How Do These Authors Create a Sense of Fear and Suspense?

In this essay I will examine the two tales The Whole Town’s Sleeping by Ray Bradbury and A Terribly Strange Bed by Wilkie Collins to see how they create a sense of concern and suspense. I will talk about how the following components contribute to a way of fear and suspense. The primary characters, their behaviour, in the occasion that they have been to blame, setting, language, plot and the ending. I may also be talking about which story is more effective and why.

First I will speak about the two primary characters.

The two main characters are known as Lavinia Nebbs (in the Whole Town’s Sleeping) and Monsieur Faulkner (in a Terribly Strange Bed). To add to the sense of concern and suspense, both Monsieur Faulkner and Lavinia Nebbs exit in search of pleasure. They look for pleasure by

the back streets which we all know is an enormous danger for him as we study at first,

“Shortly after my education at college was finished” he is a properly educated nicely off man.

Lavinia Nebbs still goes out despite advise given to her by her associates and the truth that there is a thriller assassin on the unfastened “won’t catch me out on no evening like this, not with the lonely one strangling ladies lock myself in with my gun” stated Grandma Hanlon.

As nicely as taking risks both Monsieur Faulkner and Lavinia Nebbs are very stubborn, Monsieur Faulkner would not go along with his friend

“For heaven’s sake” I mentioned to my friend “Let us go someplace where we are able to see little genuine blackguard, poverty-stricken gaming”.

Lavinia Nebbs tries to prove her level even after they discover Eliza Ramsell’s lifeless physique. “It’s only eight thirty; we’ll decide up Helen and get on to the show”.

Both Lavinia Nebbs and Monsieur Faulkner are bored and single which for my part spurs them into looking for pleasure. Looking for pleasure by taking risks creates rigidity, which in flip helps to create a way of concern and suspense as a outcome of pressure keeps us ready for what is coming next.

Lavinia Nebbs and Monsieur Faulkner are each partly to blame for their

attacks. In Lavinia Nebbs’ case, if she had gone home straight after they discovered Eliza Ramsell’s physique she in all probability still would have been killed but there were many times she was given the possibility by her pals to not go house and to remain at their houses however she refused. In Monsieur Faulkner’s case his good friend insisted that they don’t go to the tough playing house but Monsieur Faulkner refused and carried on without him and also he was drinking.

In my opinion, Lavinia Nebbs was more responsible than Monsieur Faulkner for her assault, as she was given more escape routes however she didn’t take any of them.

The sentence and paragraph length performs an necessary half in creating a way of worry and suspense in each stories. In The Whole Town Sleeping, the sentences and paragraphs are all very brief all the way in which through which helps create tension with the slight pause created by the total cease which in flip creates a way of fear and suspense. At the very finish when she will get home and we think she is protected, the sentences and paragraphs turn into for a lot longer as there is little worry. In A Terribly Strange Bed the sentence and paragraph length varies throughout. The sentences and paragraphs get shorter at instances of worry and excitement.

In A Terribly Strange Bed the creator, Wilkie Collins uses old, fairly advanced language as this is a nineteenth century short story so the language is totally different to the language we use at present.

In the Whole Town’s Sleeping the author Ray Bradbury uses moderately trendy language with short, incessantly used words. This makes the story easier to grasp and follow.

Both A Terribly Strange Bed and The Whole Town’s Sleeping are crime stories however the Whole Town’s Sleeping can be a thriller as we by no means find out who the ‘Lonely One’ is or when he is next going to strike.

The settings for both stories are darkish dismal places. In a Terribly Strange Bed the setting is a again road gambling house in an unknown metropolis. In The Whole Town’s sleeping the setting is her hometown and a ravine. The difference between the two settings is the place is known to the victim in The Whole Town’s Sleeping which provides extra fear and

Suspense to the story as a end result of it’s her house and she or he should feel protected.

In my opinion The Whole Town’s Sleeping is extra successful in creating a way of worry and suspense as a end result of it releases the strain steadily which is more sensible. The reader thinks Lavinia Nebbs is house and safe however it is fairly the opposite. The Whole Town’s Sleeping additionally has a really effective ending as a result of we nonetheless do not know what has occurred to Lavinia Nebbs – it is left to the imagination, which all the time assumes the worst. Both tales hold us guessing when we suppose they’re within the clear one thing else occurs to them.

Arthur Miller create tension

“The Crucible” is a play centred round morals, guilt and good and evil. It portrays these themes through witchcraft and an intensely non secular society, set in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1692. The acrimonious and joyless neighborhood stuffed with petty jealousies and fear if attack from Native Americans, really symbolises events in America in the course of the Nineteen Fifties, of which Arthur Miller was part of.

He wrote “The Crucible” as an allegory, working parallel with what occurred in Fifties America, managed by Senator Joseph McCarthy and right here represented by Salem decide, Danforth.

McCarthy was head of the Nineteen Fifties accusations of communism, making 205 public costs and blacklisting many playwrights, directors and actors from Hollywood Studios, including Arthur Miller. Miller couldn’t directly write about his experiences so as a substitute selected to characterize them in Salem. The fact that it’s set additional again in history additionally emphasises the stupidity of the situation, and that this kind of modern-day witch-hunt belongs prior to now.

Right from the symbolic title, Miller makes a statement as to the themes of the play.

The scientific which means of the word “crucible” is a small spherical dish used, at high temperatures, to purify substances. Irony has been used right here, as the “purification” happening in Salem is definitely killing innocent individuals, also indicating a tragic nature to the play. This has an impact upon the audience after they sense the irony, and creates an environment where the audience surprise what precisely is happening in Salem to “purify” a group.

The play, as already acknowledged, is ready in Salem, 1692, in a society bursting with paranoia over land, assault from Indians and Christianity.

The village is obsessed that God is consistently watching along with the satan, offering not only good, however evil and sin. This has probably resulted from fears of a Native American attack, leading to arguments over individual importance and notably land possession, as within the play we see disagreements between men over sections of fields.

The “Big Brother”-like dwelling circumstances with each everyone else, and particularly God knowing everything, with no freedom of room for privateness may be seen through the facility and effectiveness of non secular wording, used by Abigail in the courtroom. Language corresponding to “Devil’s people” has a psychological effect and is used to regain the upper hand. The fact that this language is so powerful is as a result of no person needs to ever be seen as siding with evil or condoning sin by different villagers, God, or his representatives like Reverend Parris. This moulds the scene for an growing mountain of rigidity, as everybody in actuality, is appearing to save tons of themselves from Hell.

Because “The Crucible” is a play, stage directions are vastly essential in getting throughout to the audience the meaning, and particularly in this scene, the significance of how characters behave. A very crucial stage path within the courtroom is when John and Abigail are informed to turn around -though Abigail turns around with “indignant slowness”, defining her character as assured, cussed and never about to back down simply because a decide tells her to – something which becomes extraordinarily influential main further into the scene. To build up rigidity, the pausing whereas Mary Warren tries to faint is also effective as the viewers realise that John Proctor’s heroic plight is probably not totally profitable.

John and Elizabeth Proctors’ relationship is essential to the story. Elizabeth loves and depends upon John however he has dedicated the main crime of adultery with Abigail, as he admits with the fateful line, “I have recognized her”. This indicates how shut the connection is, that he can admit to such against the law. Elizabeth also exhibits her loyalty by mendacity to save John, with the roles being reversed – John has lied on the past while she remained honest, but now, despite the fact that it is against her character, she lies to try to save the name of her husband. This reveals precisely how much is at stake – with a really honest girl, who continues to be making an attempt to guard her husband despite the fact that he betrayed her, facing death. The closeness of this relationship, but the precise fact there are apparent issues depart the reader uncertain as to what either get together will reveal in the case.

The character of John Proctor is one of a flawed protagonist. His heroic sacrifice of dignity sarcastically demonstrates bravery and the love for his wife in, “I have rung the doom of my good name”. But he knows some blame lies with him and is therefore tormented with guilt and feels unable to gain forgiveness from God, his spouse, or himself. However, in a bid to place right the state of affairs, he gives away his most prized possession – his good name. In the neighborhood Proctor is a powerful determine, he keeps out of religious feuding and is the primary particular person other individuals name on for assist. The viewers therefore fear his sins could also be over punished, as though he succumbed to a weakness of lust, his honesty shows he may be depended on.

Proctor’s reliability provides another factor to contemplate for the audience, in trying to work out whether or not he shall be successful. At the tip of the play, Proctor refuses to slander himself by allowing the courtroom to nail his false confession to the church door. This action additional exemplifies Proctor’s integrity and although he desires to live, escaping dying just isn’t value basing the remainder of his life on a lie. This realisation, along with Elizabeth’s forgiveness, enables Proctor to forgive himself and eventually regain his good name and self-respect, earlier than being hung – a small victory in the midst of this tragic play.

An artist have to be creative to have the ability to create a phenomenal cave

An artist have to be creative in order to create an exceptional cave art; creativity is the usage of imaginations in order to create one thing. Cave portray is a kind of parietal arts on the inside of a cave with depictions of animals, cave portray was the most typical method of communication across the yr 30,000 B.C.E. There were 5 completely different kinds of cave art similar to hand prints like finger marks, abstract indicators, inventive painting, engraving and reduction sculpture. According to statistics, 99 p.c of cave paintings have been animals similar to lions, rhinoceroses, bears.

Human beings’ paints were exceptionally rare however abstract imagery similar to signs, symbols and different kind of geometric markings have been quite common. Paleo-archaeologist (Lewis-Williams, 1995) discovered 32 most common used signs by our ancestors after she examined several caves round Europe where she began by making a database of the geometric indicators. These symbols included the asterisk, aviform, circle, claviform, cordiform, crosshatch, cruciform, cupule, dot, finger fluting, flabelliform, harf-circle, line, negative hand, open-angle, oval, pectiform, penniform, constructive hand, quadrangle, reniform, scalariform, segmented cruciform, serpentiform, Spanish tectiform, spiral, tectiform, triangle, unciform, w-sign, y-sign and zigzag.

It is very troublesome to inform the precise meaning of this symbols despite the precise fact that one can make some assumptions on various indicators such as the negative and constructive hand-mark that means that a selected human being was here.

Cave portray consisted of three typical phases which varied significantly in accordance with the artists’ expertise and also the cultural maturity, nature of the rock, energy and type of mild and the raw supplies used.

The first stage is to draw a top level view and the fundamental options of the exact thing which shall be drawn by the artist on the cave wall where an artist can decide to outline utilizing either coal or manganese or getting the uppermost layer of the rock using an acuminated stone.

The second stage is colouring or filling the drawing utilizing purple ochre or any other type of pigment.

The third stage is shading the drawing utilizing a black or some other pigment to find a way to advance its three-dimensionality, extra engraving or sculpting may be related in boosting the quantity and relief of the drawing. The stone-age painters used to make sketches before drawing, in cave of La Vache, archaeologists found a layer of charcoal under the black pigment of the paintings which confirmed that a sketch had been prepared earlier than portray.

Archaeologist have not found the principle cause of cave work although the paleoanthropologists thought that the cave work were meant to embellish. Archaeologists have discovered sufficient proof proving that odd people did not live in these painted caves however only by a small group of artists and different people who participated in cave ceremonial actions. Hence, it’s now believed that cave portray was meant for cerebration causes linked to supernatural, social or religious rituals. Pre-historic caves additionally consisted of sculptures such as the Venus of Laussel dated 23,000 B.C.E which is discovered within the Laussel rock shelter. Another example is the Tuc d’Audoubert Bison relief carvings dated thirteen,500 B.C.E found in Ariege (France).

Colour pigments had been first utilized by the homo-sapiens-sapiens man via creating and mixing before drawing or creating a sketch. A 100,000 years old paint workshop was uncovered within the Blombos cave present in South Africa with a quantity of ochres, bones, charcoal, crushing-stones and likewise harmer-stones although there was no proof of contemporaneous work. (Lewis-Williams, 1995) explained how rock shelters and stone-age caves consisted of a layer with reddish ochre with a top of eight inches deep. The stone-age man improved their color pigments extra incessantly for the explanation that first painting was a monochrome which was created by an earth and charcoal mixture which contained crude binder corresponding to saliva or animal fat.

How you can create your company

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MISSION
Providing high technology, communication, entertainment and computing solutions, both businesses and end consumers, always looking for customer satisfaction through competitive prices, variety, availability and speed of delivery, providing excellent care and personalized advice, finding solutions to the needs of our customers

VISION
Be considered as the best in technology nationwide and on the web, through a system of online catalog that allows customers to easily place their order and proceed to send quickly and safely around the country, ensuring quality and warranty.

ORGANIZATION

MANAGEMENT TEAM
President
– Achieve and maintain customer satisfaction highest standards in their innovative products and services. Sales and Marketing
– Supplies in the world, delivers added value products and for their customers. Commercial Services
– Demonstrate commitment to sustainable development and play an important role in social responsibility. Sales Department
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Customer Service
– Its essential for customer service have updated statistics that reveal the opinion of its customers in order to make improvements and solutions

PRODUCTS OR SERVICE
– CELL PHONES
Accessories
Batteries
Screen Filters
– Cables
Power Cables
KVM Cables
Cables for Printer
– Tables and Chairs
Scarves, CDs
Mouse Pads

Calculators
– Cameras
– Desktops

– Hard Drives
– Electronics
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– Power Supplies
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– Ram memory
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– Cleaning Product
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Compare and Contrast the Ways in Which Two Poets Create Sympathy for Their Characters – ‘on a Portrait of a Deaf Man’ and ‘the River God’.

The poems ‘On a Portrait of a Deaf Man’, written by John Betjeman and ‘The River God’, written by Stevie Smith appear as two very different poems; one in monologue form and the other in a regular form; but they are in fact two very similar poems. ‘On a Portrait of a Deaf Man’ presents a character mourning the death of a deaf man who was very close to him/her, and ‘The River God’ presents a lonely God who is abused by people and resorts to murdering women to keep himself company.

Both characters are lonely and the portrayal of this loneliness causes you – the reader – to feel sympathetic towards them. The ‘River God’ is lonely because he is only used by others, no one stays to be with him, they leave – ‘and I like the people who bathe in me . . . or will she go away?’ suggesting that he enjoys their company but doesn’t want them to go as he get’s lonely. In ‘On a Portrait of a Deaf Man’ the mourner feels lonely because he/she has lost someone very close to them – ‘the kind old face . . . he took me on long silent walks . . . when young’ implying they were close as they have known each other since a young age.

Both blame others for the situations that they have found themselves in. The ‘River God’ blames the women who ‘bathe in [him]’ for his loneliness, meaning that out of desperation he tries to keep the women with him but by doing so ends up killing them ‘she lies in my beautiful deep river bed with many a weed’. I believe he understands though that he has killed them and that is why he keeps them in the ‘beautiful deep river bed’; this causes you to feel some sympathy for him as he accidentally kills them but then out of love keeps them in his ‘beautiful deep river bed’. The mourner blames God for the death of the ‘deaf man’: ‘You, God, who treat him thus and thus, /Say ‘Save his soul and pray.’/You ask me to believe You and / I only see decay’ describing how God should be, but then the reality of asking God for things which aren’t achieved. This causes you to feel sympathetic because you see someone who asked God to save him yet he still died – ‘see decay’.

The poems both begin with descriptions of characters. ‘The River God’ begins ‘the kind old face, the egg-shaped head’ and ‘On a Portrait of a Deaf Man’ begins ‘I may be smelly and I may be old’; the first description makes you feel sad that someone kind and good has died and the second makes you feel pitiful for the river, it’s not the river’s fault that it’s that way as it’s reflective of old age and the abuse it has had by mankind, all of which you would be distraught if you found yourself in so you can feel sympathetic towards them.

The poets use the death of a person to draw sympathy from you. In ‘The River God’ a woman dies, one that he was fond of and he was against her dying; in ‘On a Portrait of a Deaf Man’ a friendly deaf man dies, presumably suddenly; these draw your sympathy because it suggests that they are lonely, in a state of mourning and vulnerable – all of which are states in which you would not want to find yourself and when you see someone else in such a state, you will feel sympathetic and be able to relate to the emotions they are feeling.

The poets use the deaths of characters in their poems to create side-personas for the characters through the persona of the main-speaking character. ‘The River God’ uses the dead woman to give another perspective of what’s going on, ‘This beautiful lady, or will she go away?’ shows this perfectly. The questioning gives her perspective that she wants to leave but she is being held, leading you to feel sympathetic for her as this large ‘River’ is holding her captive and she cannot leave. However, it shows the misunderstanding of the ‘River God’ as she is drowned, ‘Oh who would guess what a beautiful white face lies there’, ‘white face’ implying she is dead, leading you to feel sympathetic again towards him as he is totally ignorant of everything going on around him. ‘On a Portrait of a Deaf Man’, the writer uses the deaf man to display what exactly he/she has lost through his death, ‘He knew the names of ev’ry bird’.

This shows how caring he was and this would presumably translate to how he acts to people – kind and caring – and lead to sympathy as you would never want to lose a person so good to die. The poem also describes what further potential to do good he had if he knew what was coming, ‘He would have liked to say good-bye/Shake hands with many friends.’ This causes a sympathetic response from the reader because again even though he was dying he would have wanted to show respect to his friends rather than just leaving. It also creates sympathy because the person who has lost this ‘kind’ man would be very upset about his/her death. We see this when he/she blames God for his death as he didn’t save him/her, ‘’Save his soul and pray.’/ You ask me to believe You and/ I only see decay.’ – this shows a stage of mourning in which you blame others for the death you have experienced.

In conclusion, the poets create sympathy for their characters very effectively through: descriptions, meanings and powers out of the characters control; all of which attract the reader to feel some understanding, pity or empathy towards them. The poets both use the deaths of characters to contrast the feeling of the characters and the feelings of the dead to create sympathy.

Ethical Leadership and How to Create a Positive Work Environment

Leadership nowadays has encountered various problems. One of the most common one and which is contaminating the main business environment is that individuals at work are not engaging as they should. We have to ask ourselves, why is this happening and how can we prevent it? Dr. Charmine Hartel commented in the seminar that almost 20% of all the active workers in every organization do not work in favor of it. Instead they engage against the organization in various ways. This is a really big issue, because this means that there is something happening inside the organization and its leadership that is making these counter-productive acts. Recent researches that have been made show us that there are 3 different things that usually happens in the organization that get the workers to engage in a bad way their work as they should. * Work Environment

* Negative Work Environment
* Stress
When the brain is under stress chemicals are released that weakens functions of the brain that gives us a higher level of structure (this is called the prefrontal cortex). When stressed, we are likely to engage inappropriate actions and lack the ability to regulate our emotions. With this in mind, we are encountering serious problems for the organization, because if these workers don’t have the use of their brain area they are not going to be able to engage the work they can and should do. Ethical Leadership

The fruits of ethical leadership are Positive Work Environments, also known as PWE’s. PWE´s exists when the workers see their places as positive, respectful, inclusive and psychologically safe, and when leaders and coworkers are trustworthy and there exist an open diversity characterized in just policies and decision making. The entire above are needed to complete and get a PWE.

PWE provides the set of emotional experiences necessary for human flourishing. We know that on average the positive emotional experiences outweigh the negative emotional ones. So, with this in mind, when you see your environment is safeyou have the ability to start being more creative and start being yourself. We should always keep in mind that an emotion is a response of the person when they have a particular event. They can have Destructive or constructive consequences. Organizations are responsible for the work environment they create. This is called the organization culture. When people and how the people interpreted the environment around their workplace. This is about how the organization context shapes the meaning and actions of its members. People management have the need to build resilience, diversity openness and be able to create a support to people trough change. There always exists the need to belong and to be valued for our uniqueness. Servant Leadership

Many leadership approaches think about other things and focus their attention on what the followers need and develop things around them. Its an approach around the about the energy and direct it to the best place. With that in mind looking at the person as a whole being, not just as one more worker. One of the key things is that they can understand the core value of the workers and respect them as they deserve. There exist the emotion focus coping and problem focused coping they both have constructive and destructive emotions and impulses. The Giving Voice of Values (GVV) is designed to help individuals learn to recognize, clarify, speak and act on themselves when those conflicts arise. The focus is on how a manager raises this issues in an effective way.

Create Your Own School

A public schools’ job is to create a standardized environment for students of the general population; however, public schools don’t always meet the needs of the students. Charter schools exist to meet the needs of the students and are more open to parental involvement and local control over state and bureaucracies’ control. However, “charter schools may deter some minority, poor, and working families from seeking enrollment by requiring them to complete volunteer hours and failing to provide transportation and free lunches to eligible students” (Schnaiberg 2000). My school I create will take the benefits of public schools and the benefits of charter schools to create an emphasis on individual learning and respect for cultural diversity. My school offers students in preschool through twelfth grade, an extended school day and longer school year, because most of December is off. My secular school is founded on respecting and encouraging other religions thus the school works around religious holidays, creating all secular and religious holidays off days.

School is in session September 3rd through June 20th. Students in early childhood education program and kindergarten are in class Monday-Friday 7:30am-12:30 pm. Students in first through fifth are in class Monday-Friday 7:00am-4:45 pm. Students in sixth through eighth are in class Monday-Friday 6:45am-4:45 pm. Students in ninth through twelfth are in class Monday-Friday 6am-12:30 pm. Students in ninth through twelfth grade are required to have a Monday-Friday work experience internship; students under sixteen have an on-campus internship (1-4pm), while students over sixteen have an off-campus internship (1:30-4:30pm). My school’s goals are to have students by the end of twelfth grade be able to understand and comprehend at or near college level. In addition, students will learn three languages (English, Spanish, and another), read music sheets, be able to play a musical instrument or sing, have life skills, and have a knowledge of the diverse world we live in. All students preschool through twelfth grade will learn English composition, math, science, grammar, social sciences, geography, reading, literature, foreign languages, visual/performing arts (music, art, theatre, and dance), cultural diversity, U.S. government/economy, and physical education. Middle school students will learn speech: interpersonal communication, small group communication, argumentation, intercultural communication, public speaking, and forensics/debate. Middle school and high school students will learn required electives: basic life skills, introduction to computers, cultures of the world, nutrition/health/safety/careers, life skills, philosophy/religions/cultural anthropology, and human sexuality/anatomy/physiology. My school’s goals are to have students prepared for college and/or having a job as well as serving in the community. In addition to a work experience internship, high school students are required to take personal electives, which are any additional high school electives taken through the local community college or 30 units of college units though AP, CLEP, Dantes, etc. Middle school students are required to take personal electives, which are any additional middle school electives that are high school level. All students sixth through twelfth are required to complete community service to graduate and achieve units (10 units=20 hrs). Middle school students are required to complete at least sixty hours of community service and high school students are required to complete at least eighty hours of community service to graduate. Middle school students are required 360 units to graduate including personal electives and community service; high school students are required 520 units to graduate including personal electives, work internship, and community service. Summer school is required for middle school and high school students. Students are required at least twenty units. Repertory and accelerated classes available. My school holds a high standard for the teachers as well for the students. Students are expected to behave, strive for excellence, respect others, have a good character, and be willing to learn, while the faculty is expected to do the same. “Most charter schools do not require their teachers to be certified” (Borsa 1999). However, my school requires all teachers K-5th to hold a Teaching Credential and a Masters Degree and teachers 6th-12th are required to hold a Masters or Doctoral Degree in the area they teach. My school promotes a healthy life style, school uniforms, and parent involvement. Parents are required to pay one fee that covers all school material, lunches, schools uniforms, field trips, and other necessary items.

The food at my school, which is free, and healthy, that means no soft drinks, cookies, candy, chips, or any other junk food; all birthdays at school will be celebrated without unhealthy food. Parents are encouraged to eat healthy and show students healthy life styles. Students are required to wear a school uniform, a short-sleeved tee shirt with school logo and black pants/shorts/dress/skirt or for formal attire is long-sleeved shirt and black pants/shorts /dress/skirt. The shirt will have a color to represent a grade: Pre-K: Pink, K: Purple 1st: Blue, 2nd: Turquoise, 3rd: Green, 4th: Light Green, 5th: Yellow, 6th: Orange, 7th: Red, 8th: Maroon, 9th: Brown, 10th: Black, 11th: Gray, and 12th: White. Like the school uniform, backpacks will be in the color of the school uniform and have the students name on it. My school has no state standardized tests, but the use of state standards. Instead students are required to test into each grade through a test that measures their cognitive and behavioral level. The complete cognitive test has twenty-seven essays and 2030 multiple choice/true-false questions, which is two essays and 140 or 150 questions per grade. The cognitive test measures what the student should know by the end of each grade. Students can challenge an exam if they feel the grade or class they are in doesn’t reflect their abilities. In addition, students are required to take a “test out exam “in each subject. It serves as a measure for student learning, and an evaluation for teachers and parents. This exam is compared to the “test in exam” and options for tutoring/after school help for struggling students. If student doesn’t score higher than 80 percent on an exam, they won’t be promoted to the next class or grade unless they successfully retake the exam. The exam can be retaken twice before the student must repeat a grade of class. My school doesn’t use the Standard Letter Grade, but gives students the option for it. Instead of standard letter grades, students in K-5 will have a grade of Pass (B- or higher in Standard Letter Grade) or No Pass (C+ or lower in Standard Letter Grade). Then 6-12th grade students will have the option of keeping their grades in Pass/No Pass or having standard letter grades. (Students will be put on Academic Probation if their GPA reaches 2.99 or below.) Behavior, class participation, in-class work for students K-12 will be graded in O=Outstanding, E=Exceeds Expectations, A=Acceptable, P=Passing, N=Needs Improvement. Each week behavior and participation reports are sent home so parents can see how their student’s behavior and participation improves or becomes a problem. Teachers and parents go over the child’s portfolio, which includes tests, papers, art, quizzes, and other in-class material each quarter. At the end of the year students evaluate their own work and other’s work in the portfolio. The student, the teacher, other students, and the
parent grade the portfolio like pieces of art are evaluated at an art gallery. My school gives students the option of independent study or regular classroom learning in middle school and high school. All preschool through twelfth grade students are put in their cognitive level and in small classrooms of twenty students of less; however, middle school and high school students have the option of regular class or packets. In regular class students participate in in-class assignments, quizzes, and tests; students must earn homework and extra credit.

Students must have at least 240 points out of 300 to pass each quarter; otherwise the quarter will be repeated in packets. In a packets class or independent study students come to class participate and take in-class quizzes and tests; however, class work is done in packets. Students must have an A- or higher to move on to the next packet. Packets are allowed to be taken home and are equivalent to one week of regular class in-class work; only Physical Education, Speech, Science Lab, and Visual/Performing Arts are not allowed to be taken in packets. The packets are recommended for students who are ill, on religious holidays, etc., which prevent them from attending class. In addition, all students on holiday (December) have the option of completing packets for credit and completing quizzes and tests online with a proctor; the packet requires an A- or better to move on. Overall, my school focuses on creating an emphasis on individual learning and respect for cultural diversity; however, there are intuitional and individual barriers. Intuitional barriers will arise when parents who aren’t secular will try to implement their beliefs into the curriculum, but this school offers a well-rounded approach to learning not faith-based learning. In addition, problems may arise when parents try to control what the child learns and what they become; parents are encouraged to let their children be good at what they are good at. Small class sizes and indivualized learning can cause problems for students and parents who want a more mainstreamed education. Students may feel it is too hard for them, but this school is meant to be challenging in academics, but not in socializing. Since there will be intuitional and individual barriers, parents and teachers are encouraged to be open and discuss any problems and look for what is in the best interest of the child. My belief is that education should offer students prepare students for life outside of education. I provided a school that offers students an extended school day and longer school year and summer school to keep kids out of trouble and respect religious beliefs. My school has educated students prepared for college and/or having a job as well as serving in the community. In addition, I provided a school that promotes a healthy life style, school uniforms, individual learning, good behavior, options in learning, and parent involvement. The goal of my school is to prepare and educate students to learn and be the best they can be in whatever they are good at. This charter school will create an emphasis on individual learning and respect for cultural diversity and more. Although this charter school will have intuitional and individual barriers, the school will provide more positive learning than a negative one.

References Borsa, J., Ahmed, M., & Perry, K. (August 1999). Charter School Goverence. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration, Jackson Hole, WY. ED 436 856. Schnaiberg, L. (2000). Charter schools: Choice, diversity may be at odds. Education Week, 19(35), 1, 18-20.

Willy Russell Create Mood and Atmosphere in the Summer Sequence

In the Summer Sequence Willy Russell’s three main protagonists are shown to grow up from the ages of 15 to 18, thus becoming adults throughout the song. This means that the sequence acts as a watershed in the respect that it marks a major turning point in the play. This is shown through the atmosphere that Russell creates, which goes from fairly positive, hopeful tone to a more cynical and desperate one over the duration of the sequence. Russell uses several techniques to create these atmospheres throughout.

In the opening of the Summer Sequence the atmosphere is clearly a happy one, which is shown by Russell by using words like “young, free and innocent” to describe the characters. In this section, the word “innocent” is used twice. This repetition emphasises their youth and their naivety. “You haven’t got a care”, suggests Russell is trying to create an image of the characters as being without concern, completely free of worry so it reinforces the absolute happiness of the characters. Another adjective that occurs later in the song is “immortal” which at this stage of the play creates an atmosphere of excitement and spontaneity because the children can’t conceive of an end to their current lives. A technique that Russell uses starts to use here is imagery, “street’s turned to paradise”, the word “paradise” bring to mind an idea of secure and complete happiness, which is how he describes them in this verse. Another technique is personification, “radio’s singing dreams”, giving the radio the ability to do something that brings happiness or joy. This line also works the first time the motif of dreams appears, one that recurs throughout the sequence.

The next notable part of the sequence is entirely stage directions, and shows the characters at a fairground. In this part of the sequence the most obvious technique is foreshadowing and motifs arising. In it, Linda is just ignored by the narrator, who is running the stall, when giving the gun to them, but the boys both insist Linda fires it, which is reminiscent of the beginning of the play when Linda takes the airgun from Mickey and beats him at firing at cans. Linda also used to control their social situations, “let’s throw some stones through them windows”. This scene is also very reliant on the gun motif that runs through the entire play which creates a darker and more sinister atmosphere, and that suggests a level of violence.

The fairground scene is also reflected in the musical choice, which is fairground-like music that plays to the tune of ‘Tell me it’s not true’, the song Mrs Johnstone sings at the very beginning of the play while her two sons lie dead on the stage. So, again this ties in with the audiences’ awareness of the boys’ tragic fate, thus, creating a foreshadowing atmosphere and suggests impending tragedy. This links with the gun motif, as together these themes create a sense of impending violence and death. The last line of this section of stage directions is “Linda is caught in the middle, the game freezes”. This creates a dark atmosphere as throughout the play Linda is always seen to be caught in between the two boys, but so far, it has never ended badly. In this instance, however, it foreshadows the fates of all three characters. The use of the word “game”, referring to a game of piggy-in-the-middle, could suggest that the context of the play when Linda gets caught up in her own happiness which eventually leads to the tragic fate of the twins. Overall, this section is of a darker tone than the last, but this atmosphere is created through the subtext, so the audience may not be fully aware of why they feel this way about the atmosphere. This is featured through the presence of the narrator, who throughout the play appears on stage to signify or prompt something negative to happen. He hands them the gun, and prompts the game of piggy-in-the-middle that Linda gets caught between.

The next section uses metaphors to create a dark, impending atmosphere, that is more openly sinister that the previous section. Russell refers to the characters are “Lambs in spring”, which suggests not only their innocence and naivety, but an inevitable fate, specifically one that is forced upon them, not of their own doing. This explicitly refers to the brothers’ fate in a way in which the last section didn’t, so the tone is far more marred by the eventuality of their deaths.

This date is also referenced when Russell extends the metaphor, “fate the later seasons bring”, which causes the audience to remember the scene at the very beginning of the play, preventing them from being drawn into the initial happiness of the three teenagers in this sequence. Again, it refers to Linda being caught in the middle of the pair, foreshadowing their final argument. It also refers to Linda paying a “price”, a theme that was initially shown in the song ‘Easy Terms’, sung by Mrs Johnstone, and in both cases foreshadows the price they’ll have to pay for their involvement in the twins’ lives. The music becomes far more serious and sinister, a repetitive tense note with no actual melody.

In the next section a recurring theme is shown with the references to time. This creates a sad, melancholic atmosphere, as the audience is aware of the character’s significant lack of time together, but the characters are not, so their happy unawareness and this dramatic irony is slightly poignant. Again, fate is reference by the narrator “care not for what’s at the end of the day”, again forcing the audience to remember the fate of the boys, this enhances the melancholy mood of the section. “What is to come, what might have been”, references both the eventualities of the play, whilst also suggesting they could have been happy, that it could have they could have been happier, depressing the mood even further. It is made poignant by the characters’ blissful ignorance, “life has no ending…Talk away the night”, which ties in with the earlier references of immorality.

Again, this dramatic irony, where the audience know that the boys’ lives do have endings that are fast approaching, almost makes the audience beg them to not waste their time talking “away the night”. “Share your last cigarette” also ties into the earlier scene where Mickey and Eddie share things, such as sweets and later cigarettes, they promise to share things in their blood brothers pact; but they cannot share Linda. Arguably the downfall of both brothers, meaning that this watershed’s atmosphere is wholly dark. In the next section it is all stage directions, but Russell uses foreshadowing and the use of the narrator’s presence to create a seemingly happy atmosphere that still foreshadows tragedy. In it, the trip are taking photos of each other at the beach. In the one between Eddie and Linda, Eddie down on one knee and demonstrating affections by kissing her hand. Throughout the play, Linda has shaped Eddie’s personality and actions, such as coercing him to throw rocks, and Eddie has appeared to like her from the very beginning and so this foreshadows the dynamics of their later relationship.

Mickey and Linda’s photo does the same, as Mickey “pulls a distorted face”, and Linda chastening him for it, which foreshadows Mickey’s later dependency on medication, and Linda’s efforts to help him get off them. This foreshadowing of tragic events, in a way that appears innocent creates an eerie, disconcerting atmosphere. As there are no words, it can’t openly reference what’s to come, but uses what the characters think is a harmless and happy moment. This is compounded by the musical choice, which is again ‘Tell me it’s not true’, as fairground music. Again, this foreshadows the final scene, creating a foreboding atmosphere without explicit reference as to why it appears that way. In this scene we see the characters taking pictures of them at the beach, these photos are memories of the last time the three of them are all truly happy. Therefore, the photographs signify the end of their childhood and innocence and dreams. This made clearer by the narrator being the one to take the photographs, thus being the one who signifies the end of their childhoods and lives.

The children literally become adults at the end of the beach scene in the Summer Sequence, as well as metaphorically. Because the narrator is a sinister figure throughout the play, and usually is there to prompt the occurrence of something tragic, it creates a sense of impending tragedy even more obvious in this scene. The picture that the narrator takes is of them all together, happy, so he not only brings their childhood to a close, but also their happiness and friendship. In a sense, he symbolises reality as he intrudes on their happiness, despite their ignorance and the audience’s desire for him not to do so. He also represents society as it is eventually social constraints of class and wealth that divide the two. This way the audience are forced to see the society that they are part of and this is the factor that brings the story to an end.

The fact that he appears to them as a friendly, even helpful, face increases the audience’s wariness of him and therefore the sinister nature of the scene. The overriding atmosphere of the scene is the last section is one of desperation and uncertainty. Russell uses metaphors such as “broken bottles in the sand” to symbolise a man-made impression on something naïve and happy, which symbolises the characters’ friendship and how it is affected by class. The motif of a dream is repeated, as is the theme of innocence. The references to dreams ties in with the song tell me it’s not true, which refers to dreams. The reference to innocence here again makes the trio seem devious to the fact that they will be subject to tragedy.

Intention to create legal relation

Just because there is an agreement between people, it does not signify that a contract exists. The creation of legal relations is a doctrine of the English contract law that is defined as an intention is to enter a legally binding agreement or contract. An agreement, which is defined as the meeting of minds with the acceptance and understanding of mutual legal rights and duties as to particular actions or accountability, is legally enforceable only if the contracting parties may be deemed by the court to have intended it.

The intention to create legal relations is a vital principle of Contract Law. As A.W.B Simpson stated, this doctrine might date back to the landmark decision of Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company in 1893, but however, it wasn’t in a firm position until 1919, after the case of Balfour v Balfour. Whether or not the parties intended to be legally bound to the contract is the doctrine’s main concern. Acknowledgement of the presence of domestic and social agreements to which parties do not mean to be legally bound has culminated in an assumption that, proportionately, no contract is recognized. Commercial transactions, however, are treated with a presumption that legal relations were intended.

It is stated that in terms of general rules of family or domestic relations, there is no assumption to be bound legally. However, there are exceptions in which the presumption is rebuttable. For instance, Balfour v Balfour [1919] shows that the intention to create legal intentions is crucial for family and domestic relations. Both parties must intend that an agreement be legally binding in order to be an enforceable contract. Matters involving the daily life of husband and wife are not subject to contractual interpretation, even when consideration exists. Spouses habitually intend that the conditions of their agreements can be different as situations develop. The court held that it was assumed that an agreement was made by the parties as husband and wife and did not intend that it could be sued upon. The court held that as a matter of public policy, it could not resolve disagreements between spouses. There is a strong presumption in commercial agreements that the parties intend to be bound, and, unless there is very contrary evidence, the presumption will not be rebutted. In the case of Esso Petroleum Ltd v Customs and Excise Commissioners, Lord Simon of Glaisdale stated that the whole agreement took place in a setting of business relations, and that general unacceptance to allow a commercial promoter to claim what he has done is a mere puff, not intended to create legal relations. The convention of such events is generally to promote the body offering the prize. As a result, there is a presumed intention to create legal relationships which is then binding on the parties and can be relied on by members of the public who enter the competition

The intention to create legal relations is essential in creating a valid contract as it ensures both parties are willing to be bound by the terms of their agreement. When two parties are determined to enter a contract, their mentality will discern the subject matter of the contracts. This happens because of the ‘intention’ that the two parties have to be permitted to agree. If there is no agreement by both the parties, it may cause the contract to be an invalid agreement.

The contract would not be enforceable, legal and binding if intention to create legal relations is non-existent. If there is no intention to create a legal relation, the contract can be presumed as not legal. Because of that, the contract could possibly be unenforceable as there is no intention to create legal relations at the beginning which makes the contracting parties to be legally binding.

Another reason to why creating legal relations is important is so that the parties are able to sue each other when a dispute arises. With no intention to create legal relations, it may cause the contracting parties to not be legally binding and these circumstances may cause the contract enforceable. When the contract is enforceable, the contracting parties are unable to take charges against each other and this will spoil their business crisis; and this will cause the contracting parties difficulty to enquire their justice.

Without the intention to create legal relations, the contract “formed” may become just a mere promise. Promise is defined as a declaration, verbal or written, made by one person to another for a good or valuable consideration in the nature of a covenant by which the promisor binds himself to do some act, and gives to the promisee a legal right to demand and enforce a fulfilment. Promises arise when there is no intention to create legal relations.

How does an organization create customer value

Marketing experts Don Peppers and Martha Rogers said: “Without customers, you don’t have a business.” It is such a simple, nevertheless, a scary thought. We live in a world of consumerism, in which the customer’s wants and desires greatly exceed their basic needs. Even though many see this concept as a threat to modern world society, it has created the extremely competitive marketplace for businesses. The companies are competing everyday to win over as many customers as possible by offering products that create irreplaceable value and benefit to those customers. Many companies will succeed in getting the customers to buy into their value and benefit however, the true success of a business is not linked only to getting new customers. It is considerably linked with keeping those customers around and winning over the customers from their competition. Companies work hard to develop creative marketing schemes for their products so that the company is recognized and perceived as valuable and beneficial to the customer. However, I believe that all strong companies start from the same point: listening to the customer. The extraordinary merits of information technology, such as the internet, cell phones, social media, television, radio, etc. have made the world we live in a global village. Thanks to the information technology, distance has never been less of an obstacle to communication amongst people. Technology has made information essentially accessible to everyone, everywhere, at any time making consumers, “more educated and informed than ever. They have the tools to verify companies’ claims and seek out superior alternatives” (Kotler & Keller, 2009, p.121). Consumerism and technology have made it possible for the customer to be heard. They can share interests, as well as positive and negative reviews for others to see. Companies follow and act upon those interests and reviews. They analyze all the information and seek to create a product that will satisfy the consumer’s interests and minimize the negative reviews. The creation of a quality product or a service that satisfies a great number of the customer’s needs and wants will create competitive advantage in the marketplace for the company and will make the product or service valuable to the customer. Ultimately, it will create an valuable experience. Positive experiences create loyalty towards that product and, “deeply held commitment to rebuy or repatronize a preferred product or service in the future despite situational influences and marketing efforts having the potential to cause switching behavior” ( Kotler & Keller, 2009, p.123). Negative experiences on the other hand can cause dissatisfaction with the product and cause a customer to defect and go to the competitor. When defection happens companies seek other ways to retain current customers, gain new ones, or even stop dissatisfied customers from defecting. Some of the other ways companies make themselves valuable to the customer are: speed of service, discounts and rebates, warranties, loyalty programs, gifts, etc. Sale!Sale!Sale! 20-70% off entire store! 2 for 1! All these marketing schemes, discounts, and rebates are used to promote value in the eyes of the customer. Customers like to use phrases like: ”I want more for my money”, or, “getting more for less”.

One of the best ways that companies show they are valuable to customers is lowering the price of their products. The value created for the customer is satisfaction and a feeling of success. Meeting customer needs with a product is great, but the real measure of success cannot be measured by the product made, but by the feeling that the customer gets after purchasing it. That feeling of satisfaction or dissatisfaction after purchasing the product will affect the customer retention base, customer loyalty, company’s image, and ultimately the bottom line. Many companies today compete on price and try to create value for the customer by giving them more for less. No matter how good the product or service is, mistakes will happen and the customers will complain. Many people don’t like to hear complaints, but when there is money involved there will be complaining. The first step in making the company valuable to the customer is by making complaints easier and more accessible. By doing this the company makes it personable, consequently creating the value of importance for the customer instead of making them just a number. Benjamin Franklin said, “Well done is better than well said”. Companies might say they will make it personal and resolve the issue, but then you are put on hold for thirty minutes when you call in for a complaint, or your car might have to stay in the shop two days longer than anticipated. When inconveniencing the customer in moments like these, any effort to help the customer resolve the issue thereafter may be futile. That may very well be the last time the company will deal with that particular customer. The second step in creating value for the customer is the speed at which the issue will be resolved. It might sound cliché, but time is money, and an attorney that has to be on hold for thirty minutes might have lost the opportunity to earn two hundred dollars. He might take it personal and go to your competitor. According to Kotler & Keller (2009), “Of the customers who register a complaint, between 54% and 70% will do business with the organization again if their complaint is resolved. The figure goes up to a staggering 95% if the customer feels the complaint was resolved quickly” (p.129).

Therefore, it is not just resolving the issue that makes the customer value your company, it is the speed at which that issue or complaint is resolved. The desire of each marketing person and each company, per se, is building a strong and loyal customer base. Quality products and services create satisfied customers, and that satisfaction creates a relationship between the customer and a brand. If the customer is repeatedly content with the benefits from the particular product or service, it starts building loyalty. Once loyalty is established companies continue creating value for the customer thru development of loyalty programs that provide customers with extra rewards and benefits, making them feel more valuable since they are not getting those benefits anywhere else. The company has created ultimate value for both customer and themselves when their customers become their clients. According to Kotler & Keller (2009), “Customers may be nameless to the institution; clients cannot be nameless. Customers are served as part of the mass or as part of the large segments; clients are served on an individual basis. Customers are served by anyone who happens to be available; clients are served by the professional assigned to them” (p.140). Companies create competitive advantage in the market by putting the customer’s wants and needs ahead of everything, understanding that without their customers they would not exist. In today’s world of consumerism and information, every company is capable of creating a valuable experience for their customers. However, the difference between the leaders in the market and others is that the leaders are constantly making their customer’s feel valued. Leading companies listen to their customers, they resolve their customer’s complaints and concerns in a fast and effective manner. They make customers feel valuable by building personal relationships thru numerous loyalty programs, and ultimately deepen that relationship by making their customers into clients.