planning
  • Laws, investigation, and ethics

In order to maintain up info confidentiality, integrity, and availability, it could be very important control entry to data. Access controls stop unauthorized users from retrieving, utilizing, or altering info. They are determined by an organization’s risks, threats, and vulnerabilities. Appropriate access controls are categorized in three ways: preventive, detective, or corrective. Preventive controls attempt to cease harmful occasions from occurring, while detective controls establish if a dangerous occasion has occurred. Corrective controls are used after a harmful event to revive the system.

Risk mitigation

  • Assume/Accept: Acknowledge the existence of a particular risk, and make a deliberate decision to simply accept it with out partaking in special efforts to manage it. Approval of project or program leaders is required.
  • Avoid: Adjust program requirements or constraints to eliminate or reduce the chance. This adjustment could possibly be accommodated by a change in funding, schedule, or technical necessities.
  • Control: Implement actions to reduce the impression or probability of the chance.
  • Transfer: Reassign organizational accountability, responsibility, and authority to a different stakeholder keen to accept the risk
  • Watch/Monitor: Monitor the setting for changes that affect the nature and/or the influence of the risk

Access control coverage framework consisting of best practices for insurance policies, requirements, procedures,

Guidelines to mitigate unauthorized entry :

IT application or program controls are absolutely automated (i.e., carried out mechanically by the systems) designed to make sure the entire and correct processing of data, from enter through output. These controls differ based on the business purpose of the specific software. These controls may help ensure the privateness and security of information transmitted between functions.

Categories of IT utility controls might embrace:

  • Completeness checks – controls that ensure all records have been processed from initiation to completion.
  • Validity checks – controls that ensure only legitimate knowledge is enter or processed.
  • Identification – controls that ensure all customers are uniquely and irrefutably identified.
  • Authentication – controls that present an authentication mechanism in the application system.
  • Authorization – controls that guarantee solely permitted enterprise users have entry to the appliance system.
  • Input controls – controls that ensure knowledge integrity fed from upstream sources into the applying system.
  • Forensic controls – management that ensure data is scientifically right and mathematically appropriate based on inputs and outputs

Specific utility (transaction processing) management procedures that immediately mitigate recognized monetary reporting dangers.

There are usually a few such controls inside main functions in each monetary course of, similar to accounts payable, payroll, basic ledger, and so forth.

  • The focus is on “key” controls (those that specifically address risks), not on the entire application.
  • IT general controls that help the assertions that programs operate as meant and that key financial reports are reliable, primarily change management and security controls;
  • IT operations controls, which make certain that problems with processing are recognized and corrected.
  • Specific activities which will occur to support the assessment of the key controls above embrace: Understanding the organization’s internal management program and its financial reporting processes.
  • Identifying the IT methods involved in the initiation, authorization, processing, summarization and reporting of financial data;
  • Identifying the key controls that handle particular monetary risks;
  • Designing and implementing controls designed to mitigate the identified dangers and monitoring them for continued effectiveness;
  • Documenting and testing IT controls;
  • Ensuring that IT controls are up to date and changed, as needed, to correspond with modifications in inner management or monetary reporting processes;
  • and Monitoring IT controls for effective operation over time.

References:

  1. http://hokiepokie.org/docs/acl22003/security-policy.pdf
  2. Coe, Martin J. “Trust providers: a better way to evaluate I.T. controls:
    fulfilling the necessities of section 404.” Journal of Accountancy 199.three (2005): 69(7).
  3. Chan, Sally, and Stan Lepeak. “IT and Sarbanes-Oxley.” CMA Management seventy eight.4 (2004): 33(4).
  4. P. A. Loscocco, S. D. Smalley, P. A. Muckelbauer, R. C. Taylor, S. J. Turner, and J. F. Farrell. The Inevitability of Failure: The Flawed Assumption of Security in Modern Computing Environments. In Proceedings of the twenty first National Information Systems Security Conference, pages 303–314, Oct. 1998.

Access Control Proposal – Integrated Distributors Incorporated

Proposal Statement

Integrated Distributors Incorporated (IDI) will establish particular necessities for safeguarding data and information systems against unauthorised entry. IDI will effectively communicate the necessity for data and information system access management.

Purpose

Information safety is the protection of data against unintended or malicious disclosure, modification or destruction. Information is an important, useful asset of IDI which must be managed with care. All info has a price to IDI. However, not all of this information has an equal worth or requires the same degree of protection.

Access controls are put in place to protect information by controlling who has the rights to use different info resources and by guarding towards unauthorised use. Formal procedures must control how access to information is granted and the way such access is changed. This coverage also mandates a standard for the creation of robust passwords, their safety and frequency of change.

Scope

This policy applies to all IDI Stakeholders, Committees, Departments, Partners, Employees of IDI (including system assist workers with access to privileged administrative passwords), contractual third parties and brokers of the Council with any type of entry to IDI’s information and data methods.

Definition

Access management guidelines and procedures are required to manage who can access IDI information resources or systems and the related entry privileges. This policy applies always and ought to be adhered to every time accessing IDI info in any format, and on any gadget.

Risks

On event business info may be disclosed or accessed prematurely, accidentally or unlawfully. Individuals or firms, with out the proper authorisation and clearance may intentionally or by accident gain unauthorised entry to enterprise data which can adversely affect day to day enterprise.

This coverage is meant to mitigate that risk. Non-compliance with this coverage may have a big effect on the efficient operation of the Council and will result in financial loss and an lack of ability to provide necessary services to our prospects.

Applying the Policy – Passwords / Choosing Passwords

Passwords are the primary line of defence for our ICT methods and together with the person ID assist to ascertain that individuals are who they declare to be. A poorly chosen or misused password is a safety danger and will impression upon the confidentiality, integrity or availability of our computers and methods.

Weak and strong passwords

A weak password is one which is definitely discovered, or detected, by people who discover themselves not alleged to realize it. Examples of weak passwords embody words picked out of a dictionary, names of kids and pets, automobile registration numbers and easy patterns of letters from a pc keyboard. A robust password is a password that is designed in such a means that it’s unlikely to be detected by people who find themselves not alleged to know it, and troublesome to work out even with the help of a Protecting Passwords

It is of utmost significance that the password remains protected at all times. Do not use the same password for systems inside and outside of labor.

Changing Passwords

All user-level passwords have to be changed at a most of every ninety days, or whenever a system prompts you to vary it. Default passwords should also be changed instantly. If you turn out to be conscious, or suspect, that your password has turn into known to another person, you should change it immediately and report your concern to IDI Technical Support. Users must not reuse the same password inside 20 password adjustments.

System Administration Standards

The password administration process for particular person IDI systems is well-documented and out there to designated people. All IDI IT techniques shall be configured to implement the next: Authentication of particular person customers, not teams of customers – i.e. no generic accounts. Protection as regards to the retrieval of passwords and safety details. System entry monitoring and logging – at a user stage.

Role management in order that features may be performed with out sharing passwords. Password admin processes have to be correctly controlled, secure and auditable.

User Access Management

Formal user access control procedures must be documented, carried out and kept updated for each application and data system to make sure authorised user entry and to prevent unauthorised access. They should cover all stages of the lifecycle of user access, from the preliminary registration of recent users to the ultimate de-registration of customers who now not require entry. These should be agreed by IDI. User access rights have to be reviewed at regular intervals to make certain that the appropriate rights are still allotted. System administration accounts should only be offered to customers that are required to carry out system administration tasks.

User Registration

A request for entry to IDI’s computer systems must first be submitted to the Information Services Helpdesk for approval. Applications for entry must solely be submitted if approval has been gained from Department Heads. When an worker leaves IDI, their access to pc systems and information should be suspended at the shut of business on the employee’s last working day. It is the duty of the Department Head to request the suspension of the entry rights by way of the Information Services Helpdesk.

User Responsibilities

It is a user’s responsibility to forestall their userID and password being used to gain unauthorised access to IDI systems.

Network Access Control

The use of modems on non- IDI owned PC’s linked to the IDI’s community can critically compromise the safety of the community. The regular operation of the network must not be interfered with.

User Authentication for External Connections

Where remote access to the IDI community is required, an application must be made through IT Helpdesk. Remote access to the network have to be secured by two issue authentication. Supplier’s Remote Access to the Council Network Partner companies or third party suppliers must not be given details of tips on how to access IDI ’s community without permission. All permissions and access strategies have to be managed by IT Helpdesk. Operating System Access Control Access to operating methods is controlled by a safe login course of.

The entry control outlined in the User Access Management section and the Password section above should be applied. All access to operating methods is through a novel login id that might be audited and may be traced again to every individual person. The login id must not give any indication of the extent of entry that it offers to the system (e.g. administration rights). System directors will have to have particular person administrator accounts that will be logged and audited. The administrator account must not be utilized by people for normal daily activities.

Application and Information Access

Access within software program functions have to be restricted using the security measures built into the individual product. The IT Helpdesk is responsible for granting entry to the information inside the system.

Policy Compliance

If any person is found to have breached this coverage, they might be subject to IDI’s disciplinary procedure. If a legal offence is taken into account to have been dedicated further motion could additionally be taken to help within the prosecution of the offender(s). If you don’t understand the implications of this policy or how it may apply to you, seek advice from IT Helpdesk.

Policy Governance

The following table identifies who inside [Council Name] is Accountable, Responsible, Informed or Consulted with regards to this coverage. The following definitions apply:

  • Responsible
  • Head of Information Services, Head of Human Resources
  • Accountable
  • Director of Finance etc.
  • Consulted
  • Policy Department
  • Informed
  • All IDI Employees, All Temporary Staff, All Contractors.

Review and Revision

This coverage will be reviewed as it’s deemed acceptable, but no less frequently than each 12 months.

Key Messages

All users should use robust passwords.
Passwords have to be protected at all times and have to be modified no much less than each ninety days. User access rights have to be reviewed at common intervals. It is a user’s duty to forestall their userID and password getting used to gain unauthorised entry to IDI methods. Partner agencies or 3rd celebration suppliers must not be given particulars of tips on how to access the IDI network with out permission from IT Helpdesk. Partners or 3rd party suppliers must contact the IT Helpdesk before connecting to the IDI network.

Access Control System Using Voice Recognition

General Overview

Around 200 years prior, for the rationale that season of, there’ve been occasional and customary apprehensions [3] on the effect of innovation put collectively mechanization with respect to occupations’ which is assuming a serious job in human. Home security began in the mid-1800s by an English man generally known as Edwin with the achievement of Holmes in electro-attractive alerts and computerization, Security framework is quick improving which presently presents expanded methods by which we will verify our results and properties amongst which we’ve biometrics safety framework and different sort of home security framework.

The increments in level of security to which one can accomplish, Biometrics are natural estimations — or bodily attributes — that might be utilized to tell apart people. Unique finger impression mapping, facial acknowledgment, and retina filters, voice acknowledgment are for essentially the most part kinds of biometric innovation when it is dependent upon a character which are fairly sure to an individual, these are the most perceived alternate options. Research has demonstrated that the state of an ear, the style by which someone sits and strolls, particular personal stenches, the veins in one’s grasp, and even facial bendings are other exceptional identifiers.

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Since bodily attributes are generally mounted and individualized — even on account of twins — they’re being utilized to supplant or if nothing else enlarge secret key frameworks for PCs, telephones, and restricted access rooms and constructions, Vehicle and so forth. Voice management gadget manages voice structure and voice acknowledgment

The time period voice acknowledgment [4][5][6], or speaker recognizable proof alludes to distinguishing the speaker, as an alternative of what they are stating.

Perceiving the speaker can rearrange the enterprise of interpreting discourse in frameworks which were ready on a selected individual’s voice or it tends to be utilized to confirm or examine the character of a speaker as a part of a security procedure.

Placing this into thought mechanically , discourse acknowledgment has a protracted history with a couple of rushes of main and new developments, of as of late, the field has profited by advances in profound studying and massive information. The advances are affirm not just by the flood of scholarly papers distributed within the field, however more considerably by the general business appropriation of an assortment of profound learning methods in structuring and conveying discourse acknowledgment frameworks.

Voice acknowledgment [4][5][6], or speaker recognizable proof [7] alludes to distinguishing the speaker, as a substitute of what they are stating. Speaker acknowledgment can disentangle the project of deciphering and discourse elucidation in frameworks which have been ready to tell apart specific individual’s voice dependent on the pitch , sound and recurrence, it very well may be utilized to substantiate or checked the character of a speaker as a function of a safety procedure.

Most as of late, the sphere has profited by advances in profound learning and large data. The advances are prove not simply by the flood of scholastic papers distributed within the field, nevertheless more significantly by the general business

reception of an assortment of profound learning strategies in structuring and sending discourse acknowledgment frameworks.

Historical Background

In 1970 to year 1990 a substantial quantity of work was accomplished of which DARPA financed 5 years for Speech Understanding Research, discourse acknowledgment research in search of a base jargon size of 1,000 words. They thought discourse comprehension would be important to gaining floor in discourse acknowledgment;, this later refuted [8] BBN, IBM, Carnegie Mellon and Stanford Research Institute all took an curiosity in the program. [9] [10]

In 1976 The first ICASSP which was held in Philadelphia, As from that time , Philadelphia has been a noteworthy setting for the distribution of any examination on discourse acknowledgment. [11] After 1976, the late Nineteen Sixties Leonard Baum was a le to built up the arithmetic of Markov chains at the Institute for Defense Analysis. What’s extra, which following 10 years some place at CMU, Raj Reddy’s understudies James Baker and Janet M. Bread cook dinner started had the option to utilize the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for discourse acknowledgment. James Baker had discovered about HMMs from a mid 12 months work on the Institute of Defense Analysis when he was all the while watching murmur undergrad training. The utilization of HMMs allow and give analysts he probabilities to hitch various wellsprings of information, for instance, acoustics, language, and sentence construction, in a certain collectively probabilistic mannequin in mid-1980s IBM’s Fred Jelinek’s group had the choice to effectively make a voice actuated known as Tangora, which was outfitted for taking care of up to 20,000-word jargon [12] Jelinek’s measurable methodology, put much less accentuation on duplicating or emu the style in which the human mind forms and comprehends discourse for utilizing factual displaying strategies, for example, HMMs. (Jelinek’s gathering freely found the utilization of HMMs to discourse.) This was questionable with etymologists since HMMs are too oversimplified to even think about accounting for some common highlights of human dialects. So far HMM has demonstrated to be a profoundly helpful route use for displaying discourse and subtitute dynamic time traveling to turn into the fundamental discourse acknowledgment calculation through the Nineteen Eighties.

In 1982 – Dragon Systems, that’ established by James and Janet M. Pastry specialist, was one IBM’s not many rivals.

Discourse Recognition

The back-off model permitted language fashions to make the most of varied length n-grams, and CSELT utilized HMM to perceive dialects. Noteworthy and recognizable improvement within the field is owed to the shortly increasing abilities of PCs. Toward the part of the association program in 1976, PDP-10 with four MB smash was the best PC, which may take as long as 100 minutes to translate only 30 seconds of speech.[13]

There are two cheap objects:

We found – a recognizer from Kurzweil Applied Intelligence In 1987 and Dragon and by 1990 – Dragon Dictate, a consumer merchandise discharged in 1990 AT&T despatched the Voice Recognition Call Processing administration in 1992 to course telephone calls without the utilization of a human administrator. The innovation was created by Lawrence Rabiner and others at Bell Labs, the jargon of the run of the mill business discourse acknowledgment framework was grater than the half of human jargon. Raj Reddy’s earlier understudy, Xuedong Huang, constructed up the Sphinx-II framework at CMU. The Sphinx-II framework was the primary to do speaker-autonomous, huge jargon, persistent discourse acknowledgment and it had the most effective execution in DARPA’s 1992 evaluation. Taking care of persistent discourse with a huge jargon was a noteworthy achievement throughout the entire existence of discourse acknowledgment. Huang proceeded to construct up the discourse acknowledgment bunch at Microsoft in 1993. Raj Reddy’s understudy Kai-Fu Lee joined Apple where, in 1992, he had the option to help with build up a model of a discourse interface for the Apple PC generally recognized as Casper.

Lernout and Hauspie, was a Belgium-based discourse acknowledgment organization, which obtained a few totally different organizations, incorporating Kurzweil Applied Intelligence in 1997 and Dragon Systems in 2000. The L&H discourse innovation was related within the Windows XP working system(OS) . L&H was an business chief until a bookkeeping extortion put a conclusion to the organization in 2001. The discourse innovation from L&H was purchased by ScanSoft which moved toward changing into Nuance in 2005. Apple initially licensed programming from Nuance to give discourse acknowledgment ability to its computerized aide Siri.

During the 2000s two discourse acknowledgment tasks was supported by DARPA , which was Effective, Affordable and Reusable Speech-to-Text (EARS) in 2002 and Global Autonomous Language Exploitation (GALE). Four(4) groups took half within the EARS program: IBM, a bunch pushed by BBN with LIMSI and Univ. of Pittsburgh, Cambridge University, and a gaggle made out of ICSI, SRI and University of Washington. EARS supported the gathering of the Switchboard cellphone discourse corpus containing 260 hours of recorded discussions from more than 500 speakers. The GALE program targeting Arabic and Mandarin talk news discourse. Google’s attempted at discourse acknowledgment in 2007 subsequent to contracting a few specialists from Nuance.[30] There first item was GOOG-411,which was a phone primarily based registry administration. The accounts from GOOG-411 created necessary information which helped Google improve their acknowledgment frameworks. Google Voice Search is presently upheld in additional than 30 dialects.

In the United States, the National Security Agency has utilized a kind of discourse acknowledgment for watchword spotting since in any event 2006. This innovation permits and help investigators to look via huge volumes of recorded discussions and separate notices of watchwords. Chronicles could be filed and examiners can run inquiries over the database to find discussions of intrigue. Some administration analysis projects concentrated on perception makes use of of discourse acknowledgment, for example, . DARPA’s EARS’s program and IARPA’s Babel program.

In mid 2000s, discourse acknowledgment was as but commanded by customary methodologies, for instance, Hidden Markov Models joined with feedforward counterfeit neural systems. Today, nonetheless, numerous parts of discourse acknowledgment is getting supplanted by a profound learning method referred to as Long momentary memory (LSTM), an intermittent neural system distributed by Sepp Hochreiter and Jürgen Schmidhuber in 1997. LSTM RNNs avoid the evaporating angle issue and can adapt ‘Profound Learning’ errands which requires recollections of occasions that happened an enormous variety of discrete time steps prior, which is critical for discourse. Around 2007, LSTM prepared by Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC) began to outflank customary discourse acknowledgment in particular purposes. In 2015, Google’s discourse acknowledgment allegedly encountered a sensational exhibition hop of 49% through CTC-prepared LSTM, which is at present accessible by way of Google Voice to all cellphone clients.

The utilization of profound feedforward (non-repetitive) systems for acoustic displaying was introduced during later piece of 2009 by Geoffrey Hinton and his understudies at University of Toronto and by Li Deng and associates at Microsoft Research, at first in the cooperative work amongst Microsoft.

A Solution to Gun Control

On December 12, 2012, twenty kids and 6 adults have been killed at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, CT. It was one of the deadliest school shootings in US history. The capturing renewed debate on the problem of gun management. It sparked a conflict between the Executive and Legislative branches over how greatest to take care of the scenario. Unfortunately, the gun debate tends to be a black or white issue – either you are “for guns” or “against guns”. There seems to be little center ground.

The media and politicians often play into the hype, making an enormous deal about which aspect people are on. There can be lot of cash at stake, as interest groups and lobbyists work exhausting to win supporters and stress politicians. These components have made it troublesome for anything to get down to help truly resolve the state of affairs. I do imagine that a compromise can be reached between either side, in order that constructive change can take place that can forestall future tragedies.

If you wish to learn more samples begin with these – Argumentative Essays.

Immediately after the Sandy Hook incident, the two sides have been out making their case. With the one aspect of gun management stating that this incident would have by no means occurred if there was more gun control, while the opposite aspect felt that tightening control legal guidelines would not have prevented nor will it cease something like this from occurring once more. Within hours of the taking pictures, President Obama made a television statement in which he stated, “we’re going to have to come back together and take significant action to stop more tragedies like this, whatever the politics”.

Then four days later at the memorial service in Connecticut, the President stated he would “use whatever power this workplace holds” to prevent related tragedies. On January 16, 2013, the President announced that he signed twenty-three government orders and was proposing twelve actions for Congress to cross to further gun control.

Congress additionally took some action on the issue and voted on two items of laws. On January 24, 2013, the Assault Weapons Ban of 2013 was launched within the Senate. Although passing the Senate Judiciary Committee, the invoice failed by a vote of 60 to forty. The other piece of legislation that was proposed during this time was common background checks. The Manchin-Toomey Amendment was put to a vote that may have required background checks on most firearms sales. On April 17, 2013, the Senate voted in opposition to this modification. In truth, the last main piece of gun management laws to make it into legislation was the assault weapons ban of 1994. Ironically, the ban was only momentary and expired in 2004. Repeated makes an attempt to renew it have failed. In spite of the increased and heightened emotion following the Sandy Hook incident, no extra gun management laws was made into legislation. This reality shows just how divided and how little room for compromise exists on the matter.

The individuals for and against gun management make up one most divided teams on a policy problem. The feelings they both have are strong and are deeply held. On the aspect for gun control, the argument is that if guns were harder to acquire, there would be less violent crimes being committed. One of the professional gun management facts is that greater than half of all murders in any given year are attributed to gun violence. With stricter laws, much less people would have entry to these weapons. Simply put, with no guns…no one may be killed with a gun. The anti gun management folks also have a compelling argument. They stand firmly behind the Second Amendment, which is the proper to bear arms. One of their statistics is that the USA has essentially the most closely armed civilian inhabitants by a big margin; however, we’re not even in the top 20 in our gun homicide victims. They say that guns usually are not the problem, the people are the problem.

They really feel it should not be tough or inconceivable for a law-abiding citizen to buy a rifle for looking season, or a pistol to guard their household. They really feel that gun control legal guidelines is not going to stop the mistaken people from acquiring weapons, so the problem just isn’t going to be solved by simply creating more gun control legal guidelines. With the tens of millions of people who live within the United States, it is an unimaginable request that everybody agree. Especially if our politicians proceed to solely propose “all or nothing” solutions. I imagine that there’s a answer to this drawback, and that extra must be accomplished to try to stop the senseless killing of harmless people. Although nothing is foolproof, we should attempt to do all we will to prevent another Sandy Hook. There is too much carnage and harm that somebody can do with the assault weapons and excessive capacity magazines obtainable right now. We already have many good federal and state laws on the books concerning weapons and gun management.

Unfortunately, they are not all being followed or correctly enforced. We ought to start there. One change I would make is to standardize gun registration throughout the nation. This is currently a state issue and every state has different requirements and procedures. Doing this may have many benefits. First, it will make it a lot simpler to observe and implement the laws already in place. By standardizing the procedure, you possibly can then more easily create a national database with this info, which may be accessed by every state. I believe this course of would assist to stop smuggling between states. In order to achieve the help of the pro gun group, this course of can not overshadow state legal guidelines on gun possession. Another possible solution I would make involves the design and manufacture of firearms. Gun manufactures have accomplished very little to make their products safer. I imagine we are in a position to stress gun manufactures, as we now have accomplished with different producers of consumer merchandise, to make their products safer and fewer more probably to discharge by chance.

An example of elevated security due to modifications in design and manufacturing is the auto. The technology at present exists that might instantly make weapons safer for the common public. There are security units that forestall unintended discharge. In addition, there are other devises that a gun owner could activate on a stolen gun that would render it utterly unusable. For some purpose, gun producers have been reluctant to market or to make these types of devises available. I believe these are two possible solutions that would break the gridlock and make a positive impact on this drawback. Gun management is among the most hotly debated social issues we are facing at present. Little has been carried out to resolve the issue due to the “all-or-nothing” legislative proposals which were introduced. The two solutions I’ve offered could be effective as a end result of they allow both teams to claim a victory. Neither group has to totally abandon its beliefs or cave to the opposite facet. This is a solution involving a compromise. This concern is so polarizing; I feel that little might be carried out if a solution involving a compromise can’t be reached. In any case, gun management issues will be around for long time.

Advertising and Behavior Control

In the article “Advertising and Behavior Control” there were many arguments for and against advertising. The first and the biggest problem Robert L. Arrington has against advertising is “puffery.” The reason/reasons why Arrington has a problem with puffery is due to the fact that the seller makes exaggerated, or suggestive claims about a product. His overall argument on puffery is that it isn’t just “bragging” but it is bragging that is designed to persuade you to want the item or product being sold. The bragging goes so far as they convince the viewer (of the advertisement) they need the product. Puffery ultimately leads to manipulation, exploitation, and control over what people think of the product.

Although Arrington has reasons against puffery, he also points out examples as to why puffery is good for advertising. As stated on page 284 “businesses just give the consumer what he/she wants; if they didn’t they wouldn’t stay in business very long. Proof that consumer wants the precuts advertised is given by the fact that he bus them, and indeed often returns to by them again and again.” Puffery ultimately leads to the customer purchasing the product. If puffery is not used then as Arrington states businesses would go out of business very quickly. Puffery is not the only argument for or against advertising Arrington had but definitely was is strongest one.

Another argument against advertising that Arrington had was credibility of an advertisement. He uses Philip Nelson’s ideas and theories to better explain his thoughts. His argument states that even when the message is not credible, we as a society give it validity by allowing ourselves to see the advertisement, and the fact that we constantly see them makes us believe that things are true.

Simply put as stated on page 285 “advertised frequently, is valuable indirect information for the consumer. The reason for this is that the brands advertised most are more likely to be better buys-“ Although the constant streaming of false or indirect information from advertisements makes us believe something that may be untrue, there is a counter argument as to why this form of advertising is legitimate, One of the counter arguments is in the form of a thought provoking question on page 285 “do the advertising techniques we have discussed involve a violation of human autonomy and a manipulation and control of consumer behavior, or do they simply provide an efficient and cost effective means of giving the consumer information on the basis of which he or she makes a free choice.” This may seem like a lot to grasp, but in essence the meaning of that thought provoking question is: is advertising information, or is advertising there for us to create wants and desires in our life?

These are just a couple of the arguments for and against advertising, and Arrington continues with many more thought provoking and legitimate arguments. All in all, Arrington makes claims for and against advertising, and eventually comes to the conclusion that he does not know what is right. If advertising is indeed good or bad as he says on page 289 “I do not pretend to have the answer. I only hope that the above discussion, in showing some of the kinds of harm that can be done by advertising and by indicating the likely limits of this harm, will put us in a better position to grapple with the question.”

In my own opinion I don’t think that advertising should be controlled anymore than it is now. My reason for thinking this way is because products are made to be sold and along with that products are also made for us (the customer) to use, and enjoy. If products weren’t marketed/advertised to the customer as enjoyable, or brings you a higher satisfaction in life what would be the point of any person buying the product? Sure puffery may seem like it is a scam by “extending the truth” but at the same time if you had the money, and the time, and the friends to live a life like a commercial then it is very well possible to achieve that fulfillment from a product. Unfortunately not everyone is capable of doing this, but a product that is advertised is always going to be represented better than it actually is, due to the fact it is there to make a profit, and to be sold.

My next point is the fact that advertisement falls into our liberties. We all have the right to freedom of speech. By advertising, or marketing one is free to say, promote, speak, etc. how they would like as long it is not in an offensive or demeaning way. This is why I believe there should be no more restrictions or limitations (if any) on advertising/marketing.

Unit 3 Assignment 1: Remote Access Control Policy Definition

Richman Investments has decided to expand their business. We have been given their new growth projections of 10,000 employees in 20 countries, with 5,000 located within the U.S. Richman has also established eight branch offices located throughout the U.S. and has designated Phoenix, AZ being the main headquarters. With this scenario, I intend to design a remote access control policy for all systems, applications and data access within Richman Investments.

With so many different modes of Access Control to choose from it is my assessment that by choosing only one model would not be appropriate for Richman Investments. My recommendation would be a combination of multiple Access Control Models that overlap to provide maximum coverage and overall security. Here are my suggestions for access controls.

Role Based Access Control or RBAC, this will work well with the Non-Discretionary Access Control model, which will be detailed in the next paragraph. RBAC is defined as setting permissions or granting access to a group of people with the same job roles or responsibilities . With many different locations along with many different users it is important to identify the different users and different workstations within this network.

Every effort should be dedicated towards preventing user to access information they should not have access to. Non-Discretionary Access Control is defined as controls that are monitored by a security administrator. While RBAC identifies those with permissions, it is a security administrator that should further identify the level of access to each Role that is created. The security administrator should also designate certain users or workstations access to the information available within the network.

Rule Based Access Control can also be linked to the first two models detailed in the paper (RBAC and Non-Discretionary), and is similar to RBAC. Rule Based Access Control is a set of rules to determine which users have access to what data. Within each Role Based Access Control security can be further refined by applying Rules. These rules will be defined by the security administrator as part of the Non-Discretionary Access Control model.

Constrained User Interface incorporates similar concepts of two other access control models that have been detailed, Role Base and Rule Base. Constrained User Interface is defined as a user’s ability to get into certain resources based on the user’s rights and privileges. These rights and privileges are restricted and constrained on the asset they are attempting to access. While this requires many levels of protection it provides limitations on the request access to the resources available within the organization.

Another example of a access control model that can be applied in this situation is known as the Clark and Wilson Integrity Model. This model provides improvements from the Biba Integrity Model of access control. Developed by David Clark and David Wilson, the mode concentrates on what happens when a user tries to do things they are not permitted to do, which was one flaw of the Biba Integrity Model . The other flaw that was addressed was the model also reviews internal integrity threats .

There are 3 key elements of the Clark and Wilson integrity model; the first it stops unauthorized users from making changes within the system. The second, it stops authorized users from making improper changes, and the third, it maintains consistency both internally and externally . Within the Clark and Wilson model a user’s access is controlled by permissions, specifically to execute programs with authorized users having access to programs that allow changes.

While some of these models are similar they work best when working with each other. By providing multiple models of access controls within the network it will provide a more robust coverage of access control. It would not be beneficial to utilize only one access control model as there can be flaws and vulnerabilities for a single access control mode. REFERENCES:

Kim, D., & Solomon, M. G. (2012). Fundamentals of Information Systems SecuritY. Sudbury: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Annotated bibliography – Gun Control

1. Newspaper article

McNeil, Harold. “Local governments group votes for repeal of state’s gun safety law.” Buffalo  News, The (NY) 02 Mar. 2013: Points of View Reference Center. Web. 18 Apr. 2013. This article demonstrates how an act known as the Secure Ammunition and Firearms Enforcement Act amended by the State Senate and Assembly of New York violate the constitutional Second Amendment of all people. The act was rushed to be signed into law on the same day, but shortly repealed by state law makers, who want to stress gun laws for the mental ill and criminals.

2. Peer reviewed academic journal article

Domenech, Benjamin. “The Truth About Mass Shootings and Gun Control: Crime and killings have fallen as gun ownership has increased.” Commentary 135.2 (2013): 25+. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.

It demonstrates gun control by portraying how once tragic incidents happen, the first instinct of people is to automatically invest in a gun, which in turn results in a reduced crime rate because the Second Amendment protects citizens from the limitations of gun ownership put in place by government. More citizens with guns lead to less violence. Americans fear if gun purchases were limited to the public, they would be defenseless. Properly examined Americans should be armed for their own safety and the mass media should tone down their way of revealing tragedies to the public.

3. Book published after 2000

Lunger, Norman L. “Gun Laws: What a Maze!.” Big Bang: The Loud Debate Over Gun Control. 54.
N.p.: Lerner Publishing Group, 2002. Points of View Reference Center. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.
The book publish relates to the gun control due to controversies regarding differentiation of laws involved with guns in different states across the country.

The United States has more than 20,000 laws and ordinances for guns, but depending where one travels not all the rights to carry or possess a gun are the same across sate lines. There are discussions on the restrictions to purchase a gun, the debate of including background checks to requirements to buy, with child safety in mind and the protection of the consumer regarding if the gun is lost or stolen.

4. Popular Magazine Article

Begala, Paul. “Me and a Gun.” Newsweek 4 Jan 2013: 1. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web.
18 Apr. 2013.
This magazine article discusses gun owner condone tougher gun controls for the purpose of safety for gun operations so they know the proper procedures to take when using and concealing a weapon safely without injuring others. The laws are stated as “ Common-sense gun-safety laws.”

5. Editorial

“The forces arrayed against gun controls.” Globe & Mail [Toronto, Canada] 3 May 1991: A14. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 18 Apr. 2013.
The editorial defines the proposal of the Brady Bill, which would allow for a seven day grace period for anyone selling a handgun to wait for the information of the purchaser to be reviewed by the local law enforcement to distinguish if they have a criminal history putting them at risk to possess a gun.

Birth control essay

Birth control has come a long way since the introduction of the birth control pill. There are now more than a dozen methods to choose from.The most common ones could be condoms and birth control pills.Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages, but none of those methods can be 100% safe,except for abstinence.None having sex with another person is the only way to be 100%effective of birth control. A condom is a barrier method commonly used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy. As a method of birth control, condoms have the advantage of being inexpensive, easy to use, having few side effects, and offering protection against sexually transmitted diseases. When used consistently and correctly with every act of sexual intercourse, male condoms can prevent pregnancy and STDs, including HIV/ AIDS.

They are safe, and have no hormonal side-effects. They are very easy to find and use without seeing a healthcare provider first. Condoms do have some disadvantages too. Latex condoms may cause itching for a few people who are allergic to latex and/or lubricants. There is still a small possibility that a condom will slip off during sex. Some people are too embarrassed to buy, ask a partner to use, put on, take off, or throw away condoms.And condoms don’t make u feel good. Birth control pills provide highly reliable contraceptive protection, exceeding 99%. Even when imperfect use is considered, the BCPs are still very effective in preventing pregnancy. Birth control pills cause menstrual cycles to occur regularly and predictably.

This is especially helpful for women with periods that come too often or too infrequently. Birth control pills can improve acne as well. For moderate to severe acne, which other medications can’t cure, birth control pills may be prescribed.But birth control pills have disadvantages. Women taking birth control pills usually have a small increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Headaches may start in women who have not previously had headaches, or can get worse in those who do. Some women should not take pills if they have specific health conditions, including some types of diabetes, liver disease.Plus, The pill costs more than condoms. People are abstinent for many reasons, including to prevent pregnancy.And it is definitely the easiest,safest and the most convenient way to prevent pregnancy.

People can choose abstinence to prevent STDs, wait until they’re ready for a sexual relationship, focus on school, career, or extracurricular activities. Sexual relationships present risks. Abstinence is a very good way to postpone taking those risks until you are better able to handle them. There are few disadvantages to abstinence as well.People may find it difficult to abstain for long periods of time and may end their period of abstinence without being prepared to protect themselves against pregnancy or infection.And there is often pressure from your partner or friends to have sex.lt is hard to control yourself particularly in the moment. If you really want to prevent pregnancy,the best way is obviously abstinence. lt is 100% effective in preventing pregnancy.

Therefore, It’s the best protection and the only guarantee. Abstinence is a good way to really get to know your boyfriend or girlfriend without the complications of sex.After knowing each other really well,if you really want to have sex with your boyfriend.l suggest you to use birth control pills,because they are safer even though they are much more expensive.But l don’t think that you want to risk on preventing pregnancy.If you can’t even afford the birth control pills,you are absolutely not ready to have a kid.But although birth control pills are 98.7% effective,there is still risk to get pregnant.So no method is completely safe except for abstinence.You have to consider carefully before you become sexually active.Don’t do anything that would make yourself regret.We are all responsible for ourselves! Shirly Zhou Per.3

Control Smoking

Everywhere, we see people smoking where most of them are men. It has become a trend and a daily necessity to smokers. Therefore, it is very difficult to control smoking habit. However, benefit of smoking only for certain things such as increasing in economy income and chance of jobs but as for individual, it will only bring harm rather than good.

Body

A. Topic Sentence
Most of smokers which are men have a lack of awareness about disadvantages of smoking. There are several disadvantages that can be seen from smoking, such as smoking is a cause of lung dysfunction. Supporting Point

A cigarettes contains almost 600 ingredients, when burned it would produce about 6000 chemicals, where one of it is tar. The tar mostly will sticks to the cilia in our lungs and more things is it will be the cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD

a. Specific Detail.
Cilia are microscopic, hair-like structures that extend from the surface of every human. This can be found in the lungs, respiratory tract and middle ear. These cilia have a rhythmic waving, in other words, cilia will act as a broom that clean dirt in your respiratory system. b. Specific Detail

COPD will affect the function of the lungs and how oxygen being delivers into the body plus it also the cause of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and involve the charge in the structure of your lung tissue and airways.

Topic Sentence
Moreover, cancer is also one of the contributions from smoking cigarettes. There are many statistics and organization that make research about cigarette but none of them have proven that cigarette’s a good thing.

Supporting Point
There are many kind of cancer from smoking habit and some of them are mouth and throat cancer.

a. Supporting Detail
Cigarette contains many cancer agents know as carcinogens. These carcinogens can cause mutations in mouth cells and develop a mouth cancer.

b. Supporting Detail
Since carcinogen is an agent of cancer that contain in cigarettes, it also can affect throat which lead to throat cancer. Moreover, the heat from burned cigarettes, also contribute in having

Topic Sentence
Another reason why smoking can harms the smokers because it can affect heart and blood vessel ability and yet there are many smokers who did not realise or lack of knowledge about the effect of smoking. Supporting point

Smoking can change the structure of blood vessels. This can lead to the build-up of plaque that hardens and narrows the vessels, causing a disease called atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a common cause of heart attacks and peripheral arterial disease (P.A.D.)

a.Specific detail

Atherosclerosis is a disease which is plaque builds up inside your arteries. Ingredients that contain in the cigarettes will help the build-up of the plaque. Over time, plaque hardens and narrows your arteries. This limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs and other parts of your body and also it is one of the factor of heart attacks.

b.Specific detail

Peripheral arterial disease (P.A.D.) also a disease in which plaque builds up in the arteries that carry blood to your head, organs, and limbs P.A.D. usually affects the arteries in the legs. Smoking is the main risk factor for P.A.D. the smokers will have a risk of P.A.D. increases up to four times.

Conclusion
This are some of the bad effect by smoking cigarette which will affect your life, family and also people around you either in the past, present and future. Even though, some people may assume smoking is a good thing for them but the fact is that smoking is a bad habit that brings bad life style. Therefore we hope that every smoker in the world realise and start taking action on stopping a smoking habit because there are no benefit can be get from smoking.

Workplace Hazards and Risk Control

· Unexpected collapse of the trench wall /cave in: Sudden collapse of the excavation walls normally happens due to the condition of soil, presence of water, vibrations due to activities in the vicinity, lack of support etc. Severe crush injuries can result from even relatively small collapse as soil is very heavy

· Falling of persons / workers into the trench: Falling of persons normally happens as a result of unfenced edges or while climbing in to or out of the excavation from ladders

· Presence of toxic gases during the trenching: Excavations can get filled with any gas that is heavier than air or other gases in the surroundings can get leach out of the soil and into excavation

· Accumulation of water: Flooding usually happens from surface water due to heavy rain, ground water or due to the rupture of water pipelines.
· Oxygen Deficiency: Deficiency of oxygen may happen due to the depth of excavation / Trench
· Fire due to the presence of underground utilities carrying flammable materials
· Collapse of the adjacent structure: Excavation works can affect the foundations of nearby buildings causing destabilizing or collapse of the structure
· Biological Hazards

· No proper access/ egress
· Mobile equipments falling into the pit
· Inadequate illumination
Precautionary Measures:
To avoid the unexpected collapse of the trench / excavation wall, the wall should be protected by means of sloping, shoring, benching or shielding. Check for the presence of underground utilities before the start of the work. The plans of the area of the excavation should be obtained. The buried services should be located using surface clues and detection equipment. The buried services should be discovered by careful digging with hand. Before performing the mechanical excavation, underground utilities should be isolated if possible. The perimeter of the excavation should be protected by means of hard barricades, so as to avoid the unauthorized entry of personnel into the work area and to avoid the vehicles running close to the excavation.

The pit / excavation should be periodically monitored by means of detectors to detect the presence of toxic gases as well the availability of oxygen. If the presence of toxic gases is identified it should be removed by providing adequate ventilation or supply the workers with adequate respiratory protections. Accumulated water inside the excavation / trench should be removed by providing adequate dewatering systems (pumps & motors) and protected against the runaway water (Spoils). Adjacent structures near to the excavation should be protected by providing adequate physical support or underpinning to the structure. Proper lighting and caution boards should be provided in and around the excavation area.

Ladders should be provided for the movement of workers into and out of the excavation correspondingly ramps should be provided for the movement of vehicles. The excavation should be made subject to a permit to enter. Forced ventilation, air monitoring and respiratory protective equipment may be necessary. Excavation should always be inspected by a competent person before the start of work, accidental fall of materials and after any undesired or unexpected events. Vehicles should be prevented from approaching the excavation side by use of barriers and signage’s. Employees working in excavation should be provided with adequate personal protective equipment’s. Periodical inspection should be performed before, during and after excavation.

 Mobile Scaffold (Mobile Tower Scaffold):
Hazards:
· Falling of personnel from the working platform
· Objects falling from the platform or due to the work activity
· Collapse of the structure due to overloading, inadequate construction, inadequate bracings, lack of maintenance etc.
· Overturning of the structure (moving the structure through uneven surfaces, overloading at edges, broken castor wheels, moving with personnel on top etc.)
· Contact with overhead electrical line

· Collision with the obstructions or vehicles
Precautions:
Following factors need to be considered when using a mobile tower scaffold:  Guard rails must be fitted on the work platform
 Tower must not be over loaded
 Wheels should be locked when the tower is in use
 Tower must be sited on firm and level ground
 People and materials should not remain on the tower when it is moved  Care should be taken to avoid the overheads when the tower is moved  Outriggers should be used where necessary to ensure stability  Mobile tower should be built by trained workers

 Tower platforms should be fully decked
 Castor wheels should have adequate strength
 The mobile scaffold in use shall rest upon a suitable footing and shall stand plumb  All wheels shall be provided with a positive locking device to hold the scaffold in position  Demolition:
Hazards:
Some of the hazards that may be presented during the demolition of the building may include the following:
 Unintentional collapse of the building being demolished or the adjoining structures because of the lack of temporary support, buildup of debris, weakening of load bearing sections etc.  Debris falling from height during the demolition

 Fires, explosion, electrocution etc. due to services not being isolated  Health hazards from chemicals, asbestos, lead based coatings, biological contaminations etc.  Personnel falling due to unsafe place of work or due to improper access / egress  Hazards related to the use of explosives

 Hazards related to the manual handling of heavy loads
 Site Security for Children:
Some of the security measures that should be considered to prevent the entry of the children into the construction sites are:
 Fencing / Barricading the site
 Fencing / Covering excavations/ trenches
 Display of warning signs and caution boards
 Visiting the neighborhood and informing the parents about the work activities  Visiting the schools and conducting awareness programs
 Monitoring by the use of security patrols and closed circuit televisions  Posting caution boards near excavated pits and dangerous machinery  Removing ladders and denying access to the scaffoldings

 Mobile Elevated Working Platform (MEWP)
Precautionary Measures:
The safe working practices that need to be followed while using a mobile elevated working platform include:
 Operated by a trained, experienced and competent operator
 Operated on a firm and level ground
 Do not overload it
 Cordon the area when in use.
 Outriggers fully extended.
 Ensure no overhead obstruction
 Do not operate under overhead electric lines
 Move the equipment keeping the platform low.
 Before use check whether the brakes, limit switches are in working condition.  Safe working load be displayed
 It should be inspected as an item of lifting equipment designed to carry people.  Violence
Works that has the proximity for violence at work:
 Handling money or valuables – cashiers,
 Providing care, advice, education and training (nurses, ambulance staff, social workers, teachers)
 Carrying out inspection or enforcement duties (police and traffic wardens, ticket inspectors)  Working with mentally disturbed, drunk or potentially violent people (prison, officers, bar staff, mental health workers)

 Working alone (home visitors, taxi drivers, and domestic repair workers) Control Strategies:
Zero tolerance policy and prosecution to offenders, Queue management and information, Change the job to give less face to face contact, Use cheques, credit cards, tokens instead of cash, Check credentials of “clients” and meeting locations, Avoid lone working in high risk areas, Call-in system for lone workers, Arrangements to get staff home if working late, Training employees to deal with aggression, Changing public waiting areas, Video cameras, alarm buttons, visible security staff, Protective screens and coded security locks, keeping record of past incidents and vetting customers, security doors between public areas and staff areas, Panic alarms, Visitors should not be allowed after dark, secure parking areas for the staff.

 Movement of People – Slips & Trips
Factors that may cause slips & Trips:
 Floor Surface: Slippery floor, holes on the floor, uneven floor, smooth floor  Contamination: Spillages, Leaks
 Obstructions: Rubbish, trailing cables, rugs etc.
 The Task: How the task is performed: Carrying loads that is not properly arranged, Overloading, obstruction of vision etc.
 Environment: Inadequate lighting, dusty atmosphere etc.
 Footwear: Unsuitable footwear
 The People: Unaware of the dangers
Precautionary Measures:
 Risk Assessment: Conduct a risk assessment on the path, which is used by the employees for movement to identify the hazards and to provide the control measures.  Floor Surface: Provide Non Slipper y floor and even floor ; ensure no pot holes on the floor; Contamination: Ensure no Spillages and Leaks of water, grease , oil on the floor  Obstructions: Keep the Rubbish & its bins at the side of the path, route the trailing cables so that it does not obstruct the path, ensure no loose rugs placed which would cause trip etc.  The Task: Ensure employees carry loads not more than their capacity. Loads carried do not block their view. Give them enough rest pauses if the load is carried for long distance. Provide enough space to work.

 Environment: Provide enough Lighting at the passages, adequate ventilation if possible to remove the dust or smoke persisting in the workplace
 Footwear: Provide suitable footwear or inform them to wear appropriate foot wears.  The People: Make employees aware of the hazard on the path they move.  Designated walkway: Provide designated walkway for people movement.  Reporting: Inform employees to report hazards they noticed to the management  Independent Tied Scaffold:

Precautionary Measures:
 Scaffolds should always be erected under a competent supervisor  Only experienced and trained employees be deployed for the work  No damage scaffold material to be used
 Factor of safety for all components on a scaffold is 4
Ground shall be even, firm, and capable of carrying the scaffold weight  Unstable objects such as barrels, boxes, loose brick or concrete blocks shall not be used to support scaffold base
 Base plate shall be used to spread the load of the scaffold  All scaffold posts (standards) shall be pitched on steel base plates  Screw jacks shall be used to compensate for variations in ground level  Scaffold posts and frames shall be erected and maintained vertical and plumb and vertically braced in both directions to prevent swaying and displacement  Adequate Ties or guys shall be provided to meet the design requirements of the scaffold.  Every scaffold platform shall be closed planked or decked as fully as possible between the guardrails

 Platforms shall be kept free of obstructions, unnecessary materials, projecting nails and other unnecessary tripping hazards (including uneven decking)
 Adequate space for workers to safely pass shall be provided and maintained wherever materials are placed on platforms or if any higher platform is erected thereon  Platform units that have become slippery with oil, sand, or any other substance shall be cleaned, or otherwise removed and replaced, prior to continuing use

 Heat Stress:
Effects of Heat on Workers:
Working on the hot and humid climatic conditions usually has large impacts on the health of the workers. Some of the effects of the temperature on the
human body are listed below:  Sun Burns – Too much of exposure to sun or working in humid conditions can cause reddening of the skin along with painful / blistering peeling of the skin  Heat Exhaustion – Working in hot or humid climatic conditions may cause fluid loss in the form of sweating which also causes loss of salt from the body. Inadequate water intake under these circumstances causes body cooling system to break down

 Heat Rashes – Exposure to humid conditions can cause red bumpy rash with severe itching on the skin
 Fainting – Fluid loss and inadequate intake of water can cause dehydration which can result in fainting.
 Heat Stroke – When the human body has used up all its water and salt reserves it will stop sweating which can result in stroke.
Precautionary Measures:
Remove or reduce the source of heat where ever possible, control the temperature using engineering controls e.g. change the processes, use fans or air conditioning, use physical barriers that reduce exposure to radiant heat. Providing periodic breaks and rest facilities in cooler conditions and by circulating cool drinking water for the workers prevents them from dehydration. Allow the workers to work in shifts so that they may not be fully exposed to the humid conditions. Provide suitable personal protective equipment’s to the workers. Prevent employees who are more susceptible to heat stress either because of an illness or medications that may encourage the early onset of heat stress.  Working on Height – Fragile Roofs / Roofs (Can be asked in both ways, control measures will be almost same in both)

Hazards – Fragile Roofs
 Fall from roof edges
 Fall through fragile roof sheet.
 Fall through openings in the roof
 Hot Bitumen (Coal tar) material when using it.
 Material Fall from height
Control Measures:
1) Provide edge protection around the roof perimeter
2) Cover or guard the openings on the roof
3) Use crawler board on slope fragile roof
4) Provide proper access and egress to the roof
5) Tie safety net below the roof
Protections for preventing material fall from height:
1) Materials shall be lowered from height, no material shall be dropped.
2) Do not keep any loose materials unsecured on the roof
3) Tie the tools used for roof work to the waist
4) Sheets shall be secured and kept on roof.
PPEs:
1) All employees should appropriate PPEs like Safety helmet, gloves, Safety Harness etc.
2) They shall wear spectacles when working under hot sun on a GI sheet work. Employees:
1) Employees send for the roof work should be selected and trained
2) Employees selected for the job should undergo premedical test.
3) Establish Height work permit
4) Appropriate rest pause should be introduced.

A Solution to Gun Control

On December 12, 2012, twenty children and six adults were killed at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, CT. It was one of the deadliest school shootings in US history. The shooting renewed debate on the issue of gun control. It sparked a conflict between the Executive and Legislative branches over how best to deal with the situation. Unfortunately, the gun debate tends to be a black or white issue – either you are “for guns” or “against guns”. There seems to be little middle ground. The media and politicians often play into the hype, making a big deal about which side people are on. There is also lot of money at stake, as interest groups and lobbyists work hard to win supporters and pressure politicians. These factors have made it difficult for anything to get down to help truly resolve the situation. I do believe that a compromise can be reached between both sides, so that positive change can take place that will prevent future tragedies.

Immediately after the Sandy Hook incident, the two sides were out making their case. With the one side of gun control stating that this incident would have never occurred if there was more gun control, while the other side felt that tightening control laws would not have prevented nor will it stop something like this from happening again. Within hours of the shooting, President Obama made a television statement in which he said, “we’re going to have to come together and take meaningful action to prevent more tragedies like this, regardless of the politics”. Then four days later at the memorial service in Connecticut, the President said he would “use whatever power this office holds” to prevent similar tragedies. On January 16, 2013, the President announced that he signed twenty-three executive orders and was proposing twelve actions for Congress to pass to further gun control.

Congress also took some action on the issue and voted on two pieces of legislation. On January 24, 2013, the Assault Weapons Ban of 2013 was introduced in the Senate. Although passing the Senate Judiciary Committee, the bill failed by a vote of 60 to 40. The other piece of legislation that was proposed during this time was universal background checks. The Manchin-Toomey Amendment was put to a vote that would have required background checks on most firearms sales. On April 17, 2013, the Senate voted against this amendment. In fact, the last major piece of gun control legislation to make it into law was the assault weapons ban of 1994. Ironically, the ban was only temporary and expired in 2004. Repeated attempts to renew it have failed. In spite of the increased and heightened emotion following the Sandy Hook incident, no additional gun control legislation was made into law. This fact shows just how divided and how little room for compromise exists on the matter.

The people for and against gun control make up one most divided groups on a policy issue. The feelings they both have are strong and are deeply held. On the side for gun control, the argument is that if guns were more difficult to obtain, there would be less violent crimes being committed. One of the pro gun control facts is that more than half of all murders in any given year are attributed to gun violence. With stricter laws, less people would have access to these weapons. Simply put, with no guns…no one can be killed with a gun. The anti gun control people also have a compelling argument. They stand firmly behind the Second Amendment, which is the right to bear arms. One of their statistics is that the USA has the most heavily armed civilian population by a large margin; however, we are not even in the top 20 in our gun murder victims. They say that guns are not the problem, the people are the problem.

They feel it should not be difficult or impossible for a law-abiding citizen to buy a rifle for hunting season, or a pistol to protect their family. They feel that gun control laws will not stop the wrong people from obtaining weapons, so the problem is not going to be solved by simply creating more gun control laws. With the millions of people who live in the United States, it is an impossible request that everyone agree. Especially if our politicians continue to only propose “all or nothing” solutions. I believe that there is a solution to this problem, and that more needs to be done to try and stop the senseless killing of innocent people. Although nothing is foolproof, we must try to do all we can to prevent another Sandy Hook. There is too much carnage and damage that someone can do with the assault weapons and high capacity magazines available today. We already have many good federal and state laws on the books regarding guns and gun control.

Unfortunately, they are not all being followed or properly enforced. We should start there. One change I would make is to standardize gun registration across the nation. This is currently a state issue and each state has different standards and procedures. Doing this would have many benefits. First, it will make it much easier to follow and implement the laws already in place. By standardizing the procedure, you can then more easily create a national database with this information, which can be accessed by each state. I believe this process would help to prevent smuggling between states. In order to gain the support of the pro gun group, this process cannot overshadow state laws on gun ownership. Another possible solution I would make involves the design and manufacture of firearms. Gun manufactures have done very little to make their products safer. I believe we can pressure gun manufactures, as we have done with other manufacturers of consumer products, to make their products safer and less likely to discharge accidentally.

An example of increased safety due to changes in design and manufacturing is the automobile. The technology currently exists that would instantly make guns safer for the public. There are safety devices that prevent accidental discharge. In addition, there are other devises that a gun owner could activate on a stolen gun that would render it completely unusable. For some reason, gun manufacturers have been reluctant to market or to make these types of devises available. I believe these are two possible solutions that could break the gridlock and make a positive impact on this problem. Gun control is one of the most hotly debated social problems we are facing today. Little has been done to resolve the problem due to the “all-or-nothing” legislative proposals that have been introduced. The two solutions I’ve presented would be effective because they allow both groups to claim a victory. Neither group has to totally abandon its beliefs or cave to the other side. This is a solution involving a compromise. This issue is so polarizing; I feel that little will be done if a solution involving a compromise cannot be reached. In any case, gun control issues will be around for long time.

The principles of infection prevention and control

1. ‘It is our responsibility as employees to take precautionary measures to prevent and control the spread of infection in the workplace; this involves working safely to protect myself, other staff, visitors and individuals from infections. Some of the legislation and regulations that relate to the control and prevention of infection include the Health and Safety at Work Act (HASAWA), the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) and the Reporting of Injury, Disease and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR). It is important as employees that we are aware of these so that we can work safely; at work we have information provided in the health and safety file and COSHH file. As employees we must ensure we attend all necessary trainings that our employers provide regarding infection control and prevention.

If an employee comes across a hazard such as bodily fluids spilt in an area or a staff member not wearing gloves you must report it immediately to a senior staff member and not ignore it as this may cause infection to spread. In the workplace employees need to put these safe ways of working into practice; for example by effective hand washing, not coming into work when you’re not feeling well as you will be putting others at risk, by not wearing jewellery when cooking or supporting service users in other activities as jewellery carries many pathogens, by always wearing protective clothing; as a support worker wearing an apron and gloves for procedures will reduce the spread of infection by preventing infection passing on from me to others and from getting it on my clothes and spreading it onto another person I come into contact with. It is also important that all equipment is cleaned correctly to avoid cross infection this is because infection can also spread from one person to another through instruments, linen and equipment.

2. Explain employer’s responsibilities in relation to prevention and control infection. The employer has a duty to protect, so far as reasonably practicable, those at work who may be affected by work activities. This involves your employer carrying out a risk assessment to identify and assess the risk. Your employer is responsible for planning safety, providing information and updating systems and procedures. The employers responsibility with regards the prevention and control of infection is to supply PPE if the risk to health & safety cannot be adequately controlled in other ways. You must receive proper training on how to use any PPE provided and your employer should carry out regular checks to ensure it is being used correctly. They should ensure the correct storage of PPE such as gloves. Waste can be a source of infection and needs to be dealt with safely. Employers must have procedures in place to deal with waste materials and spillage to ensure it is dealt with correctly. Your employer is also responsible in reporting any outbreaks of infection within your workplace, to the Health Protection team and the Care Quality Commission.

Outcome 2
Understand legislation and policies relating to prevention and control of infections. 1 Outline current legislation and regulatory body standards which are relevant to the prevention and control of infection. ‘There are laws and legal regulations about infection prevention and control. Most of the legal regulations relating to infection prevention and control come under the Health and Safety at Work Act; this act is about ensuring a safe work place for employers, employees and members of the public by minimising accidents at work. The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations introduced the need for monitoring health and safety and risk assessment; including infection prevention and control. The Food Safety Act was brought in to ensure safe practices for food to avoid contamination and spreading of infection and includes handling, storing and disposal of food.

Legal regulations that come under HASAWA include The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH), this is relevant as it is about the prevention and control of pathogens and managing the safe storage and use of hazardous substances. Reporting of Injury, Disease and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) is relevant as it requires that any infection or disease that is work related be recorded and reported. There are regulatory bodies such as the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the Food Standards Agency (FSA) that produce standards to guide and inform infection prevention and control practices. The HSE is an independent regulator for work-related health, safety and illness; provide information and advice to reduce risks of accidents occurring in the workplace including the spread of infections. NICE is responsible for providing guidance on the most effective ways to prevent, diagnose and treat disease and ill health. The FSA is responsible for food safety and food hygiene and providing advice on food safety issues.

2 describe local and organisational policies relevant to the prevention and control of infection. Local and organizational policies relevant to the prevention and control of infection are The Public Health (control of disease) Act 1984, Social Care Act, the NICE guidelines and also the companies policies and procedures that relate to infection prevention and control.

Outcome 3
Describe procedures and systems relevant to the prevention and control of infection. 1 Standard Operation Procedures (S.O.Ps)
Standard Operation Procedures (S.O.P’s) can be found in the main office, it covers the health and safety policy along with other legislations and regulatory body standards in accordance to the prevention and control of infection. These policies include instructions of how to carry out ‘safe’ manual handing in each room, they also include departmental dress codes, health, safety and hygiene codes, the startup procedures, corrective and preventive actions, cleaning procedures and pest control.

These standards set up by the company will reduce the risk of infections spreading and reduce the risk of hazards occurring. In a working environment that has lots of infectious substances, there are lots of procedures to ensure the risk of these spreading is reduced dramatically, if all policies and procedures are followed to the highest of standards then infections spreading should not occur and all staff will be able to work in a clean and safe environment. Personal Protective Equipment. One important S.O.P procedures involves personal protective equipment (sppe) to eliminate the possibility of cross contamination. You must at all times be clean, you must ensure that your hands are washed thoroughly and most importantly after visiting the toilet.

2 Explain the potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the individual and the organisation Cross infection is one of the main benefactors for infections to break out, following health and safety policies and procedures will help in the prevention of infection. The handling of medication should be adhered to according to the medication (handling meds) policy. The changing and disposing of sppe are essential in the prevention of cross infection in accordance with Infection protection and control policy. If infection were to breakout the effects of this could result in prolonging ones recovery time or in worse cases could result in permanent disablement or even death. An outbreak of infection could also result in closure of department by CQC.

Outcome 4
Understand the importance of risk assessment in relation to prevention and control of infections

Describe the term risk.
A risk is when someone or something may be exposed to potential harm/ Infections can spread in 5 ways:

Outline potential risks of infection within the workplace.

Airborne i.e coughs and sneezes
Contamination from not washing hands after dealing with other patients or toileting. Skin to skin contact transferring dirt from human or even animal contact. Transfer of Body Fluids through not wearing correct protective equipment. Food poisoning through food not being kept at correct temperatures or out of date food

Describe the process of carrying out a risk assessment
Identify the hazards : trailing wires, unsecured rugs, out of date medication, broken equipment ect. Decide who might be harmed and how, the patient or their family, myself and colleagues, any other official body entering the property. Evaluate the risks and decide on precaution, Record your findings and implement them, contact relevant organisation to come and repair damaged or broken property and put sign on it to warn others. Review your assessment and update if necessary.

Explain the importance of carrying out risk assessment

The main aim is to make sure that no one gets hurt or becomes ill. Accidents and ill health can ruin lives, and can also affect business. Risk is the chance or probability that a person will be harmed or experience an adverse health effect if exposed to a hazard. It may also apply to situations with property or equipment loss. The risk is the chance, high or low, that somebody could be harmed by these and other hazards, together with an indication of how serious the harm could be. Factors that influence the degree of risk include:

• how much a person is exposed to a hazardous thing or condition,
• how the person is exposed (e.g., breathing in a vapour, skin contact),
• How severe are the effects under the conditions of exposure.

What types of hazards are there within the workplace?

A common way to classify hazards is by category:
• biological – bacteria, viruses, insects, plants, birds, animals, and humans, etc.,
• Chemical – depends on the physical, chemical and toxic properties of the chemical.
• ergonomic – repetitive movements, improper set up of workstation, etc.,
• physical – radiation, magnetic fields, pressure extremes (high pressure or vacuum), noise, etc,
• psychosocial – stress, violence, etc.,

• safety – slipping/tripping hazards, inappropriate machine guarding, equipment • malfunctions or breakdowns

Describe the process of carrying out a risk assessment?
1. Identify the hazards
2. Decide who might be harmed and how
3. Evaluate the risks and decide on precaution
4. Record your findings and implement them
5. Review your assessment and update if necessary
Describe the importance of carrying out a risk assessment?
Risk Assessment is part of Risk Management, a formalized process for ensuring that organizations do not expose people to unacceptable risk, ensuring all staff has had training and up keeping of their skills. A risk assessment enables all parties, employees, employer and visitors that they are within a safe

Describe different types of ppe
Aprons
Gloves
Plastic shoe covers
Protective eye wear
Antibacterial wipes
Paper towels
Hand gel
Hand soap

Explain the reasons for use of ppe

Personal protective equipment reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the Risk of acquiring an infection. It is important that it is used effectively, correctly and at all times where contact with blood and body fluids of patients may occur.

State the current relevant regulations and legislation relating to ppe Employees are responsible to use PPE appropriate and as instructed by employer. An employee has to check PPE before and after use and have to report any damage. Ensuring employees who store and handle dangerous substances are properly trained. Using appropriate precautions when handling substances- for example, wearing protective clothing or ensuring adequate ventilation and Checking containers are properly labelled.

Describe employees’ responsibilities regarding the use of PPE.
It is the responsibility of employees to ensure that they take reasonable care to protect their own health and safety and that of their co-workers and other persons in or near the workplace and Uses PPE in accordance with instruction provided. Report to management any hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions or risks that they identify in their work environment. Participate in training provided by the employer, regarding the appropriate use, care, and maintenance of PPE.

Describe employers’ responsibilities regarding the use of ppe Employers responsibilities in the relation to the prevention and control of infection are to keep everybody safe and to provide a safe work place, they do this by following current legislation. A few examples taken from the HSAWA are COSHH, The Public Health (control of diseases) Act, Food Safety Act and The Environmental Protection Regulations. Produce relevant risk assessments in order to reduce or eliminate infection risks, provide relevant training for employees as well as PPE, up to date policies and procedures, cleaning products and safe and secure storage for cleaning products, PPE etc.

Describe the correct practice in application and removal of ppe Describe the correct procedure for the disposal of sppe PPE will only protect you and others if you know how to put it on and take it off safely. The following gives you some general guidance, but specific PPE items vary. Your employer and registered staff in your area will be able to advise you. Disposable gloves

Putting on:
Select correct glove size and type.
Perform hand hygiene.
Pull to cover wrists.
Taking off:
Grasp the outside of the glove with the opposite gloved hand and peel off. Hold the removed glove in the gloved hand.
Slot your finger under the lip of the remaining glove and peel it off, taking care not to touch the contaminated outer surface. Dispose of the gloves in
the clinical waste bin.
Perform hand hygiene.
Disposable aprons
Aprons must always be changed after you finish care activites with each person. Putting on:
Pull the apron over your head and fasten at the back of your waist. Taking off:
Unfasten (or break) the ties.
Pull the apron away from your neck and shoulders, lifting it over your head and taking care to touch the inside only, not the contaminated outer side. Fold or roll the apron into a bundle with the inner side outermost. Dispose of the apron in the clinical waste bin.

Perform hand hygiene.

Outcome 6

Describe the key principles of good personal hygiene

It is important to maintain good hygiene in order to care for your own personal appearance and eliminate body odours which might offend others/embarrass yourself. Personal hygiene refers to cleaning and grooming the body. Personal hygiene is an important way of protecting the body again diseases and infections. Good hygiene promotes self esteem and general well-being.

Poor hygiene is known to be ill received by general public. Poor hygiene is known effect people’s health and can lead to health problems as well as appearance. The failure to maintain good personal hygiene can result in illness of different kinds such as the breakdown of skin, ulcers and boils. Poor oral hygiene can lead to heart disease and plaque causing build up in the arteries. Poor hand washing can lead to spread of infectious disease such as salmonella infection. Infrequent washing of hair and skin can lead to acne and low self esteem.

Describe the correct sequence for hand washing.

Step 1 Wet hands and apply soap. Rub palms together until soap is bubbly.
Step 2 Rub each palm over the back of the other hand.
Step 3 Rub between your fingers on each hand.
Step 4 Rub your hands with the fingers together.
Step 5 Rub around each of your thumbs.
Step 6 Rub in circles on your palms. Then rinse and dry your hands

Explain when and why hand washing should be carried out.

Hands should be washed to prevent cross contamination. You should Clean your hands before touching a patient when approaching him/her Before shaking hands, Before assisting a patient in personal care activities: to move, to eat, to get dressed, Before delivering care and other non-invasive treatment: applying oxygen mask, taking pulse, blood pressure.

Describe the types of products that should be used for hand washing

Antibacterial hand soap
Warm running water, although cold water is better than none. Paper towels.

Describe correct procedures that relate to skincare

The main function of skin is as a barrier and this is dependent upon the skin remaining intact. Broken skin increases the risk of infection. Effective skin care reduces the incidence of skin problems and everyone should protect their skin, not only those with sensitive skin.

Monitor reported incidents of skin disorders and identify issues requiring further attention. co-ordinate and monitor the training identified as needed to achieve and deliver the objectives and review the effectiveness of the employers arrangements for promoting good skin care practice.

Inventory Control System

This study is established towards gathering and developing strategies that could solve the inappropriate inventory system of 7-eleven Sto. Rosario, Angeles City Outlet. The researchers established Trend analysis (regress over time) and Basic Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) to solve problem of inappropriate inventory management. The findings of this study revealed the problem on the current inventory management system that is evident in the product overstocking and under stocking problem of 7-eleven. Forecasting demand may improve the ordering quantity every time they place an order and EOQ may result in the significant savings for the company.

The Story of Convenience Shopping 7-eleven pioneered the convenience store concept way back in `1927 at the Southland Ice Company in Dallas, Texas. In addition to selling blocks of ice to refrigerated food, an enterprising ice dock employee began offering milk, bread and eggs on Sundays and evenings when grocery stores were closed. This new business idea produced ideas that satisfied customers and increased sales, and convenience retailing was born.

The company’s first convenience outlets were known as Tote’m stores since customers “Toted” away their purchases and some even sported genuine Alaskan totem poles in front. In 1946, Tote’m became 7-Eleven to reflect the stores’ new, extended hours 7 a.m until 11 p.m., seven days a week. The companu’s corporate name was changed from the Southland Corporation to 7-Eleven, inc, in 1999.

Each Store focuses on meeting the needs of busy shoppers by providing a broad selection of fresh, high quality products and services at everyday fair prices, along with speedy transactions and a clean,safe and friendly shopping environment. In year 2004, 7-Eleven located at Sto. Rosario Street Angeles City was established under the management of Edgar Nucum who was the first manager under corporate group of the Philippine Seven Corporation. However, on May 2, 2005, the said business was turnover To Mevin Teopaco because of the conversion of the establishments from corporate to franchisee Mr. Teopaco who took the business through formal application and training on how to run the business. He is responsible for ordering, buying and maintaining inventory, hiring and training employees, as well on payroll, cash variation, supplies, certain repairs, maintenance and other controllable in store expenses.

The company’s mission is t offer time-conscious customers a full range of products and services that meet their ever-changing daily needs through quality, speed, selection and value in a safe, friendly and pleasant environment. And their vision is to “become a recognized leader in providing time-conscious consumers with a full-range of products and services that meet their ever-changing daily needs. We will be the customer-preffered convenience store by exceeding customer expectations through quality, speed, selection, and value in a safe and pleasant environment, treating our employees with dignity and respect, recognizing our franchisees and suppliers as business partners, being a good corporate citizen. Achieving our vision and continued growth will provide our shareholders with a beter than competitive return on their investments”.

Inventories are ordered on a daily basis and delivered through central distribution located in Pasig City. Inventories are individually monitored thorugh monitoring sheet report, sales and ordering are incorporated at SAS System that link to POS (Point of Sales). Although Mr. Teopaco had special training in managing the said business, still sometimes he experienced and encountered different problems related to operation such as inventory losses. Such problem is caused by different factors. This problem arises when the management encounters discrepancy in the delivery of the products. However, there are products, which the store provides but not salable. Such products sty longer in the store and become spoiled.

Which are referred to as bad merchandise or BM. In effect, the company experience losses on inventories because such scenario usually happens in the store. Since the store is open 24 hours a day and the security system of the store is not that fully implemented, there are customers who shop lift from the store especially “out-of-sight” and small products. Sometimes the management could not trace those products until they make an inventory count. Another thing is that some employees do unnecessary things in the store like eating some of the products or keeping them. In such case, inventory losses happen. The occurrence of these different factors led to the existence of a current problem, which need to be monitored and evaluated by the management in order to achieve the desired objectives of the said company.

The Current Situation on the Inventory Management of 7Eleven
The main problem 7Eleven is currently facing is the inventory losses as shown on Figure 1. This problem exists because of different factors that the management should eliminate or if not, at least minimize. Such factors are the theft and shoplifiting that result to lesser sales or profit, and obsolescence of the products that result to high inventory sales. Unavailability of the prodcuts results to stock-outs and lower sales because customers tend to patronize competitor’s products.

The second factor that led to the afordeimentioned problem is inefficient employees. Inefficient employees can occur just like not performing their duties well and sometimes by concealing merchandise in a purse, pocket, or bag and removing it from the store. It can also occur by stealing cash, allowing others to steal merchandise, eating the goods and sometimes some employees do not punch other products sold. Employee theft can sometimes be charges as embezzlement due to be trusted fiduciary status of the employee. Being inefficient employee can also result dissatisfied customer. All of these methods lead to loss of inventory(shrinkage) and/or profit for the merchant. Preventing employee theft and being irresponsible is a constant challenge for the store. The store knows that it must put systems in place to prevent or deter internal theft.

To be effective, loss prevention systems must be designed to reduce the opportunity,desire, and motivation for employee theft. Basic loss prevention steps involve good procedures for hiring, training and supervision of employees and managers. Procedures that are clearly defined, articulated, and fully implemented will reduce opportunity, desire, and motivation for employees to steal. For others, the only barrier to dishonesty is the fear of being caught. The employee thief risks being fired, arrested, jailed, and paying restitution. The other cause of the said problem is the inefficient inventory control system.With this, inventories are not properly controlled which results to a high percentage of spoilage or expiration of some products. When an inefficient valuation is assigned to the inventory, it may end up having higher inventory expense.

Moreover, it will be costly on the part of the store. To determine the cost to be associated with the inventory, a physical inventory must be taken in order to determing the number of units present. Then, the costs are attached to each item in the inventory. When dealing with the inventories, cost should be interpreted to mean the sum of all direct or indirect charges incurred in bringing an item of inventory to its existing condition and/or location. The store have a price tag or a universal product code, it is acommon practice to take the physical inventory at the store from these price tags and codes it can determine their inventory. Maintenance of inventory losses may result in lost sales and disgruntled customers.

The last factor is the lack of security control system because of limited employees that wil oversee the inventories specially those that are not visible. In effect, shoplifting and theft arises. Technology alone will not eliminate retail theft. Store who wants to reduce losses should also Strive to provide good customer service and promote high job satisfactions levels among its retail sales associates. Stores that utilize security technologies generally have lower overall inventory shrinkage than those retailers who do not. Technology also allows employees to focus more time on assisting customers and less on patrolling the aisles.

Inventory is considered the current asset to the store because it will normally be sold within the store’s operating cycle.  All of the said causes result in inventory losses and lead to different effects, such as, lesser profits/sales, dissatisfied customers, and stock-outs. These are not beneficial to the company so the management need to find ways on how to overcome the causes that lead to the above effects.

Birth control

Abortion is wrong and unjust housands of women throughout the world obtain abortions every year. The decision to have an abortion is life altering and can have an enormous impact on a woman’s future health and well being. The reasons for having an abortion vary from woman to woman. The fact that a woman has even had to consider having an abortion can be in and of itself very disturbing emotionally.

Some women experience a tremendous sense of relief, while others may have feelings of guilt, anger or profound sadness. For most women these feelings gradually improve and cease to be after a short period of time; however, for a small percentage, they may become much more pronounced or serious and for a far longer period of time. The more certain a woman is about her decision to terminate her pregnancy, the less her chances will be of developing emotional or psychological problems. The same holds true for women who have friends and/or family to provide support before, during and after this emotionally trying time.

Emotional problems following an abortion tend to be more prevalent among women who have been previously diagnosed with depression, anxiety disorders or other mental health issues. Also noted at higher risk of developing depression are teenagers, separated or divorced women, and women with a history of more than one abortion. It is not unusual for a woman to experience a range of often contradictory emotions after having an abortion, just as it would not be unusual for a woman who carried her unintended pregnancy to term. There is no “right” way to feel after an abortion. Feelings of happiness, sadness, anxiety grief or relief are common. Providing women with an outlet for discussing their feelings is the first step toward the process of achieving emotional well being following an abortion. Ads by Google

Most experts agree that the negative feelings a woman may have after an abortion may be due to a negative reaction by her partner, friends or family members, who might judge her negatively for having an abortion or for even becoming pregnant in the first place. Research studies indicate that emotional responses to legally induced abortion are largely positive. They
also indicate that emotional problems resulting from abortion are rare and less frequent than those following childbirth. Most studies in the last 25 years have found abortion to be a relatively benign procedure in terms of emotional effect except when pre-abortion emotional problems exist or when a wanted pregnancy is terminated, such as after diagnostic genetic testing.

While most abortion providers offer post abortion counseling or counseling referral sources,

Control immigration

Every now and then, especially in periods of crisis, the argument of restricting the access of immigrants to one’s own country resurfaces. Whether a country is flourishing or struggling, there is never enough for all: there’s always someone else which is too many and comes to steal your air, particularly if he is poor, dirty, not speaking well your language, and so different from you. The fear and suspicion toward the immigrants is the easiest instinct an unscrupulous leader could incite in an ignorant undiscerning crowd.

The grounds proposed to restrict immigration, and persecute or throw out foreigners, are the most selfish, vile and oblique, or specious and exploitable are its supports in any case. It is said that immigration policies must be tightened because many “illegal” immigrants enter the country day by day, but there does not exist a man or woman which is “illegal” outside a human artifice: a person can not be “illegal”.

It is a universal right for people to stand and inhabit the land they want when doing no harm; men and women have no other home than the one that they choose. The nationalists (and the like) want to believe or make believe that the country has reached its limit of reception, but a land, unlike a field, it is not a private property: you cannot claim its possess just because you arrived first and declare who could come in and who cannot. Nation are fictitious, borders are drawn.

It is being said that the immigrants come into the country to “steal” jobs and resources to the natural citizens, and profit from their welfare system, but the vast majority of newcomers come with the hope and the intent of building a living and keep themselves with fatigue, contributing to the wealth of their new country all along, whereas they undertake all the sort of jobs the so-called natural citizens don’t want to do anymore. There is no “natural” citizen (especially in the case of Americans): everybody came from somewhere, and all have always moved, and always will. There is no right of first-class people with precedence over second-class ones; the class is one: the humankind.

The fear gets spread professing that the immigrants bring crime with them, but the crime level they raise it is the one caused by the laws that consider them “illegal” from the beginning, simply because they are considered undesired by an authority that doesn’t grant them the right to stand where they have arrived with great difficulties and fatigue: instead of pursuing the duty of integration the states fill up their jails with whom escaped the toils of the rejections relegating these people to the fringe of society, where the crime is a means to survive, and the worst tendencies find the worst companies. Anti-immigration laws create illegality.

Nearly every emigrant flees from backgrounds of intense poverty, maladies, scarcity, violence, persecutions, hopelessness and wars (or they are simply trying to achieve a better life), and trying to stem with force an inevitable social process, byproduct of that same globalization system promoted by who opposes to fluxes of migrants, can just produce a climate of terrorism.

In the meantime, the dread and the hate toward the foreign and the diverse, and the battle of the poor against the poor(er), keep a population distracted from the real causes and persons responsible for its penalties.

Beware of a society where goods and financial capitals have more freedom of the people themselves.

Argument Against Gun Control

Final Paper: Argument Against Gun Control

The argument on firearm regulation has been a heated discussion for many years. On one side of the debate, we have people in favor placing restrictions on guns, while, on the opposite end of the spectrum, we have people fighting the regulation of guns. People in favor gun restrictions believe gun control can reduce crime ,while, the people against gun control believe having the right to bear arms is an effective crime deterrent. I believe that every law abiding citizen should be able to carry a gun and defend themselves against people who intend to harm them.Gun control laws are simply ineffective and they have an adverse effect on crime. Instead of reducing crime, gun control laws just simply take guns out the hands of good people and puts the guns into the hands of the bad guys.

Gun control laws do not deter criminals from possessing firearms. Whether or not there’s a law restricting gun use, criminal will always find a way to get a gun because criminals are less likely to obey laws. That’s why they are called “criminals”. Also there’s no law that can stop the supply and demand of the illegal arms trade. If there’s money to be made in the black market, someone will profit from it. Criminals can easily obtain a gun through the black market. An unnamed felon was quoted, “There’s guns everywhere. If you got the money you, can get a gun.” If a criminal wanted to get a gun,they are not likely to walk into a store to buy one. Therefore, they could care less whether they had a background check or not. No law can stop criminals from arming themselves to protect themselves. Most criminals have lots of enemies and they rather get caught with a gun than get caught without one. (Stossel).

The more gun control rules and regulations there are, the happier the criminals will be, for they know the more gun laws there are the less chance they have of having a crime victim defend themselves with a lawfully-owned firearm. In many right to carry states, crime statistics are lower than the states with gun laws. The reason why is because guns are used more defensively than criminally. Criminals are usually rolling the dice when they are targeting law abiding citizens in right to carry states. (Polsby) Criminals do not fear the police or other authorities. What they fear most is the citizens who might be potentially armed. It makes it harder for criminals because they do not know what to expect from them if they’re planning to rob them. They’re either fortunate to have an unarmed victim or they become a victim with a citizen that is ready to shoot and defend their families. (Stossel).

Gun control laws only affect the citizens who follow the law. The law does not apply to the criminals. Regardless if theres a gun ban or not, criminals will find a way to obtain guns. The gun laws have no way in curtailing the illegal arms trade. In Chicago, handguns are not for sale legally. Only shotguns, rifles and ammunition can be bought with people with a Firearm Owners Identification Card. The Chicago area is one of the most difficult places to legally obtain a gun.

In order to get a gun license, people have to go through a background check and wait up to a month to legally carry a weapon.(Polsby). While it is difficult to legally possess a gun, it is way more easier to illegally carry a gun in Chicago. There are thousands of unregistered firearms in the streets with thousands more coming in every month. Banning the sale handguns in Chicago makes no difference as well too. People can go elsewhere to buy a gun. They can go out of town or even out of state to buy a gun with Indiana and Wisconsin in close proximity.(Moorhouse and Warner).

Another example why gun control law are ineffective is the staggering increase in crime in England since they imposed a ban on guns. In 1997, England passed a ban on all guns, which makes it illegal for all citizens to carry guns. England’s gun sanctions made it one of the most strictest law in the world. The new law only created an illusion of the country being more safer. Instead of reducing crime, the law put it’s citizens at the mercy of criminals who are well assured that their would be victims are unarmed and defenseless. In the two years after the law was enacted, gun related crimes increased to 40% and armed robberies rose to 53%. From 1997 to 2001, violent crimes more than doubled. People are six times more likely to be robbed at gunpoint in London compared to New York. In the United States, the occurrence of home burglaries is 13% because the majority of burglars fear armed homeowners more than they fear the law. England’s burglary statistics are 5 times higher compared to the United States at 55%. England’s gun ban created the unintended consequences of lawlessness in the streets, as well as, it did not stop criminals from possessing guns and committing crimes. (Malcolm)

Even in the United states where states and cities that passed strict gun laws have found them to be ineffective. The places where gun control laws are the most strictest are places that have the most crimes are committed with firearms.(Piquero). Of the 15 states that have the highest homicide rates, 10 have very restrictive gun laws. New York, for example, has one of the most restrictive gun laws in the nation has 20 percent of the nations total of armed robberies. Another example, Washington D.C., since guns were banned in 1976 the murder rate has risen 200 percent. In Chicago, the city consistently had one of the highest homicide rates in the nation since they enacted a ban on gun in 1982. In May 2010, a month before the Supreme Court overturned the ban, Chicago already had 113 homicides for the year.(Piquero).

Since gun restriction laws were repealed by the Supreme court in 2010, Chicago and Washington D.C. received significantly lower crime rates. The murder rate in Chicago in the first six months of 2011 is 14% lower than the first six months of 2010. This is the first significant drop in the murder rate since gun sanctions were first passed in 1982. In 2008, the Supreme Court lifted the gun ban in D.C. in the case of the District of Columbia vs. Heller. Since the gun ban was repealed, the murder rate in D.C. has dropped 35% from 2008-2010. The rate of assault with weapons decreased by 37% and armed robberies fell as well too by 25% (Lott). These statistics further prove how ineffective gun control laws are. Not only they do not work in reducing crime they create adverse effects on crime. Instead, they make the problems worst.

I believe that the right to bear arms is an unalienable right and I don’t believe that government have that right to take it away. I feel that all citizens have the right to protect themselves and their families. Gun laws restricting the use of guns does not help law abiding citizens. These laws only take away the ability of each citizens to defend themselves and makes us helpless against criminals. Gun control only creates an illusion that a society is safer and it does not solve the root cause crime. One cannot solve the crime problem by just simply taking away guns.

The crime problem goes way deeper than just guns. Criminals will find a way to get guns regardless if theres a strict law or not . Most criminals are opportunist and having a strict gun law only gives them the opportunity to commit more crime with less worry about that person being armed. I believe that there is other ways to fight crime, however, I don’t believe gun control is the answer to making our world a safer place.

Security Planning for Airlines Control and Safeguard Systems

Scenario 1

FlyWithUs Airlines has started a new low-cost carrier service to link major cities such as New York City with small towns. A few of the airports that service FlyWithUs are located in remote areas and are ill-equipped to handle emergencies.

The airline also has a charter service that flies to locations around the world. In some remote areas, where the airports are small, help may not be immediately available in the event of an accident or some other crisis.

Due to a failure of the air traffic control information system, a FlyWithUs pilot is forced to make a manual emergency landing. The plane skids off the runway and finally comes to a halt in the wilderness lining it. Five people are hurt, and one woman is critically injured. The airport does not have an ambulance on standby. By the time an ambulance arrives from the nearest hospital, which is 150 miles from the airport, the woman is dead.

Question: Could this have been the result of a cyberattack on the transportation industry’s critical infrastructure? Could FlyWithUs have prevented this situation? If yes, what measures could they have taken? Could they have stationed their own ambulance at the airport to handle emergencies? Should their pilots have been better trained to make emergency landings? Select one of the three case studies discussed at the end of Module 6 and respond to the reflection questions.

Scenario 2

The U.S. Army has chartered a flight to Afghanistan in order to transport soldiers needed because of a recent rise in attacks by the Taliban. At a stopover point, FlyWithUs discovers that refueling is not possible because fuel supply lines have been cut due to rebel activity. The team and the plane are now stranded and are waiting for help.

Question: How could information systems have been used to prevent this from happening? What types of security measures are now needed to secure the airplane, its passengers, and its cargo in this dangerous situation? Is there any way in which FlyWithUs could have ensured a fuel supply? Could the airline have arranged to carry extra fuel?

Scenario 3

The IT department has updated the antivirus software on all computers except for this one, because this computer was placed outside the firewall for a short period for trial purposes. Although the computer was brought back within the firewall, the system administrator failed to update the antivirus.

Question: How do you think this situation could have been prevented? Could the IT department have conducted regular inventories of the software on each computer to identify missing patches? Could the IT department have implemented a process to ensure that no computer is moved outside the boundaries of the firewall?

Internal Control

1. Inform the President of any new internal control requirements if the company decides to go public. As per the accident that happened in the company about some employees was viewing pornography on company computer and he had a hard time to get his employees admitted that they were the one who doing it. He should use limit access by individual passwords for each person to log in the computer systems. To make sure that which person was log on in the computer and do bad thing during that period.

2. Advise the President of what the company is doing right (they are doing some things well) and also recommend to the President whether or not they should buy the indelible ink machine. When your advice the President, please be sure to reference the applicable internal control principle that applies.

From the passage that the accountant has recently started using prenumbered invoices following by the principle of internet control activities.

Please find the Documentation Procedures passage below.

From the passage, the president wants to buy an indelible ink machine to print their checks. In my opinion, I would like to recommend that he should buy an indelible ink machine following by the principle of internal control activities.

Please find the Physical Controls passage below.

Principles of internal control activities

Documentation Procedures

Companies should establish procures for documents. First, whenever possible, companies should use prenumbered documents, and all documents should be account for. Prenumbering helps to prevent a transaction from being recorded more than once, or conversely, from not bring recorded at all. Second, the control system shown that employees should promptly forward source documents for accounting entries to the accounting entries to the accounting department. This control measure helps to ensure timely recording of the transaction and contributes directly to the accuracy and reliability of the accounting record. Require use prenumbered checks and account for them in sequence; each check must have an approved invoice; require employees to use corporate credit cards for reimbursable expenses; stamp invoices “paid”.

Physical Controls

Store blank checks in safes, with limited access; print check amounts by machine in indelible ink.

3. Advise the President of what the company is doing wrong (they are definitely doing some things poorly). Please be sure to include the internal control principle that is being violated along with a recommendation for improvement.

Following from the passage that they have one accountant who serves as Treasurer and Controller which streamlines many of their processes. In this dual role, he purchases all of the supplies and pays for these purchases. He also recieves the checks and completes the monthly bank recommendation. The accountant is so busy that the company handels pretty cash a bit differently.

He should asign duties to more than one person not only one because it hard for one person to control and serves as treasurer and controller in the same time.

Following by Principles of internal control activities. Please find Segregation of Duties and Establishment of Responsibility passage below.

From the following passage that all employees have access to the petty cash in a desk drawer and are asked to only place a note if they use any of the cash. In my opinion, he should limit access to the petty cash in a desk drawer, only one person could have responsible for the petty cash. Following by Principles of internal control activities. Please see the Establishment of Responsibility passage below.

Principles of internal control activities

Segregation of Duties

Different individuals approve and make payments; check singers do not record disbursements Segregation of duties is indispensable in an internal control system. There are two common applications of this principle: 1. Different individuals should be responsible for related activities. 2. The responsibility for record-keeping for an asset should be separate from the physical custody of that asset.

The rational for segregation of duties is this: The work of one employee should, without a duplication of effort, provide a reliable basis for evaluating the work of another employee. Segregation of related activities making one individual responsible for related activities increases the potential for errors and irregularities.

Establishment of Responsibility

An essential principle of international control is to assign responsibility to specific employees. Control is most effective when only one person is responsible for given task. Establishing responsibility often requires limiting access only to authorized personnel, and then identifying those personnel. Only designated personnel are authorized to sign checks (treasurer) and approve vendors. Compare checks to invoices; reconcile bank statement monthly

Inventory Control

INVENTORY CONTROL

Inventory is any stock of economic resources that is stored for future us e it is commonly used to store materials, in process packing materials, spares etc, stocked in order to meet respected demand or distribution in the future. Although inventory of any materials is an idle resources the sense, it is not meant for immediate use. It is necessary to maintain some inventories lot the smooth functioning f the organization. Inventories are essential:

The following is the list of the major reasons for maintaining Inventory a) Protect against irregular demand: Inventories are kept to meet fluctuating demand. b) Protect against irregular supply: a strike by the suppliers employees is one reason why deliveries may not teach on time. Lacks of materials at supplier’s level, strikes in transportation network are other possible reasons for delays in supply. Inventory is used as buffer that can be used until late deliveries arrive. c) Protection against inflation: Inventories are often kept as a hedge against inflation. In this case inventories are building up in anticipation of price increase. This speculative practice is common in commodity markets. d)Benefits of large quantities purchasing quantities of an item often entities the buyers to a discount. Similarly in case of manufacturing large production lots, the utilization of make efficient automotive equipment can be equipment can be justified by reducing the per unit manufacturing cost.

e)Saving the order cost: ordering in large quantities reduces the number of time the order must be placed and processed. Since the fixed cost of ordering will be.

f) Other reasons: Inventories are kept for several other reasons; an Inventory may improve the bargaining power of firm with a supplier (or with its own employees) by making the company less dependent on them. Inventories are also kept so that machine can be shut down for overhear.

THE STRUCTURE OF THE INVENTORY SYSTEM

The Inventory system involves a cycle process, which is assumed to run over several periods, whose major characteristics are:

a) Inventory level: an item is stocked in a warehouse, store or any other storage area. This stock continues an Inventory. The size of the Inventory is called the Inventory level (or Inventory on Hand). b) Depletion: the Inventory is depleted as demand occurs. Assume that one starts with an Inventory of 100 units. As time passes the Inventory is reduced. The rate of demand can be constant (e.g three units every day). A constant demand reduces the Inventory leveling equal steps. c) Recording: to rebuild an inventory, the item is replenished periodically. When the inventory level is reduced to a certain level called the record point, a replacement order is placed.

The time between reordering and receiving is called lead-time. d) Replacement, shortages and surpluses: in most basic inventory models, it is assumed that the reorder is scheduled so that the replacement will arrive exactly when the inventory level reaches zero. Such an assumption holds if the demand is constant. However if the demand fluctuates and the lead- time varies, the shipment may arrive either before or after stock is completely depleted, that is the depletion and replacement and replacement does not coincide. In such a case a surplus or shortage will occur. If the shipment arrives after depletion, then the demand cannot be met and shortage will occur. When the shipment arrive prior depletion, an inventory level larger than zero or surplus exists. e) Safety stock: shortage can be eliminated or reduced by deliberately building up a safety stock.

It is extra inventory held against the possibility of stock out. f) The average inventory: the balance of inventory on hand in case of constant demand, it is about half the maximum inventory. g) Basic inventory decisions: the major decisions the management makes in the inventory area are: ➢ How much to order at one time (what order quantity should be) ➢ When to order this quantity (what the reorder point should be) ➢ Should safety stock be build up? How large should it be?

INVENTORY CARRYING COSTS
Inventory carrying costs refers to the cost of handling stocks. The following elements constitute the Inventory carrying costs

a) Capital cost is an important item in determining the pest of carrying inventory. Capital cost is either the cost of borrowing capital or the cost of diverting companies finds to invest in inventories. The former means the interest rate the later implies the foregone opportunity cost. There are thus two methods of determining capital cost. The first method is to use the bank lending rate, if the money were to be borrowed. The other method is to consider the opportunity cost of the money (the return that the money will yield if invested elsewhere). b) Storage cost; includes cost of storage (i.e. annual rent or depreciation), cost of preservation i.e. rust preventive oils and ‘eases), cost of record keeping, and cost of periodic/annual stock verification etc.

c) Deterioration and. obsolescence: deterioration is the loss, from reduction in the inventory value due to one or more of the following reasons:

The part/item/material may have limited shelf life and hence may deteriorate if stored for a long time, e.g. rubber parts may crack after approximate six months life, and for example, ammonia sheets may spoil if stocked beyond three months. The items also deteriorate when the storage conditions are inadequate, unsatisfactory or both. Some of the parts may also get damp, dried up, or spoiled Deterioration can also result from poor handling of the stores. Some of the fragile items may collide with other and break. This process of deterioration, thus, reduces the value of the stocks and they may not be now worth the value recorded in the accounts book.

Obsolescence is the loss from reduction in inventory value of the items/ components rendered unusable by the company due to changes in design or due to development in the field. The risk of Obsolescence varies from industry to industry and is obviously greater than those industries where modifications are frequent and new, developments are regular. The problem is still severe in industries producing fashion goods. That is why many progressive business firms tend to get rid of theft surplus stocks which otherwise would become obsolete by some sort of periodic action such as clearance sales etc. d) Insurance cost: inventories, like other assets, are covered by insurance cost is thus the premium paid or payable to cover the company against loss due to unforeseen across such as fire, theft etc.

PROCUREMENT COST:
Procurement cost is also called ordering cost, replenishment cost or recumbent cost is the cost incurred to replenish the stock of an item. It is in fact, the cost incurred at different stages of the procurement function & is obtained by dividing the cost of activities like requisitioning order writing, orders follow up, receiving and inspection, records keeping and bill payment per period by the number of orders processed during the period. Procurement cost, therefore , represents average cost to be expended to place an order and execute the delivery once. . Basic elements of procurement cost are as under:

(a) Paper work cost:
The procurement function is built around paper work since all orders, small or big, need paper work. Purchasing function sets out with paper work (materials requisitions) pushes through paper work (enquiry forms, purchase order forms goods receipt notes, inspection notes stores’ receipt notes) and ends up with paper work (cheques to pay suppliers invoices). The requirements of this paper v vary directly with the order frequency and its cost is considered as one of the elements of procurement cost. ‘ (b) Postage cost:

Postage cost is the cost expended to mail documents necessary to the business transaction. Purchase orders are sent to authorize vendors to supply the goods, delivery schedules are mailed communicate immediate as well as future requirements, amendments to purchase orders are issued to alter \ modify quantity, price or other terms, goods inspection notes: are posted to acknowledge receipts of materials & inform inspection results, discrepancy notes are sent to highlight shortage in the quantities received, cheques are dispatched to settle suppliers bill etc. Postage cost is also incurred for the exchange of statement of accounts; debit notes credit notes & other documents required in the transaction. , (c) Follow up cost;

Follow up cost is the function of seeing that the suppliers affect deliveries on time. The Follow up function nowadays has become the foremost function of the buyers. Vendors be it small manufacturers, traders or a supplier at a distance takes little initiative in delivering the goods on time. Major portion time of the buyers, therefore, is spent in purchase follow up; pre delivery follow up & shortage chasing.

Telephones, trunk calls, telegrams & telex are the aids commonly used by the buyers for the pre-delivery follow up as well as for shortage chasing. The costs on such communication Medias is yet another major element of procurement cost. (d) Costs of visits to the vendors plants:

Follow up with the vendors at times requires visits by purchase personnel & therefore costs of such visits are considered towards procurement cost. (e) Expediting cost:

Follow up with the vendors enables buyers to secure advance information of expected delays. Pre-delivery follow up enables buyer: > To make alternates arrangements (i.e. request other suppliers for early delivery), > To decide expedited routing of goods from suppliers.

For the single-source items, the buyers in the event of delaying may have no choice but to dire expedited routing of goods. The difference between the expedited routing costs and order routing costs, if borne by the buyer too forms a part of procurement cost. (f) Operating cost of vehicles;

Vehicles are employed for collection & delivery of materials from/and to the vendors, collection materials from transporters I railways godown etc. The operating cost of such vehicles should be considered (if the vehicle is exclusively used by the materials department for buying materials for local market, to chase vendors and / or to bring goods to the plant). As yet another element procurement cost. (g) Inspection &.testing:

Inspection & testing costs include costs of destructive test. Too frequent purchases increase inspection costs. (h) Administrative costs;

Purchase is a major function & it requires performance of number of activities. Indents are to inform the purchase department of the impending need, inquiries are floated, .quotations received, rates are compared, terms of payment are looked into and then an order is placed suppliers whose terms are attractive, progress on the order is reviewed and follow up with supplier done wherever necessary materials on arrival are checked for quantity & inspected for quality suppliers invoices are received, verified and paid for. All these activities add — up into big expenses, the salaries being the main expense. Other related expenses of these activities are indirect wages, gratuity, bonus ESIC provident fund, depreciation on office equipment etc.

SELECTIVE CONTROL:
Selective control means variations in method of control from item to item based on selection basis. The criterion used for the purpose may be cost of item, critically, lead to consumption, procurement difficulties, or something else. Various classifications are employed render selective treatment to different types of materials, each classification emphasizes in of particular aspect. For example, ABC analysis emphasizes usage value (Le. consumption of items in terms of money), VED analysis considers critically, HML employs prize criterion and 8DB analysis is based on procurement difficulties.

Selective control can be divided into 8 types as per table:

|Classification |Criterion Employed | |1.ABC analysis |Usage value (i.e consumption per period x prize per unit) | |2. HML analysis High-Medium-Low |Unit price (i.e it doesn’t take consumption into account) | |3.VED analysis Vital-Essential- Desirable) |Critically of the item (i.e loss of production) | |4.SDE analysis (Scarce- Difficult-Easy) |Procurement difficulties. | |5.GOLF analysis (Government-Ordinary- local-Foreign) |Source of procurement | |6. SOS analysis (Seasonal-OFF-Seasonal) |Seasonal | |7. FSN analysis (Fast-Slow-Non Moving) |Issue from stores | |8. XYZ analysis
|Inventory investment |

ABC ANALYSIS

ABC analysis underlines a yen important principle ‘vital few trivial many’. Statistics reveal that just a handful of items account for bulk of annual expenditure on materials. These items are called ‘A’ items, therefore hold the key to business. Are numerous in numbers but their contribution is less significant. ABC analysis thus tends segregate all items into three categories: A, B and C on the basis of their annual usage .The categorizations made enables us top ay the right amount of attention as merited by the items. A-items: It is usually found that hardly 5 to 10 % of the total items account for 70 to 75% to total money spent on the materials. This items required detailed and rigid control and need to be stock in smaller quantities.

These items should be procured frequently, the quantity occasion being small. A healthy approach ,however, would be to enter into contract with the manufacturer of this items and have their supply in stagger lots according to pre determine programme of the buyer. This however will be possible when the demand is steady. Alternatively, the inventory can be at minimum by frequent ordering. B-items: This item are generally 10 to 15 % of the total items and represent 10 to 15% of the total expenditure on the materials. These are intermediate items.

The control on this item need not be as detail and as rigid as apply to A items C-items: These are numerous (as many as 70 to 80% of the total items), inexpensive (represent hardly 5 to 10% of total annual expenditure on materials), and hence insignificant (do not required loose control) items. The procurement policy of these items is exactly the reverse of A items. Items should be procured infrequently and in sufficient quantities. This enables the buyer to avail price discount and reduce workload of the concern department.

Conducting ABC Analysis
To conduct ABC analysis following 6 steps are necessary:
1) Prepare the list of the items and estimate their annual consumption (units)

2) Determine unit price (or cost0 of each item.
3) Multiply each annual consumption by its unit price (or cost) to obtain its annual consumption in rupees (annual usage) 4) Arrange items in ascending order of their annual usage starting with the highest annual usage starting with the highest annual usage down to the smallest usage. 5) Calculate cumulative annual usage and express the same as cumulative usage % so express the number of item into cumulative item percentage. 6) Plot cumulative usage percentage against cumulative item percentage and segregate the item to A, B, C categories.

ABC Analysis can be applied almost to all aspects of material management such as: a) Purchasing
b) Receiving
c) Inspecting
d) Store keeping and
e) Issue of store
f) Verification of bills
g) Inventory control and
h) Value analysis etc.

Purpose of A-B-C Analysis:
i. To separate the pre dominant few from vast majority of items whose annual consumption is very low. ii. To avoid to cost
iii. To give selective control
iv. For better purchase policy to give maximum attention to A items v. For better pre-design and pre purchase analysis
vi. Effective value analysis
vii. Realistic market research
viii. Reliable source development and
ix. Better follow up

|A |B |C | |Very tight control on inventory |Moderate Control |Loose Control | |Only exact requirement to be procured |More or less exact
requirement |On estimated usage | |Posting of individual issues in stores card |Individual postage |Collective posting | |Continuous check on production schedule and |Broad check |Hardly any check | |revision of delivery deals | |

| |Very low safety stock if possible not at all |Low safety stock Bi-Monthly ordering or quarterly|Fairly large safety stock by Ordering | |Regular expediting and follow up & reduction in |Some follow up |No follow up necessary | |lead time | | | |Very Strict consumption control |Past consumption is the base |Desirable consumption comes with less attention | |Accurate material planning needed with respect to|Past consumption is the base |Rough estimate | |forecasts. Data base should be accurate & up to | | | |date | | | |Concerted effort of cost reduction |Moderate attempts are enough |Annual Review suffices |

HML ANALYSIS

H-M-L Analysis is similar to ABC analysis, except for the difference that instead of usage price criterion is used, The items under this analysis are classified into three groups) which are called high, medium and low. To classify, the items are listed he descending order of Unit price the management for deciding the three categories then fixes the cut of lines. For example, the management may decide that all items of unit. Price above RS.1000 will be category, and those having unit price between Rs 100 to R. 1000 will be of ‘M’ category, and having unit price below RS. 1 00 will be
of ‘L’ category.

HML analysis helps to

# Assess storage and security requirements e.g. high priced items like bearings, worm wheels etc. (required to be kept in cupboards).

# To keep control over consumption at the departmental head level e.g. indents of high medium priced items are authorized by the departmental head after careful scrutiny of the consumption figures.

# Determine the frequency of stock verification, eg. high priced items are checked more frequently than low priced items.

# To evolve buying policies to cntro1 purchases. e.g. excess supply than the order quantity may be accepted for ‘H’ and ‘M’ groups While it may be accepted for ‘L’ group.

# to delegate authorities to different buyers to make petty cash purchases, e.g ‘H’ and ‘M’ may be purchased by senior buyers and L’ items by junior buyers.

VED Analysis

VED analysis represent classification of items based on criticality. The analysis classifies the item into three groups called Vital, Essential and Desirable.

Via1 category encompasses those items for want of which production would come to a halt. Essential group includes items whose stock out cost is very high and desirable group comprises of items, which d not cost any immediate loss of production. The stock these items entail nominal expenditure and cause major disruptions for a short duration.

VED analysis is best suited for spare inventory. Inflict it is advantageous
to use more than 1 method. E.g. ABC & VED analysis together would be helpful would be helpful for inventory control of spares.

SDE – ANALYSIS

SD E analysis is based on problems of procurement namely:

# Non-availability # scarcity # longer lead time

#Geographical location of suppliers and

# Reliability of suppliers etc,

S-DE analysis classifies the items into three groups called ‘Scares’, ‘Difficult’ and ‘Easy. The information so developed is then used to decide purchasing strategies.

‘Scarce’ classification comprises of items which are in short supply, imported chanalised through government agencies. Such items are best to procure once a year in lieu of effort and expenditure involved in the procedure for import. ‘Difficult’ classification includes those items, which are available indigenously but are not easy to procure. Also items which come from far off distance and for which reliable source do not exist fall into this category. Even the items, which are difficu1t to, manufacture arid only one or two manufacturers are available belong to this group. Supplies of such items require several months of advance notice.

‘Easy’ classification covers those items which are redily available. Items produced to commercial standards, items where supply exceeds demand and others which are locally available fall into this group.

The SDE analysis is employed by the purchase department:
(i) To decide on the method of buying. E1g. Forward buying method may be followed for some of the items in the ‘Scare’ group) scheduled buying and contract buying for Easy group. (ii) To fix responsibility of buyers. E.g. senior buyers may be given the responsibility of ‘S and ‘D’ groups while items in ‘E’ group may be handled by junior buyers or even directly by storekeeper.

G-NG-LF ANALYSIS /GOLF ANALYSIS

The G-NG-LF analysis (or GOLF analysis) like SDF analysis is based on the nature of the suppliers, which deteiir1ine quality, lead-time, and terms of payment, continuity or otherwise of supply and administrative work involved. The analysis classifies the items into four groups namely G, NG, L and F.

‘G’ group covers items procured from ‘Government’ suppliers such as the STC, the MMTC and the public sector undertakings. Transactions with this category of suppliers involve long lead-time and payments in advance or against delivery. ‘NG’ (0 in GOLF analysis) group comprises of items procured from Non-Government (or Ordinal Suppliers. Transactions with this category of suppliers involve moderate delivery time, end availability of credit, usually n the range of 30 to 45 day. ‘L’ group contains items bought from ‘Local supplier the items bought from local suppliers are those which are cash purchase or purchased on blank orders..

‘F’ group contain those items, which are purchased from ‘Foreign suppliers’. The transactions will such suppliers, # Involve a lot of Administrative and procedural work.
# Require initial clearance from government agencies such as DGTD. # Necessitate search-of foreign suppliers.
# Require opening of letter of credit.
# Require making of arrangement for shipping and port clearance.

S-OS ANALYSIS

S-OS analysis is based on seasonality or otherwise of the items. The analysis classifies the item into two groups: SOS (I.e. seasonal) and OS (off scasona1). The analysis identifies items, which are: (i) Seasonal items are available only for a limited period. For example agriculture products like raw mangoes raw material for cigarette and paper industries, etc are available for a limited time and therefore such items are procured to last the full year. (ii) Seasonal but are available throughout the year. Their prices however are lower during the harvest time. The quantity of such items requires to be fixed after comparing the cost saving due to lower prices against higher cost of carrying Inventories. (iii) Non-Seasonal items whose quantity is decided On different considerations.

F-S-N Analysis

F-S-N analysis is based on the consumption figures of the items. The items under this analysis are classified into three groups: F (Fast moving), S (Slow moving) and N (Non moving). To conduct the analysis, the last date of receipt or the last date of issue whichever is later taken into account. and the period usually in terms of number of months that has elapsed since the last movement is recorded.

Such an analysis helps to identify:
(i) Active items which require to be reviewed regularly.
(ii) Surplus items whose stocks are higher than their rate of consumption and (iii) Non moving items which are not being consumed.
The last two categories arc reviewed farther t decide on disposal action to deplete t stocks and their stocks and thereby release companies productive capital.

Further detailed analysis is made of the third category in regard to their year-wise stocks and the items can be sub-classified. As non-moving for 2 years, 3 years, 5 years and so on.

XYZ ANALYSIS

X-Y-Z Analysis is based. on value of the stocks on hand (i.e. inventory investment); Item whose inventory values are high are called X items while those whose inventory values are low are called Z items, Y items are those, which have moderate inventory stocks. Usually X-Y-Z analysis is used in
conjunction with either ABC analysis or HML analysis.; ‘.X-Y-Z analysis when combined with- ABC analysis is used as under. |Class of Item |A |B |C | |X |Efforts to be made to reduce stock to Z|Effort to be made convert them to Y |Steps to be taken dispose of surplus | | |category. |category |stocks | |Y |Efforts to be made to convert to Z | |Control may be further tightened | | |category | | | |Z | |Stocks levels may be reviewed | |

Basic (Wilson) EOQ model with infinite replenishment rate.

Assumptions underlying the EOQ model:

1. The demand of the item occurs uniformly over the period at the known rate.

2. The replenishment of the stock is instantaneous.

3. The time that elapses between the placing a replenishment order & receiving the item into stock, called lead-time is zero.

4. The price per unit is fixed & is independent of the order size.

5. The cost of placing an order & process the delivery is fixed & does not vary with the size.

6. The inventory carrying charges vary directly & linearly with the size of the inventory as is expressed as a percentage of average inventory
investment.

7. The item can be produced in quantities desired there being no restriction of any kind.

8. The item is fairly long shelf life, there being no fear of deterioration of spoilage.

Nowadays an EOQ technique is not much in sue because an open order with delivery schedule can be placed on a supplier for all future periods. This keeps down the purchasing cost. With the availability of computer links (networking techniques/email etc.) between the buyer & the supplier there is no need to physically raise a purchase order, avoiding major purchasing cost. At the same time computer helps in ensuring Just-In-Time inventory.

Limitations of EOQ

The assumption listed above may not come true in real life situations, thus limiting the use of model.

Price of material may not remain same throughout the year. Availability of materials is another constraint material will have to be purchased at the same time at which is available.

There can be delay in real situation in placing orders since many times the calculated EOQ is an inconvenient number and some time is wasted in taking decision for rounding off this number. In real situations suppliers receive in irregular.

Availability of materials is another constraint material will have to be purchased at the time at which is available.

There can be delays in real situation in placing orders since many times the calculated EOQ is inconvenient number and some time is wasted in taking decision for rounding off this number. In real situations suppliers receive an irregular stream of orders since the use of EOQ usually leads to orders at random points.

If suppliers are allowing discounts and if quantities are purchased above a particular level, the discount will also have to be taken into consideration for fixing the ordering quantity. Also purchasing costs are nowadays reduced to a great extent because of computer links between buyer and seller. So in practice purchasing cost and inventory carrying cost are not exactly opposite to each other. Often the inventory carrying cost and purchasing cost cannot be identified accurately and sometimes cannot be even identified properly.

Replenishment Systems:

One of the jobs of the materials department is to ensure uninterrupted supply of materials to the production department. To accomplish this task, the materials department has to monitor the stock levels and place order regularly. Two questions that arise are- 1. When to place an order? & 2. What quantities to order? Two main systems are followed for the same.

1. Fixed order quantity system

2. Fixed order interval system

Each system has certain conditions, which govern the circumstances of its use.

Fixed order quantity system (Q-system of Inventory): Here the quantity to be ordered is worked out as the economic order quantity (EOQ), and the minimum stock level is also worked out. When the stock in hand reaches this level, an order is placed for a quantity equals to the EOQ.

Features of fixes-order-quantity system:

a) Reorder quantity is always the same, which is equal to the EOQ.

b) The time interval between the orders varies.

c) Reordering is done when the stock in hand is equal to safety stock plus the lead time consumption (this is known as the reorder level).

d) Average inventory is equal to safety stock + Q/2.

e) Maximum inventory will be equal to the safety stock + Q.

f) Minimum inventory equals the safety stock.

g) This system is normally used for items of lower value where orders are placed infrequently and the lead time average consumption etc. is fairly constant.

To operate this system it is necessary to post the receipts and issues on the material card and a book stock worked out regularly. The reorder level is normally shown on the top right hand corner of the card; so that the book stock comes down to this level an order can be initiated. To simplify this system many firm use a two-bin system one is the main-bin & the other is reserve-bin. The stock in reserve bin equals the reorder level. When the main bin is empty it indicates an order has to be placed for the said item.

Important formulae:

1. Fixed order quantity system:

Reorder level = safety stock + lead time consumption

Reorder quantity = Q

Maximum inventory = Q + safety stock

Minimum inventory = safety stock

Average inventory = Q/2 + safety stock

Total cost of ordering = no. of orders x cost per order = Annual consumption x cost per order

Cost carrying inventory = average inventory x cost per unit x inventory carrying cost

Total cost of managing the inventory = cost of ordering + cost of carrying.

Fixed order interval system (P-system of Inventory):

Under this system the stock in hand is reviewed at periodic intervals and an order is placed for which vary with the stock in hand, the review period is decided by the management and the consumption during this review period, and lead time consumption is worked out. The quantity ordered is decided depending on the stock in hand, so that the order quantity and the stock in hand will take care of the requirements till the next review period plus the lead time consumption plus the safety stock.

Features of fixed-order-interval system:

a) The interval between two orders is fixed.

b) The maximum level (basic parameters of the system) is equal to review period consumption. Lead time consumption + safety stock.

c) Reorder quantity equals the maximum level (as worked out above) minus the stock in hand plus stock on order.

d) Average inventory equals safety stock + lead time consumption/2.

e) Maximum inventory equals safety stock + lead time consumption.

f) This system is used for high consumption value items (A category) needing a strict control. Reestablishment where large numbers of items are produced and a continuous sale is made as to follow such a system.

Important Formulae:

Maximum level (basic parameters) = Review period consumption + lead time consumption + safety stock.

Reorder quantity = Max level – (stock in hand +stock on order).

Maximum inventory = safety stock + lead time consumption.

Average inventory = safety stock + lead time consumption/2

Total cost of managing the inventory = cost of ordering + cost of carrying.

Problem based on fixed order interval system:

The monthly consumption of a unit costing Rs. 400 the order cost is Rs. 36, and the inventory carrying cost is 1.5% p/m. if the review period = lead time = one month and the safety stock maintained is half the review period.

1. Fix the necessary parameters to operate a fixed order interval system.

2. What will be reorder quantity if the stock during the first reviews of 650 units.

3. What will be the reorder quantity if the stock during the second review is 200 units and also it is given that the order placed earlier has not yet been received.

Given:

Review period = lead time = 1 month.

Review period consumption = lead time consumption =400 units.

Safety stock = ½ month’s consumption = 200

Necessary parameters (maximum level) = review period consumption + lead time consumption +safety stock = 400 + 400 + 200 = 1000 units.

During the first review,

The reorder quantity = maximum level – stock in hand =100 – 650 =350 units.

During the second review,

The above ordered quantity is still not received, hence

Reorder quantity = maximum level – (stock in hand + stock on order)

= 100 – (200 + 350 ) = 1000 – 550 = 450 units.

Factors that influence the level of safety stock:

a) Category of item: In case of ‘A’ category items where a better control is exercised it may not be required to keep a high level of safety stock. In addition to this a high level of safety stock and high value of consumption item will also increase the inventory carrying costs.

b) Lead-time: Normally longer the lead time more is the chances of fluctuation and hence more is the requirement of safety stock.

c) Number of suppliers: In case there are a number of suppliers available for an item, it is not necessary to keep high level of safety stock as any stock out situation can be handled easily from alternate sources of supplies.

d) Criticality of an item: Safety stock for critical items needs to be high e.g. in case of packing materials the safety stock need to be high as stock cut in packing material will affect the delivery of finished goods to the customers, but in case of lubricants where lubrication can be delayed safely by a few days a lower safety stock can be maintained.

e) Availability of substitutes: Lesser safety stock can be kept for items where substitutes are available easily.

f) Possibility makes the item in-house: If it is possible to make an item in-house at a short notice on case of emergency. A lower safety stock will suffice.

g) Risk of obsolescence or deterioration: It is better to have lower safety stock for items where the cost of deterioration is higher than the cost of no stock situation.

h) Space restrictions: Restrictions in the storage space is another factor influencing the safety stock levels.

i) Stock out cost/management policy: The cost of stock out and the management’s decision to allow stoppage of production due to no stock situation (depending upon the market and company’s financial conditions) also influence the decision on the safety stock levels.

Service level

The amount of safety stock needed to determine by the service level desired by their company. The service level id probably that amount of inventory had during the lead time is sufficient to meet expected demand – i.e. the probability that a stock out will not occur, a service level of 90% means their id’s 90 probabilities that demand will be met during lead time.

Service level (SL) is the ratio of the no. The units delivered without the delay to the no. of units demanded.

Thus,

SL = No. of units delivered without delay / No. of units demanded.

SL = No. of units demanded – No. of units short / No. of units demanded.

SL Range: 0 < SL < 1

I.e. SL = 0 means complete delivery failure.

SL = 1 means 100% service (No shortages)

SL is expressed as a%.

i. Percentage of stock outs = SL = No. of order periods when stocks were zero / Total No. of order periods x 100

This is indicative of the probability of being out of stock while awaiting a supplier’s delivery and is, therefore independent of the order size.

ii. Percentage of stock outs = SL = No. of working days in which stocks were zero / Total no. of working days x 100

This ratio is a measure of the probability of being out of stock during the year.

iii. Percentage of stock outs = SL = No. of units / No. of units demanded x 100

This ratio would show the average potential sale lost.

Service Level is a target specified by management defined in terms of,

a. Order Cycle Time

b. Cash Fill Rate

c. Line Fill Rate

d. Order Fill Rate

e. Any Combination of These.

a) Order Cycle Time (Performance Cycle of Lead Time):

The performance cycle is the elapsed time between the release of a purchase order by a customer and the receipt of the corresponding shipment.

b) Case Fill Rate:

It defines percentage of cases or units ordered that can be shipped or requested e.g. a 95% case fill rate indicates that, on average, 95% cases out of 100 could be filled from available stock. The remaining 5 cases would be back – ordered or deleted.

c) Line Fill Rate:

It is the percentage of order lines that could be filled completely. Each line on an order is a request for an individual product. So at order may have multiple lines e.g. when a customer order is received requesting 80 units of product A and 20 units of product B, the order contains 100 cases and two lines. If there are only 75 units of product A available and all 20 of product A, the case fill would be 955 (75 +20) / (80 + 20) and the line fill would be 50%.

d) Order Fill Rate:

It is the percentage of customer orders that could be filled completely. In the example above, the order could not be completely filled, so the resulting order fill would be zero.

The inventory function is a major element of the logistics process that must be integrated to meet service objectives. While a traditional approach is achieving a higher service level is to increase inventory, other approaches include use of faster transportation modes, better information management to reduce uncertainty, alternative sources of supply.

While it is the task of overall logistics management to meet the prescribed service objectives inventory management plays a particular key role.

Inventory Policy: Inventory policy consists of guidelines concerning

• What to purchase or manufacture

• When to take action

• In what quantity

It also includes decisions regarding inventory positioning and placement at plants and at distribution centers.

E.g.

• Some firms may decide to postpone inventory positioning by maintaining stock at the plant.

• Other firms may choose to place more products in local distribution centers i.e. nearer to market.

Another inventory policy element concerns inventory management strategy. One approach is to manage inventory centrally. This
requires more coordination and communication.

Average inventory: Average inventory consists of the materials, components, work in progress and finished products typically stocked in logistical facilities. From a policy viewpoint, the appropriate level of average inventories include:-

a) Cycle inventory or base stock or lot size stock: It is the portion of average inventory that results from replenishment process. At the beginning of a performance cycle, stock is at a minimum level. Daily customer demands “draw off” (consumes) inventory until the stock level reaches zero. Prior to this, a replenishment order is initiated so that stock will arrive before a stock-out occurs. The replenishment order must be initiated when available inventory is greater than or equal to the customer demand during the performance cycle time.

The amount ordered for replenishment is called the order quantity.

The average inventory held as a result of the order process is referred to as Base Stock considering only the order quantity:

Cycle inventory or base stock or lot size stock = Order Quantity / 2

b) Safety Stock Inventory: The second part of the average inventory is the stock held to protect transit the impact of uncertainty on each facility. This portion of inventory is called safety stock. It is used only at the end of replenishment cycles when uncertainty has caused higher than expected demand or longer than expected performance cycle times.

Average Inventory = Order Quantity + Safety Stock / 2

c) Transit Inventory or Pipeline Inventory: It is the stock that is either moving or awaiting movement in transportation vehicles.

Transit Inventory is necessary to achieve order replenishment. From a logistics management perspective, transit inventory introduces two sources of complexity into the supply chain.

i. It represents real assets and must be paid for even though it is not accessible or usable.

ii. There has typically been a high degree of uncertainty associated with the transit inventory because shippers were unable to determine where a transport vehicle was located or when it was likely to arrive.

Increase focus on small order amounts, more frequent order cycles. JIT strategies have resulted in transit inventory becoming a larger percentage of total inventory assets.

Ownership of Transit Inventory

• If transferred at destination: It is not owned by consignee.

• If transferred at origin: It is owned by consignee.

Just In Time (JIT)

JIT is a Japanese management philosophy, which has been applied in practice since the early 1970’s in many Japanese manufacturing organizations. It was first developed and perfected within the Toyota manufacturing plants by Taiichi Ohno as means of meeting consumer demands with minimum delays. Taiichi Ohno is frequently referred to as the father of JIT

Toyota was able to meet the increasing challenges for survival through an approach that focused on people, plants and systems. Toyota realized that JIT would only be successful if every individual within the organization was involved and committed to it, if the plant and processes were arranged for maximum output and efficiency, and if quality and production programs were scheduled to meet demands exactly.

JIT manufacturing has the capacity, when properly adapted to the organization to strengthen the organization’s competitiveness in the market place substantially by reducing wastes and improving product quality and efficiency of production.

There are strong cultural aspects associated with the emergence of JIT in Japan. The Japanese work ethic involves the following concepts.

• Workers are highly motivated to seek constant improvement upon that which already exists. Although high standards are currently being met, there exist even higher standards to achieve.

• Companies should focus on group effort, which involves the combining of talents & sharing knowledge, problem-solving skills, ideas & the achievement of a common goal.

• Work itself takes precedence over leisure. It is not unusual for a Japanese employee to work 14 – hour a day.

• Employees tend to remain with one company throughout the course of their career span. This allows the opportunity for them to hone their skills & abilities at a constant rate while numerous benefits to the company.

• These benefits manifest themselves in employee loyalty, low turnover costs & fulfillment of company goals.

From above it is very clear what it needs to implement JIT successfully. In fact it also suggests the critical reasoning behind the fact that why in India JIT is not 100 percent followed. One more significant thing to be considered here is the correct interpretation of JIT. JIT is more of a manufacturing & waste elimination philosophy than commodity purchasing technique. It originally referred to the production of goods to meet customer demand exactly, in time, quality & quantity, whether the customer is the final purchaser of the product or another process further along the production line.

It has now come to mean producing with minimum waste. Waste is taken in its most general sense & includes time & resources as well as materials. There are seven types of waste namely:

• Waste from overproduction

• Waste of waiting time

• Transportation waste

• Processing waste

• Inventory waste

• Waste of motion

• Waste from product defects

Elements of JIT System

Successful JIT system is the logical outgrowth of the combination of the following practices:

• Continuous improvement

• Attacking fundamental problems – anything that does not add value to the product

• Devising systems to identify problems

• Striving for simplicity – simpler systems may be easier to understand,
easier to manage & less likely to go wrong

• A product – oriented layout produces less time spent in moving of materials & parts

• Quality control at source – each worker is responsible for the quality of their own output

• Poka-yoke – full proof tools, methods, jigs etc. to prevent mistakes

• Total productive maintenance – ensuring machinery & equipment functions perfectly when it is required, & continually improving it

• Good housekeeping – workplace cleanliness & organization

• Set up time reduction – increases flexibility & allows smaller batches

• Ideal batch size is 1 item per batch, i.e. single piece flow

• Multi-process handling – a multi-skilled workforce has greater productivity, flexibility & job satisfaction

• Leveled/mixed production – to smooth the flow of products through the factory

• Kanbans-simple tools to ‘pull’ products & components through the process

• Jidoka (Autonomation) – providing machines with the autonomous capability to use judgment, so workers can do more useful things than standing watching them work

• Andon (trouble lights) – to signal problems to initiate corrective action

Benefits of JIT Systems

JIT system has a number of benefits, few major are mentioned below:

• Reduced levels of in-process inventories, purchased goods, & finished goods.

• Reduced space requirements

• Increased product quality & reduced scrap & rework

• Reduced manufacturing lead times

• Greater flexibility in changing the production mix

• Smoother production flow with fewer disruptions

• Worker participation in problem solving

• Pressure to build good relationships with vendors

• Increased productivity levels & utilization of equipment’s

It can be said in summary that JIT is the management philosophy, which emphasizes on the waste elimination as well as vendor integration to create certainty in the material planning process, which ultimately results into no inventory, & hence inventory control means to follow JIT.

VENDOR MANAGED INVENTORY (VMI)

VMI can be defined as:

It is a streamlined approach to inventory & order fulfillment. With it, the supplier & not the retailer, is responsible for managing & replenishing inventory using an integral part of VMI, i.e. EDI, by electronic transfer of data over a network. It can also be seen as a mechanism where the supplier creates the purchase orders based on the demand information exchanged by the retailer/customer.

Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) is basically evolved to facilitate the operations at retail stores. It involves a continuous replenishment program that uses the exchange of information between the retailer & the supplier to allow the supplier to manage & replenish merchandise stock at the store or warehouse level. In this program, the retailer supplies the vendor with the information necessary to maintain just enough merchandise stock to meet customer demand. These enable the supplier to better project & anticipate the amount of product it needs to produce or supply.

The manufacturer has access to the supplies inventory data & is responsible for generating purchase orders. VMI was first applied to the grocery industry, between companies like Procter & Gamble (supplier) & Wal-Mart (distributor). But if applied properly, VMI can provide the benefits of smoother demand, increased sales, lower inventories & still reduced costs of lost sales to the other industries.

JUST IN TIME (JIT) – II

VMI results into outsourcing of the inventory planning activity to the suppliers whereas JIT-II goes a step ahead where supplier manages the complete production plans.

LANCE DIXON ther father of JIT 2 describes it as-:

“This is the ultimate partnership program for the compatible customers and suppliers, because it is the next logical step in the application of the management cycle to the value cahin through management of time within the supply chain. It represents the use of alignment and mobilisation of strategies with suppliers using in-plant vendor representatives to achieve breakthrough changes”. JIT systrem was based upon the synchronised planning between the buyers needs and suppliers porduction capabilities.JIT 2 can be reagrded as a major catalyst for the productive change across organistions and qualifies a key component of the macro logistics management model.In other words, we can say that JIT
system assures the uninterrupted incoming material supply as per demand , whereas the JIT 2 ensures the uninterrupted production from manufacturing lihnes. Infact JIT-2 eliminates the need for the sales planning activities for sipplier organisation and the puirchasing and planning actrivities from the buyer organisation,which were carried out independently.

Bioth activitiea are carried out simultaneously in JIT-2 environment this results into more integrated and realistic plans to enable achieving targets It is based upon a mutual trust realtionship where the supplier represenataive is empowered to use the company’s purchase oreders to place orders, which in theory replaces the purchaser and the supplier’s sales person .In practice the supplier representative is brought into the plant on a full time basis. This person is allowed to attend any product design meetings for his product and has full accesss to all relevant facilities, personnel, and data. Purchasing staff is freed up from all the paper work and administartive tasks, allowing them toi cultivate other skills such as negotitiating and sourcing. PO placements and communication is improved;time is saved; material cost reduction is realized. JIT-2 provides a natural foundation for the EDI, effective paper work and administrative savings. Material costa re reduced on an ongoing basis. Supplier personnnel work onsite and perform various planning and buying aswell.

Because supplier personnel interface daily, increased insight leads to fewer schedule change surpirises. This results in reduced inventory as the supplier plans directly from the customers MRP system on real time basis. JIT-2 brings considerable technical knowledge and support onsite involves purchasing to design and engineering. Supplier inplant reperesntatives aer empowered with the combined authority of the materials planner, buyer and supplier, resulting in a uniquely effective and empowered support role.

Another advantage of JIT-2 to the supplier is that they usually get “EVERGREEN CONTRACT” which means n o end dates and rebidding.Coupled with EDI links and information technology exchanges, which arfe a p[art of the overall logistics packages, the JIT-2 concept can offera supplier a very serious strategy advantage.

BENEFITS OF EDI:

• Increased internal productivity through faster information transmission as reduced information entry redundancy. • Better accuracy by reducing the number of times and individuals involved entry. • Improved channel relationships.

• Increased external producvtivity.
• Increased ability to compete internationally.
• Decreased operating cost through:
a)Reduced labour and material costs associated with printing,mailing, and paper based transactions. b)Reduced telephone,fax, and telex communications. c)Reduced clerical cost.

PERSONAL COMPUTERS:
Pcs are influencing logistics management in three ways: 1. Low cost and high portability wih a capability of bringing accurate information to the decision maker whether in offfice at he warehouse. ✓ Which markets to serve

✓ Which product to pick next in thw warehosue
✓ Driver reporting and delivery information.
✓ Reporting vehicle location
✓ Identifying lowest-cost fuel stop.
2)Repsonsiveness and flexibility offered by decentralised PCs enable more for service capabilities. The use of local area networks (LANs) wide arear network (WAN) and client/server architecture offers benefits of decnetralized responsiveness, flexibility, and redundacy while providing data integrated throughout the enterprise.

LAN is a network of PCs that use phone lines or cable to commuinicate and resources such as storage and printers. LAN is resticted to relativiely geographical locations such as an office and warehouse, WAN operates across a wide geography; while the architecture uses the decnetralized processiing power of PCs to provide LIS operation flexibility. Server is a large computer that allowes commom data ot be shared by a numvber of users. Client implies network of PCs that access the data and manipulate them in different ways to provide extensive flexiblity. The client/server network can globally track inventory in motion, provide shipment informatio to the customers when desired and also facilitate decisions regarding facility location, invenrotry analysis, routing and scheduling.

ARTIFICAIL INTELIGENCE (AI):
AI descrivbes technologies aimed at making computers imitate human reasoning and are concerned with symbolic reasonings rather than numeric processing. The applications of AI are :
▪ Carrier selection.
▪ International marketing and logistics
▪ Inventory Management
▪ Information system design

COMMUNICATIONS:

Historically logistics activities had a distinc disadvantage since they involved movements in either a transport ot material handling vehicle or were very decntralized. But nowadays information technology has significantly enhaced logistics perofrmance through faster and widespread communication. Applicatgion of Radio frequency (RF), satellite communcaitions, and image processing technologies has overcome the problems caused by porduct movement and geographical decentralization.

RADIO FREQUENCY TECHNOLOGY:
RF technology is used within relatively small areas, such as ditribution , to facilitate two-way information exhange. The applications are in:

➢ Real time communications with material hanlders such as forklift drivers and order selectors. ➢ Updating instructions and priorities to forklift drivers on real time basis. ➢ Two-way commuincations of warehouse selection instruction, warehouse cycle count verifaiction and
label prinintg for guiding package movement.

Satellite Commuincations:
Satellite communication is used for providing a fast and high – volume channel for information movement around the globe. THE applications are as follows:
✓ Communications dishes on the top vehicles allow commuinations between drivers and departures. ✓ Provides uptodate infoormation regarding location and delivery and allows departures to redirect trucks in repsonse to need or traffic congestion. ✓ Used by retail chains to transmit quickly daily sales bac to the headquarters that help in activating store replenishment and also to provide input to marketing regarding local sales pattern.

POOR INVENTORY MANAGEMENT:
It Exhibits the following characteristics:
1.An increase in the number of back-orders,indicating too many stockouts. 2.A constant number of back orders,but rising inventory investment. 3.A higher than normal customer turnover.
4.A increasing number of cancelled oreders from customers or intermediairies. 5.Insufficeicnt storage space for too much inventory.
6.An increase in the number and RUPEE value of obsolete products. All these symptoms have a large finanical impact on the firm | | |INVENTORY PLANNING METHODS |

|FAIR SHARE ALLOCATION | |DISTRIBUTION REQUIREMENT PLANNING (DRP) |

Fig7 .2 Inventory planning methods
FAIR SHARE ALLOCATION:

It is a simplified inventory management method that provides each ditribution facility with an equitable or fair share of available inventory
from a common source such as a plant warehouse.

Fig 7.3: Fair Share Allocation
The figure under reference indicates current inventory level, and daily requirements for three distribution centres served by a common plant warehouse. Using fair share allocation rules, the inventory manager determines the amount of inventory that can be allocated to each distribution centre from the available inventory at the plant warehouse. Assume that from a total inventory units of 600, (see Fig.7.2) it is desirable to retain 100 units at the plant warehouse; therefore 500 units are available for the allocation. The calculation to determine the number of day’s supply is done as shown below.

DS= A + I/O
where
DS= No. of days supply for distribution centre inventories. A= Inventory units to be allocated from the warehouse.
I= Inventory in units for distribution centre J.
D= Daily demand for distribution centre J.
In the above example,
DS = 500 + (50 + 100 + 75 )/ (10 + 50 + 15) = (500 + 225 )/ 75 = 9.67 days

Thus, the fair share allocation means that each distribution centre should be brought unis to 9.67 days stock. The amount to be allocated to each distribution centre is determined by the expression: A = (DS – I/D) x D

Where
A= Amount allocated to distribution centre J
DS = Day’s supply that each distribution centre is brought up to. I= Inventory in units for distribution centre J.
D = Daily demand for distribution centre J.
Thus the amount allocated to distribution centre 1 in the above example will be: A = (9.67 – 50/ 10 ) x 0 = (9.67 – 5) x 10 = 4.67 x 10 = 46.7 (rounded 247 units) The allocation for distribution centers 2 and 3 can be determined similarly as 38 and 70 units respectively. The key feature of the fair share allocation method is that it coordinates inventory level across multiple sites. It’s limitation lies in the fact that it does not consider site specific factors such as difference in performance cycle, time , economic order, quantity or safety stock requirement. Hence, the major limitation is the inability to manage multi stage inventories. DISTRIBUTION REQUIREMENT PLANNING:

DRP is the logical extension of manufacturing requirements planning ,MRP determined by production schedule that can be controlled by the enterpreise and generally operates in a dependent demand situation. DRP is guided by customer demand which are not controllable by the ebetrprise and operates in an independent environment where uncertain customer demand determines inventory requirements. Manufacturing requirements planning coordinates to scheduling an integration of materials into finished products. DRP takes over the responsibility of coordination once the finished goods are received in the plant warehouse. Constraints to the effectiveness OF INVENTORY PLANNING:

1. Requires accurate and cordinated forecasts for each distribution centre. 2. Requires forecasts for each distribution centre and SKU as well as adequate lead time to allow product movement. 3. The errors in forecast may exist because of prediction of demand at wrong location

———————–
Distribution Centre 1

Inventory- 50 units

Daily use- 10 units

Plant Warehouse : Inventory-600 units

Distribution Centre 3

Inventory- 75 units

Daily use- 15 units

Distribution Centre 2

Inventory- 100 units

Daily use- 50 units

Infection prevention and control of infections

Understanding roles and responsibilities

An employee must maintain a high standard of personal hygiene and also health. They should be aware of the company policies and procedures when it comes to infection control and follow the best practice in prevention. The working environment needs to be kept clean and hygienic. Any risks should be reported to the employer.

Keep all training in infection control and prevention up to date.

An employer should insist that all laws and regulations in the workplace are followed. Risk assessments are needed so as to identify and minimise the impact of infection hazards. Company policies and procedures need to be out lined and put in place.

The employer must provide equipment to prevent and control infection. Any relevant information about infection hazards and prevention and control methods need to be given to the employees. Training and supervision of all aspects of infection and control needs to be given. Records need to be kept relating to infection prevention and control.

Understanding legislation and policies
Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 – Sets standards to prevent infection happening and spreading Public Health Act – Sets standards for water supply, sanitation and rubbish disposal Food Safety Act 1990 – Sets standards relating to food production and consumption Environmental Protection Act 1990 – Ensures safe management of controlled waste Management of Health and Safety at Work Act 1999 – Risk assessments introduced Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 – Employers must supply and employees must use appropriate protective clothes and equipment Food safety Regulations – The safe hygiene practices to prevent pathogen contamination during storage and handling of food Reporting of, Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences 1995 – Any infection caused by bodily fluids and highly infectious diseases are reported The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health – Regulates storage and use of chemicals that pose a danger. All work places need to supply employees with access to COSHH information Hazardous Waste Regulations 2005 – About sharps and clinical waste disposal which could pose an infection hazard Code of Practice for the Prevention and Control of Healthcare Associated Infection Regulation 12, 2010 – Concerns ways to reduce the incidence of HCAI

Understanding systems and procedures

Food Hygiene – To prevent cross-contamination and cross-infection particular attention needs paying to, Personal Hygiene – Keep hands clean, wear PPE and do not work if unwell Kitchen and dining areas – Keep cooking equipment and surfaces clean Food safety practices – thorough thawing and heating of food, correct storage, preparing edible raw foods separately to avoid contamination

Disposal of Waste – Waste products provide a perfect environment for pathogens and spreading infection. Rubbish left laying around can also attract vermin which can carry diseases. Disposal of waste depends on: The type of waste

The risk the waste may pose to people
The risk the waste may pose to the environment

Disposal of Sharps – Sharps whether they are scalpels, needles or razors may be contaminated with harmful pathogens such as Hepatitis B and C or HIV and can be transmitted into a persons blood stream via a sharp injury. When dealing with sharps you should: Take disposal container to the sharps and not the other way round Never fill the disposal box above the indicated mark

Avoid passing items directly from hand to hand and keep handling to a minimum. Do not bend, break or replace caps
Report all incidents in line with RIDDOR

Decontamination procedures – there are three levels,
Clean using soap to remove surface dirt and odour.
Disinfect using chemicals to kill pathogens.
Sterilise to remove all pathogens and the habitat they live in.

Cleaning policy- all work places must have a cleaning policy which provides guidance of how to use equipment, routines and how chemicals should be used and stored. Specific procedures should be outlined to deal with spillages of blood, urine, faeces and vomit: Spillages must be dealt with immediately

An immediate risk assessment is needed in case the area needs cordoning off Relevant equipment should be used to clean the spillage
Use appropriate PPE
Try to prevent the spillage from spreading
Use paper towels to absorb the spillage
Dispose of correctly
Clean area with disinfectant
Once cleaning tasks are done, thoroughly wash hands

Laundry procedures – soiled linen can be a source of contamination. Therefore: Wear PPE while handling soiled laundry
Place soiled laundry in correct bag
Minimise carrying soiled laundry by using bag at bedside
Flush solid faeces down the toilet

Understanding the importance of risk assessment in relation to the prevention and control of infections

Risk – the chance of something going wrong: the danger that injury, loss or damage may occur

Potential risks of infection within the work place
Work environment risks, locations and materials:
Kitchen
Dining area
Bathroom
Shower
Toilet
Communal equipment
Reusable equipment
Soiled laundry

Work activity infection risks:
Preparing and serving food
Caring for individuals with infections
Providing personal care
Disposing of waste
Managing soiled laundry

Risk assessment
Identify infection hazards – Areas where pathogens thrive
Who is at risk and why – Identify vulnerable people
Evaluate infection risk and way to reduce it – can the infection be reduced or wiped out Record findings – Log and share results and implement a strategy Review – Check regularly and update strategies

The importance of carrying out a risk assessment is key to providing infection free work environments and working practices in health and social care settings.

Understanding the importance of using Personal Protective Equipment in the prevention and control of infection

Different types and reasons of PPE are:
Aprons to cover clothes or uniform (made from plastic), protect from body fluids Plastic or latex gloves to protect the hand and nails which ism the main way pathogens are transmitted Paper masks to cover the mouth and nose which can be a source of pathogens Cloth or paper gowns provide cover for the whole body

Plastic over shoes are worn over normal shoes to prevent external pathogens being brought in Paper hair cover to prevent stray hairs escaping

Plastic goggles which can be worn over glasses and cover the eyes

The Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations set out employers responsibilities to the work place and work force and the company uses these regulations to provide their own policy.

An employer must:
Supply appropriate PPE
Store and maintain PPE correctly
Provide training and notices about PPE
Carry out risk assessments to decide appropriate PPE
Make sure PPE is used properly

An employee must:
Use PPE at appropriate times
Report if stocks are low or faulty
Follow instructions and attend training sessions
Follow and carry out risk assessments for appropriate PPE
Not cut corners and use PPE on all appropriate occasions
Dispose of PPE correctly

Prior to applying gloves and aprons hands need to be washed. PPE must be put on before the procedure is started. PPE need changing between different care tasks for the same client and always use new PPE for different clients. After every procedure is complete the PPE should be removed carefully so as hands or clothes do not have any contact with any contaminating substances on the PPE. PPE are to be disposed of as clinical waste. Avoid touching the bin, a foot pedal to be used if possible. After disposal wash hands with soap and water.

Understanding the importance of good personal hygiene in the prevention and control of infections

The key principles of good hygiene are:

Bathing and showering – doing this regularly prevents the spread of bacteria and reduces body odour

Hair care – regular washing prevents the spread of bacteria. Long hair should be tied back and keep checking for infestations of head lice.

Oral hygiene – It is important to brush teeth after meals or smoking and visiting the dentist every six months will prevent the build up of bacteria and reduce bad breath.

Clean clothes – clothes should be changed daily. Uniforms need to be made of hard wearing material that can be washed at high temperature to remove pathogens.

Stopping bad habits:
Touching of the mouth, nose and ears which are routes for infection Sneezing and coughing without covering the mouth, not disposing of tissues correctly and not washing hands afterwards

Nail biting can give you sores and risks spreading infection Smoking can cause coughing and also involves putting your hand to your mouth.

Taking care of your health can avoid and fight of infection. A good diet helps to keep your brain and body working well. Intake of fluids helps to flush out toxic wastes. Sleep helps to refresh and renew your body. If unwell then you should not go to work and this will prevent the spread of infection.

The correct sequence for hand washing:
Make sure sink and taps clean
Check that there is soap, paper towels or hand drier
Remove jewellery
Roll up sleeves
Run water to a warm temperature
Wet hands thoroughly
Soap hands thoroughly
Rub hands vigorously together for at least 10 seconds paying particular attention to in between the fingers, the tips and the thumb Rinse hands thoroughly
Dry hands thoroughly preferably with a hand dryer or paper towels which should be disposed of without touching the bin

Hands should be washed:
If dirty or sticky – to remove dirt
After using the toilet or touching the mouth or nose – pathogens are in bodily fluids and need to be removed Before and after contact with a client – to protect each other from pathogens Between different care activities for the same client – some activities are cleaner than others and it will stop cross-contamination Before using and removing disposable gloves – gloves are only to be used for higher risk activities After contact with body fluids – so as to rid any pathogens

Before and after handling, cooking, serving and eating food – food is a good pathogen carrier. Eating is a good route to infection After cleaning tasks – to remove any contamination
After handling rubbish or laundry – to remove pathogens
After feeding and handling pets – Animals carry pathogens which can be harmful to humans

Hand washing products – soap based where there is a lower risk of infection and antimicrobial products for use in high risk areas. It is also acceptable to use an alcohol based hand rub where running water is not available.

Skin care – cleansing products that are gentle to the skin are best and also the use of hypo-allergenic disposable gloves. If any allergies occur, please contact GP.

Production Planning and Control

Production Planning and Control

In any manufacturing enterprise production is the driving force to which most other functions react. This is particularly true with inventories; they exist because of the needs of production. In this chapter the relationship of production planning and control to work-in-process inventories is stressed.

Objectives of Production Planning Control:

The ultimate objective of production planning and control, like that of all other manufacturing controls, is to contribute to the profits of the enterprise. As with inventory management and control, this is accomplished by keeping the customers satisfied through the meeting of delivery schedules. Specific objectives of production planning and control are to establish routes and schedules for work that will ensure the optimum utilization of materials, workers, and machines and to provide the means for ensuring the operation of the plant in accordance with these plans.

Production Planning and Control Functions

All of the four basic phases of control of manufacture are easily identified in production planning and control. The plan for the processing of materials through the plant is established by the functions of process planning, loading, and scheduling. The function of dispatching puts the plan into effect; that is, operations are started in accordance with the plant. Actual performance is then compared to the planned performance, and, when required, corrective action is taken. In some instances re-planning is necessary to ensure the effective utilization of the manufacturing facilities and personnel let us examine more closely each of these functions.

Process Planning (Routing)
The determination of where each operation on a component part, subassembly, or assembly is to be performed results in a route for the movement of a manufacturing lot through the factory. Prior determination of these routes
is the job of the manufacturing engineering function.

Loading
Once the route has been established, the work required can be loaded against the selected machine or workstation. The total time required to perform the operation is computed by multiplying the unit operation times given on the standard process sheet by the number of parts to be processed. This total time is then added to the work already planned for the workstation. This is the function of loading, and it results in a tabulated list or chart showing the planned utilization of the machines or workstations in the plant.

Scheduling
Scheduling is the last of the planning functions. It determines when an operation is to be performed, or when work is to be completed; the difference lies in the detail of the scheduling procedure. In a centralized control situation – where all process planning, loading, and scheduling for the plant are done in a central office- the details of the schedule may specify the starting and finishing time for an operation. On the other hand, the central schedule may simply give a completion time for the work in a given department.

Combining Functions
While it is easy to define “where” as process planning, “how much work” as loading, and “when as scheduling, in actual operations these three functions are often combined and performed concurrently. How far in advance routes, loads, and schedules should be established always presents an interesting problem. Obviously, it is desirable that a minimum of changes be made after schedules are established. This objective can be approached if the amount of work scheduled for the factory or department is equal to or slightly greater than the manufacturing cycle. For optimum control, it should never be less than the manufacturing cycle.

Dispatching
Authorizing the start of an operation on the shop floor is the function of dispatching. This function may be centralized or decentralized. Again using
our machine-shop example, the departmental dispatcher would authorize the start of each of the three machine operations – three dispatch actions based on the foreman’s routing and scheduling of the work through his department. This is decentralized dispatching.

Reporting or Follow – up
The manufacturing activity of a plant is said to be “in control” when the actual performance is within the objectives of the planned performance. When jobs are started and completed on schedule, there should be very little, if any, concern about the meeting of commitments. Optimum operation of the plant, however, is attained only if the original plan has been carefully prepared to utilize the manufacturing facilities fully and effectively.

Corrective Action
This is the keystone of any production planning and control activity. A plant in which all manufacturing activity runs on schedule in all probability is not being scheduled to its optimum productive capacity. With an optimum schedule, manufacturing delays are the rule, not the exception.

Re-planning
Re-planning is not corrective action. Re-planning revise routes, loads, and schedules; a new plan is developed. In manufacturing this is often required. Changes in market conditions, manufacturing methods, or many other factors affecting the plant will often indicate that a new manufacturing plan is needed.

Factors Affecting Production Planning and Control:

The factors that affect the application of production planning and control to manufacturing are the same as the factors we have already discussed that affect inventory management and control. Let us briefly review these in relation to production planning and control.

Type of Product
Again, it is the complexity of the product that is important, not what the
product is, except as this may in turn relate to the market being served. Production control procedures are much more complex and involve many more records in the manufacture of large steam turbine generator sets or locomotives to customer orders then in the production of large quantities of a standard product involving only a few component parts, such as electric blankets, steam irons, or similar small appliances.

Type of Manufacturing
This is probably the most influential factor in the control situation. For a large continuous manufacturing plant producing a standard product, we have already indicated that the routing was included in the planning of the plant layout.

Production Planning and Control Procedures:

A detailed discussion of all the techniques and procedures of production planning and control is beyond the scope of this book; many complete text books exist on the subject. We have already indicated that planning and control practices will vary widely from plant to plant. Further the many ways in which of the functions might be carried out in practice were indicated earlier in this chapter.

Though no production control function can be entirely eliminated, the least control that results in effective operation of the factory is the best control. It must be remembered that production planning and control systems should be tools of management. The objective is not an elaborate and detailed system of controls and records, but rather, the optimum operation of the plant for maximum profits.

Production Planning and Control Systems
Because production planning and control places an emphasis on the control of work-in-process, the system will in effect tie together all previous records and forms developed in all planning for the manufacture of the product.

Market forecast
The market forecast is discussed in Chapter 26. Its value to production planning and control is that it will indicate future trends in demand for manufactured product. Work shift policies, plans for an increase or decrease in manufacturing activity, or possible plant expansions may often be based upon the market forecasts and in turn affect the planning of the production planning and control group.

Sales Order
This is the second of the five classes of orders. It is a rewrite of the customer’ order specifying what has been purchased – product and quantity and authorizing shipment of the goods to the customer. Multiple copies are prepared and all interested functions are furnished a copy. Sales orders may be written by marketing, inventory control, or production control.

Stock Order
This third class of order is not always used. In the preceding paragraph we indicated how it may be used after sales order accumulate to an economical manufacturing lot. It is, of course, the principal order when manufacturing to stock. It will authorize production in anticipation of future sales.

Shop Order
This fourth class of order deals with the manufacture of component parts. Customer orders, sales orders, and stock orders are for the finished product. In the preceding chapters we discussed how, by product explosion, the requirements are established for component parts to build assembled products.

Standard Process sheet

This form is prepared by process engineering and it is the source of basic data as to the type of machine to be used, the time required for processing and the sequence of operations in the manufacture of the product. Routing and scheduling of shop orders, as well as loading of workstations in advance of scheduling, depend on up-to-date standard process sheets being available to the production planning and control group.

Engineering Specifications
Blueprints and bills of materials are used by production planning and control when they become a component part of the packaged instructions issued to the shop through the control office. One good planning procedure is to accumulate all necessary data for a shop order in a single package- the standard process sheet, the blueprint, the bill of material (if an assembly operation is involved), the route sheet, and possibly the schedule for the production of the order.

Route Sheet
This is the form on which the route of a shop order is indicated. In practice, this form is generally combined with one of the other forms in the system. For example, the shop order, the standard process sheet, and the route sheet are often one piece of paper- usually called the shop order or the manufacturing order.

Load Charts
These charts are prepared to show the productive capacity that has been “sold” – and at the same time the available productive capacity. These charts may be prepared for each workstation or machine in the plant, or they may be for groups of machines or departments.

Job Tickets
This is the fifth and last type of order in a manufacturing situation. Job tickets authorize the performance of individual operations in the manufacturing process.

Project Planning Methods
The production planning and control methods discussed thus far in this chapter deal primarily with the production of consumer or industrial products which could be considered to fall within the area of “repetitive manufacturing”. The products to be produced are often manufactured in quantities of more than one, and their total processing time can be measured in hours, or at most, days.

The best –known methods that have been developed are CPM (for Critical Path Method) and PERT (for Program Evaluation and Review Technique). The original PERT technique is now considered, more accurately, PERT TIME, whereas a later development is known as PERT COST.

From the optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic times, the expected elapsed time (te) can be obtained by statistical techniques. The relationship of the three estimates to the expected elapsed time is given by the formula

te = (a+4m+b)/6

Where a = optimistic time
b = pessimistic time
m = most likely time
It can be seen from the formula that the most likely time estimate is given four times as much weight as the optimistic and pessimistic estimates when computing the expected time.

Systems Analysis
As with other manufacturing control systems and procedures, production planning, and control lends itself to modern mechanization techniques such as machine accounting and use of computers. Careful study of the control system through procedure analysis will indicate the savings that may be effected by the utilization of modern equipment. These savings may be in the clerical help required in the administration of the system or in the advantages of quick compilation of data, which in turn results in up-to-date control data.

Production Planning and Control Organization:
It should be obvious that there is no single pattern for the organization of the production planning and control activity. In many small plants the routing, loading, and scheduling functions may well be included in the duties of the operating line; the shop manager, superintended, and foremen. But it is difficult to combine day-to-day work with adequate planning, and
as a result it is often more feasible to break away the production planning and control functions and assign them to qualified specialists. These groups should be organized as staff sections normally reporting to the top manufacturing executive.

Centralized Production Planning and Control
Centralization or decentralization of duties of the production control staff depends upon the design of the production planning and control system. In a completely centralized setup, determination of shipping promises; analysis of sales, stock, and shop orders; preparation of routes, load charts, and schedule charts; and dispatching of work to the shop complete with job tickets and all other necessary paper would be accomplished by a central production planning and control unit. In addition, as work is completed, a careful analysis of the actual performance would be made, and if corrective action were required, it would be initiated by this group.

Decentralized Production Planning and Control
We have discussed at great length that no matter how general the planning may be in a central office, the plan must eventually be developed into a detailed plan on the shop floor. Some companies are now endeavoring to make each foreman a manager of his own departmental operation. In these cases the foreman is furnished with a complete staff for the production planning and control of the activities in the department.

Planning Phase
We have already indicated in some details the duties involved in the production planning phase. Working from the basic data mentioned earlier, the personnel in this part of the activity routes and load and schedule charts.

Control Phase
The completed job ticket, or its equivalent, is the key to this phase of the production planning and control system. It is the means of reporting back from the shop floor that indicates that a job is completed; or if daily job tickets are turned in, the daily progress of a job can be determined.

Relation to Other Functions
Good relationships with all the other functions in the enterprise are essential to effective production planning and control. Full cooperation with the marketing group is necessary, particularly in view of the importance of market conditions and the goodwill of customers. Both product engineering and process engineering must keep production planning and control informed as to their plans to avoid the manufacture of goods either to incorrect specifications or by an improper method.

Measurement of Effectiveness:
In determining the effectiveness of a production planning and control system, there are quite a few problems. The key criterion might well be whether or not shipping promises are being kept –

the percentage of the order shipped on time. This, however, would not be a true criterion if excessive overtime of expediting costs were involved in getting any of these orders shipped.
The cost of the control system in relation to the value of goods shipped is another possibility. Again, however, this may not be sound: if markets slump, a bad ratio will develop. Many good production planning and control systems have been discontinued because of “high costs” under these conditions- and have never revived after business picket up.

In a study of benefits and costs of computerized production planning and control systems, Schroeder et al. list the following performance criteria by which production planning and control systems might be judged:

1. Inventory turnover
2. Delivery lead time
3. Percent of time meeting delivery promises
4. Percent of orders requiring “splits” because of unavailable material. 5. Number of expeditors
6. Average unit cost.

Benefits To Small Entrepreneur:
Production planning and control can facilitate the small entrepreneur in the following ways :

Optimum Utilisation of Capacity:
With the help of Production Planning and Control [PPC] the entrepreneur can schedule his tasks and production runs and thereby ensure that his productive capacity does not remain idle and there is no undue queuing up of tasks via proper allocation of tasks to the production facilities. No order goes unattended and no machine remains idle.

Inventory control:
Proper PPC will help the entrepreneur to resort to just- in- time systems and thereby reduce the overall inventory. It will enable him to ensure that the right supplies are available at the right time.

Economy in production time:
PPC will help the entrepreneur to reduce the cycle time and increase the turnover via proper scheduling.

Ensure quality:
A good PPC will provide for adherence to the quality standards so that quality of output is ensured. To sum up we may say that PPC is of immense value to the entrepreneur in capacity utilization and inventory control. More importantly it improves his response time and quality. As such effective PPC contributes to time, quality and cost parameters of entrepreneurial success.