What is a designer?

Introduction

A designer can be described as an individual who specifies the structural properties of a design object. The individual is capable of making of tangible or intangible objects. Whether designing a building or an entire urban landscape, an architectural designer must first meet a series of educational and licensing milestones to be able to do the job. They need to learn how to use drafting programs and understand construction protocol and design principles. To obtain licensure, architects need to meet state educational and experiential requirements.

Architecture design mainly encompasses the real design and outline of spaces (Storrer & Wright, 2001).  The aspect of architecture entails numerous elements including design, the process of operation of light as it relays to shadow. Based on the history, architects have formulated diverse ways of making functional and concrete spaces by the use of the available materials.

Initially, the aspect of architecture evolved after necessity and ancient cultures wanted a way to worship respected religious deities, the ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian architecture basically reflected the interconnection that was focused amongst and earliest religions. During this time, many buildings constructed throughout the sovereignty of the empires and people were likely to pay tribute to the heavens (Storrer & Wright, 2001). During this period, the architects were not there when the construction was taking place, the idea of making impressive and purposeful spaces was existing.

Unlike the basis of Mesopotamian and Egyptian, Persian construction was designed merely to present its wealth. With that regard, for the ancient Persians, constructing of buildings that captivated guests was significant. In additional, since shelter was necessary, the ancient Persian architecture highly encouraged to the aspect of urban design and architecture by construction of massive cities.

When both the Greeks and Romans acquired power, architecture design moved from a religious aspect or pragmatic concentration to civic concerns design (Dijck, 2003). With the regard of the Greek and Roman influences, architecture started to take other channels and shapes (Dijck, 2003). Thus, the buildings that were built during Greek and Roman period were massive, attractive, and almost every construction tested the followed the principles of architecture as it was necessary and the entire world knew it.

Nowadays, architecture design is commonly based upon modern concerns like the as the environment. The basis of architecture in relation to the world currently entails diverse specialized fields. Today’s professionals’ architects put more emphasis on certain types of architecture, somewhat than the entire architecture. Therefore, a landscape architect merely designs landscapes, while the basis of church architects basically concentrates specifically on religious works structures

Interior architecture design

The interior designers basically entails the design of the interior of a building, therefore, the Architect makes a plan in designs the whole building comprising the form, function, and safety of the structure. The assumption of interior plan on the residential building interiors in regard to effective use mainly emphasizes on the aspect of space creation, space planning and other relevant factors which impacts the response to working and living environment. On the other hand, the interior design can be stated as the interior architecture since the interior designers are fully trained in the basis of consideration of variation of the interior structure with regard of the construction relatively than just refinishing and endowing spaces (Dijck, 2003).

Traditionally, large number of the interior designers mainly emphasized on decorating: selecting a style and color palette and then choosing suitable furniture, floor and window casings, sculpture, and lighting. Conversely, a growing number of designers have become more concerned with designing architectural detailing rather than other aspects, they are more concerned with aspects such as crown molding and built-in bookshelves, or planning layouts of buildings undergoing renovation, including helping to determine the location of windows, stairways, escalators, and walkways (Dijck, 2003). Interior designers is basically concerned with the notion on how to read blueprints, comprehend building and fire codes, and also on the awareness on how to create the space manageable to the disabled.

Designers commonly cooperate with architects, electricians, and contractors to make sure the design they have formulated are safe and are able to meet construction necessities. Those particular designers who basically work in-store creators for furniture or home and garden stores give their design amenities in addition to marketing the store’s merchandise. When it comes to the issue of store designers offer services comparable to those presented by other interior designers, for instance, in selecting a style and color arrangement that fits the customer’s desires or finding appropriate accessories and lighting. Though, in-store designers hardly meet their customers’ spaces and are restricted in using only a specific store’s products (Resmini & Rosati, 2011).

Good design can allow people to live and work more comfortably, efficiently and securely in a more aesthetically satisfying and functional environment. With regard of the Interior designers plan space allocation, traffic flow, building services, furniture, fixtures, furnishings and surface finishes,  the main aspect that is taken into consideration in the first place is the purpose, efficiency, comfort, safety and appealing of interior spaces to attain optimum design. This prospect frequently works on a basis of team which involves architects, builders, project managers, engineering consultants, shop fitters, cabinet makers, furniture suppliers and materials suppliers (Resmini & Rosati, 2011). This people take part in organization modification of construction structures, the buying of materials and furnishings and the contracting and management of the tradespeople needed to implement a project.

Most of the individuals who use interior design services merely acquire some of these skills rarely. Thus, it is absolutely normal for interior designers to be working in consulting businesses, for instance, in the basis of the interior design consultancies and architectural processes. In additional, tertiary interior architecture stresses on commercial and industrial interiors like the issues concerned with offices, public buildings, hospitals, department stores and shops (Dijck, 2003). Nevertheless the design of internal interiors is also well taken into consideration and covered, hence, it is collective source of work for numerous interior designers when it comes self-employment.

There are several prominent architects all over the world whose works have been recognized globally. This is due to the fact that designs are very unique and the kind of materials they use in their constructions are at the same time dissimilar from others. Therefore due to these great works, they are noticeable. Some of these famous architects whose designs are highly noticeable to be extraordinary include; Dieter Rams, Frank Lloyd Wright, Moshe Safdie among many others who are based in different parts of the world.

Dieter Rams-Architect

Dieter Rams is prominent German designer in architecture. Therefore, during the 1970s, he became increasingly by the state on the assumptions concerned with the surrounding environment (Lovell, 2011). Thus, the attribution of an impenetrable misperception of forms, colors and noises emerged that raised an alarm on the significant contributor the world. This made him up to ask questions pertaining him on whether his design is a good design. In regard to his question based on his design, whereby he gave his variations in relation to good designs and what attributes that are considered when refereeing to a good design. (Lovell, 2011).

Dieter Rams trained and worked as an architect in Germany for some years till moved to an electronic devices manufacturer Braun. After some years, he was he recognized as the topmost of design, thus, a position he apprehended over 30 years. Throughout his contract, he designed many iconic appliances ranging from record players to furniture to storage systems (Lovell, 2011). In additional, Rams also attributed the remarkable phrase, “Weniger, aber besser” that fundamentally translates into “Less, but better” (Tilder, Blostein & Amidon, 2010).  Rams made use of diverse graphic design, method, amount, and materiality to plan order based on his designs. Ram’s works are not necessarily centered on the awareness but he enables his ideas on his works to be focused as part of his environment through accuracy and order.

On the same note, Dieter Rams is very famous on his Ten Principles for Good Design. In addition, his attributions to possibilities of innovation were not regarded as by means but based on the concept of development in technology towards innovative design (Tilder, Blostein & Amidon, 2010). Nevertheless innovative design continuously develops in cycle with advanced technology, and cannot be an end in itself. Therefore, based on his ideas, he was well known for several products that he articulated. His innovations was based on different forms and not on buildings, unlike Frank Wright who was concerned of building structures.

Frank Lloyd Wright – Architect

Frank Lloyd Wright is considered as the most prominent architect all the time by most people. This aspect emerges from the fact that he is more recognized on his extraordinary works that includes; the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles, The Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Der Neue Zollhof in Düsseldorf and the Marqués de Riscal Vineyard Hotel in Elciego which is notable all over the world (Dijck, 2003). Unlike the works of Dieter Ram which were commonly noticeable in German.

Frank Lloyd Wright focused on both the interior and exterior as the major spaces and he also focused ahead of his time in construction forms and method despite the fact he never attended an official architecture college.  Thus, his modest American background the helped him to learning under Louis Sullivan, who was another prominent legend in the field of architecture and up-to-date, Wright is noted for his prairie-style buildings and organic influences. His works on the aspect of organic and natural forms emerged among the nature and his innovative ideas and description are yet taken to be the greatest building and design concepts, even after several years.

When making comparison based on Frank Lloyd Wright’s works with other architects, no mistaking Gehrig’s works that has been detected since his innovative ideas emerge to be perfect considering with other aspects. Also, this is due to the fact that, his works are the attributed to be most distinctive, and innovative architectural phenomena around (McCarter, 2006). Basing on his deconstructive forms are basically measured as the iconic as tourists flock to his entire buildings based worldwide to marvel at the architectural forms he creates (McCarter, 2006). The concept of Vanity Fair which is regarded as the most significant architect of currently, Frank has established the preference for contemporary architecture.

Frank always regain success with his designs and his works in architecture was principally included on organic, attuned to the nature around it, whether that setting be tranquil (McCarter, 2006). When looking at his works on his constructions from the street corner, they are very attractive with the assumption of its beauty and shape. Thus, when an individual moves into the buildings that is where one can fully notice Frank the true master. This is due to the fact that he ruled interior spaces, down to the last chair and stained glass accent (Storrer & Wright, 2001). In Addition, Frank was precise based on the furniture and the decorations enacted in place, in accompaniment on his designs

In conclusion, architecture entails numerous elements including design, the process of manipulation of light as it relates to shadow. Based on the history, architects have formulated diverse ways of creating functional and practical spaces by the use of the available materials. The interior designers basically entails the design of the interior of a building, therefore, the Architect makes a plan in designs the whole building comprising the form, function, and safety of the structure. In addition, Frank Lloyd Wright and Dieter Rams are the most prominent architects whose works are commonly recognized all over the world based on their design.

References

Dijck, P . (2003). Information architecture for designers: Structuring websites for business         success. Mies: Roto Vision.

Lovell, S. (2011). As little design as possible: The work of Dieter Rams. London: Phaidon.

McCarter, R. (2006). Frank Lloyd Wright. London: Reaktion Books.

Resmini, A., & Rosati, L. (2011). Pervasive information architecture: Designing cross-channel   user experiences. Burlington, MA: Morgan Kaufmann.

Storrer, W. A., & Wright, F. L. (2001). The architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright: A complete      catalog. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Tilder, L., Blostein, B., & Amidon, J. (2010). Design ecologies: Essays on the nature of design.             New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

Designer Babies

My interest in designer babies was first sparked by a book I was required to read in high school, Brave New World. For my class I was required to do a little research on this book, and as I was searching the Internet I came across a website on designer babies. Although Brave New World is not a book about designer babies, the altering of human genes described in the book is a concept very similar to designer babies. The possibility of a society made up of genetically altered humans, such as the one in this book, is becoming very real with the help of advancements in technology. In vision one day you and your significant other are going to the doctor because you are planning to have a baby, but you are not going to the doctor for a check up. You are going to pick out the sex, characteristic traits, and physical features (eye color, hair color skin color, etc.) of your baby. Crazy right? To think, one day we will have the technology and resources to do this. Although this topic of “designing your baby” is fairly new and the science has not been perfected, it is a very big possibility in our near future. The issue with this technology is whether it should be allowed or not. Parents always want the very best for their children, but my morals lead me to believe that parents should not be allowed to alter their children in this way. In this exploratory essay I hope to find solid and specific information to help me decide my stance on this question: Should parents be allowed to design what their children look like?

In English 2000 we were introduced to online search engines that could be used to find information on our topics. The search engine I found the most handy was the EBCO Host website. This site lead me to many resourceful articles that truly helped me better understand the topic of designer babies. The first resource I came across is titled Designer Babies: Eugenics Repackaged or Consumer Options? By Stephen L. Baird, technology education teacher at Bayside Middle School, Virginia Beach, Virginia. Baird describes how journalists are the ones who have coined the term “Designer Babies”. He goes onto to explain that this term is simply a shortened phrase that represents certain reproductive technologies that allow expecting parents to have more control on the birth outcomes of their child (15).

In vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) are two procedures of genetic engineering that are described through specific cases throughout this document. “Almost three decades ago, on July 25, 1978, Louise Brown, the first “test-tube baby” was born. The world’s first “test-tube” baby arrived amid a storm of protest and hand-wringing about science gone amok, human animal hybrids, and the rebirth of eugenics” (Baird 12). This “test-tube” case is the first case explained by Baird. The purpose for this example case is to describe how using the in vitro fertilization reproductive technique is not necessarily a bad thing. Although many voices of the public spoke against Brown, the “test-tube” baby, she was born as a completely normal human child.

This is just one of the multiple cases that show the views and opinions of the public. Baird captures the various arguments against designer babies and arguments for designer babies. Some people share the opinion that there is nothing wrong with designer babies because they assist in preventing particular genetic diseases and reduce the emotional and financial burden for parents of children with these altered genetic diseases (Baird 15). On the other hand, certain people feel strongly against designer babies because creating “perfect” children could evolve into changes in the physical appearance of the children before they are even born (Baird 15).

Baird’s document on designer babies was very informative in a way that helped me better understand the different sides of the argument on designer babies. I also felt as if this source gave me a better understanding on the basics of this topic such as the medical terms and procedures. Baird’s work could be very enlightening for individuals who do not have a complete understanding of what it means to be a designer baby. For example, before reading this I simply assumed designer babies were meant for physical alterations, and did not consider it to be beneficial to health alterations such as preventing genetic diseases. This paper did not hinder me to be for or against designer babies because I received equal information on both sides of the issue.

My second source, Designing Babies: What the Future Holds, came from the same search engine as the previous article. This article was written by Dr. Yury Verlinsky, graduate, postgraduate and PhD of Kharkov University. Verlinsky goes into detail about the different meanings the public has of designer babies. His definitions of designer babies include the sex of a child being chosen, testing embryos for unwanted disorders and diseases, or for cosmetic reasons (24). Verlinsky goes through the multiple views on the advantages and disadvantages of allowing parents to use the technology to create designer babies. One particular advantage of designer babies, pointed out by Verlinsky, that caught my attention was, “insurance companies, for example, may refuse to cover newborn malformations that could have been corrected before implantation” (25). This goes to show how people may be economically pressured into the technologies of designer babies. I found that this particular article had a lot of the same factual information as the previous article. Certain ideas from the two articles stuck out in similar ways. Even some of the same phrases were repeated in both articles that I have come across. Although there were similarities, this article also brought some new ideas to my attention. The first article contained many real life cases while this article used many hypothetical possibilities. Some of the hypothetical possibilities were a little out of the box, but they really got me to think about the circumstances that the designer baby technology could lead to.

Finally my third source, also coming from the same search engine, is A Brave New World of Designer Babies By Sonia Suter. This particular article goes in depth about the similarities and differences of the eugenics and neoeugenics movements. As stated by Suter, the eugenics movement can be explained as “the mission to reduce disease in the population, the efforts to protect the public fisc, and the goal of reducing suffering. What makes “eugenics” such a complex term is that its practitioners were well intentioned and it meant different things to different people” (900). Suter also explains the meaning of neoeugenics, “Neoeugenics strives towards “good birth” at the individual, rather than state level” (900). When Suter says at the individual level, he is referring to the fact that designing babies is an individual procedure that is a voluntary choice of the parent. In Suter’s mission to analyze the meaning of neoeugenics he brings us as far back to the times of eugenics brought about by Hitler.

Hitler was responsible for a mass genocide of individuals that did not fit his mold of the perfect human. In a way this is similar to the purpose of using gene alterations to make your designer baby. Suter describes how the main difference between eugenics and neoeugenics is the severity of the two (948). Suter states “neoeugenics appears less threatening than eugenics” (948). In the world we live in today we always want what is best for our offspring and ourselves. Suter explains, that those who disagree with designer babies could very possibly fall under the pressures of taking part in these sciences because they do not want their own children to be disadvantaged to the ones that chose to use these technological advances (965).

I found that my final article gave me the most information about the perspectives people have on designer babies. Since the study of designer babies is fairly new, I like how this document uses something from the past to help me relate it to something. This article really went in depth about the positives and negatives of designer babies. Some people are certain that using designer baby technology can help prevent diseases, while others are absolutely opposed to it. These articles have tremendously improved my understanding of designer babies. I was not aware of how truly in depth this term goes. As of now, I would not say I have a solid stance on the question I proposed at the beginning of my essay; should parents be allowed to design their babies? There are just so many different things that this term means and many different sides of the argument. I do not believe that this is a straightforward yes or no question. This is a complex issue that I need to do more research on. At this point, I do not think there is a problem with parents wanting to protect their children and prevent diseases their child is susceptible to in the future, but to physically and characteristically alter a child based on how you want your child to look and act is something I still feel is not something humans should be able to control.

Works Cited

Baird, Stephen L. “Designer Babies: Eugenics Repackaged Or Consumer Options? (Cover Story).” Technology Teacher 66.7 (2007): 12-16. Academic Search Complete. Web. 4 Feb. 2014.

Damiano, Laura. “When Parents Can Choose To Have The ‘Perfect’ Child: Why Fertility Clinics Should Be Required To Report Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis Data.” Family Court Review 49.4 (2011): 846-859. Academic Search Complete. Web. 6 Feb. 2014.

Schenker, Joseph G. Ethical Dilemmas In Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Berlin: De Gruyter, 2011. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 6 Feb. 2014. Suter, Sonia M. “A Brave New World Of Designer Babies?.” Berkeley Technology Law Journal 22.2 (2007): 897-969. Academic Search Complete. Web. 4 Feb. 2014

Verlinsky, Yury. “Designing Babies: What The Future Holds.” Reproductive Biomedicine Online (Reproductive Healthcare Limited) 10.(2005): 24-26. Academic Search Complete. Web. 6 Feb. 2014.