Autism as a developmental disorder

Abstract

Artificial Neural networks assist us to diagnose ASD and AI-assisted intervention applied sciences such as contemporary computer-aided techniques (CAS), laptop vision assisted technologies (CVAT), and digital actuality (VR) helps autistic people to speak and learn as it is troublesome for them to make communication with different human beings. To diagnose ASD in people, ASD checks are developed under the study of ASD Diagnosis  with Artificial Neural Network. The ANN model exhibits an correct diagnosis of ASD based on the evaluation of check outcomes.

The survey of AI-assisted intervention applied sciences reveals that these applied sciences are useful as autistic folks favor machine communication over humans.

I found this subject fascinating as a end result of films like Extinction and I robotic create the impression that AI is going to change the world in a adverse way which I needed to disagree with and hence proved most optimistic side of AI by way of this paper. As nicely famous personalities like Einstein, Newton have autism, which again triggers my interest on this subject.

Milo is a humanoid robot, which is developed to treat autistic students. This robot might help students to study the mandatory communication skills. The examine for diagnosis for Autism via ANN is predicated on the test results data fed as input to the network and its analysis by way of the network. What if the data provided is misleading? Then, in that case, also will ANN diagnose autism correctly? Also, AI-assisted intervention technologies assist children be taught. They make them comfy enough to speak. So , throughout this procedure, aren’t we pushing children in a man-made world? Moreover, to what extent we can present kids on this world and the way right it is?

Introduction

Centers for Disease Control present data, which states that 1 out of 59 children, has autism.

This means that autism is no longer a uncommon illness. It can affect any individual from all levels of society. Autism is a developmental disorder. This affects social skills, speech, and nonverbal communication and causes repetitive conduct (WWW1). These signs of autism can appear at the age of 2 to three. (Naseer, 2019 ).

Early diagnosis of autism in a person helps to deal with it in the later a part of his or her life. A individual identified with autism earlier shows excellent enchancment over acquiring skills than a person diagnosed later. Artificial Neural Network is a mathematical model based on synthetic intelligence that may diagnose autism in an individual. This technology proves a superb help for autistic individuals and their caregivers as properly as members of the family. After a analysis of autism, autistic people can be handled in various methods. Traditional clinical settings have been favourite in the past. Along with traditional scientific settings, now a day’s technology-based interventions are also proving useful for autistic individuals to learn varied expertise. Researches carried out over the last decade states that folks suffering from autism reveals curiosity in technology-based interventions for learning and speaking (Jaliaawala, 2019 ). These interventions can be used in scientific settings also in homes and classrooms. The study is executed by Jaliaawala (2019) about researches prior to now decade, in his article, he states that every one researches point out the constructive effect of know-how interventions on, verbal and nonverbal skills of an autistic person. Robots like Milo helps autistic kids to learn and perceive, communication, and social skills (WWW2).

Recently I came across an article which states that Albert Einstein, Amadeus Mozart, Sir Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, these famous personalities had autism. This triggered my curiosity in autism. While searching additional, I got here to know that Autistic folks have difficulties in social communication. The use difficulties may be overcome with applied sciences like Milo and QTrobot by implementing synthetic intelligence. This makes me extra fascinated by this field.

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder comes underneath Pervasive Developmental Disorder, which once more subdivided into High Functioning Autism, Low Functioning Autism, and Social interaction impairment. High functioning autistic individuals are these with IQ level 70 or above but face difficulties in emotion regulation and expression, communication, and social interplay. Low functioning autistic people are these having cognitive impairments. The signs of LFA embrace impaired social communication or interactions, problems in sleep, unusual conduct, self -injurious tendencies (Jaliaawala, 2019 ). Autism affects verbal in addition to nonverbal expertise of an individual. According to data offered by the Centers for Disease Control in 2018, 1 out of fifty nine youngsters is autistic. 1 in 37 boys and 1 in 151 girls that imply boys are 4 times extra vulnerable to this dysfunction. 31% of kids have intelligence quotient less than 70, 25% of kids are within the vary of seventy one to 85, and 44% of youngsters possess above 85 intelligence quotient level(WWW1).

Diagnosis of Autism utilizing Artificial Neural Network Model Ibrahim M. Nasser performed an experiment, during which autism analysis is carried out with the assistance of ANN mannequin. This model used sample data out of which eighty % knowledge used to train the mannequin and 20% of information used to validate the mannequin. This knowledge is collected from the ASD check app. This is a mobile screening software to detect the presence of autism.

Test: -This application is designed such that all individuals of all ages can use it. ASD behaviors are measured based mostly on 4 modules of this app. Autism Spectrum Quotient is the screening software which consists of self -observed questions. The answers to these question s can detect autistic traits in an individual. This 50 -question set is decreased to 10, to shorten the version. These questions examine autism’s cognitive strength. The answer to the question ranges from definitely conform to disagree. On the ten -question scale, a person who scores more than six is detected with autism.

Methodology: – The data from the autistic screening take a look at is collected. This dataset is used for this experiment. ANN mannequin used in this experiment is skilled and validated in opposition to this data and conclusions drawn from it. This information consists of user-specific info like name, gender, age, ethnicity, history about jaundice, autism detected in a family member, relation with a participant of the experiment, nation of residence, information about the usage of the appliance prior to now, together with ten revised questions from autism spectrum quotient. Data collected from the screening app is preprocessed earlier than forwarding to the ANN model. This is done for predictive evaluation. The precise knowledge fed to mannequin consists of answers from 10 questions, age, gender, jaundice at start or not, class/ASD attribute. Apart from the age attribute, all other information is within the form of Boolean numbers, which suggests solely 0 and one values. Out of those information, all attributes from age to jaundice are thought of as enter attributes, and the category attribute is taken into account as an output attribute, which shows ASD presence or absence.

Results: – ANN mannequin developed by ( Naseer, 2019 ) exhibits an accuracy of 100 percent. The mannequin was appropriate in the detection of autism.

Importance of Technology-Assisted Intervention within the treatment of autism autistic people lacks social and communication skills. This makes them difficult to reach for teaching and letting them understand society. Many of them keep away from social contact, so standard school settings and clinical settings make it much more difficult to teach them needed abilities like, perceive and reply to facial expressions, greet friends or do any communication with the elderly or with colleagues.

A Comprehensive Survey of AI-Assisted Intervention for Autistic People

The methodologies which are reviewed in this survey are modern computer-aided systems, laptop imaginative and prescient assisted technologies, and virtual reality or AI-assisted intervention. In this study, literature is presented associated to interventions for facial features impairments in autistic people. Interventions for facial features impairments are once more subdivided into three categories.

They are non -verbal communication abilities, verbal social skills, and digital reality. Non -verbal communication skills can be summarized as emotion recognition, affect recognition, maintaining eye contact, decision making, etc. Similarly, verbal communication expertise could be summarized as social interactions, greeting to friends, etc. Virtual actuality includes both non – verbal and verbal expertise. All the reviewed researches categorized in these three sections and conclusion is drawn. One of the primary questions, among researches, was, whether Computer-Aided Systems are more effective than traditional clinical settings for autistic people? Some ofthe researches present constructive outcomes about statistical inference. Though the effectivity of CAS over conventional scientific settings isn’t confirmed, it has benefits over conventional medical settings for people who have ASD. Advantages of CAS over Traditional Clinical Settings for Autism  Unlimited repeated therapies may be formulated with correctness. Hence improving constancy. Because of automation, access to more extensive and distant areas which in flip saves price. As human intervention is lowered, probabilities of unintentional induction of maladaptive behaviors are also reduced.

Methodology and Result: -Result of the survey are tabulated. This desk contains column heads with Author, Participant, Mean Age, Average IQ, Participants characteristics, Skill intervened, Technology used for intervention. Data from numerous researches are studied, sorted, and entered against respective columns of tables. For example, Bernard Opitz et al. (2001) performed analysis during which sixteen persons participated, eight persons, having ASD, and eight persons with TYP syndrome with a mean age of 4 years for TYP syndrome and seven years for ASD. The average IQ of these people was ninety. The characteristics of those people noted were, eight individuals have ASD out of which 2 had been females, and 6 have been males. Eight individuals have typical management out of which 3 had been females, and 5 had been males. Social expertise and resolution generation capability in conflicting conditions have been intervened through this research. The technological background consists of software – developed by the researcher, hardware – a private pc with home windows ninety five for ten periods. Results obtained from this research have been additionally entered towards the end result column. For this research, they compared the enthusiasm scale for computer and teacher. After comparison, they found that autistic people have fewer issues with habits and increased motivation in the direction of computer-aided periods.

Milo. A Robot for Autism

Robokind, a robotics firm, created a robotic known as Milo. This is 2 ft tall social robot developed to assist youngsters with autism. The mechanical inclinations of the robot make youngsters relate shortly with a humanoid robotic. Milo can engage kids 87 % of their time.

Milo, along with instructor or therapist, helps kids learn with out getting frustrated and teaches through the number of repetition s. Milo can be utilized as a group setting or an individual setting. Milo needs an teacher to facilitate between MMilo and the kid. Milo within the present moment solely accessible for faculties and therapist’s use. Unfortunately, it’s not available for residence or private use (WWW2). The only drawback of MMilo is, it needs some prerequisite abilities possessed by kids to proceed learning with Milo. Caregivers or therapists have to verify these abilities in an autistic individual to work with MMilo (WWW2).

Conclusion

As autism is a developmental dysfunction, there is no particular treatment or remedy to autism. Early diagnosis of autism is helpful to take care of autism. ANN can detect autism 100 % accurately based on knowledge supplied. A complete survey of all researches relating to AI intervention with autistic people reveals that the autistic person shows a eager interest in technology-based intervention and these interventions can be used to teach autistic inhabitants needed expertise relating to verbal and nonverbal communication sorts. However, although proving efficient, there isn’t any uniformity amongst pc scientists, therapists, and AI creating teams. There is no standard protocol which is adopted during researches concerning AI intervention technologies with people who have autism. Hence knowledge collected thus far cannot be effectively used (Jaliaawala, 2019 ). Robots like Milo can prove a great assist in the educational processes of the autistic inhabitants. However, there have to be management over each technology used with people who have autism. Because of this dysfunction, these people are already in disconnection with society. If not use in control method, youngsters will get obsessive about robots and can forget the human touch. If the situation gets uncontrolled, then it’s going to turn out to be difficult for conventional settings additionally to deal with children. Hence management use of any expertise could probably be the necessary thing to determine better outcomes to deal with autism with AI-assisted know-how intervention.

References

  1. Nasser, I. M. et al., (2019). Artificial Neural Network for Diagnose Autism Spectrum Disorder.
  2. International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) ISSN: 2000 -002X Vol. three Issue 2 , Pages: 27 -32
  3. Jaliaawala, M. S. et al., (2019). Can autism be catered with synthetic intelligence -assisted intervention technology? A complete survey. Artificial Intelligen ce Review , 1 -32.
  4. WWW1. What is Autism? < -autism > Accessed 2019.
  5. WWW2. About Robokind. < >
  6. WWW3. Causes and Risk Factors < -spectrum – issues -asd/index.shtml >

Analysis of Adolescence Developmental Psychology in Juno As

Analysis of Adolescence Developmental Psychology in Juno

As every particular person develop and age they be taught increasingly about themselves, shaping their persona and methods of thinking. An individual’s expertise can greatly affect who they come to be sooner or later and since not everybody goes by way of the very same life conditions, each expertise and response becomes unique. However, there are common phases that an average particular person will undergo throughout his or her life time that researchers and theorists have categorized.

This essay will be examining an individual named Juno, who is going via the adolescence stage of her life, to see how the theories of developmentalists corresponding to Erik Erikson, Urie Bronfenbrenner, Jean Piaget, and Lev Vygotsky apply to the development of Juno as she faces difficult life problems as nicely as how she offers together with her obstacles.

Synopsis

The film Juno is about a sixteen-year-old lady named Juno Macguff, who after having a one-night stand, grew to become pregnant with her crush’s baby.

After finding out that she is pregnant, Juno tells her crush and the child’s father, Paulie. Paulie supports Juno in her choice to have an abortion, however she by no means follows by way of with the deed after going to a clinic and meeting a pro-life protester. Instead Juno decides that she would carry the kid to time period and provides it to another household who would raise the child with love and care. From there Juno is compelled to inform her dad and stepmom about her being pregnant, who to her surprise, had been supportive of her decision regardless of their lack of concern about her at first.

The story continues as Juno searches for the best adoptive parents for her unborn youngster. To her luck, she finds a couple the place the father is a failed rock star and the mom is infertile. Juno continues to fulfill with the couple for the next few moths of her pregnancy, updating them about her state of affairs and serving to them put together for the incoming child. Sadly, as time goes on the father the Juno selected because the adoptive dad realizes that he’s not prepared for kids and still wants to be a rock star. As a end result, the couple divorces and Juno begin questioning what’s love and what is the greatest plan of action for her unborn youngster. After talking things over with her dad, Juno realizes that the particular person who’s been there for her all long and loves her for who she is was her crush, Paulie, all along. After professing her like to Paulie, Juno’s water breaks and he or she rushes to the hospital the place a wholesome baby is born. She decides to observe via with giving the infant to the original adoptive mom that she had chosen regardless of there not being a father anymore, she is conscious of that the child will nonetheless be very beloved and well cared for. The movie ends with Juno and Paulie becoming a pair who’s deeply in love regardless of how they had a baby before falling in love.

Discussion

The story of Juno is an exceptional illustration in a creative method of how an adolescence mind develops. When taking a more in-depth look, one can see how Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological methods concept comes into play in a Juno’s development. In the start of Juno, her microsystem, which include friends and family, just isn’t its greatest and even dysfunctional. As a results of this unstable and uninvolved parenting and friend microsystem, Juno becomes isolated from her friends at college as nicely as have unsure relationships with those around her. In the film the effects of a person’s macrosystem can also be seen in how the cultural worth pressure causes Juno to be confronted with harshness and judgement for her teen pregnancy. Which in flip leads to Juno feeling upset at Paulie for making her pregnant and having her face all the discrimination that she is going through. However, despite the unpleasantness of her micro- and macrosystems, Juno doesn’t let it affect her over all capacity to suppose logically and is in a position to keep her emotions from influencing her choices about what’s best for her child. This capacity of hers to think logically is described by Jean Piaget’s cognitive-developmental concept, in which adolescences above the age of 11 are in the formal operational stage where they can use hypotheses and deductive reasoning to create summary concepts that are primarily based on logic quite than feelings. Juno’s capacity to do so demonstrates that she has mastered this stage of growth. Urie Bronfenbrenner’s ecological techniques concept also touches on the backgrounds of households and the way totally different backgrounds can affect the event of individuals in a unique way. For instance, in Juno’s case, she comes from a divorced household that is not high in social economic standards however not deep in poverty either. However, because of the dearth of warmth in her household she seeks warmth from others leading to the upper possibilities of errors happening, which for her was a teen pregnancy.

The movie can also be a fantastic illustration of Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages, specifically the adolescence year’s fundamental conflict of id versus position confusion. As seen by way of the general plot of the film by which a young girl, who is still in highschool, is trying to find herself and discover who she is and what she desires for herself in life. According to Erikson, failure to successfully identify oneself on this time leads to position confusion which can result in the sensation of being misplaced in life and not figuring out what one desires or even hopelessness. This can be seen on the starting portion of the movie when it seemed like Juno was destined to be confused due to her dysfunctional family and unstable relationships. However, after having a dialogue along with her dad about what love really is and when you know you’ve found the one, Juno comes notice precisely who she is, what she desires, and that she loves the father of her youngster, Paulie, and wants to be in a committed relationship with him after conceiving.

Another developmental concept that may be studied in the movie Juno, is Vygotsky’s Sociocultural theory which focuses on how culture and social interactions have an effect of an individual’s improvement. This is particularly current when seeing the a quantity of interactions that younger Juno has, from friends in school who looked down on her to the mother and father who she thought didn’t take care of her when actually they did. All these totally different interactions aided in shaping Juno’s thoughts set of tradition values and the type of culture and household she wants to boost her future family in.

Conclusion

Juno is an extraordinary film that’s respected for each its content material and the illustration of the developmental development of the mind of an adolescence. The movie demonstrations how an individual can grow and prosper well regardless of the hardships of life as nicely as present a visual understanding of the completely different developmental theories which were created to elucidate and categorize a person’s growth. In relation to the developmental psychology course, it permits students to apply course materials in real world conditions and to higher perceive how it is not only a single theory that applies in life, but somewhat that each one the theories studied apply to one’s life in some sort of means they usually work together to affect the individual that we are at present.

Developmental psychology

Collate evidence which describes the role of the practitioner in meeting children’s needs. Practitioners can help meet the needs of children by approving the rights of children. For example (UNCRC) United Nations conventions act on the rights of the child. Which allows every child and young person inclusive set of rights. When the practitioners support the rights of children, it will benefit children by meeting their learning needs as all the setting “complete their rights and needs so all children despite religion, disability and gender have a right to quality of life.” www.nurseryworld.co.uk/working-parents-support-children-learning E2: Provide information about current influence on play

Different sorts of approaches to play will differ depending on the needs and age of the children involved. Help a child achieve more: is designed to make sure the quality provision of children and young people’s play and learning, no matter their race and situation. It is aimed to support children from birth till 19 and has an impact on all play based provision. Practitioners must carry out the 5 outcomes that are most important to children and young people Be healthy

Forest school: A forest school is an innovative educational approach to outdoor play and learning. The philosophy of forest schools is to encourage and inspire individuals of any age through positive outdoor experiences. By participating in engaging, motivating and achievable tasks and activities in a woodland environment each individual has an opportunity to develop. Forest school approaches:

Wider range of physical skills that are usually developed indoors An understanding about their own natural and man-made environment E3: Provide information about current influences on the planning and provision of learning opportunities The EYFS covers the first stage of a child’s education and development, from birth to five years old. The principles of the early year’s foundation stage are: Mathematical development – Shape, numbers, measure

Creativity development – Imaginative, materials and exploring Understanding the world – World & technology, people and communities Communication and language – Speaking, understanding listening & attention Personal, social and emotional development – Self- confidence, self-awareness, handling behaviour Literacy – Reading & writing

The framework of the EYFS describes how early year’s practitioners should work with children and their families to support their learning and improvement. It is necessary in all Ofsted-registered childcare setting, included maintained, non-maintained and independents schools and child-minders. The national curriculum from 5-16 years has set out specific subjects which needs to be completed during the period of time. The main subjects that are a must are English, Maths and Science.

The other subjects are selected by children at secondary, the range is P.E, music, drama, , art and ICT. E4: Include examples of different theoretical models of how children play and learn Behaviourists theory is by Skinner which has stages of development: The children will repeat an experience or activity if they gain a positive experience from it. The experiences the children didn’t enjoy they will keep away from it. By doing the above, children will learn trial and error.

Social learning theory is Bandura. He believes children learn by looking at the behaviours of adults and others around them, therefore they imitate what they have seen. For example practitioners are role models, who need to encourage children to learn and familiarise to good behaviour. Children learn by getting praised and encouraged by practitioners especially whilst doing an activity as this reassures children to aim higher and learn effectively. E5: Include an explanation of how observations can inform planning to meet children’s needs The practitioners observations of children
help to evaluate the progress which children are making “observations help practitioners to decide where children are in their learning and development and to plan what to do.”

Tassoni, P 2007 Practitioners can obtain information like what the child likes and dislikes and practitioners can plan activities according to children’s needs. The importance of confidentiality of information is necessary when the practitioner is observing the child. The observation sheet must be kept in a secure place and the practitioners have no right to discuss the observations to another person except for the child’s co-workers and parents, to ensure safety for the child and family. The practitioner needs to use the policy of Data protection act 1998 to protect personal information of a person. Planning and curriculum requires practitioners to collect information in form of assessments and observation. Making formal assessments

Watching children
E6: Include TWO examples of information from agencies outside the setting which may contribute to the assessment of learning needs. Health visitor works with NHS to reduce illness from children and support them to stay healthy. They observe the setting they are in and ensure there are in good condition for a child’s learning environment. Also working with parents in a partnership to encourage positive health plans to meet the needs. Examples of what health visitors do:
Speech and language therapists help assist children’s needs who have a difficulty with stammer, voice problem, cleft plate and understanding language. By splitting up words into syllables, speech and language therapists support children by helping them improve in their learning and eventually “the child can develop their speech and language”. www.specialeducationneeds.co.uk/speech-and-language-therapy-salt-2.html E7: Include TWO plans for curriculum activities which show different approaches to planning learning opportunities Date

E8: Include information about the important of consulting with parents and others when planning and providing learning opportunities Parents/ carers may have concerns about the safety of their child, and may need to be reassured about activities their child will take part in. By involving the child’s family and practitioners in assessment and in subsequent planning. It can enhance the relationship the practitioners have with the parents/ carers by making them feel valued and included.

When parents involve children in assessment it can help to show their strengths and weaknesses. It can enable to plan activities for the child that are pitched at a level for their development stage, therapy making sure that they have experience success and no failure. www.uk.answers.yahoo.com/questions/index?qid=20100118014744AAn0y9b E9: Provide evidence of current and relevant research throughout the portfolio E2, E3, E4, D1, C1, C2, B1, A

E10: Show an understanding of diversity and inclusive practice Practitioners should promote diversity within the nursery setting and celebrate all the different races. Practitioners should provide a safe and supportive learning environment, in which the contribution of all the children and families are valued. Inclusive practice is to organise collaborative classes, extra activities and group activities so all the children can take part in. Children with disabilities or not should be able to take part in activities . www.childs-play.com/teacher-zone/diversity_and_equality_for_tea.html E11: Include references and a bibliography

Books:
Tassoni. P 2007 childcare + education – Pages, 36,321,54,293,97,96 Websites:
www.childs-play.com/teacher-zone/diversity_and_equality_for_tea.html www.uk.answers.yahoo.com/questions/index?qid=20100118014744AAn0y9b www.nurseryworld.co.uk/working-parents-support-children-learning Videos:

Developmental need of children from ages 0-8 years

Development is the process of learning new skills and abilities. A child’s development is the term given to the development of infants through childhood. Although all children will go through the same stages of development, not all of them will go through these stages at the same time. Childs development can be measured by the five key stages of development which are emotional, social, physical, language and intellectual. A child will go through these stages of development in the first eight years of their lives. Child’s development relies heavily on their growth through their growth their developmental stages evolve significantly.

Physical Development:

0-2 years:

After a baby is born physical contact begins when they lie on their backs, they are also inclined to turn their heads to sounds and movements. By six months when they hear their name they turn around to see who is around, they can touch their toes and discover their fingers, smile at familiar faces. They are able to put things in their mouth. As the child grows older they become more agile and will be able to crawl and shuffle around and may even attempt to walk unaided, raise their arms to be lifted, able to reach and hold food in their hands. At two they should be in the early stages of walking and feeding themselves. They become very independent at this age.

3-5 years:

Within the ages of 3 to 5 the stages of child development get stronger. At this point they will have been able to walk up and down the stairs, catches a gently thrown ball, learns how to paint and names of colours, identifying them. At the age of four a child with have mastered pedalling their bikes, they are aware that this is how it is manoeuvred. They will be able to throw with aim. By the age of five the child will be able to copy shapes and letters, have more self control with their writing instruments.

5-8 years:

By the time the child is between the ages of five and eight they will have developed immensely. Their concentration levels will have developed. They become more accustomed to discipline within an educational setting, their skills for drawing will have enhanced now knowing to colour between the lines and their drawing will more resemble the objects they are trying to create.

Intellectual Development:

0-2 years:

Within the early months a child will make eye contact and focus on objects, they will also learn the sound of their mother’s voice. By six months the will be developing their co-ordination they will be reaching out with their hands to grasp an object offered to them. By twelve months they shall be developing their memory and will have the ability to remember thing such as a familiar face a favourite toy or comforter. They will also express emotions crying and laughing if others around do so they will express their emotions without knowing why. At the age of two a child will be amusing themselves with ‘pretend’ play with favourite toys they have and will adapt to making sounds from a variety of instruments.

3-5years:

At the age of three a child will develop the stage of pretend play and become more complex. Their concentration span will increase; their memory will be developing very quickly. They will then be able to relate and understand past and future. By the age of five they will have a great understanding of numeracy and literacy, learning to count confidently. At this age they tend to become very curious and inquisitive and ask endless question, always needing to know about things.

5-8 years:

By the time a child reaches this age they will be very independent. Their reading and writing skills will have progressed and advanced immensely. They will have developed in their drawings now resembling objects they want, they will be developing intellectually every day adjusting to education in a stronger sense than in their earlier years.

Language Development:

0-2 years:

Babies are only capable of expressing their language through crying, cooing and gurgling within the first 3 months, as they get older they become more expressive, responding to sound, laughing and imitating other sounds or noises. Although only and infant and unable to form sentences yet babies will begin mimicking animal noises or saying singular words such as (mama or dada). By the time a child is two it is thought that they have a vocabulary of almost 50 words. Children of this age will begin to talk at a rapid speed and are said to enjoy taking part in conversations.

3-5 years:

Children from the age of three shall now be able to speak in sentences expressing their vocabulary using past and present tenses without understanding that they are doing so. They enjoy hearing stories and listening to music at this age. By the time they are four they are likely to become very inquisitive asking a variety of questions about different things.

5-8 years:

The child’s vocabulary will have increased significantly. They are very confident speakers and will have a great understanding of many words although they may not always use them. By eight years old they will be able to give accurate descriptions and should be able to recognise similarities.

Emotional Development:

0-2 years:

Within the first few months of an infant’s life they will show many expressions and shall be able to identify their mother and fathers voice. They thrive through interaction and are very trusting and they enjoy the contact with others. By the time a child is a year old it will be used to familiar faces and will become extremely wary of unfamiliar faces and may become distressed in their company. They also imitate the feelings of other people not knowing the reason why they are copying their reactions. When the child is two they develop fears and phobias such as fear of the dark or spiders. The child sense of identity progresses rapidly at this point.

3-5 years:

They are more aware of their feelings and emotions at this stage; they are able to express how they feel. Increase in imagination. They are accepting to other people’s feelings and capable of concealing their own emotions. By the age of five as child will be very good at controlling their emotions.

5-8 years:

Showing signs of competitiveness. Arguments emerge through competitiveness, either with siblings or students which will make the child more stubborn and demanding. Mood changes start to appear by the age of eight. Less arguments as they become more mature. Children depend greatly on peer approval; becoming accepted is highly rated at this age.

Social Development:

0-2 years:

Babies are very sociable. They like to know and participate in what’s going on around them. They enjoy company immensely. They may also begin to feed themselves as their social skills begin to develop. By the time a child is a year old they will have become less dependent on interaction as they will have learned to play alone. At the age of two they will be very independent and will insist on dressing and feeding themselves.

3-5 years:

Capable of making friends and learning how to share and take turns. At this age they will resort to tantrums if they do not get their own way. Enjoy socialising. Forge friendships. By the age of five they will have made a number of friends. They will have a great understanding of what’s right and wrong.

5-8 years:

May become less sociable and may wish to spend more time alone. May have a vast number of friends to whom they may fall in and out of company with. Prefer to surround themselves with trusted companions. As their confidence grows they will find their place in the social circle to which they are comfortable with.

Developmental analysis

Abstract

This project involves the developmental milestones that one takes throughout life. The overall goal of this paper is to give the reader the understanding that the writer has knowledge about the theories and concept of Human Growth and Development. It will incorporate more about the development and growth of the writer. Information from the writer’s mother about her journey of her pregnancy and if she had any problems with her pregnancy. There will be an explanation from the mother about developmental milestones reached. There are a few early events that took place during the writer’s development it will be showcased in the paper. Finally the conclusion of the paper will focus on the lifestyle behaviors that might influence the writer’s current aging process and if there are any issues exactly how she would address it.

Keywords: development, lifestyle, journey, young adulthood, human growth, milestones

Developmental Milestones

Developmental milestones are important journeys that everyone takes throughout out life. Once a mother first finds out that she is pregnant the child in which she is carrying begins to embark on their journey of life. Everyone does not reach their milestones on target or even at all. Each person is at a different stage in their life, therefore their milestones and journey will vary, from one to the other. My particular journey and development has followed the path of Psychologist Erik Erikson’s psychosocial stages of human development. I am currently between stages five and six. Stage five is identity vs. identity confusion and stage six is intimacy vs. isolation. Although I am a young adult I am still developing and hitting milestones on my journey of life.

Mother’s Journey

While being pregnant with me my mother speaks that she had no problem during her entire nine months of pregnancy. She did not have any problems until delivery. She was in labor for two days. Her water was broken and at that time I stopped moving down. She did not dilate anymore. Once dilation stopped it was found that the umbilical was wrapped around my neck. Although the cord caused stress and my heart rate to drop while in labor, it did not cause any other known complications once I was born. She was in labor for two days.

Milestones

Developmental milestones are important in a child’s life. Developmental milestones have a wide range of different functional skills that a child is able to do as they hit certain ages. “Infancy and childhood are dynamic periods of growth and change” (Gerber, Wilks, & Erdie-Larena, 2010). At each age a child is supposed to reach milestones in their life that would consider them as developing normal. If the child does not reach that particular milestone for their age then they are considered to have a developmental delay. Developmental milestones are associated with a child’s gross motor, cognitive, social, language, and fine motor skills. When a child develops their gross motor skills they are able to walk, stand, and sit. They learn how to use their major muscle groups. When the child reaches the cognitive milestone he or she shows that they are able to solve problems, show an understanding, and reasoning skills. Developing milestones also include language.

When a child embarks on certain milestones they will develop abilities such as communication skills, speaking, and body language. Learning how to interact with others, for example peers and family is a social developmental milestone. Milestones are important for children to reach. It is crucial to monitor and watch a child as he or she develops. “Surveillance involves analyzing the milestones in the context of a child’s history, growth, and physical examination findings to recognize those who may be at risk for developmental delay. A thorough understanding of the normal or typical sequence of development in all domains (gross motor, fine motor, problem-solving, receptive language, expressive language, and social-emotional) allows the clinician to formulate a correct overall impression of a child’s true developmental status” (Gerber, Wilks, & Erdie-Larena, 2010).When a child is delayed in reaching their age milestone parents and doctors will start to show concerns. Although it can be tough for parents worrying about if their child will meet the milestone, it is a developmental journey that is wonderful and joyous to watch.

My Development

Erik Erikson was a psychologist who developed the psychosocial developmental stages. “Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is one of the best-known theories of personality in psychology. Much like Sigmund Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. Unlike Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages, Erikson’s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan” (Cherry, 2014). Although there were other psychologists such as Sigmund Freud and Jean Piaget who had their own developmental theory, the one who I identify best with is Erik Erikson. After speaking with my parents from what they both remember I seem to hit all my developmental milestones without problems or issues.

Trust vs Mistrust

“The first stage of psychosocial development of basic trust vs. basic mistrust, he introduces the word hope which was to become the first human strength or virtue. According to Capps (2012) trust is a sense of dependence and confidence where on the other hand mistrust is caution and uncertainty. From birth to eighteen months Erikson called this stage the trust vs. mistrust. During this time the child develops a trust for people, like their parents or caregiver. When I inquired about what signs or anything significant where I showed trust or mistrust my mother said she had the perfect story. She told me that around six months due to the military my dad had to leave for about five months. Before he left I was very attached to him and cried when he left my eyes. Once he left I became attached to my brothers. When he returned I no longer wanted to go to him. The best way to describe it is that I lost trust in him and he became a stranger to me. It did take a while but eventually I was able to trust him and no longer feared him or had a mistrust for my dad.

Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt

Erikson’s early childhood stage is known as the stages of the two and three year olds. “Erikson’s second stage, autonomy versus shame and self-doubt, involves the struggle for personal control and separation from others” (Vogel-Scibilia, et al., 2009). In this developmental stage the child has a control over their physical skills. Best example given by my mother for this one was my potty training. Potty training was a smooth training for me. But when I made a mistake and went to the bathroom on myself I was ashamed and I was no longer proud of my accomplishments. It was just the opposite though if I did not use the bathroom on myself. I was excited and even happier when I received praise. I guess I had a sense of happiness and endeavors.

Initiative vs Guilt

Erikson’s locomotor stage happens during the ages of three through six. In this stage Erikson called it initiative vs guilt. “During this period the primary feature involves the child regularly interacting with other children at school. Central to this stage is play, as it provides children with the opportunity to explore their interpersonal skills through initiating activities” (McLeod, 2008).The outcome of the locomotor stage is for the child to gain independence. “The child takes initiatives which the parents will often try to stop in order to protect the child. The child will often overstep the mark in his forcefulness and the danger is that the parents will tend to punish the child and restrict his initiatives too much” (McLeod, 2008). I can remember this time of my life, like it was yesterday. Around the age of five I felt that I would take the initiative and start pick out my own clothes and also dress myself. The night before my first day of kindergarten I picked out my clothes and could not wait to dress myself. I prepared everything I needed to be ready for the next morning.

The first day I woke up eager and excited to get dress. I did everything right according to my mother, except for putting my shoes on the right foot. But the only problem with that was nobody could tell me I was wrong. I was adamant about putting these shoes on the way I wanted too. My brothers tried to help me but I refused their help. My mother gave up trying and let me walk to the car with my shoes on the wrong foot. When I did make it to the car my feet were hurting and I felt ashamed and guilt. I was ashamed and embarrassed because I was wrong. I felt guilty because I would not let anyone help me and I was acting like it would kill me to let my family help me. The locomotor stage showed me and helped me develop a sense of knowing that it is okay to ask for help. I never need or have to be too proud to get help with I do not understand.

Industry vs Inferiority

“The fourth stage is industry versus inferiority and children try to hone and master culturally important skills. The achievement of these skills results in a sense of industry and the psychosocial strength of competence” (Dunkel & Sefek, 2009). It focused on age six to twelve. The outcome in the latency stage is the industry vs inferiority. Erikson set this stage for the school age children. He believed that during this time school age children learn new skills. They are going to learn how to deal with success or suffer with the possibility of failure. If a child is not able to learn their new task or study, they have to understand that there is a chance that failure will occur. I really cannot remember an example that occurred in this stage for me. However I do know what it is like to learn or know about failure. At this age I was learning new things and understanding many different life lessons. I recall in the 7th grade I had to write an essay about black history month.

Although I thought I knew a lot I quickly found out that I did not. In the third grade I won an award for writing a black history essay. Well in the sixth grade I just knew that I would succeed and win again, I was sadly mistaken. I learned and improved my writing skills but I had to experience failing. I felt a sense of incompetence when I did not win. During this developmental milestone it took me awhile to learn and understand that I was not perfect and I would not succeed in everything I did and would do. But overall the journey that I took was great and I would later find out that anything I wanted to do was possible. This stage helped shape me and get me thus far.

Identity vs Role Confusion

“According to Erikson, adolescence was the time when young people were given opportunities to reflect on what career they would choose, what kind of social and romantic relationships they would enter into, and what values and beliefs they would hold” (Schwartz, Zamboanga, Meca, & Ritchie, 2012). The way Erikson explained the adolescence and young adult stages fits me to a tee. Even though the adolescence and young adult stage are spoken about separately they both describe me as I am right now. Erikson described the adolescence stage as the identity verses role confusion. It usually occurs during ages twelve to eighteen. At the stage the developmental goal is for the adolescent to learn how to obtain and maintain relationships. The relationship that is developed is between the adolescent and their peers. In most cases the adolescent learns how to identify their role and identity.

Intimacy vs Isolation

Currently the young adult stage that Erikson described is where I am supposed to be in life. It is the developing milestone where the young adult ultimate goal is to have a love relationship. It deals with ages nineteen to forty. “Erik Erikson spoke of intimacy as a stage of young adulthood that everyone must negotiate, via faithfulness to commitments and readiness for sacrifice” (Torrens, 2009). As a young adult you are trying to develop your relationships with your love ones. Such as your significant other. This is the time that the young adult must understand how to love or they will feel left out as if they are isolated. According to McLeod (2012) when this stage is completed successfully it will lead to a calm and relaxed relationship, a sense of commitment, and a care within the relationship. If one avoids the intimacy and isolates themselves it can and will lead to isolation, loneliness, and sometimes depression.

My Current Development

I find myself in between the adolescence and young adult stages. Although I feel successful at developing relationships with my peers, which is the ultimate goal of adolescence, I still feel as if I have not identified exactly where I want and need to be, career wise. I am still learning myself and finding out who I am. Ever since I was in the adolescence stage I seem to have been trying to figure out my life and what it is I want to do with myself, career wise. In some moments and instances I felt as if I did not have the friends and relationships I deserve or should have. When I finished college I knew I wanted to work with the County Bureau of Investigations.

When I applied and was turned down I figured that something was wrong. I was not mastering this milestone as I should have. I then started working with clients who suffer from mental disabilities. It was a just a stepping stone job that was supposed to get me through until I was able to become an investigator. Four years later I was still working with clients and not my dream job. Still loss and confused I started working at child support. I am still there to this day and feel like I am still confused and not sure exactly what I need to be doing, as far as occupation. According to the theory of Erik Erikson’s psychosocial stages I am in the young adult stage. I feel that I am not quite there with developing the intimate relationship. Although I have been in a relationship for a while I still feel like I am isolated. I have not completed this stage and still have a few years to go before I am there.

Both the adolescence and young adult stages I did not succeed with ease. It is taking me longer to get through these developmental stages. The two stages are helping me to become the young woman and adult I am supposed to. It is just taking me much more time. Currently in my life I am stuck between the two. I have had several disappointments and mistakes in both stages. I have associated myself with the wrong crowd to now working with individuals who want something in life and I feel can help me succeed. I am still a work in process.

Spiritual Development

“The inattentiveness to spiritual development in the mainstream social sciences can be graphically illustrated in the study of development psychology” (Roehlkepartain, Benson, King, & Wagener, 2005). Spiritual development takes time to understand. Therefore when it comes to the younger adults it is important for them to understand and form their own spiritual opinions. I have never been a big person on spirituality or religion. Overtime I have started to understand, believe, and accept my spiritual development. Spiritual development is a physiological and psychological movement in one’s life. For me I am growing stronger mentally. Being spiritually developed relieves a person of harmful toxins. A person is able to become healthier and stronger. Although I have begun the process of developing spiritually, I am far from there. I have a lot of hurdles to climb before I am able to say that I have developed spiritually. “But grow in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. To Him be glory both and forever” 2 Peter 3:18

Conclusion

In conclusion, developmental milestones are important for everyone. Everyone is not going to make it through all the milestones with ease. There will be bumps and bruises along the way. Even though Erik Erikson psychosocial best describes me there are other psychologist that one may feel more connected too. Erikson’s stages explain my journey and I am able to see my way through.

References
Capps, D. (2012). Erikson’s schedule of human strengths and the childhood origins of the resourceful self. Pastoral Psychology, 61(3), 269-283. Cherry, Kendra. (2014). Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development. Psychology. Dunkel , C. S. Sefcek , J. A. (2009). Eriksonian lifespan theory and life history theory: an integration using the example of identity formation. Rev Gen Psychol 2009; 13:13-23. Gerber, J., Wilks, T., & Erdie-Larena, C. (2010). Developmental Milestones: Motor Development. Pediatrics in Review, 267-277. McLeod, S. (2008). Erik Erikson. Review of Psychology.

Roehlkepartan, E. C., Benson, P., King, P., & Wagener, L. (2005). Spiritual Development in Spiritual Development in Moving to the Scientific Mainstream. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing. Schwartz, S. J., Zamboanga, B. L., Meca, A., & Ritchie, R. A. (2012). Identity around the world: An overview. New Directions For Child & Adolescent Development, 2012(138), 1-18. Torrens, J. (2009). Soul-Sharing. Human Development, 30(4), 22-24. Vogel-Scibilia, S., McNulty, K., Baxter, B., Miller, S., Dine, M., & Frese, F. (2009). The Recovery Process Utilizing Erikson’s Stages of Human Development. Community Mental Health Journal, 405-414.

Developmental psychology

Within the characteristics of effective learning there are seven areas of learning and development made up of three prime areas and four specific areas. The areas describe what children learn through play and exploration, active learning and creating and by thinking critically.

Prime areas – If a child is not secure in the prime areas between the ages of 3 and 5 years, the absence of these may make other areas of their learning more difficult to achieve. This makes the prime and specific areas so interdependent. The prime areas occur in all cultures and communities and are not dependent on the specific areas.

Personal, Social and Emotional Development
Making relationships
Self-confidence and self-awareness
Managing feelings and behaviour

Communication and Language
Listening and attention
Understanding
Speaking

Physical Development
Moving and handling
Health and self-care

Specific areas – These are less time-sensitive. The specific areas reflect what children have understood and their cultural knowledges which can develop during various stages through life. The specific areas of learning will not take place easily without the prime areas. Literacy

Reading
Writing

Mathematics
Numbers
Shape, space and measure

Understanding the World
People and communities
The world
Technology

Expressive Arts and Design
Exploring using media and materials
Being imaginative

The documented expected outcomes are the early learning goals within the EYFS. The early learning goals are the 17 learning and development requirements covered in the characteristics of effective learning – the three prime and the four specific areas. The early learning goals summarise the knowledge, skills and understanding that all young child should have gained by the end of their reception year. However, not all children will reach the early learning goals by this stage and as all children are unique, their learning will be supported by practitioners to help them progress at their pace. The ‘Development Matters in the Early Years Foundation Stage’ document provides, in detail, guidance for observing what children are learning. It also provides examples of what early years practitioners can do to enable environments and support positive relationships across all of each area.

The documented outcomes are assessed and recorded in a variety of ways and come together to help finalise the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile which is completed at the end of a childs reception year. Leading up to this point, the development of children will have been observed and their progress tracked. Some of the methods used to record progression towards the early learning goals are: Daily observations when children are in session – At nursery all staff observe all children, not just their keychildren.

The observations are linked to the EYFS and recorded in the children’s folders 2 year check – this consists of a short written summary of a child’s development when they are between 24 and 36 months Learning and Development Summary – observations are used to complete this document on a termly basis for each child. These are shared at parent consultation appointments. Contributions from parents – very useful as parents information is essential and helps support early learning in the home environment.

Developmental Stages Matrix

Due to the fact that the nervous system is not yet fully developed at this stage, a lot of the actions performed during this stage can be involuntary or just abrupt and spontaneous. Vision is undeveloped at ages 1 month to 5 months. Typically they are able to see just roughly 10 inches out. Once they reach 6 months old, their vision should be at full capacity, Initially, all actions are involuntary. Their arm may go up, but they are unsure as to how it got there, or why did it just hit them in their face. Suckling is another involuntary movement that is simply in their nature to do. Slowly they begin understanding that they control these movements. They are then able to figure out what they want and how to get what they want. Learning to trust the primary caregiver. Believing they will continue to feed them, change them, play with them, comfort them etc. Their primary form of communication is crying or cooing. When they need something they will cry to indicate a current need is not being met. Typically a coo would indicate all is well and they are content.

Early Childhood

During infancy, the body is very disproportionate. During the transition into early childhood, the body starts to transform in to what seems to appear as a mini adult form. The baby fat begins to go away, they gain a longer neck, and the round belly shrinks. During this stage they grow approx.. 2-3 inches per year. Brain development continues during early childhood. Children learn rapidly and brain changes enable more reflective coordinated thought and memory (Stassen Berger, 2010). Children learn when and how to express emotion. Emotional regulation influenced by brain maturation. Social guidance gradually increases from age 2-6. Children teach one another to be kind and loyal and how to control aggressive impulses (Stassen Berger, 2010)

Middle and Late Childhood

Growth slows down and muscle develops and health is usually good. Many children age 7 to 11 eat too much and exercise too little and become obese and overweight as a result (Stassen Berger, 2010). School age children have active minds and can learn almost anything. Reaction time increase. The brain becomes more selective in attention. Children are more efficient in memory (Stassen Berger, 2010). There are important transitions that happen during middle and late childhood that grow during adolescence. At the stage of middle and late childhood, children still relate to their families. Their parents have a strong influence regarding their decisions and actions. However, friendships are starting to grow and become more and more important. Friendships are developed based on “convenience”. However, similar interests are starting to become an important factor in making friends. Friends have not yet become an influence in behavior. The urge to be independent hasn’t taken place yet.

Adolescence

Puberty takes places during adolescence. Each step involved with puberty happens at different ages. A non-physical change associated with puberty is the release of hormones. One of the hormones is the sex hormone. This causes a heighten desire for sexual activity. Physically, females go through changes such as the growth of their breast, the beginning of their menstrual cycle, and a growth spurt. Males go through a growth spurt, enlargement of the testicles and penis, and their first ejaculation. The adolescent brain develops at different times. The portion of the brain associated with emotions develops first. This explains why teenagers show a range of emotions are easily made upset. During the later adolescent years the brain develops the prefrontal cortex, which is associated with making healthier decisions and planning ahead (Berger 2010).

Because of the delay of in brain development, teenagers do not think of the consequences of their actions. It is also during this stage that teenagers develop a sense of self, identity. During adolescence teenagers search for independence. Although they are not old enough to support themselves and make their own decisions, they try to find small ways to experience independence. Teenagers will try to make decisions on what they wear and what they do with friends. These kinds of decisions can create tension between teenagers and their parents. Parents are losing control of their teenager. They also do not share the beliefs of their teenager because they belong to a different cohort. While teenagers are trying to establish their own beliefs and morals, they can clash with their parents. During this stage in life teenagers will conflict the most with their parents. Friends become the main influence in an adolescent’s decisions. It is during this stage that a teenager cares the most about what their friends think.

Early Adulthood

In early adulthood, between adolescence and middle age, the body begins to change. This is sometimes the point where the body is at its healthiest. Changes in diet affect how weight is gained or lost. How proper health habits will change the way the body reacts and grows. Life experiences begin to lend a hand to problem solving. More experiences lead to better decision making when it comes to relationships, career choice, or what events to attend. More of a realistic look on life versus a daydream or an idea. Goals are achieved by becoming more focused on the tasks in front of them, The ability to process problems for the best solution. Desire for intimacy. Having personal relationships become more fulfilling. A sense of self-sacrifice when it comes to others. A sense of belonging when in large groups. Fears isolation, ridicule, and loneliness. Change of behavior occurs dependent on the individual’s marital status, and continues until status is changed. Establishment of career goal and status.

Middle Adulthood

Aging has become a factor. Hair begins to turn grey or become lost, skin begins to wrinkle, and the body slows when it comes to metabolism which decreases weight loss. Women may start going through menopause while testosterone levels will decrease in men. The brain in middle adulthood goes through some changes and begins to slow down. People start to become forgetful and cannot remember things, which can be very frustrating and people start going into a midlife crisis. This is all caused by the brain shrinking as we get older. A person’s personality and temperament also changes as they begin to age. Middle aged is important time to have and keep good friends who are also in their middle age. The reason is that they are also going through all the different changes and all the anxiety as you are. Having friends that are going through the same things as you is very beneficial and supporting especially when you are having a hard time dealing with the changes in life. Intimacy is also something that is always needed throughout all stages of life.

Late Adulthood

In late adulthood, it is very common to lose vision to where it is harder to see things and it is common to develop cataracts, glaucoma, or macular degeneration. More common physical changes are sensory loss and more health problems such as cardiovascular disease which is common in late adulthood. It is very important for the elderly to get some exercise just like they use to do when they were younger, whether it is just walking, climbing stairs, or something that keeps you moving and not staying still all the time are all ways to stay healthier The adult brain in late adulthood changes just like it does all throughout life. In late adulthood, the brain does not function as well as it use to during the younger days.

There is a lot more confusion and it is harder for a lot of elderly to understand things. As people get into their late adulthood they start gather some things that mean a lot to them and hoard them for safe keeping. Also people like to keep traditions going in order to stay in touch with family and friends as they age. Some people also still continue to work as long as they do not have any disabilities restricting them from doing so, while others are retired and rely on their retirement funds, AARP, disability payments or Medicaid to survive. Then as we get older, we start having to deal with the sad part of life called death that happens to everyone at some point in life.

Developmental Paper

bstract
The basis of this paper will outline the cognitive and personality development of a young adult female, identified as “Caroline.” This will be in contrast and comparison to Erikson’s Epigenetic Theory of Personality Development is Intimacy vs. Isolation and Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive development. The paper will address what outside factors influence the developing as well as nursing interventions that will help Caroline obtained optimal functioning for each appropriate developmental level according to Erikson and Piaget. Keywords: developmental, Erikson, Piaget, personality, cognitive, intimacy, isolation, formal operations

The Developmental Level:
For the purpose of this paper, I will identify the person I am outlining as “Caroline.” Caroline is a young adult. The developmental level during this stage of Erikson’s Epigenetic Theory of Personality Development is Intimacy vs. Isolation; the virtue being love. A normal adult in this stage will have a strong sense of self and be able to form intimate, close relationships with other individuals. Success in this stage will lead to strong committed relationships (Cherry). Erikson believed that a person must successfully complete one stage in order to complete the next. According to Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive development, Caroline is in the formal operations period. A normal young adult in this stage would manifest adult like thinking, is not limited by own perception or concrete references for ideas, combines various ideas into concepts, develops morality or restraint and cooperation in behavior, uses rules to structure interactions in a socially acceptable way, solves problems mentally and considers alternatives before acting, relates concepts or constructs not readily evident in external world, increases intellectual ability to include art, science, humanities, religion, and philosophy, and is increasingly less egocentric.

Caroline is in her early adult hood years. A tremendous time for self-discovery, independence, and in some cases, loneliness. Caroline’s personality and cognitive development have blossomed in ways and have been hindered in others. This is due to many factors; biological, social, genetic, situational. The list goes on. One thing is certain, there is always a good reason why individuals do the thing they do. If we as people look beyond others actions and instead look at what causes their actions to manifest, I believe we would be much more accepting and less judgmental as a whole. Throughout this paper I will be discussing ways Caroline compares and contrasts to Piaget and Erikson’s theories, how this impacts her development, and nursing interventions that could help her through these stages. Compare and contrast:

After careful observation of Caroline, it does not show evident that she has developed a true sense of self to be able to complete the stage of intimacy with another individual. Even with platonic friendships it seems that when her and an individual start to become close on more of a spiritual and emotional level, she retreats to isolation because she feels that she cannot trust herself or others. According to Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development, I see that Caroline is mastering the formal operations period to a certain degree. In many ways Caroline would be a poster child for what an example of someone in the formal operations period would think like, and in other aspects of the period, she does not show to be operating in this period what so ever. Three examples of how Caroline compares to these levels would include the following: 1. When it comes to romantic relationships, Caroline strives for a deep emotional and physical connection with another human being.

However, deep down she is unable to fully commit to another because she doesn’t have a clear understanding of who she is. Subconsciously, she gravitates towards men that are not emotionally available. This includes anyone who is in a relationship, is going to move away, or is obviously not interested in giving her a committed relationship. She wants the commitment, but she is used to men in her life not being available so she is drawn towards that because that is what she is used to. At the end of the day, this leaves Caroline frustrated and isolated. The crisis between intimacy and isolation, according to Erikson, is clear in Caroline’s life. 2. Caroline is extremely cognitively driven, artistic with her words, and philosophical and spiritual with her beliefs. She looks beyond the world that is seen and challenges her way of thinking with the unseen world. She finds happiness through her writings and connections through spiritual conversation. This side of her is a small glimpse of her essence and what her inner being craves; to be emotionally, artistically, and spiritually stimulated. This very much so aligns with Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development. 3. A contrast to the Formal operations period is that she does not seem to solve problems mentally and considering alternatives before acting. Caroline bases a lot of her talk on impulsivity and is emotionally driven when making decisions.

Caroline is a “feel good” kind of gal, and if it feels good in the moment, she will grab it. If it does not feel good, she will alter whatever her situation is to make herself feel good, no matter how bad or good the outcome will leave her. This contrasts with the norm because someone who is successfully mastering this stage would weigh the outcomes before acting, consider the outcomes, and go towards which action would better benefit their being as a whole. Even though Caroline knows something is hurting her, she will continue to repeat this action, hoping for a different outcome. This is mainly in regards to abusive relationships, but can be applied to the work place and friendships with other females. What Impacts Development

Three factors that have or are currently affecting Caroline’s stage of development: 1. As I mentioned previously, it is vital for Caroline to develop and true sense of self before she can successfully build intimacy with other individuals. Caroline feels whole with her writings, and spending time with people who truly love her, but she has not fully embraced her inner being. From observation, Caroline has a very low self-esteem. She strives to please others. When others are pleased with her, she is pleased with herself. When others are no pleased with her, she will do what she can to reverse that opinion. She seeks to please others before pleasing herself and that is a clear manifestation of not having a concrete, strong sense of self. 2. Caroline is far away from her family, which live several states away. She stayed in the state she resides because of a romantic relationship. This romantic relationship has ended. For Caroline, she does not have a firm sense of belonging at her current location.

Being away from loved ones and not having a steady partner can cause an individual to feel isolated and lonely. 3. I am not sure exactly what Caroline’s relationship with her father is or was like, but I would imagine it to be one of low emotional or spiritual connection. Her dad was most likely not a constant in her life and not available to her as a girl in was that she needed, but was not aware of. There is always a good reason why people do the things they do and I would not be taken a back if Caroline was this way with other men in her life because normal to her is not available. Her body, soul, and mind is used to inconsistency and has developed patterns within itself to be drawn to these inconsistencies and behaviors. It has also been shown that engaging in sexual activates with a partner before the proper time, especially before monogamy, can cause much inner turmoil and depression. Sexual activity must be performed in the right context in order for it to be beneficial for the human being. (Carter) Nursing interventions:

1. Before talking to Caroline, if she were my patient and I the nurse, I would first need to assess her physical and mental status. She would need to be fully alert and oriented in order to proceed with the nursing process. I would assess her level of consciousness and willingness to cooperate. I would need to assess her support system, whether it be family, friends, or coworkers. A strong support system is vital to growth and development in any stage of life. 2. In order for Caroline to be eager to listen to what have to offer and cooperate with enhancing her inner self, there would have to be established trust. I would do this by sharing intimate parts of my life and laying the foundation of a healthy, trustworthy relationship. There will be little to no willingness to exchange in such personal matters until trust between us is established. It will also make her much for comfortable to share intimate details of her life with me. 3. I would provide Caroline with therapeutic communication. This would include appropriate touch as much as she is comfortable with, paraphrasing, asking open ended questions that encourage communication, maintaining eye contact when appropriate, and not pushing situations when she does not feel at ease.

These actions will hopefully cause Caroline to feel more comfortable to share thoughts, feelings, and encouragement to implement action to better her inner self. 4. In order to master the stage of isolation, Caroline needs to be confident in herself and cater to her inner self. She needs to participate in activities that benefit her in a healthy way and bring healing to where she feels broken. I would encourage her to write in her journal for at least thirty min before she goes to bed. 5. I would encourage her to do simple things to increase healthy living. This would include waking up early, going to bed at a decent hour, getting adequate exercise, eating a diet high in whole grains, fruits, and vegetables, and drinking plenty of water. I would encourage her to avoid alcohol and any other mind altering substances that cause her behavior to be irrational. Addressing the underlying cause of irrational behavior can be much more effective then addressing the irrational behavior as itself. 6. Because Caroline reaches for wholeness in sources that leave her feeling empty, I would ask Caroline to put herself first when she is seeking attention from empty sources. I would have her sit with herself and her emotions and work through them without desperately reaching out to things that cannot fulfill her.

In order to be happy with someone else, it is vital that she become happy with herself. 7. Caroline loves to read and with this passion for books I would strongly suggest investing in self-help books that will mentally stimulate her to building a strong, happy inner self. There are so many self-help books that caters to every type of inner self difficulty and roads to self-discovery. Sometimes simply finding a book that speaks directly to your soul can bring some of the most healing and freedom. If Caroline were to follow these nursing interventions and invest whole heartedly to developing a strong inner being, I believe she would begin to see amazing results within a weeks’ time. Of course it would be a journey. Self-reflection is not always easy and can be hard, but in the end it is extremely rewarding. Coming face to face with our inner demons and conquering them is one of the best things you can do for yourself, future partner, and future children. In order to have healthy relationship you must be a healthy person and if Caroline wants to be healthy, she will be.

References:
Cherry, Kendra. “Intimacy Versus Isolation – Stage Six of Psychosocial
Development.” About.com Psychology. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 May 2014. Carter, Don. “Intimacy Skills and Human Development Stages.” Intimacy Skills and Human Development Stages. Internet of the Mind, n.d. Web. 03 June 2014.

Developmental Psych Core Questions

Core Chapter Learning Objectives for PSY 104 Developmental Psychology 1. Explain the role of theories in understanding human development, and describe three basic issues on which major theories take a stand. (pp. 5–7) 2. Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development, noting the contributions of major theorists. (pp. 21–26)

3. Identify the stand that each contemporary theory takes on the three basic issues presented earlier in this chapter. (pp. 26, 27)
4. Describe the research methods commonly used to study human development, citing the strengths and limitations of each. (pp. 26–31) 5. Describe three research designs for studying development, and cite the strengths and limitations of each. (pp. 34–38) 6. Discuss ethical issues related to lifespan research. (pp. 39–40)

Chapter 2
1. Explain the role and function of genes and how they are transmitted from one generation to the next. (p. 46) 2. Describe the genetic events that determine the sex of the new organism. (pp. 46–47) 3. Identify two types of twins, and explain how each is created. (pp. 47–48) 4. Describe various patterns of genetic inheritance. (pp. 48–52) 5. Describe major chromosomal abnormalities, and explain how they occur. (pp. 52–53) 6. Explain how reproductive procedures can assist prospective parents in having healthy children. (pp. 53–57) 7. Describe the social systems perspective on family functioning, along with aspects of the environment that support family well-being and development. (pp. 59–60) 8. Discuss the impact of socioeconomic status and poverty on family functioning. (pp. 60–63) 9. Summarize the roles of neighborhoods, towns, and cities in the lives of children and adults. (pp. 63–65) 10. Explain how cultural values and practices, public policies, and political and economic conditions affect human development. (pp. 65–70) 11. Explain the various ways heredity and environment can influence complex traits. (p. 70) 12. Describe concepts that indicate “how” heredity and environment work together to influence complex human characteristics. (pp. 72–74)

Chapter 3
1. List the three phases of prenatal development, and describe the major milestones of each. (pp. 80–85) 2. Define the term teratogen, and summarize the factors that affect the impact of teratogens on prenatal development. (pp. 85–86) 3. List agents known or suspected of being teratogens, and discuss evidence supporting the harmful impact of each.(pp. 86–93) 4. Discuss other maternal factors that can affect the developing embryo or fetus. (pp. 93–95) 5. Describe the three stages of childbirth. (pp. 96–97) 6. Discuss the baby’s adaptation to labor and delivery, and describe the appearance of the newborn baby. (pp. 97–98) 7. Describe natural childbirth and home delivery, noting the benefits and concerns associated with each. (pp. 99–100) 8. List common medical interventions during childbirth, circumstances that justify their use, and any dangers associated with each. (pp. 100–101) 9. Describe the risks associated with preterm and small-for-date births, along with factors that help infants who survive a traumatic birth recover. (pp. 101–106) 10. Describe the newborn baby’s reflexes and states of arousal, including sleep characteristics and ways to soothe a crying baby. (pp. 106–111) 11. Describe the newborn baby’s sensory capacities. (pp. 111–113) 12. Explain the usefulness of neonatal behavioral assessment. (pp. 113–114)

Chapter 4
1. Describe major changes in body growth over the first 2 years. (pp. 120–121) 2. Summarize changes in brain development during infancy and toddlerhood. (pp. 121–129) 3. Describe the development of the cerebral cortex, and explain the concepts of brain lateralization and brain plasticity (pp. 124–125, 126) 4. Describe how both heredity and early experience contribute to brain organization. (pp. 125, 127–128) 5. Discuss changes in the organization of sleep and wakefulness over the first 2 years. (pp. 128–129) 6. Discuss the nutritional needs of infants and toddlers, the advantages of breastfeeding, and the extent to which chubby babies are at risk for later overweight and obesity. (pp. 130–131) 7. Summarize the impact of severe malnutrition on the development of infants and toddlers, and cite two dietary diseases associated with this condition. (p. 132) 8. Describe the growth disorder known as nonorganic failure to thrive, noting symptoms and family circumstances associated with the
disorder. (pp. 132–133) 9. Describe four infant learning capacities, the conditions under which they occur, and the unique value of each. (pp. 133–136) 10. Describe the general course of motor development during the first 2 years, along with factors that influence it. (pp. 137–138) 11. Explain dynamic systems theory of motor development (pp. 138–140) 12. Discuss changes in hearing, depth and pattern perception, and intermodal perception that occur during infancy. (pp. 140–147) 13. Explain differentiation theory of perceptual development. (pp. 147–148)

Chapter 5
1. Describe how schemes change over the course of development. (p. 152) 2. Identify Piaget’s six sensorimotor substages, and describe the major cognitive achievements of the sensorimotor stage. (pp. 153–155) 3. Discuss recent research on sensorimotor development, noting its implications for the accuracy of Piaget’s sensorimotor stage. (pp. 155–160) 4. Describe the information-processing view of cognitive development and the general structure of the information-processing system. (pp. 160–162) 5. Cite changes in attention, memory, and categorization during the first 2 years. (pp. 162–165) 6. Describe contributions and limitations of the information-processing approach, and explain how it contributes to our understanding of early cognitive development. (p. 165) 7. Explain how Vygotsky’s concept of the zone of proximal development expands our understanding of early cognitive development. (pp. 165–166, 167) 8. Describe the mental testing approach and the extent to which infant tests predict later performance. (pp. 166, 168–169) 9. Discuss environmental influences on early mental development, including home, child care, and early intervention for at-risk infants and toddlers. (pp. 169–172) 10. Describe theories of language development, and indicate how much emphasis each places on innate abilities and environmental influences. (pp. 172–174) 11. Describe major milestones of language development in the first 2 years, noting individual differences, and discuss ways in which adults can support infants’ and toddlers’ emerging capacities. (pp. 174–179)

Chapter 6
1. Discuss personality changes in the first two stages of Erikson’s
psychosocial theory—basic trust versus mistrust and autonomy versus shame and doubt. (pp. 184–185) 2. Describe changes in the expression of happiness, anger and sadness, and fear over the first year, noting the adaptive function of each. (pp. 185–188) 3. Summarize changes during the first two years in understanding others’ emotions and expression of self-conscious emotions. (pp. 188–189) 4. Trace the development of emotional self-regulation during the first 2 years. (pp. 189–190) 5. Describe temperament, and identify the three temperamental styles elaborated by Thomas and Chess. (pp. 190–191) 6. Compare Thomas and Chess’s model of temperament with that of Rothbart. (p. 191) 7. Explain how temperament is assessed, and distinguish inhibited, or shy, children from uninhibited, or sociable, children. (pp. 191–193) 8. Discuss the stability of temperament and the role of heredity and environment in the development of temperament. (pp. 193–194) 9. Summarize the goodness-of-fit model. (pp. 194–195)

10. Describe Bowlby’s ethological theory of attachment, and trace the development of attachment during the first two years. (pp. 196–198) 11. Describe the Strange Situation and Attachment Q-Sort procedures for measuring attachment, along with the four patterns of attachment that have been identified using the Strange Situation. (pp. 198–199) 12. Discuss the factors that affect attachment security, including opportunity for attachment, quality of caregiving, infant characteristics, family circumstances, and parents’ internal working models. (pp. 200–202, 203) 13. Discuss fathers’ attachment relationships with their infants, and explain the role of early attachment quality in later development. (pp. 202, 204–205) 14. Describe and interpret the relationship between secure attachment in infancy and later development. (pp. 205–206) 15. Trace the emergence of self-awareness, and explain how it influences early emotional and social development, categorization of the self, and development of self-control. (pp. 206–209)

Chapter 7
1. Describe major trends in body growth during early childhood. (pp. 216–217) 2. Discuss brain development in early childhood, including handedness and changes in the cerebellum, reticular formation, and the
corpus callosum. (pp. 217–219) 3. Explain how heredity influences physical growth by controlling the production of hormones. (p. 219) 4. Describe the effects of emotional well-being, nutrition, and infectious disease on physical development. (pp. 219–222) 5. Summarize factors that increase the risk of unintentional injuries, and cite ways childhood injuries can be prevented. (pp. 222–223) 6. Cite major milestones of gross- and fine-motor development in early childhood, including individual and sex differences. (pp. 224–227) 7. Describe advances in mental representation during the preschool years. (pp. 227–229) 8. Describe limitations of preoperational thought, and summarize the implications of recent research for the accuracy of the preoperational stage. (pp. 229–233) 9. Describe educational principles derived from Piaget’s theory. (pp. 233–234) 10. Describe Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s views on the development and significance of children’s private speech, along with related evidence. (pp. 234–235) 11. Discuss applications of Vygotsky’s theory to education, and summarize challenges to his ideas. (pp. 235–237) 12. Describe changes in attention and memory during early childhood. (pp. 237–239) 13. Describe the young child’s theory of mind. (pp. 239–241) 14. Summarize children’s literacy and mathematical knowledge during early childhood. (pp. 241–243) 15. Describe early childhood intelligence tests and the impact of home, educational programs, child care, and media on mental development in early childhood. (pp. 243–248) 16. Trace the development of vocabulary, grammar, and conversational skills in early childhood. (pp. 248–251)

Chapter 8
1. Describe Erikson’s stage of initiative versus guilt, noting major personality changes of early childhood. (p. 256) 2. Discuss preschoolers’ self-understanding, including characteristics of self-concepts and the emergence of self-esteem. (pp. 256–258) 3. Cite changes in the understanding and expression of emotion during early childhood, along with factors that influence those changes. (pp. 258–259) 4. Explain how language and temperament contribute to the development of emotional self-regulation during the preschool years. (p. 259) 5. Discuss the development of self-conscious emotions, empathy, sympathy, and prosocial
behavior during early childhood, noting the influence of parenting. (pp. 259–261) 6. Describe advances in peer sociability and in friendship in early childhood, along with cultural and parental influences on early peer relations. (pp. 261–264) 7. Compare psychoanalytic, social learning, and cognitive-developmental approaches to moral development, and cite child-rearing practices that support or undermine moral understanding. (pp. 264–269) 8. Describe the development of aggression in early childhood, noting the influences of family and television, and cite strategies for controlling aggressive behavior. (pp. 269–272) 9. Discuss genetic and environmental influences on preschoolers’ gender-stereotyped beliefs and behavior. (pp. 273–276) 10. Describe and evaluate the accuracy of major theories of gender identity, including ways to reduce gender stereotyping in young children. (pp. 276–278) 11. Describe the impact of child-rearing styles on child development, explain why authoritative parenting is effective, and note cultural variations in child-rearing beliefs and practices. (pp. 278–281) 12. Discuss the multiple origins of child maltreatment, its consequences for development, and effective prevention. (pp. 281–283)

Chapter 9
1. Describe major trends in body growth during middle childhood. (p. 290) 2. Identify common vision and hearing problems in middle childhood. (p. 291) 3. Describe the causes and consequences of serious nutritional problems in middle childhood, giving special attention to obesity. (pp. 291–293) 4. Identify factors that contribute to illness during the school years, and describe ways to reduce these health problems. (pp. 293–294)

5. Describe changes in unintentional injuries in middle childhood. (p. 294) 6. Cite major changes in motor development and play during middle childhood, including sex differences and the importance of physical education. (pp. 294–299) 7. Describe major characteristics of concrete operational thought. (pp. 299–301) 8. Discuss follow-up research on concrete operational thought, noting the importance of culture and schooling.(pp. 301–302) 9. Cite basic changes in information processing and describe the development of attention and memory in middle childhood.
(pp. 303–305) 10. Describe the school-age child’s theory of mind, noting the importance of mental inferences and understanding of false belief and capacity to engage in self-regulation. (pp. 306–307) 11. Discuss applications of information processing to academic learning, including current controversies in teaching reading and mathematics to elementary school children. (pp. 307–309) 12. Describe major approaches to defining and measuring intelligence. (pp. 309–310) 13. Summarize Sternberg’s triarchic theory and Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, noting how these theories explain the limitations of current intelligence tests in assessing the diversity of human intelligence. (pp. 310–312) 14. Describe evidence indicating that both heredity and environment contribute to intelligence. (pp. 312–317) 15. Summarize findings on emotional intelligence, including implications for the classroom. (p. 313) 16. Describe changes in school-age children’s vocabulary, grammar, and pragmatics, and cite advantages of bilingualism. (pp. 316–319) 17. Explain the impact of class size and educational philosophies on children’s motivation and academic achievement. (pp. 319–321)

18. Discuss the role of teacher-student interaction and grouping practices in academic achievement. (pp. 321–322) 19. Explain the conditions that contribute to successful placement of children with mild mental retardation and learning disabilities in regular classrooms. (p. 322) 20. Describe the characteristics of gifted children, including creativity and talent, and current efforts to meet their educational needs. (pp. 323–324) 21. Compare the academic achievement of North American children with children in other industrialized nations. (pp. 324–325)

Chapter 10
1. Describe Erikson’s stage of industry versus inferiority, noting major personality changes in middle childhood. (p. 330) 2. Describe school-age children’s self-concept and self-esteem, and discuss factors that affect their achievement-related attributions. (pp. 330–334) 3. Cite changes in understanding and expression of emotion in middle childhood, including the importance of problem-centered coping and emotion-centered coping for managing emotion. (pp. 335–336) 4. Trace the development of perspective
taking in middle childhood, and discuss the relationship between perspective taking and social skills. (pp. 336–337) 5. Describe changes in moral understanding during middle childhood, and note the extent to which children hold racial and ethnic biases. (pp. 337–339) 6. Summarize changes in peer sociability during middle childhood, including characteristics of peer groups and friendships. (pp. 339–341) 7. Describe four categories of peer acceptance, noting how each is related to social behavior, and discuss ways to help rejected children. (pp. 341–342, 343) 8. Describe changes in gender-stereotyped beliefs and gender identity during middle childhood, including sex differences and cultural influences. (pp. 342–345) 9. Discuss changes in parent–child communication and sibling relationships in middle childhood, and describe the adjustment of only children. (pp. 345–346) 10. Discuss factors that influence children’s adjustment to divorce and blended families, highlighting the importance of parent and child characteristics, as well as social supports within the family and surrounding community. (pp. 347–350) 11. Explain how maternal employment and life in dual-earner families affect school-age children, noting the influence of social supports within the family and surrounding community, including child care for school-age children. (pp. 350–351)

12. Cite common fears and anxieties in middle childhood, with particular attention to school phobia. (pp. 352, 353) 13. Discuss factors related to child sexual abuse and its consequences for children’s development. (pp. 352–354, 355) 14. Cite factors that foster resilience in middle childhood. (p. 354)

Chapter 11
1. Discuss changing conceptions of adolescence over the past century. (pp. 362–363) 2. Describe pubertal changes in body size, proportions, sleep patterns, motor performance, and sexual maturity. (pp. 363–366) 3. Cite factors that influence the timing of puberty. (pp. 366–367) 4. Describe brain development in adolescence. (pp. 367–368) 5. Discuss adolescents’ reactions to the physical changes of puberty, including sex differences, and describe the influence of family and culture. (pp. 368–370) 6. Discuss the impact of pubertal timing on adolescent adjustment, noting sex
differences. (pp. 370–371) 7. Describe the nutritional needs of adolescents, and cite factors that contribute to serious eating disorders. (pp. 371–373) 8. Discuss social and cultural influences on adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior. (pp. 373–376) 9. Describe factors involved in the development of gay, lesbian, and bisexual orientations, and discuss the unique adjustment problems of these youths. (pp. 376, 377) 10. Discuss factors related to sexually transmitted diseases and to teenage pregnancy and parenthood, including interventions for adolescent parents. (pp. 376, 378–380) 11. Cite personal and social factors that contribute to adolescent substance use and abuse, and describe prevention and treatment programs. (pp. 380–382) 12. Describe the major characteristics of formal operational thought. (pp. 382–384) 13. Discuss recent research on formal operational thought and its implications for the accuracy of Piaget’s formal operational stage. (pp. 384–385) 14. Explain how information-processing researchers account for cognitive change in adolescence, emphasizing the development of scientific reasoning. (pp. 385–386) 15. Summarize cognitive and behavioral consequences of adolescents’ newfound capacity for advanced thinking. (pp. 386–388)

16. Note sex differences in mental abilities at adolescence, along with biological and environmental factors that influence them. (pp. 389–390, 391) 17. Discuss the impact of school transitions on adolescent adjustment, and cite ways to ease the strain of these changes. (pp. 390, 392–393) 18. Discuss family, peer, school, and employment influences on academic achievement during adolescence. (pp. 393–395) 19. Describe personal, family, and school factors related to dropping out, and cite ways to prevent early school leaving. (pp. 396–397)

Chapter 12
1. Discuss Erikson’s theory of identity development. (p. 402) 2. Describe changes in self-concept and self-esteem during adolescence. (pp. 402–403) 3. Describe the four identity statuses, the adjustment outcomes of each status, and factors that promote identity development. (pp. 403–406) 4. Discuss Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, and evaluate its accuracy. (pp. 407–409) 5. Summarize research on Gilligan’s claim that
Kohlberg’s theory underestimated the moral maturity of females. (pp. 409–410)

6. Describe influences on moral reasoning and its relationship to moral behavior. (pp. 410–414) 7. Explain why early adolescence is a period of gender intensification, and cite factors that promote the development of an androgynous gender identity. (pp. 414–415) 8. Discuss changes in parent–child and sibling relationships during adolescence. (pp. 415–417) 9. Describe adolescent friendships, peer groups, and dating relationships and their consequences for development. (pp. 417–421) 10. Discuss conformity to peer pressure in adolescence, noting the importance of authoritative child rearing. (p. 421) 11. Discuss factors related to adolescent depression and suicide, along with approaches for prevention and treatment. (pp. 421–423) 12. Summarize factors related to delinquency, and describe strategies for prevention and treatment. (pp. 423–426)

Chapter 13
1. Describe current theories of biological aging, including those at the level of DNA and body cells, and those at the level of organs and tissues. (pp. 432–434) 2. Describe the physical changes of aging, paying special attention to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, motor performance, the immune system, and reproductive capacity. (pp. 434–438) 3. Describe the impact of SES, nutrition, obesity, and exercise on health in adulthood. (pp. 438–444) 4. Describe trends in substance abuse in early adulthood, and discuss the health risks of each. (pp. 444–445) 5. Summarize sexual attitudes and behaviors in young adults, including sexual orientation, sexually transmitted diseases, sexual coercion, and premenstrual syndrome. (pp. 445–449) 6. Explain how psychological stress affects health. (pp. 449–451) 7. Summarize prominent theories on the restructuring of thought in adulthood, including those of Perry and Labouvie-Vief. (pp. 451–453) 8. Discuss the development of expertise and creativity in adulthood. (pp. 453–454) 9. Describe the impact of a college education on young people’s lives, and discuss the problem of dropping out.(pp. 454–455) 10. Trace the development of vocational choice, and note factors that influence it. (pp. 455–458) 11. Discuss vocational preparation of non-college-bound
young adults, including the challenges these individuals face.(pp. 458–459)

Chapter 14
1. Define emerging adulthood, and explain how cultural change has contributed to the emergence of this period. (pp. 464–466) 2. Describe Erikson’s stage of intimacy versus isolation, noting personality changes that take place during early adulthood. (pp. 468–469) 3. Summarize Levinson’s and Vaillant’s psychosocial theories of adult personality development, including how they apply to both men’s and women’s lives and their limitations. (pp. 469–471) 4. Describe the social clock and how it relates to adjustment in adulthood. (p. 471) 5. Discuss factors that affect mate selection, and explain the role of romantic love in young adults’ quest for intimacy. (pp. 472, 474) 6. Explain how culture influences the experience of love. (p. 475) 7. Cite characteristics of adult friendships and sibling relationships, including differences between same-sex, other-sex, and sibling friendships. (pp. 475–476) 8. Cite factors that influence loneliness, and explain the role of loneliness in adult development. (pp. 476–477) 9. Trace phases of the family life cycle that are prominent in early adulthood, noting factors that influence these phases. (pp. 478–485) 10. Discuss the diversity of adult lifestyles, focusing on singlehood, cohabitation, and childlessness. (pp. 486–488) 11. Discuss trends in divorce and remarriage, along with factors that contribute to them. (pp. 488–489) 12. Summarize challenges associated with variant styles of parenthood, including stepparents, never-married single parents, and gay and lesbian parents. (pp. 489–491) 13. Describe patterns of career development, and cite difficulties faced by women, ethnic minorities, and couples seeking to combine work and family. (pp. 491–495)

Chapter 15
1. Describe the physical changes of middle adulthood, paying special attention to vision, hearing, the skin, muscle–fat makeup, and the skeleton. (pp. 502–504, 505) 2. Summarize reproductive changes experienced by middle-aged men and women, and discuss the symptoms of menopause, the benefits and risks of hormone therapy, and women’s psychological reactions
to menopause. (pp. 504, 506–509) 3. Discuss sexuality in middle adulthood. (p. 509)

4. Discuss cancer, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis, noting sex differences, risk factors, and interventions. (pp. 509–513) 5. Explain how hostility and anger affect health. (pp. 513–514) 6. Discuss the benefits of stress management, exercise, and an optimistic outlook in adapting to the physical challenges of midlife. (pp. 514–517) 7. Explain the double standard of aging. (p. 517)

8. Describe changes in crystallized and fluid intelligence during middle adulthood, and discuss individual and group differences in intellectual development. (pp. 518–520) 9. Describe changes in information processing in midlife, paying special attention to speed of processing, attention, and memory. (pp. 520–523) 10. Discuss the development of practical problem solving, expertise, and creativity in middle adulthood. (pp. 523–525) 11. Describe the relationship between vocational life and cognitive development. (pp. 525–526) 12. Discuss the challenges of adult learners, ways to support returning students, and benefits of earning a degree in midlife. (pp. 526–527)

Chapter 16
1. Describe Erikson’s stage of generativity versus stagnation, noting major personality changes of middle adulthood and related research findings. (pp. 532–535) 2. Discuss Levinson’s and Vaillant’s views of psychosocial development in middle adulthood, noting gender similarities and differences. (pp. 535–536) 3. Summarize research examining the question of whether most middle-aged adults experience a midlife crisis.(pp. 536–537) 4. Describe stability and change in self-concept and personality in middle adulthood. (pp. 538–539) 5. Describe changes in gender identity in midlife. (pp. 540–542) 6. Discuss stability and change in the “big five” personality traits in adulthood. (pp. 542–543) 7. Describe the middle adulthood phase of the family life cycle, and discuss midlife marital relationships and relationships with adult children, grandchildren, and aging parents. (pp. 543–551) 8. Describe midlife sibling relationships
and friendships. (pp. 551–553) 9. Discuss job satisfaction and career development in middle adulthood, paying special attention to gender differences and experiences of ethnic minorities. (pp. 553–555) 10. Describe career change and unemployment in middle adulthood. (p. 556) 11. Discuss the importance of planning for retirement, noting various issues that middle-aged adults should address. (pp. 556–557)

Chapter 17
1. Distinguish between chronological age and functional age, and discuss changes in life expectancy over the past century. (pp. 564–566, 568–569) 2. Explain age-related changes in the nervous system during late adulthood. (pp. 566–567) 3. Summarize changes in sensory functioning during late adulthood, including vision, hearing, taste, smell, and touch. (pp. 567–570) 4. Describe cardiovascular, respiratory, and immune system changes in late adulthood. (pp. 570–571) 5. Discuss sleep difficulties in late adulthood. (pp. 571–572) 6. Summarize changes in physical health and mobility in late adulthood, including elders’ adaptation to the physical changes, and reactions to stereotypes of aging. (pp. 572–575, 576) 7. Discuss health and fitness in late life, paying special attention to nutrition, exercise, and sexuality. (pp. 575–579) 8. Discuss common physical disabilities in late adulthood, with special attention to arthritis, adult-onset diabetes, and unintentional injuries. (pp. 580–582) 9. Describe mental disabilities common in late adulthood, including Alzheimer’s disease, cerebrovascular dementia, and misdiagnosed and reversible dementia. (pp. 582–588) 10. Discuss health-care issues that affect senior citizens. (pp. 589–590) 11. Describe changes in crystallized and fluid abilities in late adulthood, and explain how older adults can make the most of their cognitive resources. (pp. 590–591) 12. Summarize memory changes in late life, including implicit, associative, remote, and prospective memories. (pp. 591–594) 13. Discuss changes in language processing in late adulthood. (pp. 594–595) 14. Explain how problem solving changes in late life. (p. 595) 15. Discuss the capacities that contribute to wisdom, noting how it is affected by age and life experience. (pp. 595–596) 16. Discuss factors related to cognitive change in late adulthood. (pp. 596–597)

Chapter 18
1. Describe Erikson’s stage of ego integrity versus despair. (p. 604) 2. Discuss Peck’s tasks of ego integrity, Joan Erikson’s gerotranscendence, and Labouvie-Vief’s emotional expertise.(pp. 604–605) 3. Describe the functions of reminiscence and life review in older adults’ lives. (pp. 606, 607) 4. Summarize stability and change in self-concept and personality in late adulthood. (pp. 606–608) 5. Discuss spirituality and religiosity in late adulthood. (pp. 608–609) 6. Discuss contextual influences on psychological well-being as older adults respond to increased dependency, declining health, and negative life changes. (pp. 609–611, 612) 7. Summarize the role of social support and social interaction in promoting physical health and psychological well-being in late adulthood. (p. 611) 8. Describe social theories of aging, including disengagement theory, activity theory, continuity theory, and socioemotional selectivity theory. (pp. 612–615, 616) 9. Describe changes in social relationships in late adulthood, including marriage, gay and lesbian partnerships, divorce, remarriage, cohabitation, and widowhood, and discuss never-married, childless older adults. (pp. 619–623) 10. Explain how sibling relationships and friendships change in late life. (pp. 624–625) 11. Describe older adults’ relationships with adult children, adult grandchildren, and great-grandchildren. (pp. 625–626) 12. Summarize elder maltreatment, including risk factors and strategies for prevention. (pp. 627–628) 13. Discuss the decision to retire, adjustment to retirement, and involvement in leisure and volunteer activities. (pp. 628–632)

14. Discuss the meaning of optimal aging. (pp. 632–633)

Chapter 19
1. Describe the physical changes of dying, along with their implications for defining death and the meaning of death with dignity. (pp. 640–642) 2. Discuss age-related changes in conception of and attitudes toward death, including ways to enhance child and adolescent understanding. (pp. 642–644) 3. Cite factors that influence death anxiety, including personal and cultural variables that contribute to the fear of death. (p. 643) 4.
Describe and evaluate Kübler-Ross’s theory of typical responses to dying, citing factors that influence dying patients’ responses. (pp. 647–648) 5. Evaluate the extent to which homes, hospitals, and the hospice approach meet the needs of dying people and their families. (pp. 650–653) 6. Discuss controversies surrounding euthanasia and assisted suicide. (pp. 654–659) 7. Describe bereavement and the phases of grieving, indicating factors that underlie individual variations in grief responses. (pp. 659–660) 8. Explain the concept of bereavement overload, and describe bereavement interventions. (pp. 663, 665) 9. Explain how death education can help people cope with death more effectively. (p. 665)

Developmental Delays

1 in every 6 U.S. children are diagnosed with a developmental disability, according to a new Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention study published online in the journal Pediatrics Monday. The represents an increase of 17% between 1997 and 2008 alone. Child development refers to the process in which children go through changes in skill development during predictable time periods, called developmental milestones. Developmental delay occurs when children have no reached these milestones by the expected time period. For example, if the normal range for learning to walk is between 9 and 15 months, and a 20-month-old child has still not begun walking, this would be considered a developmental delay. Developmental delays can occur in all five areas of development or may just happen in one or more of those areas. Also the growth in each area of development is related to growth I the other areas. So if there is a difficulty in one area, such as speech and language, it is likely to influence development in other areas like social and emotional. Children are placed at genetic risk by being born with a genetic or chromosomal abnormality. A good example of genetic risk is Down syndrome, a disorder that causes developmental delay because of an abnormal chromosome. Environmental risk results from exposure to harmful agents either before or after birth, and can include things like poor maternal nutrition or exposure to toxins like lead or drugs or infections that are passed form a mother to her baby during pregnancy. Environmental risk also includes a child’s life experiences. For example, children who are born prematurely face severe poverty, mother’s depression, poor nutrition, or lack of care and are at increased risk for developmental delays. Risk factors have a cumulative impact upon development. As the number of risk factors increases, a child is put at greater risk for developmental delay. There are several general “warning signs” of possible delay. These include:

* Behavioral
* Does not pay attention or stay focused on an activity for as long a time as other children of the same age * Focuses on unusual objects for long periods of time; enjoys this more than interacting with others * Avoids or rarely makes eye contact with others

* Gets unusually frustrated when trying to do simple tasks that most children of the same age can do * Shows aggressive behaviors and acting out and appears to be very stubborn compared with other children * Displays violent behaviors on a daily basis

* Stares into space, rocks body, or talks to self more often than other children of the same age * Does not seek love and approval from caregiver or parent * Gross motor
* Has stiff arms and/or legs
* Has a floppy or limp body posture compared to other children of the same age * Uses on side of body more than the other
* Has a very clumsy manner compared with other children of the same age In addition, because children usually acquire developmental milestones or skills during a specific time frame or “window”, we can predict when most children will learn different skills. In the world today there are many programs for children who are experiencing developmental delays.

These programs help the children catch up if it is possible and improve the skills they have. Examples of such programs include: * IEP (individualized education plan)
* Early intervention services
* IFSP (individualized family service plan

According to the CDC the percentages of U.S. children in the age group of 3-17 years of age, 1997-2008 are as follows: * Any developmental disability
* 13.87%
* Learning disability
* 7.66%
* ADHD
* 6.69%
In conclusion I would say there are a lot more options today for children with developmental delays then there were years ago. We are making progress in helping our special needs children and this will continue to help them improve the quality of life that these children have in their future. I
also believe that all children develop at a slightly different pace and some of the more recent diagnosis might be to quick to hand out. I am a parent of 2 special needs children one mild and one more severe so I can relate to this subject more and have a bias opinion on both sides of the discussion.

1 in every 6 U.S. children are diagnosed with a developmental disability, according to a new Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention study published online in the journal Pediatrics Monday. The represents an increase of 17% between 1997 and 2008 alone. Child development refers to the process in which children go through changes in skill development during predictable time periods, called developmental milestones. Developmental delay occurs when children have no reached these milestones by the expected time period. For example, if the normal range for learning to walk is between 9 and 15 months, and a 20-month-old child has still not begun walking, this would be considered a developmental delay. Developmental delays can occur in all five areas of development or may just happen in one or more of those areas. Also the growth in each area of development is related to growth I the other areas. So if there is a difficulty in one area, such as speech and language, it is likely to influence development in other areas like social and emotional. Children are placed at genetic risk by being born with a genetic or chromosomal abnormality. A good example of genetic risk is Down syndrome, a disorder that causes developmental delay because of an abnormal chromosome. Environmental risk results from exposure to harmful agents either before or after birth, and can include things like poor maternal nutrition or exposure to toxins like lead or drugs or infections that are passed form a mother to her baby during pregnancy. Environmental risk also includes a child’s life experiences. For example, children who are born prematurely face severe poverty, mother’s depression, poor nutrition, or lack of care and are at increased risk for developmental delays. Risk factors have a cumulative impact upon development. As the number of risk factors increases, a child is put at greater risk for developmental delay. There are several general “warning signs” of possible delay. These include:

* Behavioral
* Does not pay attention or stay focused on an activity for as long a time as other children of the same age * Focuses on unusual objects for long periods of time; enjoys this more than interacting with others * Avoids or rarely makes eye contact with others

* Gets unusually frustrated when trying to do simple tasks that most children of the same age can do * Shows aggressive behaviors and acting out and appears to be very stubborn compared with other children * Displays violent behaviors on a daily basis

* Stares into space, rocks body, or talks to self more often than other children of the same age * Does not seek love and approval from caregiver or parent * Gross motor
* Has stiff arms and/or legs
* Has a floppy or limp body posture compared to other children of the same age * Uses on side of body more than the other
* Has a very clumsy manner compared with other children of the same age In addition, because children usually acquire developmental milestones or skills during a specific time frame or “window”, we can predict when most children will learn different skills. In the world today there are many programs for children who are experiencing developmental delays.

These programs help the children catch up if it is possible and improve the skills they have. Examples of such programs include: * IEP (individualized education plan)
* Early intervention services
* IFSP (individualized family service plan

According to the CDC the percentages of U.S. children in the age group of 3-17 years of age, 1997-2008 are as follows: * Any developmental disability
* 13.87%
* Learning disability
* 7.66%
* ADHD
* 6.69%
In conclusion I would say there are a lot more options today for children with developmental delays then there were years ago. We are making progress in helping our special needs children and this will continue to help them improve the quality of life that these children have in their future. I
also believe that all children develop at a slightly different pace and some of the more recent diagnosis might be to quick to hand out. I am a parent of 2 special needs children one mild and one more severe so I can relate to this subject more and have a bias opinion on both sides of the discussion.

Developmental Psychology

There are many different family structures in today’s society. The differing types of family structures can be beneficial for children as it is important for children to have families who they can depend on. Here is an image mentioning a few of these:

Within these family structures, there are different types of parenting; authoritarian, permissive, authoritative and uninvolved parenting (neglectful parenting).

The authoritarian parenting style would consist of strict rules with harsh punishments for breaking these rules. Children may not be given a choice or an explanation for the strict rules and if asked to explain, the parent may simply say “because I said so”. Parents have very high demands and expectations so children would associate obedience and success with love. In this type, the child is getting cared for but the parents are not lenient with the child, this could cause the child to become aggressive outside of the home.

Another type of parenting is permissive parenting. This involves the adult giving the child anything they want, when they want. This would not be very good for the child as it will have no sense of disobedience and the parent will not discipline their child. There would be no rules or boundaries set for the child meaning there would be very low expectations, this would not encourage the child to work hard. Permissive parents would be very loving and nurturing towards their children but may often take on the role of a friend rather than a parent. Children need discipline as much as they need nurturing so the child would have no consistency in their life.

The authoritative parent would reason with the child, they would have high expectations of the child but they would discipline in a fair and consistent manner. Children then know their boundaries and know what to expect from the rules that they have been given. Children who have an authoritative parent would be more independent and self assured than any other type of parenting. Children in this type of family would have good emotional control, social skills and will often be very confident in all aspects of life.

Another style of parenting is uninvolved/neglected parenting. The parents would make no demands towards their children which could probably result in children having to learn to provide for themselves at a very young age. Children may become emotionally withdrawn from the parents meaning that they will not be cared for in a way that will fulfil all their emotional, social, or physical needs.

There are many different organisations that can provide care for children. These can be in statutory, voluntary, private or independent setting. Statutory services are free of charge and the government is legally obliged to provide these services, for example, schools and the NHS. The school will help children by giving children the education that they need to grow and develop and be the best possible person that they can be. All children have the right to an education according to article 28 of the UNCRC.

Teeth cleaning:
When a child brushes their teeth it helps them practice their hand-eye co-ordination by putting their brush onto their teeth and helps to improve their fine motor skills. Talking about the importance of brushing your teeth needs to be backed up by regular visits to the dentist, having a professionals opinion will make the child more eager to keep their teeth in good condition. When a child brushes their teeth themselves, it will promote independence and make the child feel proud that they are doing something for themselves. In my setting, the children would brush their teeth at break time together, this encourages them to take turns and share the toothpaste. Before the children brush their teeth they sing a song. The lyrics of the song are “Brush, brush, brush your teeth. Brush them every day. The front, the sides, the back, the top, to keep decay germs away!”

Cutting up food:
Encouraging children to cut their own food would develop their fine manipulative skills by handling the knife and fork. Talking to the child about the importance of cutting their food into Bitesize pieces could be useful to them as they may choke on the food if it is not cut into an appropriate size for their age. Also encourage children to wash and dry their own cutlery and dishes as this promotes independence.

References

http://www.sccyp.org.uk/rights/uncrcarticles (accessed 14/1/14)

http://labspace.open.ac.uk/mod/resource/view.php?id=369940 (accessed 14/1/14)

http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/parenting-style.htm (accessed 14/1/14)

http://www.sch.edu.au/health/factsheets/joint/?safchokj.htm (access 27/1/14)

Developmental Delays and Trauma

Developmental delays is when your child does not reach their developmental milestones at the projected times. It is an ongoing major or minor delay in the course of development. Developmental delays can have many different causes. There are many types of Developmental delays in children; they include problems with language or speech, vision, movement (motor skills), social, emotional and cognitive skills (van der Kolk, 1995). Developmental delays are easily distinguished if you pay close attention to the development and milestone periods contained by children; for example if you notice a child having a low attention span, they can’t stay still, they’re highly active and energetic all the time, that’s perhaps due to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, known as ADHD. There are so many different things that can cause developmental delays and children aren’t always born with developmental delays. Although, developmental delays can be genetic or born with, there are times when trauma at different ages can cause developmental delays such as a child being abused and suffering brain trauma, concussion, which could cause memory lost. Or there could be an accident and a child or adult undergo serious injuries to the spine, eyes, etc.

Spinal injuries can be of damage to you motor skills. Spinal injuries or brain injuries if serious can lead to you basically having to start over as if you were a baby learning to walk, read, jump, or talk. The Shaken baby syndrome also can be a trauma that can cause brain injuries. There are numerous of things that have major components to play in developmental delays. Trauma definitely plays a one of those major parts in developmental delays. There are a number of Trauma’s that can cause development delays. It doesn’t always have to be abuse or accidents. Trauma can be caused by divorce, neglect, bullying, sports injuries, or even bad relationship breaks up. These types of trauma are called psychological trauma. Psychological traumas effects are mostly emotional and it isn’t always permanent. Psychological trauma causes anger, irritability; mood swings, guilt, hopeless, anxiety, withdrawing, and disconnected to name a few. For divorce, Feldman says (2011) children and adults may experience depression, and disturbances and phobias and these things last from 6 months up until 2 years. Feldman states children whose parents are divorcing blames themselves for the breakup.

He also states, evidence shows that twice as many children of divorced parents enter psychological counseling (Feldman, 2011). Children under the age 18 suffer 40% more anxiety as a result of divorce (van der Kolk, 1995). About 10-15 percent of students are bullied one time or the other (Feldman, 2011) and almost 85% of girls and 80% of boys are being bullied (Feldman, 2011). Those who are bullied lack social skills, cry easy (Feldman, 2011), and they experience depression, stress, anger, etc. Prayer and meditation help brain activity. Mediation to the mind is like an aerobic exercise to the body. Studies have also shown that meditation promotes mindfulness, decreased stress, insomnia, illnesses, depression, anxiety and panic. Spiritual connection brings comfort and healing to trauma. Researchers are learning the parts of the brain that are responsible for the spiritual thoughts, prayer and meditation. In one of our presentations his week, Dr. Jeanne Brooks stated that we have a spiritual part in our brain (2014). There are good and bad parts to everyone, I believe the good part is the spiritual part in everyone. For example, we’ve all seen cartoons in which there was a devil on one shoulder and an angel on the other. The shoulder with the angel is the part of us, the part of our brain or conscious that’s spiritual.

References
Brooks, Jeanne Dr. “Divorce and Stress” video presentation. LUO (2014) Feldman, R.S. (2014). Development across the Life Span (7th edition) Namka,, L. (2001). Children who are traumatized by bullying. alk, Trust and Feel Therapeutics., p. 18. Van Der Kolk, an der Kolk, B. (1995). developmental trauma disorder : Towards a rational diagnosis for children with complex trauma histories.