EFFECTIVE APPLICATIONS OF E-COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES IN CONSTRUCTION SUPPLY CHAIN: CURRENT PRACTICE AND FUTURE IMPROVEMENT

Introduction

As the pattern is changing and becoming more client-oriented, the development industry is also facing many ongoing challenges, like:

  • Greater efficiency expectation
  • Increased competition
  • Restructuring of work practices
  • Need of information and communication technologies

A construction project requires varied involvements and sharing updated data amongst them, typically leads to errors and delays. However, improvement of technologies, internet and ICT have supplied solutions like e-commerce which supplies information and workflow control, course of management, as well as improved communication.

Description and analysis:

Electronic commerce or e-commerce is a vital sector of the Internet world.

It includes sharing of information and processing it for a enterprise. (B 2 B & B 2 C)

There are ways during which E-commerce helps:

1. Better work alternatives inside industry/organization.

2. Access to information turns into easy and dependable.

3. Speedy working practices.

4. Reduction in value.

5. Monitoring on the quality that would be supplied.

6. A great mixture of design & construction.

7. Less disputes due to high transparency.

E-commerce also performs a vital role within the sector of development because it improves a key a part of the section i.

e. it enhances the availability chain process or supplies and efficient medium for provide chain management.

Efficient materials – dealing with in data processing using data technology where it contributes to inventory discount and reduce in the number of rebuilding with accurate design data and manufacturing of energy-efficient buildings, which finally saves project value & time. It features a record of benefits from Client to Manufactures including Designers, Contractors, Building merchants. Such as:

1. Project total efficiency.

2. Reduce price of development.

3. Compresses the development section.

4. Communications is enhanced.

5. Lower administrative cost.

6. Project control and its security.

7. Channel price is reduced.

8. Purchasing and categorizing for customers turns into straightforward.

Along with advantages there are few challenges additionally:

  • Challenges Information Management System
  • Organisational Policies
  • Human Resource and Learning
  • Training Learning and Knowledge Sharing

Problems in current practices and operations:

  • Inability of subcontractors/suppliers to adopt the applied sciences.
  • Lack of in-house technical expertise.
  • [newline]

  • Lack of integrated info administration system.
  • Lack of IT coaching and knowledge sharing .
  • Costly and complicated e-commerce system.
  • Less consciousness in prime management of organizations.
  • Different organizational culture.
  • Fear of implementation of course of change in any business.
  • Less assist from the chief stage.
  • Lack of software program that meets the required wants.
  • Lack of methods, belief, and commitment.
  • Less/delayed return on investment.
  • Less clarity about imaginative and prescient and objectives.
  • Clients irregularity.

Analysis of the Case

The growing need or growing application of the e-commerce applied sciences in development supply chain:

  • Better work opportunities.
  • Increases the speed of working.
  • Information and system management Reduced time in clerical works.
  • Ease of working with CAD and numerous software.
  • Barriers
  • Lack of in-house technical experience and personnel
  • Reluctance/inability to undertake laptop applied sciences amongst subcontractors and suppliers
  • Lack of suitable methods that meets the company’s needs
  • Different organizational culture
  • Inability to Acceptance Case ( Interviewed Carried out and Results: as per paper)

With a Project Coordinator of a large building company background present e-commerce technology applications challenges of implementing of e-commerce technology

W ith a Contract Administrator of a large development firm background challenges of E-commerce technology:

1. Problems with Emails.

2. Problems with WWW.

3. Problems with reaching and retrieving project information.

4.Problems of IT studying.

With a Design Coordinator of a Medium Engineering Company. Background challenges of implementing e-commerce:

  • Technology
  • Alternate Solutions
  • More consciousness concerning the project’s goals and goals.
  • More person pleasant, and integrated e-commerce system.
  • IT coaching and knowledge sharing.
  • Supportive group tradition.
  • Setting business requirements.
  • Cost discount of technologies.
  • Better profits/savings.
  • Better compatibility of software.
  • Client’s energetic participation.
  • Better safe services.
  • Integration pf building members through the community .

References:

1. EFFECTIVE APPLICATIONS OF E -COMMERCE TECHNOLOGIES IN CONSTRUCTION SUPPLY CHAIN: CURRENT PRACTICE AND FUTURE IMPROVEMENT by Patrick X.W. Zou & Youngsin Seo.

2. //www.liaison.com/blog/ 2017 /02 /10 /benefits-supply-chain-management/

3. //www.ukessays .com/essays/information-technology/the-ecommerce-impacts-on-supply-chain-management-information-technology-essay.php

A Description of Alternating Current

Abstract

Alternating current (AC) electricity is the kind of electricity that commonly used in homes and companies all through the world. While direct present (DC) electricity is flowing in a single direction through a wire, the path of the AC is moving in a back-and-forth movement. AC electrical energy is created by an AC electrical generator, which is determining the frequency. The particular about AC electricity is the voltage could be readily modified, so that can make it more suitable for long-distance transmission than DC electricity.

However, AC can make use of capacitors and inductors in electronic circuitry that can enable for a variety of functions. This experiment was amid to create signals for AC voltage utilizing perform generator, measuring the alerts using oscilloscope, determining the RMS value of AC indicators, analyze the impact of frequency, offset and peak voltage on its value.

This report will contain the following elements: Abstract, introduction, instrumentation and process, results and dialogue, error analysis, conclusion and appendix. The summary summarized the entire experiment.

While the instrumentation shows all of the instruments which were used in the experiment. The procedure and results elements, exhibits the experimental strategies used and the results that had been came upon. These results have been compared with the theoretical values in the two procedures, then it had been discussed within the discussion part in order to notice the error causes and mention it in the error evaluation half. The conclusion reveals the outcomes carried out and outline the primary problems/issues that faced the group whereas working. Also, there shall be a figures and tables in the appendix half.

Introduction

In AC, the movement of electric charge periodically reverses direction and it varieties in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences. The traditional waveform of an AC energy circuit is a sine wave. In certain purposes, there are completely different waveforms are used, which is triangular or square waves. The audio and radio alerts carried on electrical wires are also examples of AC. The most important objective in these functions is recovering of information encodes (or modulates) onto the AC signal.

In the first experiment, it’s creating an AC then measures it utilizing a perform generator and digital oscilloscope.

The signal is initially produced in a power station after which is distributed via transformers and power lines to the houses. In the laboratory, alerts are produced and transported on a smaller scale using the gear and cables. Specifically, the perform generator is using to create AC indicators, cables join tools collectively to transport the generated sign, and the oscilloscope is used to show and measure the signal.

Before beginning the experiment there are some details to grasp: Amplitude is the maximum voltage reached by the signal.
It is measured in volts, V.

Peak voltage is one other name for amplitude.
Peak-peak voltage is twice the height voltage (amplitude). When studying an oscilloscope hint it’s traditional to measure peak-peak voltage. Time interval is the time taken for the sign to complete one cycle. It is measured in seconds (s), however time periods tend to be short so milliseconds (ms) and microseconds (µs) are sometimes used. 1ms = zero.001s and 1µs = zero.000001s. Frequency is the number of cycles per second.

Current Situational Analysis

Ryanair’s mission statement (Exhibit 1) provides various elements contributing to its company. Ryanair offers low fares that generate increased passenger traffic to benefit its passengers, people, and shareholders. As one of Europe’s largest airline providers, Ryanair continues to specialize in short haul routes between secondary and regional airports. Ryanair’s vision statement (Exhibit 2) demonstrates its leader and reputation by modeling itself on US low fare pioneer Southwest Airlines. Although Ryanair does not have a published mission and vision statement, its website statements imply one. External Analysis

The opportunity to offer lower fares than competitors is one of Ryanair’s strategies. As the availability of oil decreases, the price of it will increase, and as a result maintaining lower prices for customers will be difficult for Ryanair (Exhibit 3). As Ryanair operates mostly in Europe, the forces outside Europe are the ones they are concerned about such as OPEC. Government regulation such as the Department of Transportation’s legislature EU261 affects Ryanair because it forces airlines to pay compensation to passengers as well as cover other costs in circumstances beyond the control from runways (Byles 66).

Air travel tax means every departure from Ireland will cost ten Euros. In the economic environment, Ryanair has commended to consumer’s needs for cheaper prices. For the most part, customers do not care about luxuries to pay high prices for them. Technological advances such as self-service passenger check in kiosks have proven to be innovative, quick and easy. Currently, Ryanair has a three-year contract with Ingenico to prove this service. Industrial Analysis

The competition in the airline industry has influence every aspect of the value chain such as positioning, brand equity, promotions, pricing, products and services offered. The European airline industry faces competition from other airline companies like easyJet, Air Berlin, Germanwings and IAG. In Exhibit 4, competitors against Ryanair prove to provide better factors such as price, customer service and innovation. However, some existing competitors are in a sustainable position because of lower fares or better customer service. Airline faces competition from ground transportation such as high-speed rail systems that are highly accessible for Europeans and tourists. Americans traveling internationally have increased, supporting the role for European airlines to meet American satisfaction as well (Exhibit 5). Overall, the airline industry is rapidly changing with advancing technologies and changes in consumer and government preferences. Internal Analysis

Ryanair Holdings, plc is a pioneer in European discount air travel because of its low fare, no-frills air transportation through its main subsidiary, Ryanair. The carrier flies to about 160 destinations, including more than two-dozen in Ireland and the UK. Overall, it serves more than 25 countries through Europe, plus Morocco. Ryanair specializes in short haul routes between second and regional airports. It operates from more than forty bases. The carrier maintains a fleet of about 270 Boeing 737-800s. Ryanair is known for its customer hostility however highly focusing on its profits (Byles).

As well as offering flights, Ryanair offers ancillary services. Ryanair continues to have a strong brand image and bargaining power in airport deals. The company’s CEO, Michael O’Leary, demonstrates aggressive and innovative leadership as well as constantly improving Ryanair’s low-cost strategy. O’Leary has served as CEO since January 1, 1994 and has restructured Ryanair around the Southwest Airlines mode. There are nine directors who are independent under the standards set forth in the NASDAQ rules. Financial Analysis

Ryanair reported a 26 percent increase in profits to €401 million, compared to €318.8 million in the year ended March 31, 2010. Total operating revenues increased by 21 percent to €3,629.5 from an increase of average fares, passenger number and ancillary frees. The overall load factor exceeded 82%, relative to a breakdown level of 73%. The company’s fleet of planes has 189 seats, implying that on average, 75% seats must be filled to breakdown. Gross cash increased by €127.2 million to €2,940.6 million (Exhibit 6). Ryanair had a 26% increase in annual profit of €401 million while revenues increased 21% to €3.630 million. Ryanair’s model continues to demonstrate its capacity for cash generation, reporting an operating cash flow of €348.7 million, a 27% year-on-year increase. The current ratio is 1.90 from its current assets and liabilities (Exhibit 7). Broad General Environment/Specific Industry Future Assumptions

Because of high fuel cost, newer planes and engines will be designed to be as efficient as possible to keep cost down. Consumers will continue to buy airplane tickets, especially through the Internet. As smartphone sales are increasing, all airline companies will eventually switch their ticket purchases and check-ins through their airline mobile app. Mobile technology will allow customers to board flights without paper ticket and to generate their own boarding passes. With higher prices in fuel, airlines will have to find a better alternative for fuel. Consumers might be willing to fly with airlines that offer a better and green way for traveling. Through Exhibit 8, the graph demonstrates how European countries have emitted a neutral amount of carbon dioxide emissions as years have gone by. Statement of Critical Challenges

Ryanair’s critical problems include negative public image due to the aggressive CEO and unfriendly staff, misleading advertisements and unreasonable ancillary charges such as wheelchair charges, check-in baggage charges and refund handling charges. Inconsistent leadership issues refrain the company to being the best it can be for future customers. External factors prevent Ryanair’s profits from soaring because of the rising fuel prices and legislation requiring airlines to pay for the carbon dioxide they emit. Strategic Objectives

Specific Strategic Objectives
For Ryanair, the key strategic objectives are following through the 9 key elements of Ryanair’s strategy: low fares, customer service, frequent point-point short-haul, low operating cost, use of the internet, commitment to safety and quality, ancillary services, focused criteria for growth and responding to current challenges. Ryanair must prove to consumers its low cost and great customer service against its competitors. Specific Financial Objectives

Within the next two year, Ryanair expects its revenue to climb 21.0 percent. With the continuous strong sales of air flight tickets, Ryanair’s mission is to sell more than €700 million of ancillary services each year. Statement of Alternatives

Ryanair’s strategy has continued to provide airline products and services to its customers. However, Ryanair has developed three strategic alternatives to its business plan. The first plan to action is to increase total quality management. The ability to increase productivity and service quality will help build a professional brand for Ryanair. Secondly, Ryanair should increase its flight frequency of routes. With this, Ryanair would be able to offer more flexible timetable and better service for passengers. Lastly, Ryanair’s customer relationships to improve would satisfy customers. This approach would allow for loyal and brand awareness through the European nation for airlines (Exhibit 9). Advantages/Disadvantages

Many of the advantages of the alternatives methods are to increase and improve on Ryanair’s brand. With a more stable and well thought out leadership plan, the company can adopt a unique and more caring approach to its customers and industry. The result could well be an increase in business shares and profit. However, the disadvantages of the alternative methods are time consuming and expensive. Developing a new marketing strategy to implement fixing the brand would be costly due to advertisements. Also, increasing Ryanair’s flight frequency of routes would increase the cost of fuel for the company as well as stir problems against EU’s emission trading scheme. Under this requirement, airlines must pay for the carbon dioxide they emit. Risks/Obstacles

Within the strategic alternatives come risk and obstacles such as figuring out Ryanair’s customer service strategy and management plan to provide for the company. Finding the best option can be difficult for Ryanair because the company ceased to develop a professional one before. Implementing the management to get on board with providing a quality customer service program can fail because of their motivation to just make a profit. Increasing flight frequency of route for passengers will increase competition against
competitors and the cost to supply resources to build and maintain routes is highly expensive. Resolution

As Ryanair continues to increase growth by profits and traffic, the company must improve existing and future relationships with customers in the airline industry. By investing resources such as cash and management, people will believe Ryanair is the best option without any hesitation. By doing so, Ryanair must purse a marketing strategy to prove its strong customer relationship. Implementation

Identification of Required Activities
To fully align customers’ desires, Ryanair needs to hire a better and qualified management team. Michael O’Leary will have to drop his visibility in the media to reduce all potential bad media.

Focusing more on other marketing initiatives such as advertising and most importantly introducing a future CEO replacement plan would help develop younger employees and instilling them the ethos of Ryanair with the view one of them could take over the role of a publically visible CEO in the future. Once that has occurred, hiring a well-known marketing/advertisement agency to develop and handle all of Ryanair’s advertisements and social media will need to be established. The process of rebranding themselves as the best low fare airline in addition to customer service will be key.

Acquiring an agency to take care of Ryanair’s marketing and advertisements will successfully get rid of the declarations and stunts of CEO Michael O’Leary. This marketing strategy will ensure for an increase of passengers and strengthen considerable consumerism towards the company. Identification of Resources Required

With this strategy, Ryanair will need to identify its financial projections for the Q4 2013. Ryanair expects to increase their marketing expenses no more than €425.60 million. In Exhibit 10, the following revenues and expenses have been shown to demonstrate how much Ryanair plans to spend and gain for the Q4 2013. Although the company is projected to spend more resources on building up its marketing strategy and customer service, the outcome will be greatly rewarded. In hopes of increasing profits by increasing the company’s expenses, customers will have a better outlook on Ryanair. Customers will be brand loyal after experiencing their “new” time with Ryanair and word of mouth will become another marketing strategy. Control

Feedback through customer reviews will allow for measurements of how well Ryanair is doing on its customer service. The relationship between existing customers and Ryanair can be monitored online by social media such as Facebook and Twitter. The online engagement level can demonstrate Ryanair’s progress to help improve future methods of building customer satisfaction. The company can measure if better customer service relates to more ticket sales by surveying customers at the end of the purchasing journey. Customers who do fill out the survey will receive 10 percent off on their next purchase with Ryanair.

Development and frameworks support development influence current practice

Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development focusses on how children acquire knowledge and learn. He believed that when a child and an adult are given the same logical question children gave less sophisticated answers, not because they were less competent than the adults but because children are born with an extremely simple mental structure which is the basis for the child’s knowledge and learning ability. He suggests that children go through four stages of intellectual growth: 0-2yrs – Sensorimotor, i.e. motor control and learning about objects, the child explores the environment around them using their senses; 2-7yrs – Preoperational, verbal skills development, the child understands the use of symbols and language; 7-11yrs – Concrete Operational, beginning to grasp abstract concepts, shows logical thinking; 12yrs to adulthood – Formal Operational, logical and systematic reasoning skills, is able to work through abstract problems. One of the basic components of Piaget’s theory is ‘Schemas’.

Each schema is a building block of intelligent behaviour and a way of a child’s brain organising the knowledge they have gained. Children will develop new schemas as they learn and experience more to allow them to retain this knowledge, as well as modifying their existing schemas as new information about them emerges through additional knowledge. We can effectively plan the development of a child by taking his ideas of ‘schemas’ into practice and using Piaget’s stages we can assess where and how a child is currently learning. From assessment it becomes possible to plan activities to help them to develop onto the next stage. Psychoanalytical

Sigmund Freud (1856 1939) An Austrian neurologist
Freud believed that each stage of a child’s development directly related to specific needs and demands, each based on a particular body part and was rooted with a sexual base. Freud outlined these stages as oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital. Each stage involves the satisfaction of a desire and can later play a role in the adult personality. Freud suggested that if a child does not successfully complete a stage, they could develop a fixation that would later influence adult personality and behaviour.

According to Freud the mind can be split into two halves, the conscious (mental processes we are aware of) and the unconscious mind (mental processes we are unaware of), and has three separate aspects – the Id (the conscious mind), Ego and Superego (unconscious mind) which all need to be balanced to have good mental health. The Id is about basic needs and feelings, the pleasure principle. The Ego is the reality principle and the Superego is the moral part of the mind. Freud’s theories about unconscious actions can still be witnessed, for example when a child is caught hurting another child.

The aggressor may deny it and tell a lie, but may start to cry because he knows what he has done is wrong, and that he has lied about it. Whilst Freud’s psychosexual theories do not fit well with today’s more scientific standards and are considered not to be very accurate, they have been influential because it was original thinking about human development, and many other theorists used his ideas as a starting point. He has also helped those working with children by understanding there is a link between our conscious and unconscious actions. Humanist

Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) An American psychologist
Abraham Maslow was a humanistic psychologist who is most famous for his ‘Hierarchy of Needs’, which is relevant to all ages, not just for children. The five-stage hierarchy of needs is often visually displayed as a pyramid with the largest most important needs at the bottom and the more advanced needs at the top We are born with basic needs for survival, food, water, shelter and sleep which is represented in the first layer. Without these nothing else is possible. Once these needs are met we can progress to the next level which consists of a need for feeling safe and secure. We seek safety from others and strive to be in an environment that keeps us safe and free from harm. The third level is our need for love, our desire for acceptance and our need to fit in. At this level we seek out love, friendships and intimacy.

The fourth level is our need for esteem, achievement, education and respect. At this level we focus our attention on self-respect and respect from others. We seek information and knowledge through education, strive to make advancements in our careers and work towards an overall higher self-worth. The fifth and final level in the hierarchy is our need for self-actualisation, the need to reach our fullest potential with complete understanding of ourselves. According to Maslow very few people if any, master this level. Our basic needs (1st level) are essential for our survival. We need to feel safe (2nd level) before we can develop friendships which will give us a sense of belonging (3rd level). Once we have developed friendships we seek the esteem of self and others (4th level).

This demonstrates how each layer must be fulfilled before moving up to a higher level. Maslow’s theories are very relevant to child development and care. Based on his hierarchy of needs a child would find it very hard to learn if their basic needs are not being met, for example a hungry or thirsty child would find it difficult to focus their attention to learn as the most basic need must be met first. A simple solution of snack time in between lessons and having drinking water available would help to overcome this problem. Addressing a child’s most basic needs will help them to grow, learn and develop. Social learning

Albert Bandura born 1925, an American psychologist

Bandura states that behaviour is learned from the environment, i.e. behaviours of others, and then imitated. His famous experiment in 1961 – the Bobo doll study – involved a film being shown of an adult beating up a Bobo doll and shouting aggressive words. This was then shown to a group of children and after watching the film they were allowed to play in the room that held the Bobo doll. All the children began to beat up the doll and were physically and verbally aggressive towards it, even though nurturing toys were available to play with the doll. They were apparently imitating the actions of the adult they had seen in the film.

This was seen as an important break away from the behaviourist theory that behaviour is directed by reinforcement or rewards. The children simply copied the adult’s behaviour. They received no encouragement or reward. Bandura’s theories have an influence on current practice today in the form of positive role modelling. Recognition that child carers have a responsibility to demonstrate positive role modelling, as children will often imitate their behaviour. If aggressive behaviour or frustration is exhibited by the adult it is likely to be imitated by the child. Learning is acquired by observation and imitation.

Operant conditioning
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) An American psychologist.
Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning can be described as a process that attempts to modify a behaviour through the use of positive and negative reinforcement. The child will make the association between a particular behaviour and a consequence. The fundamental idea behind this is that behaviours that are reinforced will tend to continue while behaviours that are punished will eventually stop. Positive reinforcement is when a desired behaviour is rewarded positively: for example, when a child completes a set task they would receive a positive response e.g. a sticker, positive praise or maybe free play.

Negative reinforcement is more about focussing on the negative behaviours that are to be changed and instilling a sanction or removal of a positive event: for example, a child that is continually exhibiting a negative behaviour, such as disobeying house rules will be told that if this behaviour continues they will lose their gaming machine or similar sanction. In summary if we reward good behaviour we expect that behaviour to continue and if we punish negative behaviour we hope that behaviour will cease. Importantly adults using this theory must make sure that they consistently carry out what they have intended otherwise the system becomes completely ineffective. Skinner’s theories are used widely in childcare today, we actively praise children for positive behaviours and for performing actions correctly; additionally we use the ‘time out’ method for negative behaviour. Behaviourist

John B Watson (1878-1958) An American psychologist.
Watson believed all learning was gradual and continuous. Development is a sequence of specific conditional behaviours with the main emphasis on the environment not heredity. Observable behaviours were considered to be more important rather that internal events such as thinking because external/observable behaviours could be witnessed and monitored. Watson believed that everyone is born as a ‘blank canvas’ and with the same abilities as each other and that they can be taught and trained to become anything they wish to be. Individuals can be trained to behave in a certain way. He believed all behaviour is a result of the environment and a response.

His work was heavily influenced by physiologist Ivan Pavlov who is famous for his theory based on dogs. Pavlov learned that dogs would begin to salivate in response to seeing a care giver in anticipation of food, rather than just in the response of receiving food. He named this response the ‘Classical Conditioning Theory’. It was Watson’s and Pavlov’s ideas which impacted on that of Skinner’s. We use Watson’s theories today by rewarding good behaviour and punishing negative behaviour. Good behaviour in our classrooms today is often rewarded with stickers, privileges or other positive motivators. To discourage negative behaviours often a stepped warning system is used. A system of planned ignoring is beneficial and often used for dealing with attention seeking behaviour. Social pedagogy

Social Pedagogy is a framework that influences current practice by creating a holistic way of working with children by seeking to bring together theories and concepts from education, psychology and sociology. It aims to treat the child as a whole, making sure all their needs are met especially those children with additional needs.

Current Political Situation of Pakistan: Overview

The article initially provides a brief overview about current political situation of Pakistan. Pakistan is a developing country and it is politically unstable but we live in the world where everything is possible. Democratic governments have always failed to complete their tenure which eventually results in a long lasting dictatorship reign. In Pakistani politics, there is a clear domination by few families only and these families have never produced long lasting fruitful results. The political system has been stagnant since 70′s and no drastic change has taken place. The chair of head of state has been a war between the head of the army staff and a few noticeable political leaders. Who has suffered? Well, you guessed it right, the nation!

Pakistani Politics Current Situation

If we observe the political situation of Pakistan, much of the politics is based on different ethnic groups. It’s fair to say that the current political situation of Pakistan is in dire need of substantial changes if we compare it to the political systems of leading nations in the world.

Role of Political Parties in Pakistan

Pakistani PoliticsAlmost every party represents a particular ethnic group, therefore no party has got the support in every region because the role of political parties in Pakistan is very much based upon different ethnic groups they represent. This is one of the major reasons of slow development in some specific areas as compared to others. There are a number key problems in political system of Pakistan, & the list grows on and on with every passing minute.

Read the News:
Nawaz Sharif has become a better person
Nawaz Sharif demands America to stop drone strikesReal Face of Mian Nawaz Sharif and Benazir Bhutto High Court appraises Mian Shahbaz Sharif’s Dengue work
PML (N) MPA arrives at Assembly Hall on motorcycle to take oath Nawaz Sharif: Corruption would not be tolerated
Shahbaz Sharif: We would continue from where we left off

Shahbaz Sharif: Our government would reduce expenditures
Dr Abdul Qadir Khan: PPP was corrupt where as Shahbaz Sharif did development work Pakistan to produce electricity from Coal, orders Nawaz

Pakistani Politics

Pakistani politics has started to take an adverse route as the layman pursues to struggle in the rut. The current situation in Karachi and Baluchistan is worse than ever. The blame of these riots clearly is on politicians who are just manipulating different groups to get benefits for themselves. If the current political situation in Pakistan does not change, the country would keep on suffering at the hands of monarchs and waderas! The role of youth in politics seems to be missing in this scenario and needs to be looked upon if the country is to strive for betterment. One possible solution for the underlying problem is to improve the problems of education system that erodes as every day falls behind. “Words, without power, is mere philosophy”

Let’s join hands, let’s walk together, let’s make Pakistan a better nation!

Current Event Research Paper

The research paper I found to discuss was a study done on motivation in the work place in a hotel in Konya, Turkey. Since I am currently in the hotel industry I find it very interesting that these individuals were able to conduct a mathematical analysis of what drives employees to stay committed in the work place. The three factors they tested to see which had the highest effect on employees were intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and work motivation. In this study they had employees fill out a survey based on a 5-point scale that consisted of a list of questions pertaining to their work environment and the outcome of certain situations. This study was based on a single 5 star hotel that contained about 500 employees, only about 120 participated in the study. Researchers broke the results down into a mathematical problem that started equal for each of the three factors but then increased/decreased based on test results.

They also had a percentage breakdown of age range and gender so you knew the different variables they were working with. The problem they were trying to solve was to see how to keep employees from leaving a company since employee turnover is much more costly than keeping long term employees. I know from my experience that employees need motivation when at work especially in an industry as difficult as hospitality. This test was important to conduct because as managers and supervisors we need to know what keeps our employees going and striving. The result of this study proved to be very informative and helpful when better understanding employee’s basic needs. Researchers were able to find out what the most important factor is and what the least important factor is for employees when we are trying to keep them committed to a company.

The first result of this study showed that intrinsic was the most important motivational factor. This means that employees value being treated as a human more than anything else. Instead of treating employees like they are just a working piece of a machine, they want to know that they are viewed as a social human beings who are important to the organization as a whole. I know from personal experience in this industry that this result is spot on, you can give employees raises but if they don’t feel appreciated within your company or even just your department then they will shut down.

This is a very important result to see so that management can see that basic respect of employees by their leaders makes all the difference. The second most important factor for commitment showed to be extrinsic motivation. I was surprised to find that this actually wasn’t the highest result since people generally work towards moving up at their job. This result showed that it is important to reward employees with promotions, salary increases, etc. which I feel is basic common knowledge that you should have as a manager. In my hotel I reward my employees with incentives for receiving good guest reviews which I feel is important to show them that not only are they doing a great job but I want them to be rewarded for going above and beyond for our guests. The outcome of this study shows that in fact employees do need to receive monetary compensation for a job well done alongside praise and respect for doing their job well. The last result was work motivation which showed to have absolutely no effect in this case study.

In this specific study it presents that work motivation has no effect on employee’s commitment to a company thus making it irrelevant to this study. Work motivation is the basic internal and external factors management uses to keep their employees going at work. This did surprise me that it has no effect on employee’s commitment to their company since I would feel like if you are being motivated to do your work you would want to stay with that company. I found this entire study to be very interesting since I do work in this specific field so it is good to know as a manager what will make my employees want to stay with the company. I think all in all they went about this study the right way by breaking it down into three factors and calculating it down to percentages and using a 5-point system to rank from most important to least important. I would say that maybe if this test was conducted again that they break it down by department so it was more specified as well as having more participants in the survey so the results would be more validated.

Current Event Summary

I was sitting in the doctor’s office this morning waiting for my appointment, thinking about what current event I could choose that would include the 6 sociological concepts. I was at a loss. Syria crossed my mind. Obama care was a thought. But my answer was lying on the coffee table beside me with a Sports Illustrated cover and the picture of a football phenom with a number 2 jersey emblazoning his torso and wearing his Texas A&M helmet. I picked up the magazine and found the article on page 26 and started to read. Johnny Manziel, or Johnny Football as he is so affectionately known, and has trademarked the term by the way, is a 19 year old sophomore quarterback for Texas A&M University. The article which I reference is written by Andy Staples from Sports Illustrated. The article goes into great detail about the struggles of Manziel in dealing with his fame gained from being the first freshman QB ever to be awarded the Heisman Trophy.

According to Henslin the sociological construction of reality and how it applies in this situation is that college football had never experienced a freshman awardee of the Heisman trophy. For one he is an under classman with 3 more years of eligibility, and is also a minor under the age of 21. Usually a Heisman trophy winner accepts the trophy at the Waldorf Astoria and enters the NFL draft that year without having to deal with the social norms and rules of the NCAA. Quite frankly the NCAA rules are so strict that they inhibit a person of that age from being able to have any sort of life other than the sport for which they agreed to play.

Immediately upon hearing his name called at the Waldorf Astoria last December, Johnny Football’s life changed. He was no longer an 18 year old young man from Killeen, Texas. He became an overnight celebrity with more fans than he could ever dream and immense wealth at his fingertips and ready access to increased media scrutiny. Basically he jumped many rungs on the social stratification ladder the instant he lifted the trophy above his head. This is where the NCAA rules of this story come into play. The NCAA sets the rules/laws of all collegiate athletes and universities.

This is the social control that the NCAA maintains over its subordinates, trying to maintain structure within the ranks and prevent players from profiting from their status as premier athletes. If an athlete is playing a sport for an NCAA governed school, that athlete has to abide by the rules laid out under the NCAA. Johnny Football’s new found fame and life in the social media spotlight is what has lead him, and his parents, to trademark the “Johnny Football” name in order for the family to profit from his notoriety. Trademarking his name and profiting from this fame as a collegiate athlete is considered a deviant behavior and is against the NCAA rules. Johnny Football was penalized this past weekend by the NCAA and made to sit out the first half of the season opening game as punishment for violating NCAA rules.

As I mentioned previously, Johnny Football is 19 years old. He gained overnight fame by winning the Heisman trophy, and with that fame came temptation, and thanks to the social media outlets such as FACEBOOK, TWITTER and INSTAGRAM, Johnny has been caught on numerous occasions drinking underage and breaking laws. He even recently got a parking ticket for parking illegally, his car facing the wrong way on a one way street. The Johnny Football story has just began to be written, but already is a classic example of environmental sociology. He is becoming a creature of the environment of fame and fortune and the irony is that the NCAA placed him in the environment without counsel and to fend for himself. References

Henslin, J.M. Sociology, A down-to-Earth Approach, (10th ed). . Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2010. Staples, Andy. “Tracking Johnny Manziel: The quest to profile Texas A&M’s star.” Sports Illustrated. July 31, 2013. http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/college-football/news/20130731/johnny-manziel-andy-staples-sports-illustrated/ (accessed September 5, 2013).

HEALTH INSURANCE SECTOR IN INDIA: CURRENT SCENARIO

1.1 Introduction:
Health and health care need to be distinguished from each other for no better reason than that the former is often incorrectly seen as a direct function of the latter. Heath is clearly not the mere absence of disease. Good Health confers on a person or groups freedom from illness – and the ability to realize one’s potential. Health is therefore best understood as the indispensable basis for defining a person’s sense of well being. The health of populations is a distinct key issue in public policy discourse in every mature society often determining the deployment of huge society.

They include its cultural understanding of ill health and well-being, extent of socio-economic disparities, reach of health services and quality and costs of care. and current bio-mcdical understanding about health and illness. Health care covers not merely medical care but also all aspects pro preventive care too. Nor can it be limited to care rendered by or financed out of public expenditure- within the government sector alone but must include incentives and disincentives for self care and care paid for by private citizens to get over ill health.

Where, as in India, private out-of-pocket expenditure dominates the cost financing health care, the effects are bound t be regressive. Heath care at its essential core is widely recognized to be a public good. Its demand and supply cannot therefore, be left to be regulated solely by the invisible had of the market. Nor can it be established on considerations of utility maximizing conduct alone.1 Health insurance in a narrow sense would be ‘an individual or group purchasing health care coverage in advance by paying a fee called premium.’

In its broader sense, it would be any arrangement that helps to defer, delay, reduce or altogether avoid payment for health care incurred by individuals and households. Given the appropriateness of this definition in the Indian context, this is the definition, we would adopt. The health insurance market in India is very limited covering about 10% of the total population. 1.2 Hypothesis:

The Researcher assumes that all projections of health care in India must in the end rest on the overall changes in its political economy – on progress made in poverty mitigation (health care to the poor) in reduction of inequalities (health inequalities affecting access/quality’), in generation of employment /income streams (to facilitate capacity to pay and to accept individual responsibility for one’s health ) in public information and development communication (to promote preventive self care and risk reduction by conducive life styles ) and in personal life style changes. 1.3 Research Methodology:

In this endeavour, both primary and secondary sources of data have been used to prepare the present paper. Further, it must be noted that the present paper discusses in detail the Indian position in this regard. 1.4 Object :

The purpose of this paper is to study the Situation exists in a scenario where health care is financed through general tax revenue, community financing, out of pocket payment and social and private health insurance schemes.

1.5 Scope :
The Scope this Research is limited to the extent of Indian position in this regard, while ignoring the foreign Scope.

Chapter-2
Health Insurance:
Health insurance in a narrow sense would be ‘an individual or group purchasing health care coverage in advance by paying a fee called premium.’ In its broader sense, it would be any arrangement that helps to defer, delay, reduce or altogether avoid payment for health care incurred by individuals and households. Given the appropriateness of this definition in the Indian context, this is the definition, we would adopt. The health insurance market in India is very limited covering about 10% of the total population2. The existing schemes can be categorized as: (1) Voluntary health insurance schemes or private-for-profit schemes; (2) Employer-based schemes;

(3) Insurance offered by NGOs / community based health insurance, and (4) Mandatory health insurance schemes or government run schemes(namely ESIS, CGHS).3

2.1 Voluntary health insurance schemes or private-for-profit schemes:

In private insurance, buyers are willing to pay premium to an insurance company that pools people with similar risks and insures them for health expenses. The key distinction is that the premiums are set at a level, which provides a profit to third party and provider institutions. Premiums are based on an assessment of the risk status of the consumer (or of the group of employees) and the level of benefits provided, rather than as a proportion of the consumer’s income. 4

In the public sector, the General Insurance Corporation (GIC) and its four subsidiary companies (National Insurance Corporation, New India Assurance Company, Oriental Insurance Company and United Insurance Company) and the Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) of India provide voluntary insurance schemes.

The Life Insurance Corporation offers Ashadeep Plan II and Jeevan Asha Plan II. The General Insurance Corporation offers Personal Accident policy, Jan Arogya policy, Raj Rajeshwari policy, Mediclaim policy, Overseas Mediclaim policy, Cancer Insurance policy, Bhavishya Arogya policy and Dreaded Disease policy (Srivastava 1999 as quoted in Bhat R & Malvankar D, 2000)

Of the various schemes offered, Mediclaim is the main product of the GIC. The Medical Insurance Scheme or Mediclaim was introduced in November 1986 and it covers individuals and groups with persons aged 5 – 80 yrs. Children (3 months – 5 yrs) are covered with their parents. This scheme provides for reimbursement of medical expenses (now offers cashless scheme) by an individual towards hospitalization and domiciliary hospitalization as per the sum insured.

There are exclusions and pre-existing disease clauses. Premiums are calculated based on age and the sum insured, which in turn varies from Rs 15 000 to Rs 5 00 000. In 1995/96 about half a million Mediclaim policies were issued with about 1.8 million beneficiaries (Krause Patrick 2000). The coverage for the year 2000-01 was around 7.2 million.

Another scheme, namely the Jan Arogya Bima policy specifically targets the poor population groups. It also covers reimbursement of hospitalization costs up to Rs 5 000 annually for an individual premium of Rs 100 a year. The same exclusion mechanisms apply for this scheme as those under the Mediclaim policy. A family discount of 30% is granted, but there is no group discount or agent commission. However, like the Mediclaim, this policy too has had only limited success. The Jan Arogya Bima Scheme had only covered 400 000 individuals by 1997.

The year 1999 marked the beginning of a new era for health insurance in the Indian context. With the passing of the Insurance Regulatory Development Authority Bill (IRDA) the insurance sector was opened to private and foreign participation, thereby paving the way for the entry of private health insurance companies. The Bill also facilitated the establishment of an authority to protect the interests of the insurance holders by regulating, promoting and ensuring orderly growth of the insurance industry. The bill
allows foreign promoters to hold paid up capital of up to 26 percent in an Indian company and requires them to have a capital of Rs 100 crore along with a business plan to begin its operations.Currently, a few companies such as Bajaj Alliance, ICICI, Royal Sundaram, and Cholamandalam among others are offering health insurance schemes. The nature of schemes offered by these companies is described briefly.5

Bajaj Allianz: Bajaj Allianz offers three health insurance schemes namely, Health Guard, Critical Illness Policy and Hospital Cash Daily Allowance Policy. – The Health Guard scheme is available to those aged 5 to 75 years (not allowing entry for those over 55 years of age), with the sum assured ranging from Rs 100 0000 to 500 000.

It offers cashless benefit and medical reimbursement for hospitalization expenses (preand post-hospitalization) at various hospitals across India (subject to exclusions and conditions). In case the member opts for hospitals besides the empanelled ones, the expenses incurred by him are reimbursed within 14 working days from submission of all the documents.

While pre-existing diseases are excluded at the time of taking the policy, they are covered from the 5th year onwards if the policy is continuously renewed for four years and the same has been declared while taking the policy for the first time. Other discounts and benefits like tax exemption, health check-up at end of four claims free year, etc. can be availed of by the insured.

– The Critical Illness policy pays benefits in case the insured is diagnosed as suffering from any of the listed critical events and survives for minimum of 30 days from the date of diagnosis. The illnesses covered include: first heart attack; Coronary artery disease requiring surgery: stroke; cancer; kidney failure; major organ transplantation; multiple sclerosis; surgery on aorta; primary pulmonary arterial hypertension, and paralysis. While exclusion clauses apply, premium rates are competitive and high-sum insurance can be opted for by the insured.

– The Hospital Cash Daily Allowance Policy provides cash benefit for each and every completed day of hospitalization, due to sickness or accident. The amount payable per day is dependant on the selected scheme. Dependant spouse and children (aged 3 months – 21years) can also be covered under the Policy. The benefits payable to the dependants are linked to that of insured.

The Policy pays for a maximum single hospitalization period of 30 days and an overall hospitalization period of 30/60 completed days per policy period per person regardless of the number of confinements to hospital/nursing home per policy period. ICICI Lombard: ICICI Lombard offers Group Health Insurance Policy.

This policy is available to those aged 5 – 80 years, (with children being covered with their parents) and is given to corporate bodies, institutions, and associations. The sum insured is minimum Rs 15 000/- and a maximum of Rs 500 000/-. The premium chargeable depends upon the age of the person and the sum insured selected. A slab wise group discount is admissible if the group size exceeds 100. The policy covers reimbursement of hospitalization expenses incurred for diseases contracted or injuries sustained in India. Medical expenses up to 30 days for Pre-hospitalization and up to 60 days for post-hospitalization are also admissible. Exclusion clauses apply.

Moreover, favourable claims experience is recognized by discount and conversely, unfavourableclaims experience attracts loading on renewal premium. On payment of additional premium, the policy can be extended to cover maternity benefits, pre-existing diseases, and reimbursement of cost of health check-up after four consecutive claims-free years.

Royal Sundaram Group: The Shakthi Health Shield policy offered by the Royal Sundaram group can be availed by members of the women’s group, their spouses and dependent children. No age limits apply. The premium for adults aged up to 45 years is Rs 125 per year, for those aged more than 45 years is Rs 175 per year. Children are covered at Rs 65 per year. Under this policy, hospital benefits up to Rs 7 000 per annum can be availed, with a limit per claim of Rs 5 000. Other benefits include maternity benefit of Rs 3 000 subject to waiting period of nine months after first enrolment and for first two children only. Exclusion clauses apply (Ranson K & Jowett M, 2003)

Cholamandalam General Insurance: The benefits offered (in association with the Paramount Health Care, a re-insurer) in case of an illness or accident resulting in hospitalization, are cash-free hospitalization in more than 1 400 hospitals across India, reimbursement of the expenses during pre- hospitalization (60 days prior to hospitalization) and post- hospitalization (90 days after discharge) stages of treatment. Over 130 minor surgeries that require less than 24 hours hospitalization under day care procedure are also covered.

Extra health covers like general health and eye examination, local ambulance service, hospital daily allowance, and 24 hours assistance can be availed of. Exclusion clauses apply. Employer-based schemes.

Employers in both the public and private sector offers employer-based insurance schemes through their own employer-managed facilities by way of lump sum payments, reimbursement of employee’s health expenditure for outpatient care and hospitalization, fixed medical allowance, monthly or annual irrespective of actual expenses, or covering them under the group health insurance policy. The railways, defence and security forces, plantations sector and mining sector provide medical services and / or benefits to its own employees. The population coverage under these schemes is minimal, about 30-50 million people.

2.2 Insurance offered by NGOs / community-based health insurance:

Community-based funds refer to schemes where members prepay a set amount each year for specified services. The premia are usually flat rate (not income-related) and therefore not progressive. Making profit is not the purpose of these funds, but rather improving access to services. Often there is a problem with adverse selection because of a large number of high-risk members, since premiums are not based on assessment of individual risk status. Exemptions may be adopted as a means of assisting the poor, but this will also have adverse effect on the ability of the insurance fund to meet the cost of benefits.6

Community-based schemes are typically targeted at poorer populations living in communities, in which they are involved in defining contribution level and collecting mechanisms, defining the content of the benefit package, and / or allocating the schemes, financial resources (International Labour Office Universities Programme 2002 as quoted in Ranson K & Acharya A, 2003).

Such schemes are generally run by trust hospitals or nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The benefits offered are mainly in terms of preventive care, though ambulatory and in-patient care is also covered. Such schemes tend to be financed through patient collection, government grants and donations. Increasingly in India, CBHI schemes are negotiating with the forprofit insurers for the purchase of custom designed group insurance policies.

However, the coverage of such schemes is low, covering about 30-50 million (Bhat, 1999). A review by Bennett, Cresse et al. (as quoted in Ranson K & Acharya A, 2003) indicates that many community-based insurance schemes suffer from poor design and management, fail to include the poorest-of-thepoor, have low membership and require extensive financial support. Other issues relate to sustainability and replication of such schemes. Some examples of community-based health insurance schemes are discussed herein:

Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA), Gujarat: This scheme established in 1992, provides health, life and assets insurance to women working in the informal sector and their families. The enrolment in the year 2002 was 93 000. This scheme operates in collaboration with the National Insurance Company (NIC). Under SEWA’s most popular policy, a premium of Rs 85 per individual is paid by the woman for life, health and assets insurance. At an additional payment of Rs 55, her husband too can be covered. Rs 20 per member is then paid to the National Insurance Company (NIC) which provides coverage to a maximum of Rs 2 000 per person per year for hospitalization.

After being hospitalized at a hospital of one’s choice (public or private), the insurance claim is submitted to SEWA. The responsibility for enrolment of members, for processing and approving of claims rests with SEWA. NIC in turn receives premiums from SEWA annually and pays them a lumpsum on a monthly basis for all claims reimbursed.

The Action for Community Organization, Rehabilitation and Development (ACCORD): Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu was established in 1991. Around 13 000 Adivasis (tribals) are covered under a group policy purchased from New India Assurance.

Another scheme located in Tamil Nadu is Kadamalai Kalanjia Vattara Sangam (KKVS): Madurai. This was established in 2000 and covers members of women’s self-help groups and their families. Its enrolment in 2002 was around 5 710, with the KKVS functioning as a third party insurer.

The Voluntary Health Services (VHS): Chennai, Tamil Nadu was established in 1963. It offers sliding premium with free care to the poorest. The benefits include discounted rates on both outpatient and inpatient care, with the VHS functioning as both insurer and health care provider. In 1995, its membership was 124 715. However, this scheme suffers from low levels of cost recovery due to problems of adverse selection.

2.3 Social Insurance or mandatory health insurance schemes or government run schemes (namely the ESIS, CGHS):

Social insurance is an earmarked fund set up by government with explicit benefits in return for payment. It is usually compulsory for certain groups in the population and the premiums are determined by income (and hence ability to pay) rather than related to health risk. The benefit packages are standardized and contributions are earmarked for spending on health services The government-run schemes include the Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS) and the Employees State Insurance Scheme (ESIS).

Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS): Since 1954, all employees of the Central Government (present and retired); some autonomous and semi-government organizations, MPs, judges, freedom fighters and journalists are covered under the Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS). This scheme was designed to replace the cumbersome and expensive system of reimbursements (GOI, 1994). It aims at providing comprehensive medical care to the Central Government employees and the benefits offered include all outpatient facilities, and preventive and promotive care in dispensaries.

Inpatient facilities in government hospitals and approved private hospitals are also covered. This scheme is mainly funded through Central Government funds, with premiums ranging from Rs 15 to Rs 150 per month based on salary scales. The coverage of this scheme has grown substantially with provision for the non-allopathic systems of medicine as well as for allopathy. Beneficiaries at this moment are around 432 000, spread across 22 cities.

The CGHS has been criticized from the point of view of quality and accessibility. Subscribers have complained of high out-of-pocket expenses due to slow reimbursement and incomplete coverage for private health care (as only 80% of cost is reimbursed if referral is made to private facility when such facilities are not available with the CGHS).7 Employee and State Insurance Scheme (ESIS): The enactment of the Employees State Insurance Act in 1948 led to formulation of the Employees State Insurance Scheme. This scheme provides protection to employees against loss of wages due to inability to work due to sickness, maternity, disability and death due to employment injury.

It offers medical and cash benefits, preventive and promotive care and health education. Medical care is also provided to employees and their family members without fee for service. Originally, the ESIS scheme covered all power-using non-seasonal factories employing 10 or more people. Later, it was extended to cover employees working in all non-power using factories with 20 or more persons. While persons working in mines and plantations, or an organization offering health benefits as good as or better than ESIS, are specifically excluded. Service establishments like shops, hotels, restaurants, cinema houses, road transport and news papers printing are now covered.

The monthly wage limit for enrolment in the ESIS is Rs. 6 500, with a prepayment contribution in the form of a payroll tax of 1.75% by employees, 4.75% of employees’ wages to be paid by the employers, and 12.5% of the total expenses are borne by the state governments. The number of beneficiaries is over 33 million spread over 620 ESI centres across states. Under the ESIS, there were 125 hospitals, 42 annexes and 1 450 dispensaries with over 23 000 beds facilities.

The scheme is managed and financed by the Employees State Insurance Corporation (a public undertaking) through the state governments, with total expenditure of Rs 3 300 million or Rs 400/- per capita insured person. The ESIS programme has attracted considerable criticism. A report based on patient surveys conducted in Gujarat (Shariff, 1994 as quoted in Ellis R et a, 2000) found that over half of those covered did not seek care from ESIS facilities. Unsatisfactory nature of ESIS services, low quality drugs, long waiting periods, impudent behaviour of personnel, lack of interest or low interest on part of employees and low awareness of ESI procedures, were some of the reasons cited.8

Chapter-3

Conclusion:

The challenge for the Indian policy-makers is to find ways to improve upon the existing situation in the health sector and to make equitable, affordable and quality health care accessible to the population, especially the poor and the vulnerable sections of the society.

It is in a way inevitable that the state reforms its public health delivery system and explores other social security options like health insurance. Implementing regulations would be one, but by no means the best mechanism to contain provider behaviour and costs. This can only be done by developing mechanisms where government and households can together pool their funds. This could be one way of controlling provider behaviour.

There is an urgent need to document global and Indian experiences in social health insurance. Different financing options would need to be developed for different target groups. The wide differentials in the demographic, epidemiological status and the delivery capacity of health systems are a serious constraint to a nationally mandated health insurance system. Given the heterogeneity of different regions in India and the regional specifications, one would need to undertake pilot projects to gather more information about the population to be targeted under an insurance scheme and develop options for different population groups.

Health policy-makers and health systems research institutions, in collaboration with economic policy study institutes, need to gather information about the prevailing disease burden at various geographical regions; to develop standard treatment guidelines, to undertake costing of health services for evolving benefit packages to determine the premium to be levied and subsidies to be given; and to map health care facilities available and the institutional mechanisms which need to be in place, for implementing health insurance schemes.

Skillbuilding for the personnel involved, and capacity-building of all the stakeholders involved, would be a critical component for ensuring the success of any health insurance programme.

The success of any social insurance scheme would depend on its design, the implementation and monitoring mechanisms which would be set in place and it would also call for restructuring and reforming the health system, and developing the necessary prerequisites to ensure its success.

The current issue of junk food consumption

The current issue of junk food consumption and the overall obesity battle worldwide continues to expand rapidly. The suggestion to counteract this problem is the implementation of a “junk tax”. ProQuest states that, “’junk food tax’ refers to a tax placed upon fattening foods or beverages” (Par. 1). The intention of the tax is to minimize the consumption of unhealthy foods, which would expectantly lead to a healthier population. A junk food tax would also generate revenue for causes such as: improving diet, preventing obesity, and educating Americans about nutrition. The main purpose is to maximize health benefits. However, the tax has sparked controversy about interfering with freedom of choice and personal liberties. Fighting obesity and its various related illnesses does not require cholesterol lowering medicine, workout videos, or diet books. It starts with rethinking our setting and the world we are living in.

Addressing the issue of over-weight and the lack of health in our modern life is no easy assignment, “despite some individual efforts by some states to tax soda pop, require healthier school lunches of mandate calorie information in chain restaurants, obesity rates worldwide are growing” (Cummins, Nd). Even though these efforts have continued to grow with parents and health advocates the problem needs to be acknowledged nation wide because, “60 percent of Americans of either overweight or obese” (Cummins Par. 5). With many restaurants offering super sized meals for such low prices, people consume well over the recommended calorie and food intake. Fast food restaurants being open twenty-four hours a day located on every corner causes temptation to be all around consumers. According to Rheuban.J (2007). Opponents claim that impressing such a law would be a violation to one’s rights and freedom. I strongly disagree with that.

To support their stance that the tax certainly will have no “actual affect on…public health” they site a bunch of studies,one : The Mercatus Center at George Mason University that Americans Against Food Taxes claims “that any impact of a soft drink tax would be trivial because soft drink consumption is a relatively small part of the diet for overweight people.” They suggest that financial affect of the tax could be extremely burdensome, especially on the poor. The cost is literally killing us. The low budget costs of junk food attracts in low budget customers. They stuff their carts with white bread, frozen packages, already packed desserts, and extremely processed meats. The low cost is satisfying for people living in the moment, However the long term effects can be dangerous. Poor diet choices is eating foods that were previously mentioned will lead to obesity. Obesity causes heart disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, strokes, and respiratory problems, all of these cost substantial amounts to treat and if left untreated they can lead to death.

The low cost that pull in customers may in the end cost them their lives. Arguments in favor of junk food taxes, Reduce the costs of treating medical issues to which junk food contributes. Generate additional revenue, part of which could be used to offset costs of treating medical issues that arise from over consumption of junk foods. Could shift consumer spending to healthier foods, bolstering the industries that produce those foods. Not enough people are aware of the adverse effects of chemicals in foods (doctors included) so their purchases are based on affordability and addiction. They cannot put together why it is that they cannot eat just one chip, fail on restrictive calorie diets, binge, and/or continue to put on weight throughout their lives. The assumption is that these people lack the will to be healthy. The reality is that, in many cases, is that their subconscious mind is doing everything in its power to survive. According to Fiora.K(2010).

Patients gained significantly less of the calories from soda or pizza when it was a 10% increase in both prices, Penny Gordon-Larsen of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and colleagues reported in the March 8 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine.”Policies aimed at altering the price of soda or … pizza could be very effective mechanisms to steer adults towards a healthier diet and reduce long-term weight gain or insulin levels over time,” the researchers wrote. They calculated that an 18 percent tax on junk food would result in a 56-calorie decline in total daily energy intake. At the population level, that would translate to about five pounds per patient per year, along with significant reductions in the risks of most obesity-related chronic diseases, they said. Since their study looked at only a small number of foods, they called upon researchers to assess more in future studies.

In an accompanying editorial, Dr. Mitchell H. Katz and Dr. Rajiv Bhatia of the San Francisco Department of Public Health wrote that taxing is “an appropriate method of correcting for health and other social costs not accounted for in the private market cost.” However, they added, in addition to  unhealthy foods, policymakers should consider ways to reward healthy behaviors. A typical recommendation to an obese person is to restrict calories. The typical notion of “calories in calories out”. In doing so, the motivated dieter goes to the supermarket and buy items labeled diet which are conveniently labeled with caloric amounts. What they don’t see is the chemicals added in and/or understand what the short and long term effects of those chemicals are. During this caloric restriction time, he/she is foregoing adequate nutrients while ingesting chemical laden foods which promotes hunger (part of the marketing process), and training the body to prepare for starvation.

There is a simple solution to a very complex issue. Taxation of junk food is necessary for the future population. As of late, rates of chronic health diseases have skyrocketed, but are now beginning to level off with the improved education system increasing awareness of the side effects of junk food. This leveling off rate could experience a significant drop if excise taxation were implemented. As multiple studies, research, and projects suggest, an increase in prices of junk food would lead to a decrease in purchasing and consumption of such foods, and would lead to decrease in diet-related diseases.

Although junk food producers and business selling these products may find that the tax is unfair, the overall scheme of taxation is improving the health of our nation, for today and in the future. The benefit outweighs the cost, and taxation ultimately motivates producers and sellers of junk food to improve their product and provide healthier options to consumers. There are many issues discussed in current media surrounding the need to protect our planet through recycling and better fuel sources. The media does not realize that there will not be a need for our planet if no one is able to occupy it. There needs to be less consumption of junk food and taxation is the best plan to implement change for a happy, healthier, and existing future.

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Sources:
http://jacobrheuban.com/2009/12/27/arguments-for-and-against-junk-food-and-soda-taxes/ http://abcnews.go.com/Health/w_DietAndFitness/junk-food-tax-improve-health/story?id=10056236 (2013, 02). Junk Food Tax. StudyMode.com. Retrieved 02, 2013,

Vodafone The current IMC campaign

Zoozoo campaign

Vodafone’s Zoozoo campaign was launched with the main motto of promoting its Value Added Services (VAS) in India. Vodafone was trying hard to capture the VAS Space because it is a potential cash cow for cellular companies. As Vodafone was a new brand in India, it had a challenging task to develop their cellular value added services. Vodafone has introduced a new characters called the Zoozoos. Several advertisements in which the Zoozoos featured were shown on television during the Indian Premier League (IPL), a cricket tournament which was started only in the year 2009. Vodafone also wanted to make the most of the IPL as it is a crowd puller. (Vodafone). In those ads Vodafone tried to showcase all the Value added services that they have to offer to the customers through different theme specific advertisements. Each of the advertisement was specific to one particular Value added service and revolved around the same to make the customer understand the service they are providing. (Vodafone).

What is the marketing objective?
Awareness of their services

The main motto of this campaign is to increase the awareness of value added services provided by Vodafone like 3G, Sports alerts, Fashion tip. Each of the advertisement was specific to one particular value added service and revolved around the same to make the customer understand the service. Zoozoos were used in all these different ads to show which all Value added services are available on the Vodafone’s menu card to offer to their customers.

Increase of sales

The main marketing objective for Vodafone is to increase sales and make a profit. Vodafone is looking for a good ROI (return on investment), the whole purpose of the campaign is to be in profit by increasing their customers.

Brand Management

Vodafone aim to have the best mobile network in India, supported by leading IT systems. This means giving our customers far-reaching coverage, a very reliable connection and increasing speeds and data capacity with low prices. (Strategy) What is the positioning strategy?

Vodafone helps people enjoy richer communication, anywhere, anytime. Always reliable, always easy, always great value…passionately delivered. (Vodafone).

Product pricing strategy

To keep its leading edge, Vodafone is continually looking to add value to the services it provides and to the packages it offers to customers (Vodafone).As of now Vodafone is the providing their customers with several value added services like 3G and GPRS services with low coat compared to their competitors which will attract the customers to words them.

Convenience

Vodafone has two kinds of distribution channels of its services to their customer. In direct distribution, Vodafone directly owns and manages store under the brand name of Vodafone. These stores provides the services to the customers and provides the required support when the customers needed. Vodafone also sells its products by using the franchise and the exclusive dealers all around India. Vodafone also operates post-paid outlets and mini stores to sell their services. It also provides internet payment portal to their users and make it simple to them.

What is the communications objective?

A key communication objective is to motivate customers to use the value added services offered by Vodafone. Each of the advertisement was specific to one particular VAS service and revolved around the same to make the customer understand the services offered to them and to increase the sales by doing so. Does it succeed?

Zoozoos campaign has been successful in giving Vodafone a makeover and establishing maximum brand presence. The charm of the Zoozoo was itself a great self-marketing strategy and they were instant success among masses. Within few days, Zoozoo created a huge audience for them, giving a boost to the Vodafone brand (Vodafone). Zoozoo advertisements helped Vodafone increase its customer base by 3.8 % and 7% of Vodafone’s service revenue comes from browsing data (ZooZoo). The campaign has used a lot of media tools, such as TV commercials, newspaper advertising. The campaign helps to improve their brand image and product awareness.

How could it be improved?

Zoozoos becoming more popular than the network itself .The campaign used the art of depiction of man in the form of cartoon characters. This technique which seemed appealing to the urban population had interpretation problems at the rural level. The main cause for this was obviously low literacy levels in the rural areas which engendered a feeling of suspicion and weirdness in their minds.

Work cited
“Strategy.” Vodafone Annual Review 2012. Vodafone, n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2014. . “Vodafone Marketing Strategy.” Vodafone Marketing Strategy. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Apr. 2014. . “ZooZoo Effect: 7% of Vodafone’s Service Revenues Come from Data Browsing.”Marketing Advertising and Media News Pitch Magazine India RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Apr. 2014. .

Obamacare Current Event

The article talks about “What was sold to the American people as the greatest reform of the U.S. healthcare system in our history is turning out to be the biggest contributing factor destroying the greatest economy in the history of the planet.” In addition the article is talking about how employers are being forced to cut full time people and make them part time. Also it talks about how that it is not the employers fault it is just that some corporations just have to many employees to where they cannot afford to insure everyone so that being said many employers are cutting people from full time to part time which is better than laying people off and keeping less employees and provide them with health insurance.

Personally I dislike this entire Obamacare idea it is narrowing the amount of jobs that teens are able to have even smaller. Also I am currently working at Meijer in Portage and I have been trying to keep up with the news and about a few weeks ago after Obamacare started to take effect in businesses I realized that they had starting cutting everyone’s hours at my place of employment. After I noticed that I started to spread the word to my fellow employees because some of them have families and have to support them with their job, so after I told them many of the workers searched for different jobs.

Also I have been hearing a lot of talk about how that there will be no middle class and that there will be only an upper and lower class. People don’t realize that the Obamacare plan is increasing that gap tremendously because it is causing people with good jobs to make less because their employer cannot afford to insure them with the Obamacare.

In addition while people are being part time it is cause people to go out and get jobs that they are way over qualified for just to support their families. Since Obamacare is a national government order that has taken place the promotion and marketing of it is phenomenal. Even though I consider it to be pretty terrible, the way that it has been marketed that it was going to be this great plan that would help people that didn’t have health care was great. It got people excited but them not knowing what it would cost them in the long run.

Outline current legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures

The children’s Act 1989
The children’s act 1989 is a British act of parliament that changed the law concerning children; the law introduced the idea of ‘Parental responsibility’ i.e.
– The child’s requirements arising from race, culture, language and religion be taken into account.
– The best place for a child/young person was to be cared for was within their own home.
– If legal proceedings should occur then parents should continue to be involved with their children, even if the parents were separated or divorced.
– The welfare of a child should be promoted by a healthy partnership between the local authority and by family involved. The most important ruling of the children’s act was the welfare of the child and it should be regarded paramount by a court in any question of the child’s upbringing. The following checklist must take place by a court when making a decision about a child’s future;

– The wishes and feelings of the child/young person must be taken into consideration and that the child has a chance to expresses their concerns and opinions.
– The physical, emotional and the educational needs of a child be taken into thought – e.g. could it affect their education if removed from their family due to stress, this could also affect the child physically, losing weight due to unhappiness and upheaval in their lives. Emotionally a child/young person could feel frightened about being alone and separated from parents, the will almost certainly feel insecure and rejected about the transition they will have to make.

– Any harm that that the child has already suffered or is at risk of suffering if kept in his/hers present surroundings. The heart of the children’s act is to offer adequate safeguards to a child/young person who may be at risk and try to protect families and their children from being separated.

United Nations Convention (UNICEF)
in 1989 governments worldwide set out a pledge that all children should have the same rights. These rights were based on what a child needed to survive, grow and to fulfil their potential. They would be regarded the same no matter of who they were or where they came from. Human rights were founded on;

– reverence or worth of every individual under the age of 18, regardless of race, gender, language or religion.
– All organisations involved with children should work together in order to work towards what is best for that child.
– That all children have a right to a life and that government should make sure that a child survives and develops properly in order to reach their potential.
– A child should not be separated from their parents unless it is absolutely essential
– e.g.; abuse or neglect. If the child has parent’s who are separated then the child should have the right to stay in contact with both parents unless this will cause harm and hurt to the child.

– Governments should take steps to stop a child/young person being illegally taken from their country by an abducting parent.

Every child matters.
Every child matters was a UK government initiative that was launched in 2003 after the death of Victoria Climbie. Every child matters cover children and young adults up to the age of 19. The aims of this initiative are for every child, whatever their background or circumstance, to have the support they need to;

– Be healthy; Physical, mental and emotional well being
– Stay safe; Protection from harm and neglect
– Enjoy and achieve; Education training and recreation
– Make a positive contribution; The contributions made by them to society
– Achieve economic well being; Social and economic well being Each of these themes has a framework attached that requires multi agency partnerships working together to achieve success i.e. early years, children’s social services and schools. In the past it was believed that children and families received poor services through lack of communication with the appropriate professionals involved. Every child matters changed this view by stressing that all professionals should be aware of the input that could be made by their own and each other’s service.

Working together to safeguard children
Working together to safeguard children is a government guideline which sets out how organisations and individuals should work together to safeguard and encourage the welfare of children and young people in agreement with ‘the children act 1989’ and ‘the children act 2004. Working together is designed for professionals who have particular responsibilities for safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children. The key of this guideline is that professionals caring for young people must work together to improve children’s and young people’s lives. They must respect and listen to what children and young people have to say and involve all parties when making decisions.

Common assessment framework (CAF)
a common assessment framework is an approach taken when conducting an assessment of a child/young person’s needs and deciding how these needs should be met. All professionals involved with children have developed this for use so that they can communicate and work more effectively together. CAF supports early intervention by providing a guideline that enables professionals in specific services to assess the needs of a child/young person and to look for other services that can help. A CAF is essential for professionals to identify any sign that a child may be in need of extra support, to then assess that child’s needs and gather information for relevant agencies. A framework was designed to help local authorities to work alongside families to promote the upbringing of a child/young person. The children’s act provided frameworks for local authorities to develop effective strategies and policies in which to work. It can also be used for recording and sharing information to agencies and specialist services to use their resources where they are needed most.

1.2 Explain child protection within the wider concept of safeguarding children and young people.

Safeguarding is about protecting children and young people from more than just direct abuse. Any service that works with children and young people has a wider role than simply protecting them from neglect and abuse. The Staying Safe action plan recognises many important aspects in the wider view of safeguarding including;

– keeping children safe from accidents.
– Crime and bullying.
– forced marriages
– missing children.
– Actively promoting their welfare in a healthy and safe environment.

1.3 Analyse how national and local guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding affect day to day work with children and young people.

It is very important that anybody working with children should be able to recognise if a child is at risk of harm or in need because of their vulnerability. The earlier this is recognised, the better the outcome will be for the child involved. There are guidelines to follow to make sure that all of the services and agencies involved can work together to get the best outcome for the child and to improve their safeguarding. Any childcare practise will have clear policies and procedure that cover all aspects of safeguarding; this will include policies for,

– Health and safety.
– Child protection.
– contact with children and performing personal care.
– Outings
– Visitors to the setting
Risk assessments must be carried out to make sure that there are no safeguarding threats to the children in a setting, premise’ need risk assessing, for example are there any entrances to the building that an unauthorised person could use, or could a child leave without anybody noticing.

1.4 Explain when and why inquiries and serious case reviews are required and how the sharing of the findings informs practice.

There is an important partnership in every feature of safeguarding, from government legislation to local guidelines on safeguarding. It is crucial that all agencies communicate and cooperate together to promote the safety and well being of children. In the framework of safeguarding we must establish and abide by guidelines and work within the law, especially in regard to the protection of children. In the event of a death or a child is suspected of being a victim of abuse or neglect, there will always be a serious case review. The local safeguarding children’s board (LSCB) will consider whether a review should be undertaken and whether there could be other children involved i.e. siblings. Subsequently organisations and agencies should consider whether there are lessons to be learnt from these cases, what these lessons are, how they can be acted on and what can be expected to change as a result, ultimately this will improve inter agency work and better safeguard for children and young people. The newest development to help agencies and professionals share information is the common assessment framework (CAF), this system enables multi agencies to access and add information about children.

1.5 Explain how the processes used by own work setting or service comply with legislation that covers data protection, information handling and sharing.

Sharing information is the solution to improving beneficial outcomes for all children. It is essential to facilitate early intervention and preventative work for safeguarding children. All professionals involved with children must know and understand what to do and the most effective ways of sharing information about children who are at risk of abuse or neglect. In some situations, sharing information with a family about their child could seem good practice, but it is not crucial e.g. where evidence of abuse or neglect could be destroyed or removed by a parent/carer or where a child could be placed at an increased risk when parents/carers have this knowledge. Any paperwork with children’s details on is kept away from other parents and only used when needed, no information can be passed on about somebody else’s child and details cannot be given out. Letters are often sent out to make sure that all details are up to date.

Outline the current policies and legislation relating to children

There are many policies and procedures within the UK that outline the current legislation and guidelines to help with safeguarding children:-

United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989. This law ensures that children are safe and looked after. It states that children have the right to be protected from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation including sexual abuse by those looking after them. This law spells out the basic human rights of every child and it sets standards in health care, education, and legal, civil and social services.

The Children Act 1989. Under this law parents and professionals must work to ensure the safety of the child and the welfare of the child is paramount with regard to their upbringing. It also identifies what local authorities and courts must do in order to protect a child’s welfare. If an authority suspects that a child is suffering or likely to suffer significant harm, they have a duty to investigate because every child has a right to protection from abuse and exploitation. A main principal in this act was that children are better off being looked after by their family.

The Protection of Children Act 1999 is the law that ensures nobody unsuitable to work with children is employed in a position that involves regular contact with children whether it be paid or unpaid. The secretary of state has a duty to record the names of anyone unsuitable to work with children. Its main aim being to prevent paedophiles working with children and a childcare employer must carry out certain checks through the criminals record bureau before employing a person. Any childcare organisation in England & Wales must has a duty to inform the Department of Health if they suspect the harming of a child.

The Education Act 2002 sets out the responsibilities of Local Education Authorities, Governing Bodies, head teachers and all those working in school to ensure that children are safe and free from harm.

Children Act 2004. This provides the legal framework for Every Child Matters. That every child : be healthy, stay safe, enjoy and achieve, make a positive contribution and achieve economic well being. It includes provisions about private fostering, child minding and adoption review panels. The Act also updates the legislation on physical punishment by making it an offence to hit a child if it causes them mental harm or leaves a mark on the skin.

Childcare Act 2006 is the first act designed solely to deal with early years and childcare. It sets out the duties of organisations such as local authorities and how they must work together to safeguard children and young people.

Further legislation include the Sexual Offences Act 2003 which was introduced to update the legislation relating to offences against children and includes offences committed abroad by British Citizens. This act updated the Sex Offenders Act 1997 to strengthen the monitoring of those on the sex offenders register. The Domestic Violence, Crime and Victims Act 2004 was introduced to create a new offence of causing or allowing the death of a child or vulnerable adult. This meant that a member of the household, aware that a child is at risk, could be held responsible

Current Issue Report Format and Sample

The most basic current issue report is divided into four areas: * Introduction- This section gives background information on the reason for the report and addresses possible solutions that can be offered to solve the problems mentioned. * Problems- Problems arisen from the current issue.

* Possible Solutions- Possible solutions to solve the problems mentioned. * Recommendations- The recommendations state actions that the writer of the report feels need to be taken.

Report on Teenagers’ request on lowering the legal drinking age to sixteen years (Sample) Introduction
The Legislative Council of the HKSAR government has just proposed the new regulations on lowering the legal drinking age to 16 years old, with the growing requests from the teenagers aged below 18, who claim the “definition of maturity” in the current modern society is now changed. The current, legal drinking age in Hong Kong, as well as for most of the rest of the world is 18. Many people consider this unrealistic. However, unconditionally lowering such age would put our own children at high risk on such new legal platform. Problems arisen from passing such regulation unconditionally, possible solutions and recommendations would be discussed in the report. Problems

Problems of passing this proposal unconditionally:
Under the age of 18, teenagers have not yet developed the cognitive, social or psychological mechanisms that one needs in order to make logical, responsible and thoughtful decisions about matters requiring insight and judgment. They have not yet completed the physical maturing process which is vital to the human development. The intake of heavy alcohol under these conditions can cause lifelong deficits. It has been scientifically proven that heavy alcohol dulls anyone’s ability to make a thoughtful decision. Furthermore, alcohol can be a drug that works directly on the central nervous system. It affects mood and behaviour and has many side effects, especially on young people. The legal drinking age exists exactly in order to protect under-eighteens from such damages.

Heavy alcohol has many side-effects which can be influential for the rest of our lives. It has physical as well as psychological effects. The physical effects include immature organs being poisoned by alcohol or the heart to stop beating, as well as hypothermia, coma from too little sugar, injuries, or even fatal accidents. Alcohol abuse amongst teens is responsible for at least five thousand deaths yearly. The use of alcohol amongst teenagers also has psychological effects such as an increase of aggression, decreased interest in academic success and a high risk in sexual behaviour which could possibly lead to AIDS or other STI’s. It can also cause the distancing of teens from their parents. Heavy alcohol is often considered a ‘gateway’ drug to other, even more damaging drugs. Possible solutions

With growing requests on lowering the legal drinking age from the teenagers aged under 18, the government can consider regulating the use of certain low-percentage alcohols such as beer, wine or champagne for teenagers from the age of 16 is allowed, with such light alcohols sold only by the government legally-authorized selling centers. This can be a solution as a gradual approach to the use of alcohol which nowadays, is socially accepted. Recommendations

The legal drinking age of 18 years is absolutely appropriate and should not be lowered to 16 unconditionally. It truly protects teenagers from the effects that the abuse of alcohol can have, which they are not yet capable of understanding. In addition to maintaining the current legal drinking age, teenagers must be educated about the physical and psychological effects that alcohol can have on them, by their parents, as well as their teachers.a

Current Network Characteristics and Components

In reviewing the Kudler Intranet site it can be determined that all three Kudler offices are connected via a dedicated T3 line, set up as a bus topology. Each location is built around a 100base T, fast Ethernet environment. La Jolla serves as the home office location and the location for the main company server. The main server is an IBM blade server system C3000 with a UNIX operating system. As the main company server it runs all the corporate procurement and logistic software (SAP, ERP) and is responsible for all the print/file services, network services, company e-mail, storage control, and the internal and external web. Server backup is provided by a 10GB network-attached storage system. The retail stores are connected to the network via a point of sale server and point of sale terminals. Communications in and out of La Jolla is ported through two Cisco routers with firewalls. The La Jolla location currently has 19 VoIP phones and 19 employees. As previously stated, both the Del Mar and Encinitas locations are built around a 100base T network. Both locations have a local server which is also an IBM blade server system C3000 with a UNIX operating system. Both servers run the same services at the main company server with the exception of the corporate procurement and logistic software. Retail locations also run the same point of sales terminals. Each location currently has six employees and six VoIP phones. There are a total on 30 computers connected to the company network.

Current Network Topology
Each location is built on a bus topology. Each location employs 100 base T Ethernet with all stations connected via twisted pair cable. All the nodes (computers, servers, printers) are connected to the bus cable with interface connectors. Several problems come to mind with this type of network topology. Dependency on central cable in this topology has its disadvantages. If the main cable (bus) encounters some problem, whole network breaks down. A limited number of stations can be added to the network, these severely impacts future capacity growth. Performance degrades as additional computers are added or on heavy traffic periods. Data speeds can be severely impacted by an increase is users or if users are accessing the network at the same time. Also of concern with this type of topology is the possibility of higher maintenance costs and troubleshooting difficulty. Security is very low on this type of network architecture.

Standards
Several standards will be applicable to a project of this scope; these standards will depend upon the level of the OSI model that is being addressed. Frame relay will be used at the WAN level. IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN standards will be applicable with Wi-Fi certified devices. Voice over IP (VoIP) uses IP protocols and the International Telecommunication Unions ITU-T standard (H.323).

References

Reference Anonymous (2007) Kudler Fine Foods. Retrieved February 6, 2013, from https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/aapd/CIST/VOP/Business/Kudler2/internet/index.asp Reference Anonymous (2007) Kudler Fine Foods Intranet. Retrieved February 9, 2013, from https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/aapd/CIST/VOP/Business/Kudler2/intranet/index.asp

Evaluate the Current State of the Economy

Labor market conditions are important especially for the following categories, businesses, individuals, and governments. The nation’s labor market conditions are constantly monitored by statistical analysis, unemployment rate being the primary metric. In April of 2014, the unemployment rate fell from 6.7% percent to 6.3% percent (Bureau of Labor Statistics. May 2014), which was the lowest rate since September of 2008. Since January the unemployment rate had been somewhat flat, but in April 2014 it dropped. However in April, the labor force additionally dropped by 806,000 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2014) meaning the current ratio drop from 6.7% to 6.3% comparatively remains approximately the same as the constant trend. In other words, because of the decrease in workforce, the drop in unemployment may be partially a result of the decrease in workforce.

The consistent level of unemployment makes shifts on AD and AS curve minor. When unemployment decreases, as it did in April, a correlation linking the drop in unemployment to an increased demand of goods and services can be made. This increased demand requires the productivity of companies to increase to meet the supply deficit, creating more jobs for individuals. With a greater demand for goods and services, there is a greater need for people to produce them, therefore a decrease in unemployment.

Additionally, the decrease in unemployment means household income will improve, providing them with more disposable income. As noted above, because of the increase in demand (seen in the decline in the unemployment rate), a direct correlation can be made to an increase in supply, though delayed. The increase in supply increases the number of new employees as employers look to meet the demand for goods and services, shifting the AS curve to the right as well.

In most cases unemployment remains constant, but in US, the high unemployment rate (compared to the past) can have a negative effect on the economy. The steady unemployment rate can reduce the supply of labor in the economy, as unemployed people become discouraged and stop looking for jobs. This would shift the aggregate supply curve to the left. Also employers may use the threat of unemployment to cut wages, exploiting their workers.

Expectations

The great intangible factor directly affecting the economy currently is people’s expectations for future economic growth. These economic expectations influence the economy greatly. If businesses and households are more optimistic about the future of the economy, they are more likely to buy large items and make new investments, increasing the aggregate demand. The AD can change in a variety of ways. Peoples expectations causes them to spend less or be forced to cut spending, it causes the government to cut its spending, and it causes businesses to be more money conscious when choosing what their investment in goods will be from other companies. As a gauge, many people look at the gross domestic product (GDP), the broadest measure of economic activity, which grew at a 0.1% annual pace in the first quarter of 2014 (U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, April 2014). This is slow growth compared to recent annual rates of 2% to 3% (U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, April 2014).

Many think the slowdown was caused by the long winter felt throughout the country. These slow growth rates shift both the AD and AS curves to the left, as consumers and business feel the affect or people’s “wait and see” attitude in economy. Assuming this is all weather based, the economy should bounce as household moral improves with the warmer spring and summer weather. Consumer expectations are also reflected in their spending. Consumer spending rose 0.3 percent last month after a downwardly revised gain of 0.2 percent in January (Mutikani, Lucia, March 2014), positive for now, but on a larger scale reports show the slowdown in real GDP growth is reflected in the downturn in exports.

The exports of industrial supplies and materials as well as foods, feeds, and beverages declined after increasing in the fourth quarter of 2013. (U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, April 2014). Additionally, imports have also declined by 0.4 percent in April, after increasing 1.8 percent in the first quarter of 2014 (Bureau of Labor Statistics. April 2014). The April drop was the first monthly decrease since the index fell 0.9 percent in November 2013 (Bureau of Labor Statistics. April 2014). Import prices also fell 0.3 percent over the past 12 months and have not recorded a year-over-year advance since the index increased 0.9 percent from July 2012 to July 2013 (Bureau of Labor Statistics. April 2014).

There drops in the US economy are felt in the household sector through the implementation of monetary and physical policy which are used to combat economic declines which directly affect consumer’s expectation and spending habits.

Consumer Income

As mentioned above, consumers are still buying things. Consumer spending continues to be a bright spot, growing at a 3% annual pace. (Mutikani, Lucia, March 2014). This occurred even though prices of goods and services bought by U.S. residents rose 1.4 percent in the first quarter, after rising 1.5 percent in the fourth quarter of 2013. Both energy prices and food prices turned up. Excluding food and energy, prices increased 1.4 percent in the first quarter after rising 1.8 percent in the fourth quarter (U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, April 2014). This illustrates the shift in AD tow the right. Meaning consumers are willing to pay higher prices at current production rates.

The increase in consumables indicates consumers have more disposable income to spend on goods and services, and they are not choosing to save. Personal income and personal saving statistic showing that personal income adjusted for inflation and taxes increased 1.9 percent in the first quarter, compared with 0.8 percent in the fourth quarter of 2013 (Mutikani, Lucia, March 2014). Incomes also rose 0.3 percent last month after rising by the same margin in January. Additionally, inflation has remained low. Combining these factors, consumer spending, price increases, low inflation, increased personal income, will inevitably be forecasted by business as indicators to increase production. Increased production also increase supply, shifting AS to the right as business attempt to meet consumer demand.

Interest Rates

Interest rates in the United States are the lowest they have been in years. This indicates the policy and stance taken by the government for lending money. The government is trying to entice consumers to file for loans as well as encourage banks to lend and approve loans. With interest rates this low and consumer income increasing, one would expect consumers to increase their buying of more significant items.

The aggregate demand curve shows, at various price levels, the quantity of goods and services produced domestically that consumers, businesses, and governments are willing to purchase. The increase in demand for low interest loans would shift the AD curve as a shift to the right.

Domestically, the Federal Reserve expected to remain in a “wait-and-see” mode, hoping to get a clearer picture of U.S.’s future economic strength (Kurtz, Annalyn, April 2014). Moreover, the Federal Reserve has been buying bonds to stimulate the U.S. economy on and off since 2008, but the central bank is now gradually bringing that program to an end. The withdrawal process is expected to reduce bond purchases to around $45 billion a month (Kurtz, Annalyn, April 2014), and this process potentially will shift the nations monetary policy to focus more on interest rates rather than adjustments to the monetary base.

These changes to the interest rates will impact capital goods decisions made by consumers and by businesses. Lower interest rates will lower the costs of major products, such as houses, and will increase business capital project spending because of the reduction in long-term investment costs. Such changes will move the aggregate demand curve will down and to the right. But, in the event of an interest rate hike, the higher real interest rates will make capital goods relatively more expensive and cause the aggregate demand curve to shift up and to the left.

Recommendations

America’s recent financial crisis and the anticipated future economic outlook can be traced back to 2007 when the U.S. housing bubble burst. The bank failures created a dominos affect, creating an economic meltdown in all sectors of the US economy. Despite government attempts to help the situation, the economy has slowed and has slipped in and out of recession. As a result, the current government policies have not been effective, creating hesitations in consumer spending.

Since 2008, the actions taken by the Federal Reserve have put the U.S.’s economy in jeopardy. To stem the economic slide of the U.S. housing collapse, the Federal Reserve has printed off trillions of dollars and has increased government spending in the economy hoping the influx of cash will jump start economic activity. But is has had an inverse affect. This dilution of the monetary base has diluted the value of the U.S. dollar (USD) domestically and internationally and has caused concern of consumer spending in the loanable funds market.

Consumer spending is a 69% of the US GDP (The World Bank, 2013). An increase in spending would stimulate additional demand for products. With an increase in demand, business would increase productivity resulting in an improved GDP and lower unemployment. Additionally, in 2014 one of the greatest uses of a consumer’s income is to pay health care costs. The Bureau of Economic Analysis noted that the increase in health care costs was driven primarily by the implementation of the Affordable Care Act. Removing the Affordable Health Care Act will improve consumer spending, as their disposable income percentage will increase.

When the financial crisis began in 2008, the U.S. national debt stood approximately at $10 trillion. Based on the US Treasuries own figures, the national debt will reach be close to $20.0 trillion by the end of this decade (US Treasury Department – Treasury Direct, 2014), greater than our nation’s GDP. Reducing government debt takes a long time, especially with the current international influences (China, Japan, EU). A fiscal policy to increased taxes and reduced government spending would be a place to start. Additionally, a reduction in monetary base will again, strengthen the USD internationally, helping facilitate and increase import/exports. Part 2: Evaluation of Recommendations

Keynesian Perspective:

Based upon the thorough analysis completed above, the Keynesian model is an appropriate mechanism for stimulating an economy that is growing but at a much slower rate than what is typical during a period of economic expansion. After a couple of years of substantive growth, the numbers for the first quarter of 2014 showed a GDP increase of just 0.1%. While the unemployment numbers continue to show a decline. While stubbornly remaining at 6.7% nationally through April, the most recent numbers show significant decline to 6.3%. The mortgage interest rates fell recently to 4.29% as the housing market has slowed down recently.

While the Fed is beginning to slow down buying treasury bonds, it will continue to keep interest rates low until all signs point to GDP growth returning to a normal rate of 3.28% annually. Those numbers are indicative of annual GDP growth rates from 1948 to 2009. The first quarter of 2009 saw the economy shrink by nearly 5% following the market collapse and the bank bailouts just before President Obama took office. Subsequently, the bailout of GM and Chrysler in 2009 also impacted the economy as well, but was necessary to save the industry and jobs in Detroit and elsewhere for parts manufacturers and suppliers. The risk of course was the loss of more than a million jobs, but in the end the loss was $10.5 billion in taxpayer money not repaid by GM.

Classical Macroeconomic theory assumes that market conditions will sort themselves out, but the confluence of catastrophic economic issues such as: the real estate market collapse, bank insolvency, the stock market collapse and the auto industry bailouts meant looking at long-term solutions would not provide the confidence in the markets and consumers alike. Short-term or stop gap measures needed to stem the downward spiral to depression and economic contraction were and are required to right the economic ship. Keynesian economic theory is more prone to acceptance of government stimulus as it relied on government spending during economic downturns.

They Keynesians believe that the economy is made up of consumer spending, business investment and government spending and because of this, Fed monetary policy adjustments should be made to promote banks to make loans, businesses to invest in growth and expansion and consumers to have more buying power due to lower interest rates. When consumer spending is decreasing, the Keynesian theory believes that the government spending can help with economic growth.

The current course of action taken by the Fed and the President should be continued for the foreseeable future until economic conditions stabilize back to the norms over the last 60-plus years. Once GDP growth returns to expansionist highs and inflation begins to rise, there may be a need to take corrective action again to slow the economy down, but for now that is not an issue.

Since economic growth is lacking, government intervention is needed to help regulate and jumpstart the economy. This will allow banks to lend more, businesses to invest more and households to spend more. It is crucial for these three entities to do as such since it will help the economy grow and progress.

Classical Perspective:

A portion of the AS curve that is almost vertical is associated with a real GDP rate that fully employs a nation’s resources. At a rate of output, the nation has reached the limitation of its short run capacity, so an attempt to increase employment or output beyond this rat would result only in a higher aver price level. The theory is built on the fact that in the long run, a nations move gradually and automatically moves toward full employment. This inexorable like movement toward full employment is the result of supply and demand forces that cause prices (wages, interest rates, and exchange rates) to adjust so that markets clear. And after enough time, the market will settle the supply and demand in all markets, and thereby eliminate any imbalances, such as employment. Since many classical economists do not believe that government spending gives power to the public sector and decreasing the private sector, they do not fully agree with too much government spending as it exploits a lot of economic resources.

Example: “Suppose a nation had excessive unemployment. Classical economist would agree that a major cause of the unemployment was an average real wage rate that was above equilibrium. At this wage rate the amount of labor supplied exceeds the amount demanded, resulting in unemployment. The excessive supply of labor would put downward pressure on real wages. Falling real wages would then have two reinforcing affects that acted simultaneously to bring the labor market back into equilibrium. First, lower real wages would increase the incentive for businesses to hire workers; second, they would reduce the number of individuals in the workforce. For instance, instead of looking for work, some individuals might stay in school or remain homemakers. If real wages fell the amount of labor supplied would equal the amount demanded and unemployment would be solved.” (Marthinsen, John E. (2007))

The classical perspective emphasizes on the belief that government spending is detrimental to the economy and that the market itself is self-sufficient and can automatically adjust to increases and decrease of employment, consumer spending, business investment and so on. The current government policies have not been effective and when looking at it from this classical perspective, it might be necessary for the government to step back and let the mark equilibrate itself.

References:

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (April 2014), U.S. Import and Export Price Indexes
Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/ximpim.nr0.htm

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (May 2014), Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey Retrieved from http://data.bls.gov/timeseries/LNS14000000

Conerly, Bill (2014) Economic Forecast 2014-2015: Looking Better With Help From Oil And Gas Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/billconerly/2014/01/22/economic-forecast-2014-2015-looking-better-with-help-from-oil-and-gas/

Congressional Budget Office, (February 2014). The Budget and Economic Outlook: 2014 to 2024 Retrieved from http://www.cbo.gov/publication/45010

Kurtz, Annalyn, (April 2014). U.S. Economy Slows to Stall-Speed
Retrieved from http://money.cnn.com/2014/04/30/investing/gdp-economy

Marthinsen, John E. (2007) Managing in a Global Economy: Demystifying International Macroeconomics. Mason, OH: Thomas Southwestern

Mutikani, Lucia (March 2014). U.S. consumers lift spending, but sentiment slips. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/28/us-usa-economy-idUSBREA2R0UB20140328

The World Bank. (2013). Household final consumption expenditure, etc. (% of GDP)
Retrieved from http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.CON.PETC.ZS

U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, (April 2014). National Income and Product Accounts Gross Domestic Product: First Quarter 2014 (advance estimate). Retrieved from https://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/national/gdp/gdpnewsrelease.htm US Treasury Department – Treasury Direct, (2014). Historical Debt Outstanding – Annual 2000 – 2012 Retrieved from http://www.treasurydirect.gov/govt/reports/pd/histdebt/histdebt_histo5.htm

Innovation and Invention in the Current Age

I’m sure you all might have sensed something wrong as soon as you would have read the title of the article- Invention is the mother of necessity. Well, to go by conventions there is a proverb which goes like –Necessity is the mother of Invention. My English teacher used to elaborate this one by explaining that, it’s the necessity or paucity of something that leads to an invention. To cite a few simple examples- Telephones, mobiles etc. The telephones and mobiles were invented because it was a necessity for people to get in touch even when they are miles away. So that is how the proverb- Necessity is the mother of Invention goes. But, the technology traits today converse the proverb in entirety. In today’s mind-bogglingly advancing Technology Universe, it’s the invention of something that evolves its necessity.

We need not be Marketing Experts or Trade Analysts to understand this simple yet cunning gamble of Technology vendors. I will begin justifying my topic with one the latest Tech-trends- The Tablet PCs. I’m sure you all might have seen the recurrently flashing endorsements of Tablet PCs, most popular of them being Apple’s Ipad. Let’s go in deep waters. The Tablet PC vendors in their advertisements claim that Tablet PCs are a vital necessity for professionals in the Corporate World. Corporates have lots of work, to be specific important work, and if they want to carry it with them, they can just do it via Tablet PCs. Hence, this would increase the response of the corporates towards events and thereby increasing a firm’s productivity. This is the most clichéd explanation a marketer for Tablet PC would provide. But, I would make a simple question here.

Were Microsoft, Apple Inc, Hawlett Packard and other Big Daddies in B-World making losses when Tablet PCs weren’t invented? Or did their profit graph break the charts after the Tablets were invented? Obviously not ! Then why the Tablet PCs? Answer to this is simple- Profits. If we try to understand the marketing strategies, we would come to a conclusion that a company cannot sustain profits with a single product. You cannot keep on selling the same thing every day, because people already have it, their necessity is quenched and they wouldn’t want to buy it again. Hence, why not create something new? Once a new product is made, the demand for it can always be created. People are always in hunt of new gadgets, not out of necessity but out of curiosity and voracity. People would always want to try something which they’ve never tried. That too, if the target audience is the Corporate World, sell them anything in the name of profit and they would buy it obliviously. As a result, now you see the corporates going GAGA over the Tablet PCs, some of them have even started equipping the creamy staff with IPADs and stuff in panic for high profits.

Another example is Facebook. Facebook was created under the pseudo motive of Social Networking. I feel like laughing when I hear the term Social Networking associated with Facebook. The reason being, there is everything else happening on Facebook except Social Networking. Spying, Virtual Relationships, Corporate Deals, Advertising & Marketing, Gaming, Celebrities but Social Networking is something with definitely seems absconding. It was invented to get people ( rather strangers ) closer socially. But I’ve a question to ask, did people have no friends before Facebook existed? I bet people had better friends and better relationships before Facebook. Now, the scenario is that, we would see the newspapers reporting breakups and divorce due to spying issues over Facebook.

We would find people’s privacy violated and hence misused. 3 out of 7 days in a week, the news fader on Yahoo! homepage shows issues posed due to usage of Facebook – A couple got divorced due to suspicious wall posts, an employee was sacked for writing ill about his boss in his status updates, celebrities digging at each other and what not. In the name of a bliss pertaining to Social Networking and Togetherness it proved a jinx! Not only this, it made the youths so fervent about it, that its mania affected their academics. Facebook now has become an indispensable part of almost everybody’s life. It was never a necessity, but its invention made it a necessity, to be more explicit-an ADDICTION.

If you look around, you will find so many things which logically hold negligible prudence in our life, still we have got hooked to it, rather we have been made to hook to it. Sometimes, we are hooked to a particular thing not because we find it necessary or important, but just due to peer pressure. Ipods, Ipads, Smartphones have become a STATUS SYMBOL today and hence many people use it involuntarily to show off their lofty stratum. Marketing Strategies have cast such a robust spell on our mind that it hardly sees the vitality of anything and just makes it a part of our life. It’s difficult to get out of this conjure but not impossible. It’s time we contemplate about the things we’re using, and about the things we’re addicted to. To conclude, “Invention is the Mother of Necessity”- is the Mantra which Vendors and Marketers follow today. We being mere mortals fall an easy prey to this hoax. Yet, if thoughtful approach is given precedence over Peer Pressure, Greed for Profit and Class Conscious Approach, it can be tackled with.

As soon as people need something, they invent it. For example, when ancient people felt hunger – they went on hunting and for that they invented the bow and arrows. When they needed to carry heavy cargos to large distances – the wheel was discovered. In fact, every day the humanity faces new challenges that can’t be met using only the existing technologies. And that’s why new inventions are made every day.

Actually, there are people who would challenge even the seemingly obvious statement that “Necessity is the mother of invention”. They say that inventions were not inspired by the necessity alone. Curiosity was, and still is, a powerful stimulus for explorers, researchers, and inventors. Besides, I have heard more than once, sometimes as a joke, the idea that laziness is the mother of invention, as the man by nature has always been trying to make his life easier by all possible means. Laziness combined with ingenuity, inspired the man to boost his strength by means of the lever, the wheel and axle, and the pulley. For the same reason, the man discovered the sail which enabled him to move fast across the seas without putting any effort into it. But the most obvious proof of this statement is the invention of the remote control for the TV set. Only a very lazy person could have invented a way to avoid having to stand up from a sofa or a recliner to press a button of the TV set manually.

Moreover, there is another point of view that jealousy is the mother of invention. It’s known that the man has only invented the wings because people had long envied the birds their ability to fly. The envy of the fish’s ability to breathe under water has encouraged the man to invent the aqualung. So, those who say that envy gives the start to any progress are not far from the truth. But still, whichever it may be: curiosity, laziness, or jealousy – all of them are nothing but substitutes for necessity. It was necessity that forced the man, almost half-ape, to start… The meaning of the proverb is self-evident. We invent what we need; unless we feel the pressure of needs, we are not likely to invent anything. The fable of the thirsty crow which collected pebbles and threw them into the jar to raise the level of water to the bird’s reach of lips is well-known. Mere necessity would not help us much if we are not moved by thought. Animals have their needs but because they lack the power of thinking and ingenuity, they cannot invent anything. They act on instinct and follow a beaten track.

Hence, the correct formula should be necessity is the mother of invention but only when it is supported by the power of thinking. This, of course, is obvious. When man feels the pinching need of anything, he begins to think how he can satisfy his needs. He then sets his mind to the task of invention. Necessity gives the first impulse; the rest is the work of the intellect. In primitive times men lived by hunting. It became necessary to shoot and bring down the bird flying or the beast running beyond the reach of man. Hence, the bow and the arrow were invented. Clothes were devised as protection against cold, houses for shelter. Implements were invented for production of food. In this way, various instruments were made to secure a better standard of living.

Man is not only the slave of his needs but their creator as well. He not only seeks to satisfy his necessity but also his desire for beauty, his lust for power. Culinary skill has been invented to please the palate. Ornaments were invented to add to female beauty. Man has spent millions trying to invent guided locomotives to the moon and other planets like Mars, not because there is any crying need for the same, but because it gives the thrill of doing the outwardly impossible. The mere satisfaction of needs can never be the sole motive for exercising man’s faculties for inventiveness. The proverb tells us not to be passive in our attitude to life.

Impact of Current Information Technology on Our Lives

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My deepest gratitude to my Ate Kristine and my parents who support and encourage me to pursue my chosen path, to concentrate to my studies, for all their kind and inspiring comments.

My special thanks go to my grandma, who have given me great moral support in my studies and to our Almighty God, who have given me spiritual support to complete this term paper.

I. INTRODUCTION

Information technology (IT) ins probably one of the most significant developments in human history since the printing press. It has given rise to one of the most fascinating communications devices ever created, the Internet. It has come into our homes, our schools and our offices, tying us together in unprecedented ways. It is one of the most important developments in recent memory.

Information technology (IT) is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications. The term in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review, in which authors Leavitt and Whisler commented that “the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT).”. Some of the modern and emerging fields of Information technology are next generation web technologies, bioinformatics, cloud computing, global information systems, large scale knowledge bases, etc. A. GENERAL INFORMATION

IT is the area of managing technology and spans wide variety of areas that include computer software, information systems, computer hardware, programming languages but are not limited to things such as processes, , and data constructs. In short, anything that renders data, information or perceived knowledge in any visual format whatsoever, via any multimedia distribution mechanism, is considered part of the IT domain. IT provides businesses with four sets of core services to help execute the business strategy: business process automation, providing information, connecting with customers, and productivity tools.

IT professionals perform a variety of functions (IT Disciplines/Competencies) that ranges from installing applications to designing complex computer networks and information databases. A few of the duties that IT professionals perform may include data management, networking, engineering computer hardware, database and software design, as well as management and administration of entire systems. Information technology is starting to spread further than the conventional personal computer and network technologies, and more into integrations of other technologies such as the use of cell phones, televisions, automobiles, and more, which is increasing the demand for such jobs.

In the recent past, the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology and the Association for Computing Machinery have collaborated to form accreditation and curriculum standards for degrees in Information Technology as a distinct field of study as compared to Computer Science and Information Systems today. SIGITE (Special Interest Group for IT Education) is the ACM working group for defining these standards. The Worldwide IT services revenue totaled $763 billion in 2009. B. TECHNOLOGICAL CAPACITY AND GROWTH

Hilbert and Lopez identify the exponential pace of technological change (a kind of Moore’s law): machines’ application-specific capacity to compute information per capita has roughly doubled every 14 months between 1986-2007; the per capita capacity of the world’s general-purpose computers has doubled every 18 months during the same two decades; the global telecommunication capacity per capita doubled every 34 months; the world’s storage capacity per capita required roughly 40 months to double (every 3 years); and per capita broadcast information has doubled roughly every 12.3 years

II. TRENDS IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

The wide range of information, data, and knowledge for problem solving and decision making are dealt with Information Technology. Before starting with the projects, students should be aware of authentication, and integrity features in their projects. Breaking of passwords and hacking can be avoided using these techniques. Anyhow, the various trends for projects are based on the emerging software technology.

A. LATEST TRENDS

a. Flash technology

To add multiple types of external data to the given text, images, video, XML and to interact with web pages, Adobe Flash is used. It provides multimedia platform. The main purpose of this technology is to be used in advertisements and games. Both audio and video streams are supported by flash. One of the Object-oriented languages called ActionScript is the language used here by the developers. Flash player includes ActionScript Virtual Machine (AVM). The compiler, Just-In-Time (JIT), is used for MP3-based audio and bitmap graphics. Flash CS5 is the latest version of Adobe flash which was released on April 12, 2010.

b. Microsoft Silverlight

Microsoft Silverlight is developed on web framework and is similar to the functions of those in Adobe Flash. In addition, it also integrates multimedia graphics and interaction with a single runtime environment. Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) and its development tools are supported by Silverlight. The processor x86 with streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) is used by Silverlight. Also the other processors which support Silverlight include the Intel Pentium III and AMD Athlon XP. Any of the .Net Programming language is supported for Silverlight applications. The developing tools for the application can be used along with the .Net language but should be aware that they can target only the Silverlight core CLR for hosting the applications and not that of the .Net Framework CLR since both differs in their own functionalities. 4GDR1 (4.0.50524.0) is the latest version of Silverlight and was released on 03 June 2010.

c. Open Source software

Open source software is newly emerging trend which is one of the best options for the students. The source code can be modified by the students as per the objective of project. Hence Open source is much flexible than closed version software.

Open source software is mainly developed on peer to peer production by collaboration of end product, source material. Open source software can be enhanced by anyone and if you join some open source developers community, you can learn a lot of things directly from the most knowledged persons in the developers community. Even the top companies like Google who are paymasters gives lots of importance to candidates who have worked in open source projects during the interviews.

d. Cryptography

Cryptography is the practice and study of hiding information. It also refers to confidentiality. It is often seen as a “black art”, which means something others don’t understand but you need to understand. Cryptography is one of the essential aspects for secure communication. There are many aspects of security and applications ranging from secure commerce to private communication and to protect passwords. Cryptography is necessary for secure communication but it is not sufficient by itself.

Here, the text is encrypted first; i.e. the plain text is changed to inarticulate garbage. The end user does the reverse process i.e. decryption, where the original text is retrieved. There are a lot of algorithms in this area which is used in real time for data protection in sectors like banks, Research, Password Protection and so on.

e. Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology is the study of controlling properties of an atom and molecules. As the name indicates, it deals with the study of structures sized between 1 and 100 nanometer. It is said that, nanotechnology has a tendency to create new materials and devices which can be used in future in a wide range of fields such as medicine, energy production, electronics and bio materials. As they are very small in size, nano structures have a tendency to change its state for transformation of energy. The two main approaches used in nanotechnology are Bottom-up and Top-down. In bottom-up approach, materials and devices are built from molecular, a component which later assemble themselves chemically and follows the principles of molecular recognition. In top-down approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without any atomic level control. Biotechnology is the best example to show the use of nanotechnology in various fields.

The upcoming trends mainly focus on security and hacking. Mobile application for iPhone and Android are great areas to explore with good revenue opportunities as well. If you want to stand out from others, instead of going for some courses, try to contribute for an open source project.

B. BUSINESS TRENDS

Just a few decades ago, businesses had little in the way of office machinery except typewriters. Fax machines were new; only Xerox made copiers, and the computer was a monster that took up an entire room. These behemoths were housed almost exclusively on college campuses or in government laboratories. With the development of the personal computer, the situation changed; it was so quick it sometimes seems like it was overnight. At first, businesses were happy to use computers because their word processing programs made typing projects much easier. But using a computer like a high-powered typewriter defeats the purpose of having the machine in the first place. Companies soon discovered that their PCs could do a great deal more. Companies began to network offices together so that they could share files and work on the same projects from distant locations. They connected to the Internet and put out advertisements to draw new customers.

And perhaps one of the most significant business developments to come with IT is the creation of the electronic marketplace. Companies that sell their products over the Internet greatly increase the number of potential consumers who see their offerings. Even if the company is not actively selling goods, a website is a tremendously helpful tool. A well-designed, easy to navigate site can stimulate interest so that a potential customer calls or writes for further information. Other business applications of IT include “data mining,” “knowledge management,” and “modeling and simulation.” (Kalil, PG). This last is particularly interesting, as it allows companies to build prototypes in the computer.

These prototypes perform exactly the same way a three-dimensional model would, and yet are far less expensive than building the “real thing.” This way, if the prototype doesn’t work, there isn’t the strain on the company’s resources there would be if a real model (car, plane, truck, train) had been built. If it does work, it can be put into production quickly.

C. FUTURE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

There’s no denying that we are in a worldwide downturn. Government are in debt; jobs are being cut; houses are being repossessed and people because it. However, there is a way to plan for the declining eminent and that is through IT guidance. If you are like most people, the last thing on your opinion is paying for tuition, especially in a specialty as baffling as information technology. However, IT education may be your label out of the slump and into a fulfilling and stable career.

For most of us, our prospect is not set in pelt, especially with the downturn. There is no concrete way of aware that you will forever be in the site, or even with the visitors you are with now. However, IT guidance can organize for a potential in information technology at any sector. The diligence needs IT technicians whether you work in television, marketing, communication, client check, etc. IT technology can open doors to more than just your own effective Future Information Technology Trends environment. You can take these skills and concern them to other sectors and industries as well. This will make the leap to another career in the upcoming much fewer overwhelming, if that time ever comes.

Technology and Telecommunication: While many people are trailing their jobs in marketing, buyer ceremony, factual estate and construction, more and more people are verdict their mission via telecommunication. This is because, while the nation is gradually lessening, the “nation” is blossoming. Websites are in stable penury to IT help including webmasters, graphic designers and programmers. This Future Information Technology Trends trend will prolong as the internet is one of the best customs to join to the world and will only maintain to grow in the future. Technological trends in the future: According to the Bureau of Labour Statistics, the technology world will maintain to upsurge with jobs in IT increasing by 16% in the next ten existence. This is sooner than most other industries in the United States due to the many technological advances within many industries.

IT Training for all Industries: even if you never want to dine in a career as an IT technician, information technology exercise can help prepare you for advancement in your own sector. Information technology exists everywhere and this is why it’s important to advantage the skills desirable to understand the information technological phase of your sector. IT is Universal: Another important touch of information technology is that, while some systems modify from troupe to troupe, and from country to country, they are all relatively the same. This means that, if you desire to do so, you can move and convey with career guidance in IT. Spend a year in Japan since the sights and running in IT on the section, or take your skills to Australia when the frost months get too cold. The possibilities Future Information Technology Trends for those with information technology training not only transport from trade to industry, but they also outdo continental boundaries as well.

D. EMERGING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

Traditionally, hotels were mostly dependant on cards and paperwork at the front desk to keep in meet with old and current customers. They were chiefly at the mercy of the wishes of vacationers to succeed, and on their own pains and force to be inclined for budding surges or long droughts of tenancy. Luckily, such inconvenience and old-fashioned methods are long since ancient, gratitude to advances in information technology. The first question in which information technology became important regarded billing. Old-fashioned paper-based book-keeping time-consuming and inefficient, and was not able briefly to tell a lodge holder what the avow of their lodge was. Luckily, advances in modern proof keeping tolerate for a lodge holder to keep pathway of what they have on hand, how much of it they have, and how much it outlay.

Accounting is complicated, but future software, especially that tailored to the sole needs of the hospitality activity, helps to permit lodge owners to make smart decisions. Services and harvest that are no longer worn can be instantly cut off to prelude money, while those who show want can be augmented in magnitude or bespoke to diminish the important tradition. Most hotels are recurring with booking quarters and reservations over the telephone, but information technology has prolonged well past that. Hotels can now work with different online trek companies and booking military to have Emerging Information Technology Trends their rooms booked online, with no indigence to employ classy force. This also allows a lodge to announce their open rooms and unusual deals promptly to people who would be most to grasp them, instead of killing much money advertising in an unfocused mode.

High worth information technology hence allows for better arrangement and management of booking to tolerate a lodge to better maximize residence, and to know in proceed when large groups or prop period are approaching. This allows a lodge manager to make strategy about transient pole, good times to renovate or inflate, or other concerns, because he/she can decide the state of their hotel currently and for the next few months with only a few clicks on the laptop. The advances in information Emerging Information Technology Trends technology proffer well afar booking, however. The internet is necessary for vacationers who fancy to associate those back home, and for those nomadic on topic to get in feel with the bureau. Therefore, wireless internet has become a very ordinary and very helpful tune for hotels to supply.

Many interest minded persons even entail that an hotel tender internet army so that they can keep running while on the street. Luckily, such army are easy to supply, as all that is required is a wireless router and diverse plans to guarantee the whole hotel is filled with the practice. Modern advances in wireless internet also permit for the wireless internet provided for hotel visitors to be used to group the hotel itself. Security cameras, door stresses, and other policy basic to hotel sanctuary and shelter can be Emerging Information Trends wired into the interact, so that workforce are alerted when a door is propped open, a fire alarm goes off or suspicious activity occurs. Though the hotel guests are wholly unaware of it, this variety of added safety and guarantee keeps them careful, and in the occasion of a puzzle they will almost surely appreciate the benefits of such system. As difficult as it is, information technology in the hospitality activity is still going ahead.

Intelligent booking systems enable hasty and helpful guest opinion, along with the ability to predict who is likely to use the hotel again and tell them via e-packages or passage letters when a good deals appear. Hotels with scope mass or other guest services can tender menus online, allowing for abrupt updates, high-class photos, and other behavior to allow guests to see and order services before they even arrive. There also advances in terms of payroll and list which make information technology Emerging Information Technology Trends an effective asset for reduction money and maximizing profits. The sole quality of the hospitality trade makes it a great place for new and emerging information technology, and farther-opinion hotel owners and managers are forever looking for smart tools and software to invest in.

E. HEALTHCARE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

The utilization of technology in healthcare has opened the method for improvements in a limit of areas. One of the advantages and payback of fitness tending technology is the additional people are extant diseases like feeling and blight disease due to the fitness to identify them earlier than formerly skilled. With this ability comes the subsidy of being able to use a method that may be fewer extreme than one beloved as the disease grows. With a disease like Tuberculosis, as it metastasizes, the talent to struggle it and eliminate it gets harder and harder.

Although, one more use of technology in healthcare has brought us newest drugs that can aim more precisely the particular scourge cells along with being more embattled in other areas. It has also brought us latest radiation Healthcare Information Technology Trends tools that can be far extra accurate and not have to use the shotgun manage to dig up to the tumor. The ray could even be bent about key body parts like glands and arteries so as not to injure them when focusing in that territory.

One interesting and futuristic loan is the utilization of robots. You can now have a preset prostatectomy with an outcome that may be to the profit of the enduring. With the use of a robot in surgical procedure there is a slighter Healthcare Information Technology Trends opening and large incisions which is fewer torment for the tolerant, there is a smaller quantity of blood failure, an exclusive hazard of rigid cuts about delicate nerves and tendons which may allow the unwearied a pompous choice of not having poorer effects from the surgical procedure, and typically a shorter drape about in the hospice and a shorter recovery time. The accuracy of the robot is far more rigid than a surgeon using his/her hands lonesome. Robots are also programmed in such way that they can grip complicated situations.

Another zone where robots are worn is in mandatory middle surgery. Again the accuracy and precision of the tools show the way to a bigger unplanned of a quicker recovery time and minus anguish to the patient. The finer incisions and the possibility of less blood harm are one advantage to using robots in a middle surgery. The dab Vinci Healthcare Information Technology Trends robot worn in the heart and growth surgeries and has the opportunity to be worn in a range of areas where precision and accuracy are vital.

III. EDUCATION

Although computers are now common in the classroom that has not been the most significant step in their use as educational tools. I believe that distinction has to go to distance education.

The concept is not all that new, because the idea of remote classrooms with a teacher appearing on television has been in place for decades. But the idea of conducting an entire class over the Internet is radically different. In distance education, the students may never set foot in a classroom at all. They will interact with the teacher and with their peers via email; they may participate in lectures via some sort of instant messaging service. The assignments are posted by the instructor, and the completed assignments are returned to him/her through email. Attending class by accessing the Internet does of course mean that the student cannot participate in a live exchange with his peers and the instructor, so in that sense the spontaneity of the classroom is missing. However, for students in very remote areas, or when classes are offered at one campus and not another, it is a viable solution, and it is made possible by IT.

IV. PERSONAL USAGE

Of course the single biggest item here is the personal computer. Having a computer at home has revolutionized life for millions of people around the globe. We tend to get our news from the computer; we may find ourselves in a discussion with someone on the other side of the planet; and we tour museums and shops in distant cities among many other uses. Many people now work from home (“telecommuting”) rather than physically going to the office. This saves road congestion and helps diminish pollution. Children and teens use the computer to help with their homework, and with the Internet, they have the entire world as a resource.

V. CONCLUSION

The impact of IT on society is hard to overestimate. Many of the developments, as I’ve indicated, have been positive, but there are some negatives as well, specifically a tendency to spent more time alone, or interacting only with the computer rather than with real people. Still, for most of us, IT has made a sizeable impact, and a positive one, on our lives.

VI. REFERENCES

http://www.cisp.org/imp/april_99/04_99kalil.htm

http://www.wikipedia.com

Current Events and U.S. Diplomacy

1.Define presidential doctrine and summarize the regional or global events during the Cold War leading up to the formation of the presidential doctrine you wrote about in Assignment 1.

2.Select one country you wrote about in Assignment 1 and describe the Cold War relationship that existed between the country you selected and the U.S. before the presidential doctrine was announced.

3.Describe the relationship that currently exists between the U.S. and the country you selected in section (2) above.

4.Describe the effect that the presidential doctrine has had on regional or global affairs since it was announced during the Cold War.

5.Assess whether or not the presidential doctrine you wrote about in Assignment 1 doctrine had had the intended effect of altering the behavior of the country you selected in section (2) above since the doctrine was first announced.

6.Use at least four (4) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.

To help you understand this assignment further, the following description and examples may be useful. Step 1: Define doctrine and identify why a president would want to announce one. A doctrine is an ideological platform that a president uses to advance a policy towards a country or region in order to accomplish foreign policy goals for the United States, so you will need to expand on this theme.

Refer back to Assignment 1, and build on whatever doctrine you wrote about then. Say, for example, you selected the Truman Doctrine. Therefore, this is the only thing you will write about in Assignment 2 step 1.

Step 2: Select one country you wrote about in Assignment 1 and describe the Cold War relationship that existed between it and the U.S. Before the presidential doctrine was announced. In the case of Truman, you would pick either the Soviet Union, Greece, or Iran, since all three were affected by his doctrine. If you are writing about the Eisenhower Doctrine, you would choose Lebanon or Egypt; if you wrote about the Kennedy Doctrine, you would have write about Cuba or Vietnam; if your wrote about the Nixon Doctrine, you would choose either Vietnam, Saudi Arabia or Iran; if you chose Carter, you would select either Iran or Afghanistan; and if you wrote about the Reagan Doctrine, you would select Nicaragua, Angola, Russia or Afghanistan (although there were several others).

Step 3: Describe what effect the presidential doctrine you chose has had on regional or global affairs since it was announced during the Cold War. That is, how did the doctrine change the status quo regionally or globally after it was announced by the U.S.? What happened in Western Europe after the Truman Doctrine was announced? What happened in the Middle East after the Eisenhower Doctrine was announced? What happened with Cuba or Vietnam after Kennedy offered up his doctrine of flexible response? What happened in Southeast Asia or the Persian Gulf after the Nixon Doctrine went in effect? What happened in the Middle East after the Carter Doctrine was announced? What happened in Central America or Africa or the Middle East after Reagan announced his doctrine?

Step 4: Refer back to the country you selected in step two and describe the relationship that currently exists between the U.S. and that country. How has the relationship changed between the U.S. and that country since the doctrine was announced?

Step 5: Evaluate whether or not the presidential doctrine had had the intended effect of altering the behavior of the one country you selected in section (2) above since the doctrine was first announced.

Your assignment must:

•Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions. •Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are: •Identify the cultural, economic, and political context of information resources, and interpret information in light of that context. •Use technology and information resources to research issues in international problems. •Write clearly and concisely about international problems using proper writing mechanics.

Current Issues with Health Care Costs

Health care spending in the U.S. continues to soar to unsustainable levels. There are many strategies and views on ways to contain health care costs, while improving the efficiency and quality of health care. Hospital services, physician services, prescription drugs and technology/medical innovation and the aging population are areas that drive the high cost of health care creating an unaffordable dilemma for consumers and employers.(Cowen & Moorhead, 2011) Uninsured individuals who are unable to afford health insurance are less likely to coordinate their care appropriately, leading to poor health outcomes. The aging of the population and the rising cost of health care would cause spending on the major health care programs and Social Security to grow from more than 10 percent of GDP today to almost 16 percent of GDP 25 years from now. That combined increase is equivalent to about $850 billion today. (“Congressional Budget Office,” 2012)

The aging of the baby boomer generation will have an impact on federal spending as well as health care costs. (“Congressional Budget Office,” 2012) Increase in longevity due to medical advances and technology are a factor in spending growth increases. (Henderson, 2012) The second largest segment of U.S. health care spending is on physician services. (Cowen & Moorhead, 2011) Providers are paid for services rather than patient outcome. This creates little incentive to coordinate patient care with other specialist. A large portion of the aging population has multiple chronic conditions which would benefit from better coordination of care. (White, 2010) With the shortage in primary care doctors and the aging baby boomer generation consuming more care, costs for physicians services will likely increase. A new model of primary care called the patient centered medical home provides better coordination of care, helps lower cost and improve patient satisfaction. (Henderson, 2012) Hospital services account for one of the largest drivers of health care spending.

Shortage of nursing staff is one factor which influences increased wages, as well as the decrease in payment from the Medicare population. (Cowen & Moorhead, 2011) Those costs and differences in reduction of payments are then shifted over to consumers and payers. With the increase in the baby boomer generation, the federal government will need to manage the extra services being utilized through Medicare with an attempt to find ways to reduce payments to hospitals. (“Congressional Budget Office,” 2012) New and better drugs will help benefit health but may cost more. Prescription drugs are advertised on television each day. Patients are more educated on the drugs used for their conditions and are likely to request from their physician these highly advertised drugs they feel may benefit them.

Many physicians are likely to give into the demands of their patients requests leading to more costly medications used that could be avoided. Advancing technology can positively or negatively impact health care costs. Many times over use of technology, especially when there is a less costly alternative can increase health care costs. On the other hand, new technological advances in data collection for a personal health record can be utilized to coordinate care, promoting better quality of care resulting in improved health outcomes and cost savings. (Cowen & Moorhead, 2011) Disease management, Health savings accounts and Retail clinics are just a few of the solutions offered to consumers to help cost. Disease management is offered by many health insurance companies for their members with chronic health conditions such as diabetes, congestive heart failure, asthma and coronary artery disease. Nurses educate the members on their health conditions and help set health goals to help prevent hospitalizations and improve health outcomes. Studies, however, do not suggest this is a proven cost saving strategy. (Cowen & Moorhead, 2011) Health savings accounts allow people to have more control over how their money is spent. Pretax contributions are placed into the account and money can be deducted to pay for medical expenses.

There is hope that the HSA will encourage people to focus on lower cost services. Retail Clinics are a creative way to offer routine care in private stores, in large chains and grocery stores. This is a growing trend with health care being provided by a physician assistant or a nurse practitioner. Care is often more affordable and attractive for those uninsured individuals. (Cowen & Moorhead, 2011) Nursing in the future may expand to become more focused on the role of the primary care provider. With the shortage of primary care physicians states should consider easing the scope of practice restrictions. Nurse practitioners can perform the role of primary care services just as well and effective as physicians do. There are many factors involved in health care costs that the government and private sector must come together in a coordinated effort to improve. There is no single solution to solving the health care spending dilemma. All of the drivers of health care cost must be addressed in any reform or cost control discussion.

Intellectual Honesty Certification
I certify that this assignment is presented as entirely my own intellectual work. Any words and/or ideas from other sources (e.g. printed publications, Internet sites, electronic media, other individuals, groups, or organizations) have been properly indicated using the appropriate scholarly citation style required by the department or College.

I have not submitted this assignment in its entirety to satisfy the requirements of any other course. Any parts of this assignment from other courses have been discussed thoroughly with the faculty member before this submission so that there is an understanding that I have used some of this work in a prior assignment.

References
Cowen, PhD, RN, P. S., & Moorhead, PhD, RN, S. (2011). Controlling Health Care costs: Balancing Public and Private Solutions. In J. W. York, & M. M. Gibson (Eds.), Current Issues in Nursing (8th ed., pp. 424-437). The University of Iowa Hassmiller, PhD, RN, FAAN, S. (2010, September). Nursing’s role in health care reform. American Nurse Today, 5(9). Henderson, S. (2012, December 1). The Patient-Centered Medical Home. The American journal of nursing, 112(12), 54. The 2012 Long-Term Budget Outlook. (2012). Retrieved from www.cbo.gov/publication/43288 White, B. (2010, 5/1). How Health Care Reform Will Affect Family Physicians. Family Practice Management, 17(3), 14.

Current Situation

Tien Tzuo was the chief strategy officer at Salesforce.com and K.V. Rao was head of strategic marketing and business development at WebEx. Both Tien Tzuo and K.V. Rao worked on building their respective billing solutions that was a big barrier to many SaaS companies. Once realized that this is a huge unaddressed problem for SaaS companies, they saw this an opportunity to exploit this new e-commerce niche in the SaaS Industry, thus creating Zuora. Cheng Zhou, the head of Bliss joined them and they were able to obtain $6.5 million start-up investment from Benchmark, a venture capital company, and Benioff, Tien Tzuo’s former boss, the founder of Salesforce.com Analysis of Zuora Inc as a business

Tien Tzuo and K.V. Rao founded Zuora to address the need for billing efficiency. They are aware that there’s an increase in products being offered as a subscription service (i.e. Netflix offering a monthly subscription for a library of shows and movies, Zipcar offering a pay as-you-go utility that eliminates the need to buy cars etc). Their vision is to provide an e-commerce platform that provides a low-cost, state-of-the-art and highly efficient billing systems. Before the launch of their billing module, they tested their program to 5 alpha customers. Their feedback caused Zuora to create a payment module that handles payments, and signed a partnership contract with PayPal. With their launch in October 2008, their Z-billing product sold to over 70 customers. In January 2010, Zuora released another product, Z-commerce, a billing platform aimed towards cloud developers What is wrong?

Zuora currently faces the following threats:
•The rise of Cloud Computing
•Offline Subscription of Zuora’s current services offered by their competitors such as AT&T or Zipcar
•Given the constant change in the market dynamics of the technology industry, Zuora must be able to ‘quick think’ of opportunities in order to strengthen its current position as a major player in the SaaS Industry What is the impact?

•The rise of Cloud Computing
oZuora shouldn’t be thinking of Cloud Computing as a threat just because the IT industry had not yet clearly defined what role cloud computing will play. oCloud Computing is very advantageous to Zuora because all cloud services needed a billing and payment solutions and Zuora, with its state-of-the-art, highly efficient and low-cost billing platform, can differentiate itself with the rest in the Saas Industry by combining its platform with cloud computing •Offline Subscription offered by AT&T or Zipcar

oWith the offline subscription offered by AT&T or Zipcar, they still present a disadvantage because pricing for services was more complicated than pricing for products especially when time dimension was introduced. Thus, with offline subscription of billing and payment, introducing a new pricing for subscription systems could take as long as 6 to 12 months and cost hundreds of thousands of dollars •The constant change in the market dynamics of technology industry

Information about current influences on planning

1. Every child matter influences planning and provision of learning opportunities The National Curriculum is the starting point for planning a school curriculum that meets the specific needs of individuals and groups of pupils. This statutory inclusion statement on providing effective learning opportunities for all pupils outlines how teachers can modify, as necessary, the National Curriculum programmes of study to provide all pupils with relevant and appropriately challenging work at each key stage. Child care act 2006 influences planning and provision of learning opportunities this act states that early years providers have a duty to implement the EYFS. We do this by meeting the learning and development requirements when doing our weekly planning and we also comply with the welfare requirements. Child care act does this to ensure that it is very important to follow rules and regulations to ensure that the children are at the right stages of development in life. SEN code of practice 2002 influences planning and provision of learning opportunities areas covered include the definition of special educational needs, parental responsibility and working partnership with parents.

The code also looks at: involving pupils in assessment and decision-making; provision in the Early Years; primary and secondary education; statutory assessment of children under compulsory school age; and the role of the special educational needs coordinator. (2013) Special Educational Needs: Code of Practice. The SEN code do this to ensure that disability children do not miss out on key learning development and also to make sure that they do not feel left out or intimidated. Equality act 2010 influences planning and provision of learning opportunities this act makes sure that no one gets treated differently to anybody else this helps planning and provision because it makes sure that staff have to make sure that when they plan a activity or a lesson plan it’s got to be able to involve everyone and make sure that it suits all individual needs. ‘’ Objectives must be appropriate, focusing on the most pressing equality gaps.’’

2. Inspectors found that where assessment was underdeveloped it tended to focus more on children’s welfare or their interests, rather than their learning. Self-evaluation and action-planning was too often seen by childcare providers as something that had to be done for Ofsted rather than a means of improving outcome for children. However, outcomes for children were no better than satisfactory in any of the providers where self-evaluation was inadequate (2011) Press release: A good start for the Early Years Foundation Stage. Ofsted make sure that it is seen to be important to plan different types of learning opportunities for the children as this helps to develop the children’s skills in a variety of way. For example ofsted inspect schools by sitting in on different subjects and different teacher’s lessons, they do this to make sure that everyone is doing it as correctly as they aspect to see.

3. The curriculum frameworks like the EYFS influence planning and provision of learning opportunities. The term curriculum is used to describe everything children do, see, hear or feel in their setting, both planned and unplanned. The Early Years Foundation Stage is the statutory framework against which providers of early education are judged, and includes requirements for the provision of young children’s learning and development, and welfare. The report focuses particularly on two areas of learning: personal, social and emotional development; and communication, language and literacy skills.

4. Learning through landscapes supports families in the early years by showing children the outdoors and learning them new activities such as gardening and discovering nature with their own opinions and physically learning by touch and seeing things from their point of view. “I believe the work of Learning through Landscapes is needed even more than ever. I hope you will share our passion for giving children opportunities for discovery and learning that will illuminate their entire lives.” Attenborough.D (2005) Learning through Landscapes.  EPPSE (3-14) supports families in the early years by making sure those children do get assessed at the age of 3 before they go to pre-school and then the child will be monitored until they do enter school. This helps by knowing what the child abilities are being noticed and noted. ‘’ More than 3,000 children were assessed at the start of pre-school around the age of 3 and their development was monitored until they entered school around the age of 5.’’

Leading education and social research (Updated 2013) Effective Pre-School, Primary & Secondary Education (EPPSE).  Primary and Secondary Education 3-14 (EPPSE 3-14 project) a major longitudinal study investigating the influence of pre-school, primary and secondary school on children’s cognitive and social/behavioural development in England. The transitions sub-study of more than 500 children and families sheds light on current transition practices and highlights what helps and hinders a successful transition. Evangelou.M (2008) Effective Pre-school, Primary and Secondary Education 3-14 Project (EPPSE 3-14).  Neighbourhood nurseries support families in the early years by making sure that families can get to close nursery without struggling and panicking that they cannot reach a nursery which prevents the child even going into nursery. ‘’The Neighbourhood Nurseries Initiative (NNI) aims to expand childcare provision in the 20% most disadvantaged areas of England by creating 45,000 new day-care places for children aged nought to five.’’

EVALUATE MY OWN CURRENT SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES

While working with a adult who suffer’s from ADHD and Dyslexia you can go through different aspect of satisfaction and also aspects that can cause problems and tension at work. The most satisfying feeling at the end of the day when it is time to go home and the person i am careing for has thurully enjoyed the day forgetting about the problems that persist on a daily basis. Human resource functions in an organization include everything that has to do with ‘people’, i.e., their recruitment, induction, retention, welfare, appraisal, growth, training, skill development, attitudinal-orientation, compensation, motivation, ect. Aspects at work that bring satisfaction

Good preparation – having a clear idea of what the day involves Interacting in good conversation
Solving problems helping him to overcome obsticles to help him understand different aspects that may be hard for him to understand Spontanious days out – being involved with the planning of the day Pay – adequacy of pay

Aspects of work that do not bring satisfaction
Same activities over and over again
Unorganised days out

I read that the motivation to investigate the degree of job satisfaction arises from the fact that a better understanding of employee satisfaction is desirable to achieve a higher level of motivation that is directly associated with patient satisfaction. Schermerhorn define job satisfaction as the degree to which individuals feel positive or negative about their jobs. It is an attitude or emotional response to one’s tasks as well as to the physical and social conditions of the workplace. Job satisfaction is motivational and leads to positive employment relationships and high levels of individual job performance. Job satisfaction can be considered as a global feeling about the job or as a related constellation of attitudes about various aspects or facets of the job. The global approach and the facet approach can be used to get a complete picture of employees’ job satisfaction. The work itself – responsibility, interest, and growth

Quality of supervision – technical help and social support Relationships with
co-workers – social harmony and respect Promotion opportunities – chances for further advancement

I think that creating a PDP, Personal development plan can provide a long term vision of where i want my career to go. It would definaltley be considered a positive advantage for short and long term carrer options in the rapidly changing world of work. Planning for my future. Short term goals at work

Graduate from college/university two years from now
Improve my knowledge and research more in the profession i want to futher my carrer

To improve my skills over the next two to three years so I can futher my career

Things that i can change with a positive approach to work
By identifying the causes behind my undisirable attitude and aproach them in a positive way. I can change the situattions that are affecting my attitude in a negative way are things that i can change. For example, if i find that my attitude changes in a negative way because i feel tired most of the day would be to plan my night before, so i can get more sleep at night, or take power naps during break or lunch times. Also If work is not challenging me enough, then i change my approach to this by taking on some new tasks. I need to focus on a positive mindstate that will help me approach work with a realistic mental image of what my relationship with my job should be. I need to learn to accept the fact that some tasks linked with my job may be less fulfilling than others. When i have lack of motivation i should learn not to let this affect or not allow me to complete my tasks or activities. I must understand that my change of attitude is my own responsibility, and something which i must plan and work towards. Evaluate the benifits of self-managed learning to individuals and organisations. link idea’s with my own work experience .. BELOW A broad definition of self managed learning is a process in which individuals manage their own learning and are responsible for controlling how, when, what, why, and where they learn. I will need to set goals for learning by understanding the purpose of what i want to achieve. Self-managed learning can benifit me by helping me to understand and overcome difficulties at work. I need to learn more about the disability’s that the person i care for has, and try to plan more wisely my approach to deal with situatuions that occur.

Larning outcome 2 (LO2)
EVALUATE MY OWN CURRENT SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES AGAINST PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS AND ORGANISATIONAL OBJECTIVES – BELOW

IDENTIFY OWN DEVELOPMENT NEEDS AND THE ACTIVITIES REQUIRED TO MEET THEM … BELOW DEVISE A PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN WITH CLEAR AIMS AND OBJECTIVES AND TIMESCALE BASED ON IDENTIFIED NEEDS … BELOW

DISCUSS THE PROCESSES AND ACTIVITIES REQUIRED TO IMPLEMENT THE DEVELOPMENT PLAN INCLUDING EFFECTIVE TIME MANAGEMENT SRATAGIES – REFLECT ON TIME MANAGEMENT STRATAGIES THAT I WILL NEED TO IMPLY IN ORDER TO SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETER MY DEVELOPMENT AN MEET MY DEMANDS ….. BELOW Learning outcome 3 (LO3)

UNDERTAKE AND DOCUMENT THE DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES AS PLANNED . USING YOUR DEVELOPMENT PLAN. COMPLETE THE ACTIVITIES THAT YOU SET OUT AS YOUR NEEDS FOR DEVELOPMENT . RESEARCH WAYS IN WHICH I CAN DEVELOP MYSELF AS A PERSON IN MY CHOOSEN PROFESSION

REFLECT CRITICALLY ON MY OWN LEARNING AGAINST THE ORIGINAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES SET IN DEVELOPMENT PLAN .. SHORT CRITICAL REFLECTION ON MY PROGRESS IN TERMS OF MY AIMS AND OBJECTIVES I SET ON MY DEVEPMENT PLAN .. CAN USE FEEDBACK FROM WORK COLLEGUES

CONSIDER LEARNING STYLES AND STRATAGIES : TYPES OF STYLES : AWARENESS OF OWN PERSONAL STYLE : IMPACT OF PERSONAL STYLE AND INTERACTIONS WITH OTHERS LEARNING FROM OTHERS : FORMAL LEARNING . TRAING : OBSERVATION : MENTORING : SUPERVISION : TUTORIALS : INFORMAL NETWORKS : TEAM MEMBERS : LINE MAGERS : OTHER PROFESSIONS MONITORING . REFLECTING . PLANING

Learning outcome 4 (LO4)
SEE PIECE OF PAPER
USE ALL IMFORMATION AND SKILLS THAT I HAVE GAINED THOUGHOUT THE UNIT AN DEMENSTATE MY ABILITY TO SOLVE A PROBLEM IN THE WORK PLACE SITUATIONS

Democratic and Republican main constituencies and the current trends

           The two great political parties are one of the major political systems that were not envisaged by the founding for fathers. The two features that were constituted encompassed constitutional frameworks that encouraged the two party developments. The Electoral College, which was at least modified by the twelve amendments along with the single member district which, while not mandated constitutionally has been the rule rather than exception as from back 1970s. This tended to channel the politician into two major parties, each being incentivized to get majority backing and every party seeking to discipline factions as a coherent whole. The Republican and the Democratic parties are the oldest and also the third oldest political parties in the globe to date. The British conservative party, if dated from the Disraeli’s rebellion against Sir Peel Robert of the Corn Law in 1846 takes the second position of the oldest parties. (Alan, 2010).

            The Democratic Party can be dated since 1832, when the backers of incumbent president Jackson Andrew did organize a democratic national convention so as to nominate their hero for presidency along with his political manager Martin van Buren for the position of vice president. Since then, the democrats have met every four years period in unbroken string of 45 convections.

           The Republican political party was formed in the year 1854, either in Michigan, Ripon, Jackson or Wisconsin in opposition to what was termed as Kansas Nebraska act. The Republicans have met since 1856 every four years in national conventions.

The Democrats and the Republicans constituencies

            These two political parties, since the ancient times have existed through the loyalty of constituencies. Without the aid of these constituencies, nothing at all can happen to boost them. These constituencies are the ones who vote and donate money to run these political parties. For instance, the democratic political party enjoys the following constituencies: the unionized labor, the ethnic minorities, the most women, the urban power blocks and the educated urbanites. These constituencies are the ones that contribute funds for this Democratic Party and give the votes to the flag bearers to ensure the perpetuity of the party. On the other hand, the Republican political party enjoys the following constituencies: the big businesses in the country, the massive corporations, almost all the defense related businesses, the small businesses, the health related businesses, the Christians, the National rifle association and the fundamentalists. It is very important to note that these groups are much generalized. Of course, not every woman or American- African guy will vote for the Democratic political party and not each and every business person will vote Republican. But these parties have allied themselves with the majority of the participants in these constituencies. In some of the instances, the political parties have been chosen by the constituencies instead of the other way round but the party policy and rhetoric speaks directly to these constituencies (Alan, 2010). Even if not always the fact, the parties wants to create the impression that they care about the interests of these groups.

In Group and Out Group

             The main strength of the Republican Party is that their core constituencies are seen as undeniably and hence uniquely Americans or the natives. The main constituencies of the Republican Party is the people who are seen by other people or themselves or to put it in other words as the in group. In the 19th century, this in group mainly consisted of the Northern white Protestants. Today, this group mainly consist of the white married Christians and the most prosperous business people. The vital strength of the Republican Party constituencies is the composition of it of the uniquely and perhaps the undeniably American. The main weakness that this party has faced all through is that their core constituency has never been enough by itself to make the majority of the population of the Americans. America is seen by the outside world as being uniquely diverse country, but the fact is the US has been a diverse state always, ethnically, regionally, radically and religiously. This regional diversity is the one that made Henry Adams to begin his American history in the Madison and Jefferson administration through a description of three main regional cultures that he segregated as: the South, Middle States and the New England. More diverse religiously, that the founders prohibited the nationally established churches. And also vowed not to interfere with any established churches in any state. More racially diverse that the 20 percent of the counted Americans in the first census of 1790 were the black slaves who are now the black Americans (Passelsand, 2002).

           On the other hand, the main constituency of the Democratic political party has always been the people who are seen by the outsiders and also by themselves as some people other than the ordinary Americans or in other words the outside groups. During the 19th century, these out groups constituted the White southern along with the urban Catholic of the immigrants’ origin and also the minor groups such as Mormons. Currently, these out groups includes, the highly educated seculars, the black Americans, and the single women and also the meager group of people that consist of Gays and lesbian (even though this is the only group that voted less democratic in 2008 than 2004)

Current trends in the Republican and Democratic parties

           The major politics in America is changing rapidly and a very powerful demographic concatenation force is transforming the American electorates and also reshaping the main political parties. As the demographic transformation continues, the reshaping will always continue. The democratic political party will become more deepened to the constituencies that supported Barrack Obama in the his 2008 historic victory, and the republican party will be forced to dig hard into the center to compete for more constituencies.

             These trends are majorly being forced by the current activities that are taking place in the world, mainly the political aspect and the racial part of the concerned groups. For instance, the Iraq war that took place recently. This shifted the support of many Asian-American people to the Democratic Party. There is a widespread abandonment of the Republican Party by the Asian-Americans.

             According to the released data by the institute of politics at the Harvard university which was gathered from an online survey of 2525 18-24 year old, 47 percent of these youth currently identify themselves as democrats, 15% as republican and 39% as independent. This makes them more affiliated to the Democratic Party than any other ethnic group except the Africans. A Korean- American Betsy Kim, 44, sees a clear shift of the Asian American youth towards the Democratic Party. Kim says that the Asian –American of her age and younger lean to the Democratic Party due to the benefits that the party is doing to the communities of color (BEN, 2007).

           This is the pattern that is being repeated from constituency to the other and most of the states are moving towards the democratic direction. In the state of Pennsylvania, the white working class decreased by 25 points between the period 1`988 to 2008 while the white college students increased 16 points and also the minority by 8 points. In the Nevada city, the white who are the working class decreased by 24 points over this period and the minority voter up by 19 points with whiten college graduate by 4 points. These series of trends will continue and by 2040 the United States will be majority-Minority nation. So the Republican Party should seek more backing and restructure its politics so as to keep up with the ongoing trends.

References

Alan Berubeand others, (2010). State of metropolitan America. Washington: Brookinggs Institution. P. 50-63

Ben Adler 12/20/07Asian-American youth trend Democratic. PrintPasselsand Cohen, (2002). Us populations projections 2005-2050.

Lopez and Minushkin. (2008). National latinos survey. Hispanic voter Attitudes

Source document

Current competitive strategies of Samsung and Apple

        Both Samsung and Apple are the largest manufacturers of smart phones in the world. Combined, the two technology giants’ account for more than half of the Smartphones sold world wide. Traditional cell phones had very limited computing abilities. Many of them were designed to offer basic services like making and receiving calls. As time went by, the need for mobile devices with superior computing abilities increased as technology became a major part of modern life.

More importantly, there was demand for mobile phones that could offer the same services as a computer. Although the mobile phone market was traditionally ruled by companies like Nokia and Motorola, Apple took over the market when it launched its iPhone Smartphone in 2007. This product became very popular with customers due to its large touchscreen and multi-touch user interface.

Even though the company dominated the Smartphone market for some time, it has come under increasing competition from Samsung through its Samsung galaxy product line (Apple, 2013). Through massive advertising coupled with unique features, the Samsung galaxy has overtaken the iPhone to become the most popular Smartphone brand in the world. This fierce competition between these two technology giants has resulted in endless court battles in the United States and Europe, among other places. This paper will look at the current competitive strategies used by each company and what each of them needs to do to improve their competitive position in the future.

More importantly, there was demand for mobile phones that could offer the same services as a computer. Although the mobile phone market was traditionally ruled by companies like Nokia and Motorola, Apple took over the market when it launched its iPhone Smartphone in 2007. This product became very popular with customers due to its large touchscreen and multi-touch user interface. Even though the company dominated the Smartphone market for some time, it has come under increasing competition from Samsung through its Samsung galaxy product line (Apple, 2013). Through massive advertising coupled with unique features, the Samsung galaxy has overtaken the iPhone to become the most popular Smartphone brand in the world. This fierce competition between these two technology giants has resulted in endless court battles in the United States and Europe, among other places. This paper will look at the current competitive strategies used by each company and what each of them needs to do to improve their competitive position in the future.

The current competitive strategy of each company

       On top of being bitter competitors in the Smartphone market, Apple and Samsung use different competitive strategies. As the pioneer producer of Smartphones, Apple uses the blue ocean strategy. In the early 2000s, the cell phone market was mainly made of phones with basic applications. This meant that companies assessed what their competitors were doing and strived to improve on it so that they could gain a competitive strategy. Such a strategy was not good for business because it meant trading off cost and value (Mourdoukoutas, 2012). However, Apple decided to create a new demand in a market that no any other company ventured into. This was done through the use of the blue ocean strategy.

As noted above, there was no any other company that was producing Smartphones at that time Apple was in total control of the Smartphone market. Within a short time, Apple became one of the most profitable companies in the United States and the world at large (Gustin, 2012). However, Steve Jobs and other senior managers at the company were well aware of the fact that the company was under threat of new entrant due to its profitability. This strategy made the company immune from the porter’s five forces. The main competitive strategy of Apple Inc is developing new and innovative products that blend technology and art.

       Unlike Apple Inc, Samsung uses the red ocean strategy. In this type of strategy, a company gains competitive advantage by venturing into an existing market and building on the weaknesses of its competitors. As noted above, Apple was the pioneer company in the manufacture of Smartphones. Through its flagship iPhone product line, Apple rose to become the largest cell phone company in the world. Unlike Apple, the main competitive strategy of Samsung is flooding the market with many products that are developed within a short time. This is very different with Apple which takes a lot of time before it launches a new product into the market. This strategy has been made possible by the fact that Samsung develops many of the components that are used in making its Smartphones. This gives it a huge cost advantage over Apple which relies on external suppliers. However, the red ocean is disadvantageous because it makes a company vulnerable to the porter’s five forces.

What each company is doing to improve its current competitive position

         There are a number of steps that both Samsung and Apple are taking to improve their current competitive strategies. As noted earlier, Apple Inc dominated the Smartphone market for many years before it was eventually overtaken by Samsung. The loss of market share to Samsung has forced the leaders at the company to come up with ways of improving its competitive strategy. The first step that Apple is taking to improve its current competitive position is focusing more on improving the existing products compared to coming up with new ones (Gustin, 2012).

In the past, Apple invested huge sums of money in research aimed at coming up with new and unique products. Moreover, it would take a lot of years before the company released any new products into the market. However, the company pays more attention to improving its existing products. For example, the iPhone 5 did not have any tangible innovation. Instead, the company improved iPhone 4 by increasing its size among other innovations (Travlos, 2012). In addition, the company is investing in developing its components instead of buying from external suppliers. This will help Apple come up with products with unique features compared to their competitors.

           As noted above, the main competitive strategy of Samsung is building on the weaknesses of its competitors. In this strategy, the company waits for its competitors to come up with a product after which it develops its own with improvements on the one of its competitors. The first step that Samsung is taking to improve its current competitive position is investing more money in research. Compared to Apple Inc, Samsung invests 5.7% of its total revenues in research. This strategy is aimed at ensuring the company comes up with unique products so that it may not be seen as a copycat. The second action that Samsung is taking to improve its competitive advantage is investing heavily in advertising. As noted earlier, the main competitive strategy used by Samsung is flooding the market with different types of products that are targeted at different types of consumers. This is a huge contrast to Apple Inc. which releases few but highly anticipated products. To improve its current competitive advantage, Samsung has raised its advertising budget to $401 this year compared to $78 last year. This is $68 more than Apple Inc.

Likely moves or strategy shifts that Samsung and Apple Inc will make

          In the coming years, both Samsung and Apple Inc. are likely to witness shifts in their competitive strategies. Such changes will mainly be necessitated by heightened competition in the Smartphone market and the dynamic natures of the mobile phone market. As noted earlier, the main competitive strategy of Apple Inc. is developing new and innovative products that blend technology and art (Stein, 2012). The company controls the release of new products into the market unlike its main competitor, Samsung. Although this strategy helped the company rise to dominance of the Smartphone market in the early 2000s, there is need to institute a strategic shift. On top of investing heavily in research and coming up with unique products, Apple is likely to start developing a variety of products to meet the needs of different types of consumers. One of the main weaknesses of the current competitive strategy used by Apple Inc. is that it results in products for the rich in the society. This makes the company miss on the remaining portion of the cell phone market. Moreover, Apple will also need to invest more in advertising.

           Samsung has overtaken Apple Inc. as the largest Smartphone manufacturer in the world. This growth can be attributed to the company’s competitive strategy of flooding the market with many products that are developed within a short time (Haydn, 2013). Moreover, the products of the company are relatively cheap compared to those of its main competitor, Apple Inc. As pointed out earlier; the other main competitive strategy of Samsung is building on the weaknesses of its competitors. In this strategy, the company waits for its competitors to come up with a product after which it develops its own with improvements on the one of its competitors. However, this strategy may backfire in the future because it will make the company to be seen as a copycat. With this in mind, Samsung is likely to shift its competitive strategy from playing second to its competitors to a dominant force in research as well (Powell, 2001). This means that the company will need to invest more in research and come up with products that are revolutionary and game changing. However, measures should be put in place to ensure that products don’t take long before being released into the market.

Where each company is most vulnerable

          The first major weakness of Samsung as a company is lack of innovation in its products. As noted earlier, Samsung thrives by waiting by for its competitors to come up with a product after which it develops its own with improvements on the one of its competitors. This strategy makes the company vulnerable because in future, people may begin to see it as a copycat. The technology industry is very competitive and customers love companies that develop new technologies compared to those that improve on what is already in the market (Powell, 2001).

However, this should not be confused to mean that Samsung does focus on innovation, instead it means that the company is less proactive in coming up with new products. The other vulnerability of Samsung is that serves a mass market compared to Apple Inc. which caters for a niche market. The need to attract a large market forces it to set low prices for its products compared to Apple Inc. and this pricing strategy makes the company vulnerable. Although low pricing has helped Samsung win over a large share of the market, it makes the company vulnerable to being seen as offering low quality product by some customers.

Many customers, especially in the United States and other developed countries, usually perceive low priced products as of low quality. Finally, lack of creativity makes the company vulnerable (Haydn, 2013). Many of Samsung’s Smartphones do not have a user friendly interface compared to those of its competitors. This may make consumers in places like the United States demand for lower prices therefore affecting the profitability of the company.

         As noted earlier, Apple Inc, Apple Inc. does not target the mass market but rather a niche market. The majority of the company’s products are mainly meant for the affluent in the society. Based on this, the first weakness of Apple Inc. is lack of product diversification. Apple has only one product line, the iPhone. This makes the company vulnerable to saturating its small market. Moreover, the failure by the company to segment its market also makes it vulnerable. Some of the most successful companies in the world have products for every segment of the market including the wealthy and the poor.

What competitive moves will provoke the greatest and most effective retaliation by each company?

         As pointed out earlier in the paper, both Samsung and Apple Inc. have unique competitive strategies. The competitive strategy used by a company is important because it determines its position in the market as well as its profitability. The first move by Apple Inc. that would provoke the largest retaliation by Samsung is the production low end products. As noted earlier in the paper, Samsung has mainly survived by producing different products for different sections of the market (Powell, 2001). Based on this, any move by Apple Inc. to come up with products for the low end market would provoke retaliation from Samsung. The second move by Apple Inc. that would provoke retaliation by Samsung is lowering the prices of its products. Apple Inc. is famous for producing innovative products that blend technology and art. These products are sold at a premium price.

         On the other hand, any move by Samsung to come up with revolutionary and game changing products is likely to provoke retaliation from Apple (Haydn, 2013). As pointed our earlier, Apple Inc. has been depending on this strategy since the time it was founded. Any move by Samsung to invade this territory would attract a serious technological retaliation from Apple Inc. Moreover, Apple survives by serving a niche market. Based on this, any move by Samsung to do away with its mass market strategy and adopt a niche market strategy is likely to provoke a serious retaliation from Apple Inc.

         My recommendation on whether the two companies should continue with their current competitive strategies or should modify them

        The current competitive strategies used by both Samsung and Apple Inc. have both advantages and disadvantages. As noted earlier in the paper, Apple Inc. was the largest producer of Smartphones in the world before being overtaken by Samsung. Based on this I would suggest that Apple Inc. modifies its current competitive strategy so that it can retain its rightful place in the Smartphone market. First, Apple Inc. should consider conducting market segmentation to ensure that they serve all segments of the market (Mourdoukoutas, 2012). Currently, the company only serves one section of the market. My second recommendation for Apple Inc. is that it should consider instituting product diversification. At the moment, the company offers the iPhone product line only. Finally, the company should invest in producing its own components so that it can shorten the time it takes to develop new products.

         Likewise, Samsung should consider modifying its current competitive strategy. This is despite the fact that it has propelled the company to the position of number one Smartphone manufacturer in the world. To begin with, Samsung needs to modify its current strategy and lay more emphasis on innovation. If nothing is done, the current strategy puts the company at risk of being seen as a copycat by customers. Secondly, Samsung should modify its current competitive strategy and revise its prices upwards because some customers associate low prices with low quality.

References

Erica Olsen (2012). Strategic Planning Kit for Dummies, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Gustin, Sam (2012). Why Apple Is Winning: Innovation, Opportunity and Execution. TIME.com. TIME, 25 Apr. 2012. Web. 05 Nov. 2012. <http://business.time.com/2012/04/25/why-apple-wins-innovation-opportunity-and-execution/>.

Haydn, Shaughnessy (2013). What Makes Samsung Such An Innovative Company? . Forbes. Retrieved from < http://www.forbes.com/sites/haydnshaughnessy/2013/03/07/why-is-samsung-such-an-innovative-company/ > .Web

Mourdoukoutas, Panos (2012). Can Microsoft Adopt Apple’s Business Model? Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 10 Oct. 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://www.forbes.com/sites/panosmourdoukoutas/2012/10/10/can-microsoft-adopt-apples-business-model/>.

Powell, Thomas C. (2001). Competitive advantage: logical and philosophical considerations. Strategic Management Journal 22 (9): 875–888

Stein, Scott (2012). IPhone 5 Review: Finally, the IPhone We’ve Always Wanted.” CNET. CNET, 4 Oct. 2012. Web. 05 Nov. 2012. <http://www.cnet.com/iphone-5/>.

Travlos, Darcy (2012). Apple: Product Commoditization? Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 15 May 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://www.forbes.com/sites/darcytravlos/2012/05/15/apple-product-commoditization/>.

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Analysis of Current Event at Telstra

Management issue is a common phenomenon that an organization attempting to maximize profits must grapple with. Telecommunication as it is the case with Telstra Corporation Limited has been distinguished by highly competitive market. On the same breath, actors and competitors on the market have been seen struggling with the increasing cost of operation, production, development and mature market. In light of this, the Company faces management issue when it comes to decision making, integrating new models and working within the realm of theoretical frameworks. ResearchMoz (2013) notes that in an industry where competition is rife, analysis of a company’s management issues and current events encompass the recognition of different strategies that enable it maintain competitive position. Despite these positions, it has to be recognized that analysis of management issues of Telstra Corporation Limited must first recognize the position of the Company with regard to managing risks as postulated by the Company’s Chief Risk Office (Schermerhorn et al., 2014).

Ideally, Telstra Corporation Limited has Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) to undertake and as one of its management issue or strategy. Consequently, such must be conceptualised through its laid platform, structure, financial reports and annual reports. Similarly, evidence based researches have shown that the first step in understanding management of a company is to integrate its undertaking when it comes to CSR and how sustainable the Company intends to operate with regard to the environment, competitors and specific objectives (Millmore, 2007; Hubbard, 2008; Bardoel, 2012). Based on the Company’s Corporate Social Report 2014, its CSR is embedded on four critical issues; internal environment, external environment, customers and sustainability (Corporate Social Responsibility Report, 2014). That is, the commitment of the Company towards corporate responsibility starts with simple but straight forward commitments that cover its areas of operations and targeted objectives. From its principled perspective, the primary corporate responsibility can be summarised as follows:

Provision of the country a foundation that ensures economic growth, sustainability prosperity, productivity improvement and global competitive

Contributing towards resources; increasing technology, product services and people in employment to support the communities in which the Company operates and the specific needs of community at large

Give a leading stewardship of environment by first and importantly, conservation, efficiency in the usage of resources, reducing and maintaining environmental footprint and reduction of operation costs (e.g. it took part in the Mobile Phone Recycling Program that was co-ordinated by the Australian Mobile Telecommunications Associations (AMTA) (Daley et al. 2014)

Based on the Company’s corporate social responsibility as one of the management issues and as reported in the article, there is an integration of new management approach and that is the fact that risk management approach has been tailored to facilitate maximization of profits.

Conversely, it can be established, based on its business principles and risk management approaches that the CSR has succeeded in the reduction of any adverse effects on and injury to the environment. Such is also embedded on the desire to preserve the beneficial qualities of the environment, while ensuring quality products and services in Australia (Baigh, 2014). In addition, to the above principles, analysis of the company’s management of this particular issue has also considered profits to the Company thus concluding that Telstra is revamping on this particular management strategy which is succeeding in line with its short and long term goals. To conceptualise this argument, scholars such as Hooper and Potter (2006) have drawn a thin line between CSR as a management issue and as a marketing issue. To ascertain that the CSR approach as contextualized is a management issue but financial or marketing issue, in most cases, companies always engage in pricing strategies which also depend on value pricing coupled with strategic markdowns. In such cases, this makes sales of their products to go down since it cannot compete effectively with other products. Additionally, products face what Hamlin (2012) terms as ‘a society of shifting priorities’ (p.281). Therefore there is pressure to keep up with the emerging social needs by style modification. It is for this reason that any decision to modify must be embedded on the premise to meet the needs of the targeted consumers. While the explanation above provides for what would constitute a marketing issue, what Telstra engages in is management issue. According to Johnson et al. (2011), CSR is not only management issue but a current one the sense that it deals with financial performance, top management, chief executive and shareholders. Herewith, the management issue within the context of Telstra is the responsiveness that should be taken because in a competitive environment where there are other operators such as Huawei and Vodacom, managers are supposed to intervene in accordance with their position and power, especially where management can fail to respond to economic challenges and changes.

Also related to CSR as a marketing issue is ethical decision making approaches. According to the article, the process of identification of managing risks through ethical decision making is an integral part of the Company’s governance framework and management issue which help in the realization of the success of the strategy as well as financial prospects for future operations. Telstra business ethics entails standards and principles that guide managers, individuals and work group behaviour in line with telecommunication and terms of service in Australia.

Additionally, it is important to note that stakeholders of the Company make these conventions (principles) and such have been codified as regulations and laws. Contextualising this definition within the frameworks business management issue; ethical decision making help Telstra family design strategies that eliminate misconduct. According to Peng (2014) there are three significant components that sum up its ethical decision making as critical management issue; ethical decision making being individual factors, ethical decision making being Company’s relationship with others and ethical decision making being opportunities available for the Company. Basically, while this issue might to be seen as revamp on a current management strategy, it has been applied successfully since the Company bases the three components on behaviourist theory where what matters is what individuals in the Company can do rather than specific quality or attribute. That is, different patterns of individual behaviours are linked to ethical decisions that are made by the Company and such are geared towards the realisation of the goals and objectives that have been set by the Company.

To contextualise the success of the Company with its approach of ethical decision making as one the management issue, Perren and Burgoyne (2010) report that Telstra has been engaging with Communication Workers Union with a view to offering better terms of service and transparency in supply management. For instance, in 2013, the Company engaged Low-Income Measures Assessment Committee (LIMAC) (this is an example of Communication Workers Union which is viewed as independent and transparent) which made changes to the package the Company was initially giving to its workers and suppliers. In connection to this, the Company, this particular issue has successful been engaged in what Katzenbach and Smith (2005) term as ‘vertical management’ (p. 37). Vertical management within the context of ethical decision making is a case where a Company liaises with regulatory organization so as to have a common agenda and conform to the requirements of the industry. Conceptualist theorists and ethical formalism argue that ethical decision making process in management encompass evaluations of fairness product stewardships but with respect to firm’s overall culture. In summary, with ethical decision making process as one of the management issue, Telstra has a well-defined management and leadership structure which is focused on the achievement of defined objectives including ‘green’ managements. Lastly, this issue departs from being finance or marketing issue on the ground that the approach lacks market orientation is a model that concretizes the strategy of finance and marketing. Senge et al. (2007) define this theory (market orientation) as a strategy that ensures all products and services as undertaken by Companies are oriented towards specific demands of clients and customers.

Still on ethical decision making as one of the Company’s management issue or approach, Telstra’s planning, leading, organising, controlling and functioning is based on choices made on guidelines laid. According to article, one of the important issues to not is that the Company’s risk management frameworks are aligned with ISO 31000 Risk Management (Baigh, 2014). While this is an indicator of a management strategy or practice that has succeeded, underpinnings of theories of issue management are significant to the Company additionally; technical and commercial objectives remain axis for the Company. The success in management of this issue is conceptualised with regard to audience or customer satisfaction. This is to mean that in as much as its ethical decision making remains a priority as a management issue, targeted markets shapes such priorities—an aspect Aras and Crowther (2009) terms as ‘ascertaining the success of management strategies and policies in downstream and upstream relationships’ (p. 213).

From Michael Patterson (Telstra’s General Manager for Tasmania) statement on the legal battle the Company had with Optus, it can be realized that the Company’s planning, leading, organising, controlling and functioning are in line with the tenet of management of telephony inputs and components that are required in the market. This is an indication that there is long term transparency and conformity to good practices. Assessing Corporate Social Report 2013 vis-à-vis opening of the China’s SouFun Sensis, there is evidence that efforts are diverted to supply chain relationships with third party suppliers as well as other competitors. It is important to note that Telstra is overemphasizing on CSR strategies; an aspect that may affects its ethical decision making. If this stretches beyond what the Company can handle, strategic alignment with other sectors may be affected. Basically, this is where this strategy differs from the aspect of marketing in the sense that according to the theory of signaling, the best way to market a product is to engage a brand or product in competitive signal that are intended to pass information to potential consumers with an aim of making such consumers believe that competing products are substandard (Cole, 2012). This is exactly how Cadbury for instance has succeeded in capturing the attention of their targeted market every time they engage in marketing. Telstra, through this does management and not marketing as they do not engage in competitive signaling.

As a management approach, Telstra looks at ethical decision making differently. That is as a management issue, ethical decision making is seen in terms of transparency when it comes to critical corporate accounting and statements. One of the critical goals of the Company is to attain what it terms as ‘front-line management’ (Baigh, 2014 p.26). The benefits of the people within and around have been necessitated through avoidance of misleading information. The continuum of growth in economy resonates around a transparent business operation—which is also a recipe of what this assessment considers to be a successful management approach.

Synopsis on the Management Issue

From the perspective of undertakings in the Company, the aspect is a management issue in the sense that it analyses the environment issues in lieu of external factors that impact business activities. On the other hand, the purpose of the management issues as analysed is to evaluate and determinate competitive advantages as well as threats a Company has with regard to its operations. These analyses recognise stiff competitions, threats and opportunities faced by companies such as Optus, Vodafone and 3 Mobile. In as much, this analysis considers Telstra due to its cutting edge when it comes to services such as broadband, hosting, directory and pay TV which are not as extensive in other companies. Since the management issue has been a success, revamping of a current policy is twofold; first, there is need to strategize the management issue identified to an extent that the company benefits from the economies of scales and the strong relationships with suppliers, which will place it in a strong bargaining position with its upstream partners and allows leveraging the costs. Strategizing the management issue to attain this goal means that a focus on customer-relationship and loyalty creation, as well as investment in research and technical development (R&D) to reduce the costs of services so as to compete with niche operators. Secondly, revamping on the current management issue must assess the possibility of working alongside its downstream partners to deliver triple-play solutions in voice, data and video services, expansion of data download quotas and continuous innovation in fixed line services, as opposed to mobile services, to offer incentives to its clients.

Similarly on the question of whether Telstra is handling the identified management issue appropriately is manifold but the assessment will review two issues that offer succinct answers to the question. First, proper management of a company circles around how best a company maximizes a profit and expands networks (ResearchMoz, 2013). Through the management issue, Telstra has leveraged the risks of economic downturns by diversifying its income channels. The growing domestic market and the boost in 4G technologies enable further market penetration and help to reduce the pressure of external factors. Secondly, the Company through the management issue has pursued an investment heavy strategy to grow its existing network. However, financial indicators, outline a challenging internal environment in terms of liquidity and internal funding options.

References

Aras, G. & Crowther, D (2009). Global Perspective on Corporate Governance and CSR.

Farnham: Gower Pub.

Baigh, H. (2014). Seven Strategies for Simplifying Your Organization. Harvard Business Review.

Retrieved from http://blogs.hbr.org/2013/05/seven-strategies-for-simplifyi/

Bardoel, A. (2012).Tool or Time Thief? Technology and the Work-Life Balance. Retrieved

Cole, K. (2012). Management: Theory and practice. Australia: Pearson.

Corporate Social Responsibility Report (2014): Understanding the Definition of Corporate SocialResponsibility: http://www.telstra.com.au/abouttelstra/download/document/csr.pdf

Daley, J., McGannon, C., & Ginnivan, L. (2012). Game-changers: Economic reform priorities

for Australia. Melbourne: Grattan Institute from The Conversation, Future of Work: https://theconversation.edu.au/tool-or-time-thief-technology-and-the-work-life-balance-8165

Hamlin. R. (2012) Towards a Universalistic Model of Leadership: a comparative study of

Britishand American empirically derived criteria of managerial and leadership effectiveness. Working paper WP005/02, University of Wolverhampton.

Hooper, A. and Potter, J. (2006) The Business of Leadership. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing

Company.

Hubbard, G. (2008). Strategic management: Thinking, analysis, action. Australia: Pearson.

James, K. and Burgoyne, J. (2001) Leadership Development: Best practice guide for

organisations. London: Council for Excellence in Management and Leadership.

Johnson, G., Scholes, K., & Wittington, R. (2011). Exploring Strategy: Text & Cases. (9th ed).

London: Prentice Hall.

Katzenbach, J. and Smith, D. (2005) The Wisdom of Teams. New York: Harperbusiness.

Millmore, M. (2007). Strategic Human Resource Management: Contemporary Issues. Harlow:

Financial Times, Prentice Hall.

Peng, M. (2014). Global Strategy (3rd ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Publishing.

Perren, L. and Burgoyne, J. (2010) Management and Leadership Abilities: An analysis of texts,

testimony and practice. London: Council for Excellence in Management and Leadership.

ResearchMoz. (2013). Australia – Telco company profiles – Telstra, Optus and Vodafone.

Retrieved from http://www.researchmoz.us/australia-telco-company-profiles-telstra-optus-and-vodafone-report.html

Schermerhorn, J.R., Davidson, P., Poole, D., Woods, P., Simon, A., & McBarron, E., (2014).

Management (5th ed.). Australia: Pearson

Senge, P., et al. (2007). The dance of change: The challenges of sustaining momentum in

learning organizations. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

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Altruism: Research perspectives from Current psychology

Altruism which can also be termed as selflessness is a principle of practice that concerns the welfare of others. This is one of the traditional virtues that were upheld by several cultures, secular views and religious traditions. This is a malleable notion that is understood differently in many disciplines although the common denominator of all the definitions is the ideology of unidirectional helping character.

Within the clinical setting, altruism is a value that nurses as professionals poses. Despite the enormous changes within the society and the ways in which training and education for nurses is delivered, nursing is highly underpinned by the beliefs and values of the profession. The values that have been evaluated as altruistic include care for others, academic performance and self-control. Altruism is the key characteristic that all nurses and the health professionals are expected to have (Puka, 1994).

The definition of altruism biologically is the behavior that individual poses and increases fitness of another person while at the same time decreasing the fitness of the actor (Pallone, 1999). In this particular sense, it is totally different from the philosophical perspective whereby an action is only said to be altruistic if it was done with a conscious intention of helping another person. Within the nursing and health care fraternities, there are no restrictions to an altruistic act which is just but an act of helping an individual who as a problem or caring for others (Puka, 1994).

The nursing and healthcare professionals possess the responsibility of being altruistic. This means that as professionals they have an ethical obligation give others what they need without any form of self-interest (Johnson, Larkin, & Saks, 1995). Most nurses who are altruistic will always make decisions totally that are in the best interest of the concerned patient. By being altruistic the nurses and healthcare professionals are being patient advocate, hence they will be practicing good ethics of nursing. During a moral code situation, the adrenaline of the nurses and healthcare professionals and in a life-saving mode. At this particular point they feel good being a nurse who can save the world as an individual, but when things doesn’t go right this particular feeling is put into a test and one keep asking him or herself questions(Johnson, Larkin, & Saks, 1995).

Many new nurses have very hard time while making decisions concerning life and death. In most cases it takes a lot of maturity to get wisdom, knowledge and certitude. Ethics in the healthcare and nursing profession is what it always drives the process of making decisions whether good or bad. Altruism as one of the most critical code of ethics should always be involved in any other decision that is made (Johnson, Larkin, & Saks, 1995). Nurses are also put in a fix that they have to always respect the cultural beliefs and the values of others. Just because nurses sometimes think they know the right thing to do, does not actually make it totally right. It is altruistic for the nurses and other health care professionals to honor and respect the wishes and beliefs of the patients. It is unfortunate that they decisions that are made by the patients and their families are mainly driven by either grief of total lack of understanding (Puka, 1994).

Conclusion

              Altruism as part of ethics practiced by nurses encompasses the interpretation of an individual. It is based totally on the values and morals that individuals possess. Although the Nurse Practice Act have very good guidelines for how individuals should act it does not absolve individuals from making personal decisions concerning the issues at hand.

References

Pallone, N. J. (1999). Altruism, narcissism, comity: Research perspectives from Current psychology. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers.

Johnson, T., Larkin, G., & Saks, M. (1995). Health professions and the state in Europe. London: Rutledge.

Bailey, P. A., Carpenter, D. R., & Harrington, P. A. (1999). Integrating community service into nursing education: A guide to service-learning. New York, NY: Springer Pub. Co.

Puka, B. (1994). Reaching out: Caring, altruism, and prosocial behavior. New York: Garland.

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Understanding adolescence: Current developments in adolescent psychology

Children and young people in their life development pass through various stages that have mental problems. Some of these problems result from self-assessment about life. When one finds that the kind of life that he or she is living, is rather below her expectation tend to be faced by depression emotions that they seek to eliminate. In case from their thoughts one thinks that he or she is leading a life that is higher relatively to his or her friends, there is the likelihood of the person to grow to be proud. Mostly, the problems that affect family at a large in the children result from negative feelings about themselves. Some of the behaviours that young people develop through these development stages are such as disobedience, drug abuse, delayed duties, poor academic performances, and low self-esteem amongst other emotional problems (Freeman, 1985, p. 321).

From the case study, Ben is encountered undergoing psychological problem that have caused an alarm to the whole family. These problems are far from external causes, they are problems that he has built for himself through thought. He is pessimistic about the future and this has brought to him much stress, he sees no need to work hard in class work, he is engaged in drug and substance abuse and disobedient. Bad peer influence has contributed a lot in the behavioural changes of ben. The only remedy to ben’s problems is counsel him I an effort to input positive thought in his mind.

Systematic approach of tackling families and their children problems involve family based approach such as parent training. Parents could be trained on how to approach their children to realize their emotional problems they may be undergoing and try to reach them as per their capacity. The problem of drug abuse could be dealt with by parents’ commitment to free their children from drug abuse (Adams, 1968, p. 67). Parents create drug-free environment if they act as role models by not engaging in drug abuse. It will be very hard to convince a young person to refrain from drugs if you abuse drugs. In the case of Ben, his parents need to embrace a systematic psychology therapy to make him avoid being involved in drug abuse by acting as role models to him.

Central to the cognitive view of people is the idea that they are actively trying to make sense of their environment by imposing order and meaning in the things they encounter. Cognitive explanations of the behaviour are found within the ways in which Ben organise and process information that is relevant to the particular methods of acting. In the case study, we could only recognise the fate of Ben by engaging in efforts to study the causes of what make him behave in a differently way. The idea that Ben is born by old couple contributes and in addition, very busy parents, contributes to a lack of parental love.

Ben’s situation could also be analysed through creative approach. Creative approach in working with young people to build coherent intervention entails an analytical examination of the problems and gathering of various ideas about solving it. The ideas on how to solve the emotional problems could come from experience of the parent. The outcome of a particular psychological problem that Ben has ever been exposed to could guide his parents in solving a related matter at hand (Myers, 2004, p.266).

Integrating creative, cognitive behaviour and systematic approach comprises of merging all these three techniques of solving emotional problems, to a strong design of solving psychological problems. This model may take several routes in efforts to make it realistic. The very first plan in integration of different psychological approaches is common factors. The common factors plan of integration tries to judge the core elements that different approaches have in common.

The merit of common factors approach is that, it emphasis on therapeutic actions that have been demonstrated to be the most effective. This helps to analyse Ben’s emotional problem based on common elements found in all the three methods, therefore, more efficient model in working with Ben to build a coherent intervention (Neenam & Palmer, 2012, p. 56). Young people are taught in a way to conduct. By showing Ben on what is right and wrong, you build on his character. A good character is a great contribution to the society. Young people create the potential future generation and influencing a young person positively adds value in the generation to come.

The other method to psychological approach integration is through technical eclecticism. Through technical eclecticism, Ben’s parents are guided to picking what has worked best for others previously. In solving a mental problem, Ben’s parents would try to look at the past instances of a similar case and adopt the same model of resolution that was past adopted. The model could be improved if the latter situation is more complicated than the previous situation.

The improvement on the design of solving mental problems could be through buying more ideas from every psychological approach. The situation of poor academic performance by ben because of lack of positive attitude could be solving through both systematic and cognitive behavioural approach. Through cognitive behavioural approach, the parent would put himself in the standards of ben and class work through critically obtaining real facts from him, this would help to guide the parent come up with viable ideas about the problem resolution (Mclean & woody, 2001, p.671).

Theoretical integration focuses on merging all small elements of theories in each of the approach and tries to come up with one deep level design. This model arrived at, bears all material facts from all the methods and, therefore, more effective in solving emotional problems. It is believed to be effective than constituent therapies alone. Assimilative integration is another route in integrating different psychological approaches and therapies.

Assimilative integration is a model that would a view from either of the approach to deal with the current problem on the table. It is constructed by assimilating different ideas from different methods in one design that can solve a specific psychological problem.

Parental love enables children to grow healthy emotionally. It helps them avoid emotional worries about their love security. Any child, who grows up in an environment that lacks the touch of love, is likely to improve inhumane behaviours. Some of inhumane behaviour that a person may develop because of lack of parental love is such as misconduct for duty of care, high negligence and immoral behaviours.

Parental control to a child is very essential in the child’s development. Parental control contributes to instil moral virtues in a child, which he grows to mature while to recognize. From a research, psychologists argue that children that grow up under high control are more intelligent than those that grow in a less disciplined environment. This is true because disciplined children rarely waste time in unconstructive engagements; hence, they are more constructive in nature (Ginsberg, 1964, p.551).Ben is found in a family where he is the only child in their family. This has exposed ben to a lonely life. Because of the loneliness that he is undergoing, he suffers from increased mental thinking due to lack of business of friends to share with.

A lot of thought and quietness without a person to share with may amount to stress. A stressed person is prone to some illnesses such as low self-esteem; lack of appetite and poor performing habits is no someone to motivate him (Oxington, 2005, p.99). Systematic dealing of Ben’s loneliness life could help him. The remedy to a lonely life could be by providing a person with an interactive environment. Interactive environment social groups such as ball clubs, study groups, religious groups amongst the others. It is the responsibility of his parents to ensure that Ben interact with a peer group that impact positively to his life (Bierman, 2004, p. 178).

By integrating the cognitive behaviour, systematic and creative approaches in working with Ben, reliable model of solving psychological problem is realized. A model to solving a problem is said to be effective if it achieves its purpose in a way that it leaves no harm. A model also is said to be effective if it can achieve the target on which is set for without many struggles. An effective model is complex enough to reach all forms of psychological problems. From the case study we are provided with, parents to Ben think of visiting a psychiatrist to help them, solve the problem affecting their son. Ben bears the information that a psychiatrist would use to help Ben from his psychological problems. The parents can perform what the psychiatrist would perform only that they need technological skills to conduct it. Through systematic approach of psychology, parents ought to be trained on how to face and solve psychological problems facing Ben. Parental training is a systematic approach psychological treatment of problem solving techniques.

An integrated psychological model covers the whole range of therapeutic models and professionalism. Psychological treatment provision is a multi-professional and multi-agency endeavour. Psychiatrist, psychotherapists, psychologists, counsellors, nurses, social workers and many other organizations are involved all of whom need to communicate and coordinate effectively with one another. Psychological therapies are fundamental to primary mental health care and can make a highly significant contribution to the user satisfaction. Its recommendations are based on the range of well-established scientific evidence but also on professional consensus and views of service users (Feinstem & Kuumba, 2006, p. 249).

It would be a good idea to visit a psychiatrist on a psychological problem. One of the main characteristics of a managed counselling service is that it can be proactive in helping the psychological counselling and testing to conduct health needs assessments and implement the changes to services required, as a result of it (Hearley, 2012, p.107). In other words, if counselling is in the system it can be effective both clinically and organizationally.

However, paradoxically, if there is a lack of counselling services not even an embryonic condition for such, there is often an absence of knowledge at the strategic level about the basic principles of treatment. Psychology and counselling are different professions. Counselling service managers can equally lead the provision of integrated psychological therapy services in primary care or remain in parallel arm (Dorfman & hersen, 2001, p. 455). Although, there is professional difference between psychology and counselling, their main goal is almost the same. Psychiatrists are psychology professionals that help one restore his or her normal state of performance and perception of various issues.

It is important to note that Ben has engaged in some practices because of the impact from peers. Some practices such as drugs and substance abuse are adopted due to influence from other people. Ben has engaged in drug abuse to keep in touch with his friends, keeping away from them and not supporting would mean, unfriending them. Friends fill up the lives with joy, acceptability and self-confidence.

Friends are the source of motivation and power to lead a happy life, nevertheless friendship at time may be running. Ben and his friends engage themselves in drug abuse as a way of passing their leisure time. This bad practice results from efforts to keep friends. It is the mandate of the parents to observe the company of friends that Ben interact with and pass to him a word of advice if necessary. If the friendship is constructive, show parental support on it, if the friendship behaves kind it is destructive, the parents should immediately discourage it (Granot, 2005, p. 115).

By integrating different psychological methods, a design that is cost effective is achieved. The model is said to be cost effective if it is considerate in nature. Both the Ben’s parent and psychiatrist that are using the model should experience a mutual benefit from it. No party, either that seeks to help or the one that utilise the model to support should be in the worse side. The design is flexible enough if it is able to reach all the parties efficiently at their standards. Any matters arising during problem solving, should as well have their appropriate way of dealing with them. This is all that comprises of an efficient model (Cain, 1969, p.23).

Creativity borrows a lot from psychology. Cognitive psychologist tries to build up cognitive models of the information processing that goes on inside people’s mind. A cognitive model of the memory system would suggest that it has two main components, one for dealing with the information that we need to process now. This brain based psychology where psychiatrist tries to measure your brain level of adopting things. It is after this critical brain analysis that the psychologist gets to know how to approach Ben in different brain dealings (Sigston, 1996, p 103).

A clear strength of the cognitive behavioural therapy approach to depression is its grounding in cognitive theory of depression that has been subject to extensive empirical testing over several decades. This has brought the original theory into focus and led to important elaborations and changes (Luxmoore, 2006. P. 17). The cognitive model of depression that contextualizes cognitive behavioural therapy exemplifies the diathesis, stress approach to psychopathology. This is one of the best methods in dealing with stress, as searches for the reason of depression in an individual. Cognitive model tries to examine the sources of the stress to an individual after which it gathers information about on various solutions to the stress.

In the case study, Ben is face within a situation full of depression. The pressure on ben is because of the parental requirement from him that he struggles to reach. Another source of depression comes in where he tries to impress his friends at the expense of his morality. That does not close the list of Ben in terms of being stressed up; Ben is in a depression following poor academic performance in the class. Poor academic performance is caused by being not very serious with his class duties due to engagement in some unproductive activities. Cognitive behavioural approach would guide his parent to try to create a positive attitude in ben that would enable him have a positive attitude toward his undertakings.

Unhealthy social conduct amounts to a psychological problem. This could be dealt with by integrating the three approaches to psychology. An integrated model has all the appropriate ways in ensuring a well Ben’s psychological environment is maintained. By adopting an integrated model that combines the three approaches to solving psychological problems affecting Ben, an efficient way of tackling with social misconducts is realized. It is very vital to note that for a goal to be achieved effort must be made. In solving Ben’s psychological problem, it is very important to create a conducive environment for implementing measures to solve the problem.

Creation of a good environment is achieved by equipping oneself with the entire facts amount to the source of psychological problems. It is also appropriate to approach Ben wisely. Every person does not want be seen as problematic even he or she is in a problem. One best method of creating a conducive environment in Ben is by showing him how importance he is. Once Ben is told about his necessity in the society, it becomes very easily to attack him. By attacking Ben, it means to put effort in counselling or executing the most appropriate measure in solving the psychological problem affecting Ben. For an objective to be achieved, there is should a mechanism to achieve the goal. This mechanism comprises of the method to follow in reaching the solution of the problem.

By integrating approaches to understanding psychological matters, it creates effective models in solving psychological problems that affect Ben. It is easy to approach Ben for correction than an adult. Young people are quick learners and hence, they grasp things at a higher level as compared to the older ones. When it comes to parental guidance, use of disciplinary measures that are fierce is also encouraged; some children and young people are very naughty to change from a bad behaviour. In such a situation, a parent is advice to put into measures things as punishment in controlling the behaviour of their children (Morgan, 1991, p.113). Through correcting children by punishment, they learn faster on how to avoid such a mistake again, unlike just by a mere word of mouth. Due to fear of undergoing punishment, it would very hard for Ben to repeat the same mistake.

The usefulness of integrating cognitive behavioural, systematic and creative approaches in working with Ben to build a coherent intervention has a great contribution in improving his life. It tries to come up with different and effective approaches to deal with psychological problems affecting Ben. Nevertheless, improved models of dealing with psychological problems may fail at times; this is because some psychological problems have some source in biological development of a person. As a young person develops, especially in adolescent, he may develop another psychological problem such as pride that is very hard to deal within integrated cognitive behavioural, systematic and creative approaches.

The growth of cognitive behavioural perspective reflects the impact of a more generally cognitive view of psychology. The cognitive approach focuses on how our behaviour is affect, by the way, in which we take in, mentally represent, process, and store information. Psychologists who take a cognitive approach suggest that there be several ways, in which children learn to be aggressive. Children may see others being reward for acting aggressively and then might be rewarded themselves for doing the same.

Aggressiveness might also be more likely if a child constantly hears that other people can be dangerous and that aggression is the only way to deal with threats, disagreements and another conflict situation. In dealing with the emotional problems affecting Ben, it will be vital to try to examine his logical understanding of the issues; this would help to try change Ben’s way of perceiving an understanding some life aggregate issues (Ashworth, 2000, p.253).

Cognitive approach in solving a mental problem has a significant contribution in decision. It could help Ben change a negative mentality to a positive and composed mind. Psychologist who takes a cognitive approach suggests that mental processes help us to understand many kinds of individual and social behaviours, from decision-making and problem solving to interpersonal attraction and intelligence. The cognitive approach is especially important in the field of cognitive science, in which researchers from psychology and philosophy study intelligent systems in the human (Gallagler, 2011, p 13). Generally, cognitive approach refers to those therapeutic techniques aiming to change or modify Ben’s thoughts or beliefs. Beliefs are assumptions about life values that a person creates.

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