Authenticity and Integrity in a Digital World

In the era of “fake news” and knowledge overload by social media, it is troublesome to type out and distinguish integrity. It is difficult to sift out if the information comes from a reliable supply, or in other words, comes from a source primarily based on integrity. “You don’t lose your integrity, you give it away.” This statement appears to be very true in modern-day policing. Integrity does appear to be missing among many leaders today, yet, ironically, integrity and different ethical standards are core themes among the various leadership styles.

In the midst of today’s culture, having integrity is key to well-being. According to Merriam Webster’s Dictionary, the definition of integrity is a firm “firm adherence to a code of particularly moral or inventive values: incorruptibility.” In the following paragraphs, I will detail a few of the key parts of integrity and its significance to turning into a police officer.

Firstly, one of the essential characteristics is honesty or truthfulness.

A person who offers with situations with integrity is somebody who is coping with them actually. However, they not solely convey honesty but use fact as an ethical compass to information them. If honesty is compromised this opens the door for the opportunity to be swayed by many influences. Whether these influences are positive or negative, the person turns into corruptible. As a regulation enforcement officer, honesty or truthfulness is crucial to one’s character. Police officers are given authority and if they do not carry it out with honesty, they are prone to corruption leading to using that authority for damaging purposes.

They not turn out to be an excellent example for the community and consequently, the group now not sees integrity in policing as a complete.

Another important attribute of integrity is accountability. Guided by honesty and reality as mentioned above, a person who has integrity will maintain him or herself accountable for their actions. This doesn’t only imply that they may hold themselves accountable when they are doing good issues, however in addition they maintain themselves responsible once they make mistakes. Having integrity does not mean that an individual won’t ever make a mistake, but it implies that they’ll instantly own up to the mistake and instantly try to restore it. For instance, if an officer made a mistake while writing a report, it is important that the officer attempt to amend that report back to accurately mirror what happened.

Thirdly, humility should also be thought-about a vital attribute of integrity. As talked about earlier than, people with integrity aren’t expected to be perfect folks that by no means make a mistake. Therefore, they recognize that they might not know every thing, they usually even have an understanding that they will always be studying. They are keen to learn new values and information that may hold them trustworthy and accountable. A person with integrity won’t know they’ve integrity unless put via conditions and encounters with adverse influences. Therefore, an integral individual will remain humble recognizing that they will continually study classes of honesty and accountability. A police officer who has integrity might be keen to learn from neighborhood members and not distance themselves from these she or he serves.

The final subject to be mentioned is having good moral values. When talking about having good ethics you have to be able to recognize that you’re held to a better normal as a legislation enforcement officer. Ethics is a word that can be outlined as proper behavior, however the word has so many other words that fit, corresponding to honor, selfless sacrifice, and private braveness. Socrates stated, “To know the nice is to do the nice.” The law enforcement code of ethics states “As a law enforcement officer, my fundamental duty is to serve the group; to safeguard lives and property; to guard the innocent in opposition to deception, the weak against oppression or intimidation and the peaceful in opposition to violence or disorder; and to respect the constitutional rights of all to liberty, equality, and justice. I will hold my non-public life unsullied for instance to all and will behave in a manner that doesn’t bring discredit to me or to my company. I will maintain brave calm within the face of danger, scorn or ridicule; develop self-restraint, and be continually aware of the welfare of others. Honest in thought and deed both in my private and official life, I will be exemplary in obeying the law and the regulations of my division. Whatever I see or hear of a confidential nature or that’s confided to me in my official capability might be stored ever secret until revelation is necessary for the performance of my responsibility. I won’t ever act officiously or permit personal feelings, prejudices, political beliefs, aspirations, animosities, or friendships to affect my decisions. With no compromise for crime and with relentless prosecution of criminals, I will implement the regulation courteously and appropriately without concern or favor, malice or ill will, by no means using unnecessary force or violence and by no means accepting gratuities. I acknowledge the badge of my office as an emblem of public religion, and I settle for it as a public trust to be held so long as I am true to the ethics of police service. I will never have interaction in acts of corruption or bribery, nor will I condone such acts by different law enforcement officials. I will cooperate with all legally authorized agencies and their representatives in the pursuit of justice.I know that I alone am answerable for my own commonplace of skilled efficiency and can take every affordable opportunity to boost and improve my stage of information and competence.”

We should maintain ourselves to that larger standard of conduct each in our professional as well as private lives, as anticipated by the common public. Law enforcement officers should commit to the best ethical and moral standards, which means they can’t be prejudice or favor somebody with out knowing each element and must present good personal conduct, have high integrity on and off responsibility. Ethics are important for legislation enforcement as a outcome of it retains particular person personnel from stepping outside the boundaries and helps in achieving as much equity as possible. There will at all times be individual law enforcement officers that drift outdoors their boundaries, however the hope is that in the future those unhealthy apples that do exist in each department finally find yourself being held answerable for their actions as a result of in the lengthy term the actions of the bad apples outweigh the actions of the law enforcement officers who really want to make a distinction of their respective communities. Being aware that others are looking as much as you and having the flexibility to present initiative in getting the job done properly and with empathy goes a good distance for the neighborhood as a whole. As a legislation enforcement officer being able to give the community the relatability and belief that must be earned for them to trust you is a sacrifice. Developing management skills is at the foundation of being a excessive quality law enforcement officer and thereby having a excessive quality agency. There are two neglected areas in policing today that must be addressed in order for the group to feel as if we are doing our jobs morally and ethically correct. Those two documents are the oath of workplace that is taken by every police officer on this nation and the code of ethics. These two paperwork serve as the physique for legislation enforcement officers and their respective departments to construct trust and honesty among the many community. As legislation enforcement officers we now have to remind ourselves every day that the neighborhood we serve is the neighborhood that we stay in, we are nothing without the group if they turn their backs on us as a end result of we now have not accomplished the right issues of their eyes.

Ethical decisions are a crucial part of a law enforcement officer’s job. The legislation enforcement officer will likely be faced with making a decision of this nature time and again throughout their profession. In most cases a call that the regulation enforcement officer makes will either make or break them as a police officer and the decision they make will either strengthen or weaken their ethical values.

Personally, integrity has made a robust impact on me via the totally different leaders and people who I even have encountered. One individual that I look as a lot as is my mom. She has been capable of provide me with a fantastic instance of integrity. My mom has all the time been trustworthy in all aspects- financially when interacting together with her household, and her employment. Similarly, she has at all times been accountable for her actions. She is prepared to admit her mistakes and learn from them thus also exhibiting humility from this. She lives up to the definition of integrity, never allowing anybody or anything to deprave her.

In summary, honesty, accountability, humility, and moral values are simply a variety of the characteristics of integrity. There are many others. However, all go hand in hand and are like pieces fitting into a puzzle. Integrity is one’s private life is important as a outcome of it varieties your identification. If one has integral folks round them, they have a larger chance of additionally having integrity. Even if an individual does not have these optimistic influences, they are to be the ones who exemplify integrity for others. Essentially that is what we’re being taught within the academy. The instructors are continuously attempting to instill integrity in us. They acknowledge that whether or not we’ve had examples of integrity or not, they may step in and be these examples. It is important that we worth this as police recruits as a end result of they truly understand what it means to have integrity as a law enforcement officer. It can be silly for us to imagine that we’ll have integrity as legislation enforcement officers if we’re not even capable of exemplify that is the Essex county police academy. They try to ascertain a culture of integrity even before we become law enforcement officers in our communities.

With today’s challenges in policing, it is important that integrity is displayed when out in the field as a regulation enforcement officer. Because of national media protection, neighborhood members already view legislation enforcement officers as lacking in integrity even before they meet the officers due to what’s proven on tv. Law enforcement officers are seen as corrupt and as exerting their authority for selfish ways. Many neighborhood members imagine that a regulation enforcement officer’s sworn oath is now not to “protect and serve,” but to “protect the self.”

Integrity in policing is about guaranteeing that the people who work for the police uphold the values of the service, strive to do the best thing in all conditions and have the boldness of the public. Any compromise of the trust established by regulation enforcement can result in disorder in the community. It is not merely about whether or not the basic public thinks the police are involved in corruption and misconduct, though clearly, this is important. It is also about how nicely the law enforcement officers make decisions, cope with situations, and deal with people day in, time out.

If the basic public does not trust the police to be fair and act ethically and in their finest interests, the proof suggests they will be more likely to break the regulation and be much less inclined to help the police. As regulation enforcement officers, in modern-day policing we’re referred to as on to be extra than just somebody who upholds the legislation and put people in jail, we are called on to wear many alternative hats and have many different roles to maintain the common public secure and give the peace of mind to have the flexibility to go away their houses and are available again safely with out the specter of hurt to themselves or other relations. As a law enforcement officer, I hope to vary this view all through the communities of the City of Newark. Through my experience thus far within the Essex county police academy, in addition to the examples of integrity in my personal life, I hope that my efforts will be ready to start a ripple effect towards the improvement of police-community relations. As I continue to reveal honesty, accountability, and humility, I hope to make a long-lasting impression in my career as a Newark police officer.

Analysis of Dan Brown”s Novel Digital Fortress


The story transports the reader deep inside probably the most highly effective clever group on the earth. The National Security Agency is in command of breaking complexly encrypted worldwide paperwork. They steal other people’s secrets and techniques while defending their very own. The company works effectively as a end result of not many Americans knew their existence. It brings up the problems of privacy that computer users are used to within the digital age. It is in this sort of surroundings where the intriguer could be engaged in espionage through computer crime.


Susan Fletcher is the top cryptographer of the NSA. Through gender readings, she is the one feminine, the youngest employee, with an IQ of 170 and a really enticing woman. She is unstereotypical to the encompassing of middle aged males that work beneath stress. Susan is characterized terribly to attract the reader’s attention into her dilemma. She enhances the plot along with her protecting feelings for her fianc�e, Professor David Becker. It entertains the reader with a romantic relationship in addition to thrilling actions in the story.

Trevor Strathmore, the NSA’s Deputy Director had the American want for consumeristic. He had the notion that the NSA may wag other’s info with out warning the general public. Opposing to his values is the pc programming genius Ensei Tankado. He died within the fight for everyone’s privateness rights. Their totally different perspectives caused the battle of the story.

Plot Orientation

When the NSA’s invincible code-breaking machine, TRANSLTR, encounters a mysterious code it cannot break, the agency calls in Susan.

What she uncovers is that the NSA is being held hostage. Tankado had threatened to make the code available for public use if the NSA didn’t make TRANSLTR’s existence recognized to most of the people. A deadly treat that may cripple the nation’s security, this code has to be damaged. Ensei has a secret a companion and Susan is entrusted with the job of finding him/her. Adding to her frustration is that her boss has despatched David on a dangerous mission to Spain to retrieve this unbreakable code’s key.

Plot Development

Behind the scenes is murder and forgery taking place. Hale, a technician “exited the Sys-Sec with a dreadful face and wounded palms.” In the scene that followed, “a dead worker was discovered shoved into the facility provide.” Readers interpret that Hale was the antagonist. He spoke in a really defensive tone, attempting to persuade Susan to go in opposition to Strathmore. The cloak and dagger plotlets fitted his function to intrigue the NSA. The incident additionally proved a wrestle with obstacles within the culprit’s plan. There is this continuos pattern of exhibiting the context from a perspective. This confusion of who’s the wrongdoer is to maintain the readers engaged. Read why schooling is probably the most highly effective weapon

Although launched with sturdy constructive motives, Strathmore had some comparable traits with Hale. They are both drawn to Susan and suspiciously had background information about Ensei’s plans for the unbreakable code.

Rising Tension

Susan discovered that there is not a unbreakable code. She was caught within the accelerating tempest of secrecy and lies. She was betrayed as she battles to help the company she believes in. She was susceptible to sexual assault and suffocation of toxic gas. Finally, she caught Strathmore red-handed. In Spain, David was violently chased by a killer.


The alarming pc screens accentuated the strain at hand. The division of clever minds gathered helplessly to figure out the kill-code. With the seconds counting down, Susan strained her calculative thoughts on Tankado’s chunk of random letters. She thought of the kill-code and hit the key on the nick of time. The password entered, and the US intelligence was saved. The story is matriarchal. It energy positions Susan to realize energy via intelligence and status. She is the heroin as a outcome of she shares our society’s widespread values.


Tankado had tricked the NSA to insert computer worms into TRANSLTR to destroy the machine. Strathmore had faked his identification to promote the important thing to the code for a nice deal of money. He then put David within the hazard of being killed. He thought Susan would turn to him once she received over her lost. In the end, he died of melancholy of failure.

No matter how properly prepared or cautious, the wrongdoer is all the time positioned to be defeated. This is in order that readers perceive their values are to not be followed. The need for material accumulation is an identical comment on human nature from varied crime tales. It is immoral that the antagonist locations materials values on the next degree than religious values. They had physically harm or discriminate others for his or her advantages.


The novel explores the difficulty of civilian privateness and nationwide security. As expertise changed, there aren’t any limitations round data. Global firms used to gather for conferences, now they teleconference. It is inconceivable to keep the vast network of cables and satellites safe.

Privacy won’t survive the digital revolution. “Society is experiencing exponential technology progress.” This means that most of our day by day activities such as paying taxes and buying are conducted via residence computer systems. The obvious moral concern is whether or not we need to live in an exposed society. An NSA safety staff watched the monetary supervisor having a sexual affair from a hidden digicam. She warned him, “Big Brother is peering in from all sides.” From the conclusion of comparable eventualities, exposure could make us a extra moral society. If we’re more visible to our peers, our behaviour as a society will undoubtedly enhance. The financial supervisor would possibly just go back to work.

Tankado had requested, “Who will guard the guards?” Despite essentially the most secure amenities to operate, the director is able to detecting unlawful dealings in addition to intriguing others. It is the question of whether or not or not we trust the individuals we have elected to observe over us.

The quick concerns of interference are those of abuse and misinterpretations. Susan by chance saw Strathmore’s message: “I sent David to Spain.” She questioned if her boss trusted him on the safety matter or was planning to kill him. The results can be disastrous.

The author had advised how to put together ourselves for the tip of privateness. It is to ensure that it is bilateral. If the NSA plans to snoop details about us, we must be warned before our documents enter their machines. Overall, the author is saying “We are watching you.”

Target Reader

The cinematic type of writing uses filmic methods to engage readers in a Blockbuster. From the underground hallways of power, to the skyscrapers of Tokyo, to the towering cathedrals of Spain, the story unfolds in a determined race. The tone of the story was suspenseful and had subtle fear. The composition of the story targets young grownup readers.


  • David’s encounter of many stereotypical characters shaped the way readers take into consideration the Spanish society. The overweight German and his purple haired escort represented that vacationers came to Seville for their prostitutes. There was a Canadian tourist who criticized the police and hospital companies. The stereotype of a punk lady represented the poorly behaved young individuals.
  • Although Seville is a vacationer attraction, most residents are working class people. The Spanish authorities have spent most of their cash in the tourism trade. Their lack of funds for public services and facilities had resulted in a gang warfare area.
  • The writer is showing a distinction of how society works between the NSA and Seville.
  • The NSA incident was a battle for survival. It is a crucial bid to destroy a creation of inconceivable genius. Digital Fortress threatens to obliterate the balance of power.
  • The individuals are aggressive to realize energy. This is why the NSA is extremely managed with security restrictions.

However, a society can be completely totally different if there is not a power for domination. Young individuals wouldn’t have schooling, and most of the people do not have social safety or well being providers. The nation’s poor dwelling normal influences individuals to work together freely. The society is weak to violence, abuses and murders. David had to survive the street chase and the use of weapons by the killer.

The distinction between the courses, nevertheless, comes down to the same morals within the centre of battle. The central character needed to co-operate with the best way society is to realize his aim. David needed to tolerate with the conceited punk as a end result of it’s by doing so that his involvement is more secure. People can’t interact by displaying prejudice towards members of the decrease class. What degrades us is intolerance and prejudice.

Ammeter and a digital Voltmeter

Current – since it’s the potential difference across the wire that’s being measured, we’ve to make sure the present is kept the identical for every reading. Again it is because if the current just isn’t controlled, an increase would trigger the wire to warmth up and this would have an have an result on on the resistance. So I even have chosen zero. 2 Amps as the standard current studying across the circuit. Accuracy All round accuracy is very important when carrying out an experiment, in order that the outcomes obtained are dependable after which in truth display the pattern that must be seen.

Firstly, to precisely measure the wire, it goes to be firmly positioned onto a metre stick so there are no coils in the wire and it can be measured along the metre persist with considerable precision. Since the crocodile clip heads are 3mm thick, 2cm of additional wire shall be measured so that 0. 5 cm can be folded over at every end and the clip can get a firm grasp of the wire.

Amongst the apparatus, a few of the objects have been included to reinforce the accuracy and supply exact readings. We used a digital Ammeter and a digital Voltmeter. Both these devices measured to the closest hundredth.

I intend to carry out the experiment twice, in order that I have two sets of results. If I then notice an anomaly between any two findings I will repeat that one a third time. All that is essential so as to attain reliability with the results as a outcome of firstly, any anomaly can be instantly recognised and stamped out.

Then a mean is taken to calculate the ultimate resistance, which maximises accuracy and diminishes any discrepancy with the findings. Apparatus When establishing the equipment for this experiment we require:  1 Power Pack.

The above desk of outcomes shows the various lengths of wire used, and the two units of readings for potential distinction at those lengths.

The table reveals that we carried out repeated readings, as this is applicable when contemplating a specific issue, where accuracy is important. The common has been taken of those readings, and finally the resistance was calculated. Firstly, the current was recorded as zero. 20A and not zero. 2A as a outcome of then the reading might solely be out by 0. 01 of an Amp. This meant that that there was a decrease share error, if the calculation had been made wrong, which enhanced accuracy. The lengths were measured to zero. 5cm and nothing more outlined as a outcome of the crocodile clip heads that decided the length being employed, had 3mm ends.

So it might have been difficult to work out where that specific size ends, beneath the grasp of the clip. However, though they were calculated to zero. 5cm, because the lengths obtained shorter the precision increased when taking the measurements. This turned important as a outcome of as the lengths obtained smaller, creating an error with the measurements created a larger percentage error, as the overall length that was being measured inaccurately was small. For example, there’s a 2. 5% error chance when measuring to 20cm in comparability with a 1% error when making an attempt to use 50cm.

This exhibits that because the length decreases, the measurements ought to be taken with extra accuracy and precision, to minimise the results of having a large percentage error and creating an anomaly with the ultimate end result. The potential distinction was measured to 2 decimal locations, as this is a simple but outlined method of recording such figures. By solely having numbers as much as 2 decimal locations the quantity stays significant and doesn’t look unprofessional, as it’s to a hundredth of the value. However, once we took the average between the two sets of reading for potential distinction, we recorded these to three decimal places.

Since numerous the 2 readings at a specific length had a distinction of only zero. 01V between them, if the resulting common was rounded off to make it to 2 decimal locations, this worth can be the same as one of many two readings. So we needed to keep it to 3 decimal places so the average learn precisely half way between the two readings. Finally, the resistance was stored to 2 decimal places, as it is a brief but accurate method of communicating information. Also, this is the most exact value that can be plotted appropriately on a graph.

So to ensure the graph point have been simple to plot, it’s advisable to have these outcomes processed to 2 decimal places. Although roughly ten was an optimum variety of readings to be taken, I took the lengths of wire at every 5cm. This was so that the graph would instantly spotlight an anomaly or some extent that appeared distant from the bulk of the factors, and subsequently the road of finest fit. However, from the outcomes we are in a position to see that the 2 units of readings for every size agreed with each other and didn’t exhibit any battle between the readings.

So we did not have to repeat any of the findings a third time, which would have been carried out if a further studying was required to settle a dispute between any of the initial two readings. Overall, we can see that the experiment was comparatively profitable as we used precision and maximised the accuracy throughout the experiment, so as to get hold of dependable and true outcomes. Analysis From the outcomes it can be evidently seen that the resistance will increase as the length of the wire will increase. This supports my preliminary prediction that a rise in the length of the wire would subsequently trigger an increase in the resistance.

This was true because when there could be extra wire there are subsequently more atoms. So when electrons are flowing as present, they should pass extra atoms when the size of wire is bigger. So as the present is travelling there are extra collisions between the flowing electrons and atoms in the wire. This means the resistance against the current is higher. However, when the length is shorter there are fewer atoms to obstruct the current, so clearly there are less collisions. This means the resistance is lower.

This trend remained correct throughout the experiment as the resistance continued to increase alongside the length of wire. By taking a glance at a number of the readings that have been obtained we can affirm that the prediction turned out to be accurate and the results did in fact help the prediction. When the size of the wire was 90cm the resistance was 8. 35 and 30cm shorter, at 60cm the resistance was 5. 60. Finally at a size of 30cm the resistance was 2. 85. From just these three findings we will see a general trend that as the size got shorter the resistance decreased.

Also, from these three readings I can see that as the length went down by 30cm every time, the resistance decreased by roughly three. This shows that the results assist the idea that resistance is proportional to size. By looking at all the readings it can be seen that as the size of wire went down from 100cm to 10cm, the resistance decreased from 9 to 1. This supports the idea that resistance is proportional to size, as a result of total the resistance decreased systematically and in relatively equal steps, just like the lengths.

Graphically, we are able to reconfirm this theory, as the road of best match is a line and not a curve, so as the length elevated the resistance also elevated proportionally. Overall I can affirm that my prediction was according to the outcomes I obtained since it turned out that the resistance did improve because the size of wire elevated. This additionally helps the idea which explains that when there’s extra wire there are extra vibrating atoms obstructing the flowing electrons, so resistance in opposition to the current is subsequently greater. Evaluation Procedures and Results.

I can confidently say that the experiment was comparatively successful and produced outcomes that may be considered as reliable and proper. After completing the experiment the primary time, we carried it out again to ensure that there was no main difference between the two readings. We had previously determined that if there had been any main anomaly we might repeat these specific readings a 3rd time to retrieve a real and appropriate studying. However, this was not required, as both readings for every size did not conflict with each other.

Advabtages and drawbacks of digital media

Electronic Medla Is a wealthy resource of services, provides, inventive and Innovative options to everyday domestic and skilled calls for. We are living within the period of digital media. None can avoid and escape from it. It is prevailing profound results on advertisement, training, data, politics and other social actions. If we glance around us what is there that’s unimaginable to? It is none apart from this electronic media that has made our life far more comfy and splendid.

Obviously this enhancement in know-how would have its banes and boons as well.

As far as the advantages of this advancement Is involved so they’re outnumbered. Electronic media has granted us with television, radio, computers, laptops, palmtops, mobiles and many more facilitating types of gear. Electronic media has not only benefitted us In single area however It has Its advantages In varied fields. Education has turn into far more convenient at present as printers, projectors, laptops and Internet has provided an unlimited alternative to get as a lot data as one can.

Now college students have an excellent alternative to boost their knowledge through accessing web. All he data in all subjects is much past one contact of a button. Teaching is made extra understandable through the use of projectors CD’s or DVD’s via this student develops more interest at school lectures. Learning by way of web can additionally be fairly useful you’ll be able to play the video or read the page once more till you’re able catch it. Electronic media has entirely changed the mode of advertisement. Different enticing and vibrant policies are made to encourage the customer to purchase the product.

Furthermore, It provides intensive options In selecting the specified product. Electronic media has revolutionized the Information system. Now everybody can be conscious himself with current Information and updates. So many TV channels In the nation and Internet web sites Justify the Importance and advantages of electronic media where everybody has a freedom to change his view level freely. You are bored then you have a great variety to supply u a supply of leisure one can play on laptops, computer systems, and so on or watch TV or can use social community.

This social network can be one of a great source of digital media it not only connects us to several peoples but also helps in advertising or much social and political information are additionally conveyed to us. The worldwide politics are tremendously influenced by the digital media. Notnlng In tnls world Is Ideal or perTect tnereTore wnen tnls Destowment 0T science has offered us with its benefits it surely has several disadvantages in it as well. No doubt it’s a source of leisure however people are rather waisting plenty of their precious time by way of this.

Internet the best assist of us right now can be an excellent help to very large number of frauds and theft on internet. One’s personal account may be hacked and their personal details can be viewed which is obviously dangerous and ofcourse nobody would need that to occur with them. Research evidence has amassed over the past half-century that exposure to violence on television, films, and most lately in video games increases the risk of violent conduct on the viewer’s half Just as rising up in an environment crammed with actual violence increases the chance of violent conduct.

Furthermore there might be big amount of contents of vulgarity both in form of such vulgar games or in type of such software, CD’s or websites which may result in crimes and bad mentality of our younger technology. Another facet of its disadvantages is that equipments are really expensive to buy nd even when one affords to buy it is once more difficult and costly to keep up. It is a media through which the West propagates in opposition to Islam and other opponents.

If training is being revolutionize then the authorities would absolutely cost good amount of fees which will limit a poor man to give his kids this modern schooling consequently poor or center class children are disadvantaged of this way of education. TV, computer systems, etc are giving rise to eye-sight and obesity problems. In this century digital media has gained preference over other issues it’s not Just used for any single purpose however have vast purposes. But for all what it could harm then that actually relies upon upon our usage to this bounty of science.

We can take some protective measures to be safe Just in case but if we are being careless in means we use digital media then that would be biased to say that this media has many harmful impact in its usage. It is alleged who will win the media war will be most successful. Concluding it may be said that if we need to be dominant in the world, we will have to merely accept the problem of electronic media in any other case we will be limping and looking at others. Amna Knan Biochemistry English 2042 B. S. II 12 months Submitted To: Miss Zunaira Sultan

ABSTRACT Now a day”s digital knowledge is considered the most


Now a day’s digital data is considered the most important asset of a corporation greater than the software and hardware asset. Database techniques have been developed to store data for retrieval and processing. Database dimension is so rapidly rising in big organization that efficiency tuning is changing into an essential topic for discussion. Since data is produced and shared every day, knowledge volumes could possibly be massive sufficient for the database efficiency to turn out to be an issue. In order to maintain up the database performance, identification and diagnosis of the basis cause for the delayed queries is important.

Destitute database execution trigger unfavorable results corresponding to in monetary, effectivity and quality of the companies in quite a few utility spaces. There are numerous methods available to take care of the performance problem. Database administrator decides the method or the mixture of methods that works finest. In this paper, I current the significance of performance tuning in massive scale organizations which holds huge functions.


Performance tuning is the method of progressing system’s execution so that system’s ability improves to acknowledge greater loads.

In this paper I would generally be centering on execution tuning in MS SQL Server. I truly have highlighted diverse perspectives, which should be thought of whereas tuning your databases and common bottlenecks, which corrupt the execution of your framework. I archive centers of the importance of becoming Indexes for querying date inside the tables. It focuses on finest practices, which should be taken after whereas planning the questioning. Best procedures of query optimization, SQL server execution instruments similar to sql server profiler and tuning advisor.

It focuses on observing execution counters by way of perfmon and SQL DMV’S. Managing with CPU bottlenecks and memory rivalry circumstances.


In my given case, the SQL question execution takes a very lengthy time to handle the execution which impacts the performance in clientele. So, my objective is to reduce the SQL execution time by performing numerous tuning and optimization techniques.


An inefficient query can place a burden on the useful resource of the production database and lead to slow performance or service loss for different customers if the query incorporates errors. Consequently, it’s critical to optimize the queries for least affect on the database’s execution.

Why SQL tuning is worth this research. The purpose is straightforward the tremendous bigger part of your saved program execution time goes to be spent executing SQL statements. Ineffectively tuned SQL can outcome in applications that are slower by orders of magnitude that’s hundreds of occasions slower. Untuned SQL almost by no means scales well as information volume increases, so indeed the program seems to run in a sensible solar of time now, overlooking SQL articulation tuning presently can lead to main problem afterwards.


Many components have an effect on the efficiency of databases, corresponding to database settings, indexes, CPU, disk pace, database design and software design. Database optimization consists of calculating the leading conceivable utilization of assets required to understand a craved outcome similar to minimizing prepare time without affecting the efficiency of another framework asset. It could be completed in three ranges that’s hardware, database or software. Application stage can impose more grounded impact on the database as in comparability with other levels inside the pecking order. Due to this, it is important to screen the SQL errand and continuously estimate the remaining SQL execution time. Fundamentally, SQL tuning includes three steps. Firstly, is to differentiate the problematic SQL that forces tall impact on the efficiency. Then, examine the execution plan to execute a specified SQL explanation with the value. This is adopted by revamping the SQL by applying the corrective technique. This deal with shall be rehashed until the SQL have been optimized.

SQL question modifying contains of the compilation of an ontological inquiry right into a comparable inquiry towards the underlying relational database. This handle will enhance the greatest way info being chosen and in a position to move forward the execution definitely. Be that as it can be a hard work to alter hardcoded queries. Furthermore, queries that are not examined utterly might cause delay. By making strides in database execution through SQL queries revamping, we are in a position reduce the ‘cost’ that must be paid by those companies because of destitute SQL queries. Some of the SQL rewrite methods I carried out are as follows:


I downloaded giant pattern set of datasets from public web site to test the SQL efficiency. I tried inserting the info with the under SQL statement

For eg.)

insert into buyer values (90000,’name90000test’);

It took me 1.38 minutes to finish the loading of 90000 rows

Whereas it took me simply 1 sec to load the 90000 rows when I used the next SQL statement


INSERT buyer

FROM ‘C:UsersshreyaMusicsql datasetcsvtest.txt’







Whereas managing with complicated SQL queries, most of crucial report are using UNION to combine the knowledge from diverse supply and reason. UNION can average down the execution. the construction of the preliminary SQL is optimized to expel the UNION operation, the larger influence and the COST diminished. The SQL must be revised to upgrade the profitable means on using union or reduce the utilization.


A subquery may be a question inside another query and furthermore might contain another subquery. Subqueries took longer time to be execute than a join because of how the database optimizer processes them. In a couple of circumstances, we got to get well the information from the identical question set with diverse condition. So, I dodged subqueries at no matter level I got the alternative of using either JOINS or Translate or CASE statements.

When operating exploratory questions, numerous SQL engineers make the most of SELECT * (perused as “select all”) as a shorthand to query all accessible data from a desk. Be that as it might, in case a table has quite a few areas and numerous lines, these charges database assets in questioning a half of pointless info. Defining areas inside the SELECT articulation will level the database to querying because it had been the specified data to satisfy the business requirements.

A few SQL designers lean toward to create joins with WHERE clauses, such as

SELECT Buyer.BuyerID, Buyer.Name, Product_Sales.Sold

FROM Buyer, Product_Sales

WHERE Buyer.BuyerID = Product_Sales.BuyerID

This type of connect makes a Cartesian Connect, furthermore known as a Cartesian Item or CROSS Connect. In a Cartesian Connect, all potential combinations of the elements are made. In this case, in the event that we had 1,000 patrons with 1,000 add up to product deals, the query would to begin with create 1,000,000 comes about, at that time filter for the 1,000 data where BuyerID is accurately joined. Typically, an inefficient utilize of database property, as the database has carried out 100x more work than required. Cartesian Joins are notably tricky in large-scale databases, as a Cartesian Connect of two expansive tables would possibly make billions or trillions of comes about. To keep away from making a Cartesian Connect, Inner Join ought to be utilized as an alternative:

SELECT Buyers.BuyersID, Buyers.Name, Product_Sales.Sold

FROM Buyers

INNER JOIN Product_Sales

ON Buyers.BuyersID = Product_Sales.BuyersID

The database would create the 1,000 desired records where BuyersID is equal. Some DBMS frameworks are in a position to recognize WHERE joins and naturally run them as Inner Joins instead. In these DBMS frameworks, there might be no contrast in execution between a WHERE connect and Internal Connect. Be that as it could, Inner Join is recognized by all DBMS frameworks. Your DBA will immediate you as to which is finest in your setting.


With the utilize of indexes the pace with which the records can be recovered from the desk is enormously improved. After creating the we are ready to collect statistics approximately in regards to the indexes utilizing the RUNSTATS utility. An index scan is far quicker than a desk scan. Indexed files are littler and require much much less time to be examined than a table notably when the desk develops larger.


This strategy will decide the foremost productive execution plan for the queries. The optimizer will produce sub-optimal plans for some SQL statements run throughout the environment. The optimizer will choose the sub best plan based on the optimizer inputs similar to object statistic, table and index construction, cardinality estimates, arrangement and IO and CPU estimates Server optimizer employments up to date stats to optimize inquiry and select the leading accessible execution plan. Statistics comprise data almost relations. This can be done by way of the store



All industries have severely composed queries, however a couple of queries cannot be optimized nicely within the event that certain structures or features are unavailable. Such difficult to optimize queries for SQL frameworks as a rule come from points that are difficult to report, and issues which have difficult to structure data. Approaches to repair that exist. Industries are for probably the most half concentrating on hardware and database stage of execution tuning be that as it may still utility stage execution tuning effectiveness must be expanded. For instance, the industries carry out indexing, updating to solid-state drives, re-configure your connection pool, keep the query cache hit rate as close to to 100% as conceivable.


In spite of the truth that queries could be refactored or constrained in scope to diminish complexity, auxiliary structures to the schemas like indexes help in efficiently wanting the schemas; the cost-based optimizer employments trial-and-error to find superior execution plans; strategies such as views abstract the schema objects; different approaches like partitioning concentrate on vertically or horizontally part the data throughout the schema objects. In any case, these approaches are tied to the existing structure of the schema and are static in nature. Another gen means is to make the most of a machine-learning led strategy inbound queries in such a means that various diversifications of a schema may be utilized depending on the properties of a question, an approach we term ‘dynamic schema redefinition’ and which may be a center of my continuing research on this.

A digital handbook for Libya a nation in North Africa”s Maghreb area

A digital handbook for Libya, a nation in North Africa’s Maghreb space. About 90% of the nation is secured by the Libyan Desert (some portion of the Sahara) where agribusiness and hence stay is conceivable just in a few dissipated desert gardens. The fourth greatest nation in Africa is in regards to the measure of Spain, Portugal, France, Germany and the UK consolidated. Libya’s major populace focuses are spread alongside the extra fruitful strip on the financial institution of the Mediterranean Sea.

The previous instructive framework in Libya was following a 6-3-3 design for the important, specialised and pre-college training (for example essential stage starts at age 6 and proceeds for a long time, trailed by three years of personal academy and three in auxiliary school), while the current framework pursues 2 nursery, 9 fundamental instruction and three or 4 optionally available training as indicated by the specialization (Clark, 2010). In the long run, effective hopefuls get “General Secondary School” testaments or however, on account of specialized school a certificates.

Furthermore, there is a preparation/professional branch that pursues the preliminary cycle and goes on for two or 4 years. The people who successfully go with adequate high stamps can proceed into advanced schooling that’s given by sixteen foundations, 9 faculties and 7 propelled studying establishments (Al Gaamatti, 2005)

Essential instruction is 9 years, needed and free. It contains of 6 years of important and three years of important optionally available. School day is four hours until third grade, four.5 hours until sixth grade. Understudies get guidance in Arabic; Islam; Jamahiriyi society; Mathematics; Sciences; History; Geography; Art; Music; and Physical instruction.

As of late, larger power has been given to Mathematics and Science, and Technical instruction has been included. Following 9 years understudies might prevail almost about getting the Basic Education Certificate. About 98% of all youngsters start school. Since mid 1980’s, young girls have gone to class with indistinguishable rates from for younger men.

Auxiliary coaching is by definition together with the latest three years of essential instruction. After the 9 years, college students could cross 3-4 of tutoring to get ready for schools and different larger organizations at Upper Secondary Schools. Upper auxiliary coaching is offered within the fields of: general (science and expressions); or particular (financial issues, science, expressions and media, sociologies and building). General takes 3 years, specialized four years. Students in the newest year must take end of the 12 months checks, and with a score above 65% they are granted the Secondary Education Certificate. The main 12 months of the middle of the street cycle at basic and concentrated schools is regular for all understudies and covers Islamic training, Arabic, English, legislative issues, materials science, science, science, arithmetic, workmanship, bodily instruction and navy instruction. Understudies at basic auxiliary colleges may then symbolize appreciable authority within the scholarly or logical branches. The scholarly branch covers historical past, geology, logic, human science; the logical branch covers material science, science, science and arithmetic; the basic topics to the 2 branches are religious training, Arabic, English, bodily instruction and army training. At particular specialised schools understudies represent considerable authority in a selected area over the newest two years.

Professional instructive initiatives are provided understudies that don’t end the 9 basic years, but many start these faculties likewise within the wake of ending the complete 9 years. Such tasks are somewhere in the vary of 1 and three years provided at Lower Secondary Schools, going for getting ready for work life. Such instruction is granted the Lower Certificate. Professional schools provide forty four distinctive initiatives in 7 noteworthy fields: Electrical; Mechanical; Carpentry; Building and structural; Female livelihoods; Service industry; Agricultural; Marine angling. Around 50-60% take programs provided at center of the highway work getting ready focuses.

The school phase in Libya goes back to freedom in 1951 and the inspiration of the “Libyan University” with grounds in Benghazi and Tripoli, and step by step developed to consolidate resources of Arts and Education, Science, Economics and Commerce, Law, and Agriculture. In 1967, it hooked up each the Faculty of Higher Technical Studies and the Higher Teachers’ Training College, which progressed towards turning into sources of designing and instruction. In 1970, the sources of Medicine, Arabic and Islamic Studies had been joined. In 1973, the college was partitioned into two isolated and autonomous faculties; the University of Tripoli and the University of Benghazi, later renamed the University of El-Fateh and the University of Gar-Yunis. Higher institutions supply tasks in fields, for example, energy, mechanical designing, fund, PC contemplates, fashionable innovation, social work, therapeutic innovation and customary flight. The functionality granted following three years at skilled foundations and focuses is the Higher Technician Diploma; typically, following 4 to five years, the Bachelor’s certificate is granted.


In 1980, to alter the equalization, Libya established what was generally recognized as the “New Educational Structure.” School academic modules have been rebuilt for specialised topics and, within the humanities, Arabic language and Koranic instruction have been especially accentuated. The investigation of English from the seventh grade was likewise started. At the secondary school level the association empowered the manufacturing of specific professional and specialized colleges however customary scholastically located faculties. The new structure likewise required the muse of specialised and professional instruction at the tertiary dimension, which has prompted the creation and solid growth in the amount of higher specialised and skilled establishments In March 2000, the General People’s Committee for Education and Vocational Training was broken up and the majority of its duties exchanged to the native individuals’ councils (Secretariat of Education, 2000). The system to change the equalization which called the New Educational Structure, has been executed in 1980, subsequently, the school’s academic packages was improved so as to current and accentuate specialised topics notwithstanding Arabic language and Quran’s investigations and humanities. The procedure intercession at the elective training careworn the dispatch of professional and specialized faculties subsequent to the standard scholastic colleges. This procedure moreover underscored the inception of specialized and skilled organizations in various locales of the nation which has contributed impressively to the development of these areas (Country Review 2006; and El-Hawat, 2003). From 1981, compulsory army instruction for guys and females framed piece of the educational applications for every single elective college and schools. Male and feminine understudies must wear regalia to class and go to every day army actions and bodily making ready. College understudies are not compelled to wear regalia, however they want to go to military camps for preparing.

Libya construction isn’t the equivalent with Uganda. Libya structure is Libya was following a 6-3-3 design for the essential, specialized and pre-college coaching (for example important stage begins at age 6 and proceeds for a really long time, trailed by three years of private academy and three in optionally available school), whereas the present framework pursues 2 nursery, 9 elementary training and three or 4 auxiliary instruction as per the specialization The Uganda training framework has a 3-7-4-2-3+ construction. As such: 3 years of pre-essential/nursery faculty, 7 years of essential, 4 years of decrease optional, 2 years of upper auxiliary and in any event 3 years of advanced training. Advanced schooling is offered by colleges and totally different institutions and universities in both the general inhabitants and private space. Training is compulsory amid grade college, with understudies matured 6 to thirteen. Essential instruction is educated within the neighborhood language and in English. The language of auxiliary and advanced education is English. In essential and elective coaching the school 12 months retains working from February to December, isolated into three trimesters. In superior schooling, the scholastic year as a rule keeps operating from October to July.

3D Printing Making The Digital Real


3Dimensions printing is a method of converting a digital 3D mannequin into a physical object. 3D printing is a category of speedy prototyping expertise. 3D printers usually work by printing successive layers on prime of the previous to construct up a three dimensional object. The previous decade has witnessed the emergence of latest manufacturing applied sciences that build elements on a layer-by-layer basis. Using these technologies, manufacturing time for elements of nearly any complexity is lowered considerably. In different words, it is rapid.

Rapid Prototyping Technologies and Rapid Manufacturing provide nice potential for producing models and distinctive parts for manufacturing trade. A few years in the past, to get some prototyping work done for a product or design you are working on, you are required to spend so much of man-hours just to provide you with the model. Those hours will be spent creating miniature components of your design utilizing wooden after which gluing all those components together painstakingly. Prototyping is, at the very least, time-consuming and extremely tedious.

These days, however, you probably can take the tediousness and the time investment out of your prototyping tasks by way of speedy prototyping or 3d printing. 3D printing is a revolutionary technique for creating 3D fashions with using inkjet expertise. Many engineers have even dubbed 3D printing as the process of creating something out of nothing. Thus, the reliability of products can be elevated; investment of money and time is much less dangerous. Not everything that is thinkable at present is already workable or out there at a reasonable worth, but this expertise is quick evolving and the better the challenges, the higher for this creating process.

The term Rapid prototyping (RP) refers to a category of applied sciences that can automatically construct physical fashions from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) information. It is a free kind fabrication technique by which a total object of prescribed shape, dimension and finish can be immediately generated from the CAD primarily based geometrical model stored in a computer, with little human intervention. Rapid prototyping is an “additive” course of, combining layers of paper, wax, or plastic to create a strong object. In distinction, most machining processes (milling, drilling, grinding, and so on.) are “subtractive” processes that take away materials from a stable block. RP’s additive nature allows it to create objects with sophisticated inside options that can’t be manufactured by different means. In addition to prototypes, RP techniques can even be used to make tooling (referred to as rapid tooling) and even production-quality elements (rapid manufacturing). For small production runs and sophisticated objects, speedy prototyping is often the most effective manufacturing process available. Of course, “rapid” is a relative term. Most prototypes require from three to seventy-two hours to construct, depending on the dimensions and complexity of the thing. This may seem sluggish, but it’s much sooner than the weeks or months required to make a prototype by traditional means corresponding to machining. These dramatic time financial savings permit manufacturers to convey products to market faster and more cheaply.

Imagine a future in which a tool linked to a pc can print a strong object. A future by which we are able to have tangible items as well as intangible companies delivered to our desktops or highstreet retailers over the Internet. And a future during which the on a regular basis “atomization” of virtual objects into exhausting reality has turned the mass pre-production and stock-holding of a extensive range of goods and spare components into no extra than an historical legacy. Such a future may sound like it’s being plucked from the worlds of Star Trek. However, whilst transporter units that can instantaneously ship us to remote places may stay a fantasy, 3D printers capable of outputting bodily objects have been in development for over two decades. What’s more, several 3D printers are already available on the market. Available from companies together with Fortus, 3D Systems, Solid Scape, ZCorp, and Desktop Factory, these wonderful units produce strong, 3D objects from laptop information in roughly the similar method that 2D printers take our digital images and output hardcopy pictures. History Of 3D Printing

The technology for printing bodily 3D objects from digital knowledge was first developed by Charles Hull in 1984. He named the technique as Stereo lithography and obtained a patent for the approach in 1986.While Stereo lithography systems had turn out to be well-liked by the tip of Eighties, different related applied sciences similar to Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) and Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) were introduced.In 1993, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) patented another technology, named “3 Dimensional Printing techniques”, which is similar to the inkjet technology utilized in 2D Printers.In 1996, three major merchandise, “Genisys” from Stratasys, “Actua 2100” from 3D Systems and “Z402” from Z Corporation had been introduced.In 2005, Z Corp. launched a breakthrough product, named Spectrum Z510, whichwas the first excessive definition color 3D Printer available within the market.Another breakthrough in 3D Printing occurred in 2006 with the initiation of an open supply project, named Reprap, which was geared toward growing a self-replicating 3D printer.

Current 3D Printing Technologies

Most commercially out there speedy prototyping machines use certainly one of six methods. At current, commerce restrictions severely restrict the import/export of rapid prototyping machines, so this information solely covers techniques available within the U.S.

Stereo lithography

Patented in 1986, stereolithography started the rapid prototyping revolution. The technique builds three-dimensional models from liquid photosensitive polymers that solidify when uncovered to ultraviolet mild. As proven within the figure below, the mannequin is built upon a platform located slightly below the floor in a vat of liquid epoxy or acrylate resin. A low-power highly focused UV laser traces out the primary layer, solidifying the model’s cross part whereas leaving excess areas liquid. Next, an elevator incrementally lowers the platform into the liquid polymer. A sweeper re-coats the solidified layer with liquid, and the laser traces the second layer atop the primary. This course of is repeated till the prototype is full. Afterwards, the strong part is removed from the vat and rinsed clean of excess liquid. Supports are damaged off and the model is then placed in an ultraviolet oven for complete curing. Because it was the first method, stereolithography is regarded as a benchmark by which other applied sciences are judged. Early stereolithography prototypes have been fairly brittle and prone to curing-induced warpage and distortion, however latest modifications have largely corrected these problems.

Laminated Object Manufacturing

In this method, developed by Helisys of Torrance, CA, layers of adhesive-coated sheet material are bonded together to form a prototype.

A feeder/collector mechanism advances the sheet over the build platform, where a base has been constructed from paper and double-sided foam tape. Next, a heated curler applies pressure to bond the paper to the bottom. A targeted laser cuts the outline of the first layer into the paper after which cross-hatches the surplus space (the unfavorable house in the prototype). Cross-hatching breaks up the extra materials, making it easier to take away throughout post-processing. During the build, the surplus material provides excellent support for overhangs and thin-walled sections. After the first layer is minimize, the platform lowers out of the way in which and contemporary materials is advanced. The platform rises to barely beneath the earlier peak, the roller bonds the second layer to the primary, and the laser cuts the second layer. This course of is repeated as needed to construct the part, which may have a wood-like texture. Because the models are made from paper, they have to be sealed and finished with paint or varnish to prevent moisture damage. Helisys developed a quantity of new sheet supplies, including plastic, water-repellent paper, and ceramic and steel powder tapes. The powder tapes produce a “green” part that must be sintered for maximum power. As of 2001, Helisys is no longer in business.

Selective Laser Sintering

Developed by Carl Deckard for his master’s thesis on the University of Texas, selective laser sintering was patented in 1989. The approach, proven in Fig, uses a laser beam to selectively fuse powdered materials, corresponding to nylon, elastomer, and metallic, into a strong object. Parts are built upon a platform which sits slightly below the floor in a bin of the heat-fusable powder. A laser traces the pattern of the first layer, sintering it together. The platform is lowered by the peak of the subsequent layer and powder is reapplied. This process continues till the half is complete. Excess powder in each layer helps to assist the half through the construct. SLS machines are produced by DTM of Austin, TX.

Fused Deposition Modeling

In this method, filaments of heated thermoplastic are extruded from a tip that strikes within the x-y plane. Like a baker adorning a cake, the managed extrusion head deposits very skinny beads of fabric onto the build platform to type the first layer. The platform is maintained at a decrease temperature, so that the thermoplastic quickly hardens. After the platform lowers, the extrusion head deposits a second layer upon the primary. Supports are constructed along the means in which, mounted to the part either with a second, weaker material or with a perforated junction.

Solid Ground Curing

Developed by Cubital, solid ground curing (SGC) is considerably just like stereolithography (SLA) in that both use ultraviolet mild to selectively harden photosensitive polymers. Unlike SLA, SGC cures an entire layer at a time. Figure 5 depicts stable ground curing, which is also referred to as the solider process. First, photosensitive resin is sprayed on the construct platform. Next, the machine develops a photomask (like a stencil) of the layer to be built. This photomask is printed on a glass plate above the build platform using an electrostatic course of just like that found in photocopiers. The masks is then uncovered to UV gentle, which only passes through the transparent portions of the mask to selectively harden the form of the present layer.

After the layer is cured, the machine vacuums up the surplus liquid resin and sprays wax in its place to help the model during the build. The top surface is milled flat, and then the method repeats to construct the next layer. When the half is complete, it should be de-waxed by immersing it in a solvent tub. SGC machines are distributed in the U.S. by Cubital America Inc. of Troy, MI. The machines are quite massive and may produce large models.

3D Printing

Ink-Jet Printing refers to a whole class of machines that employ ink-jet know-how. The first was 3D Printing (3DP), developed at MIT and licensed to Soligen Corporation, Extrude Hone, and others. The ZCorp 3D printer, produced by Z Corporation of Burlington, MA is an example of this expertise. As shown in Figure 6a, parts are constructed upon a platform situated in a bin filled with powder materials. An ink-jet printing head selectively deposits or “prints” a binder fluid to fuse the powder together in the desired areas. Unbound powder remains to help the part. The platform is lowered, more powder added and leveled, and the process repeated. When finished, the green part is then removed from the unbound powder, and extra unbound powder is blown off. Finished parts can be infiltrated with wax, CA glue, or other sealants to improve sturdiness and floor end. Typical layer thicknesses are on the order of 0.1 mm. This course of could be very quick, and produces components with a slightly grainy surface. ZCorp makes use of two completely different materials, a starch based powder (not as robust, however could be burned out, for investment casting applications) and a ceramic powder. Machines with four color printing functionality can be found. 3D Systems’ version of the ink-jet based mostly system known as the Thermo-Jet or Multi-Jet Printer. It makes use of a linear array of print heads to rapidly produce thermoplastic fashions (Figure 6d). If the part is narrow enough, the print head can deposit a whole layer in a single move. Otherwise, the top makes several passes. Sanders Prototype of Wilton, NH uses a special ink-jet approach in its Model Maker line of idea modelers. The machines use two ink-jets (see Figure 6c). One dispenses low-melt thermoplastic to make the mannequin, while the opposite prints wax to form supports. After each layer, a cutting software mills the top surface to uniform height. This yields extraordinarily good accuracy, permitting the machines for use within the jewelry industry. Ballistic particle manufacturing, depicted in Figure 6b, was developed by BPM Inc., which has since gone out of enterprise.

The Basic Process of 3D Printing

Although several fast prototyping techniques exist, all make use of the identical fundamental five-step course of. The steps are:

  1. Create a CAD model of the design
  2. Convert the CAD mannequin to STL format
  3. Slice the STL file into skinny cross-sectional layers
  4. Construct the mannequin one layer atop another
  5. Clean and finish the model

CAD Model Creation: First, the item to be constructed is modeled using a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software program bundle. Solid modelers, such as Pro/ENGINEER, are inclined to characterize 3-D objects extra precisely than wire-frame modelers corresponding to AutoCAD, and can subsequently yield better results. The designer can use a pre-existing CAD file or could wish to create one expressly for prototyping purposes. This process is identical for the entire RP construct techniques.

Conversion to STL Format: The various CAD packages use a selection of completely different algorithms to characterize stable objects. To establish consistency, the STL (stereolithography, the primary RP technique) format has been adopted as the usual of the speedy prototyping industry. The second step, therefore, is to transform the CAD file into STL format. This format represents a three-dimensional surface as an meeting of planar triangles, “like the aspects of a reduce jewel.” 6 The file accommodates the coordinates of the vertices and the course of the outward regular of every triangle. Because STL recordsdata use planar elements, they can not symbolize curved surfaces exactly. Increasing the variety of triangles improves the approximation, however at the value of bigger file measurement. Large, sophisticated files require extra time to pre-process and build, so the designer must steadiness accuracy with manageability to provide a helpful STL file. Since the STL format is common, this course of is similar for all of the RP build strategies.

Slice the STL File: In the third step, a pre-processing program prepares the STL file to be constructed. Several applications are available, and most allow the user to adjust the dimensions, location and orientation of the model. Build orientation is essential for a quantity of causes. First, properties of speedy prototypes vary from one coordinate direction to a different. For instance, prototypes are usually weaker and fewer accurate within the z (vertical) course than within the x-y aircraft. In addition, half orientation partially determines the amount of time required to build the model. Placing the shortest dimension within the z course reduces the number of layers, thereby shortening construct time. The pre-processing software program slices the STL model into a quantity of layers from zero.01 mm to zero.7 mm thick, depending on the build method. The program may generate an auxiliary construction to help the mannequin through the construct. Supports are helpful for delicate options similar to overhangs, inside cavities, and thin-walled sections. Each RP machine manufacturer supplies their own proprietary pre-processing software.

Layer by Layer Construction: The fourth step is the actual building of the part. Using considered one of several strategies (described within the subsequent section) RP machines build one layer at a time from polymers, paper, or powdered steel. Most machines are fairly autonomous, needing little human intervention.

Clean and Finish: The final step is post-processing. This entails removing the prototype from the machine and detaching any supports. Some photosensitive materials have to be fully cured earlier than use. Prototypes may additionally require minor cleaning and surface treatment. Sanding, sealing, and/or painting the mannequin will improve its appearance and sturdiness.

3D printing VS Conventional Technologies

3DP does not—and will not—replace fully conventional applied sciences such NC and high-speed milling, and even hand-made components. Rather, one should regard 3DP as another option in the toolkit for manufacturing parts. Figure depicts a tough comparability between 3DP and milling relating to the prices and time of producing one half as a function of part complexity10. It is assumed, evidently, that the part can be manufactured by both know-how such that the fabric and tolerance requirements are met.

Application of 3D printers

The concept of customized manufacturing is exciting to almost everyone, nevertheless it all the time seems to be one thing that will happen in the “future”. Gibson was right and the next record of functions for 3D printers present the truth in the saying “The future is right here. It’s simply not evenly distributed but.” The following items are all out there for buy or are being used in business now. We are still a good distance from Replicators like the ones from Star Trek: The Next Generation, however we most likely won’t have to wait til the twenty fourth century both.


3D printing permits artists to create objects that might be extremely difficult, expensive, or time intensive utilizing conventional processes. These sculptures by Bathsheba Grossman are exquisitely advanced and manufactured using a laser sintering process.

Action Figures

Blood Elves and band mates can each be delivered to life using 3D printers. These two had been created utilizing Zcorp. machines which apply glue ink and powder in fantastic layers slowly creating a duplicate of certainly one of your characters. Figure Prints permits you to create characters from Warcraft, Rock band and Spore printing companies are coming soon. A number of different sites allow you to pull knowledge from Second Life and your individual 3D packages.


Jewelry makers have been a number of the first to make use of 3D printing in their manufacturing process, however they don’t use metallic printers, but rather ones that use wax. In a process referred to as “investment casting” a bit of jewelry is sculpted or printed out of wax. Plaster is then poured on both aspect. Molten steel is poured onto the wax which melts out leaving a steel model of your wax sculpt instead in the plaster. This piece is then completed and polished by a jeweler. Many impartial jewelers have been using excessive tech printers in their businesses and an progressive company called Paragon Lake has combined this course of with internet based design instruments to supply an infinite stock to the masses of jewellery shops.

Hearing Aids

3D printers can even make things more useful. In the case of hearing aids a solid of your ear canal is made. The casting is digitized using a 3D scanner and an ideal replica of your ear is printed from that ensuring a fantastic fit and enhancing the standard.


Prototyping in product growth is presently the biggest use of 3D printing technology. These machines allow designers and engineers to check out ideas for dimensional merchandise cheaply earlier than committing to costly tooling and manufacturing processes.

Home Decor

Home items are structurally simple but endlessly decorative and are perfect matches for 3D printing. This service, referred to as “Shapeways Creator” lets you create products like this lamp with any selection of words that have relevance to you (wedding vows, a favorite poem, and so on.). Another firm referred to as JuJups lets you make a custom-made image frame using clever design instruments and a zCorp printer.


Sales of us lives get a lot easier when you can have models like this of your product printed up for present and tell.


Many of the examples thus far are considerably gimmicky or decorative, However in some industries 3D printing is displacing conventional manufacturing totally. In the left hand image a surgical knee replacement implant has been designed and manufactured to fit a patient’s joint perfectly. On the right, excessive tolerance engine parts have been printed using a course of known as “Electron Beam Melting” and finished with traditional machining processes. While not the norm these uses begin to suggest what is feasible in medicine and trade.


3D World of Warcraft characters are cool, however these instruments have the ability to assist save lives. Surgeons are using 3d printers to print physique elements for reference earlier than complicated surgical procedures. Other 3D printers are used to create bone grafts for patients who have suffered traumatic accidents. Looking further sooner or later scientist are engaged on PRINTING substitute organs. Personal Fabrication indeed!

5 steps in a process to collect digital evidence

Some important steps in the process of collecting digital evidence from the time you are called to assist and the time when you have to testify are: identifying evidence, collecting evidence, preserving evidence, analyzing evidence and presenting evidence (Solomon et. al, 2011, Loc 2332). One of the first steps in identifying evidence is understanding the purpose of the investigation. This knowledge will help you to decide what evidence you will need based on the type of case you’re participating in. A critical part of identifying evidence if it is a criminal investigation would be to know what is allowed on the search warrant. As the Computer Forensics Jumpstart we are using for our textbook, seldom is “take everything” allowed (Solomon et. al, 2011, Loc 2332).

Even if the investigation does not involve a search warrant, care must be taken to operate within legal guidelines because ANY investigation may “end up as prime evidence for lawsuits in the future” (Solomon et. al, 2011, Loc 2341). The second step in identifying the evidence is to take a look around. Perform a site survey (Solomon et. al, 2011, Loc 2351). Take pictures, make notes, sketch the area and make sure you have enough information to describe the area in detail should you need at some future date (Solomon et. al, 2011, 2361). Take note of what you see and what you think it means. You will look at the usual laptop or computer and at the hard drive and other portable storage devices of course, but remember to look beyond the obvious. The textbook uses the example of seeing a high-speed scanner and a credit card reader (Solomon et. al, 2011, Loc 2389) and thinking about what possibilities these items would be used for.

Digital Communication

We are now living in a generation where instead of writing a letter we will send an email and instead of making a phone call we will send a text; Digital communication has taken over. Digital Communication is any form of communication that happens through any digital media, For example: Twitter, text, you tube and Facebook. A recent example of how digital communication is taking over our language is Facebook.

In 2004 Facebook was made global and now 9 years later, 1 in 7 people in the world have a Facebook account. Living in this generation, I have grown up with these social media sites being part of my life meaning, the language my generation use, such as emoticons, abbreviations and Initialism are classed as a normal way of talking. This new style of expressing the English language too many people may be normal and socially excepted, however by doing this we are constantly breaking the rules of Standard English. For my first example of Digital Communication, I have used Initialism. You can see this in source 1, which is from a Facebook convocation I recently had with a friend. An example of this feature is the term ‘IKR’ (I Know Right).

The reason I use Initialism is because writing the first letter of each word, in contrast to writing out in full is a lot easier. In this Facebook chat I had with my friend I had an informal tenor toward him as I know he would not judge me on the way I communicated my words, plus, it was a dyadic convocation meaning it was only between us. Not only did I use this feature but also did my friend, showing, that in this generation features like Initialism is a normal way to talk and is not frowned upon by people of this generation. However people who have not grown up with Digital Communication in their lives believe the Standard English rules must not be broken (Prescriptivists) and therefore will disagree with the way some people express their language as they believe it is the ‘wrong’ way. David Crystal, who is a descriptivist; someone who believes digital communication adds a new form of expression and wont judge the way we communicate, has a theory called linguistic economy which basically means we use features like Initialism because it uses as few characters as possible and therefore saves us time.

Crystal also shows how Initialism is not actually a new feature of communication but actually can be dated back to 1689 when the term ‘IOU’ (I Owe you) was first said, this is no different to the way the young society used the term ‘lol’ (Laugh out loud). In digital communication without being able to show facial expression, and hear tone of voice being able to express emotion is hard, however people have overcome this problem. In source 3 (text) emoticons are used, emoticons are used to show emotions without having to write it out. By using the available symbols on phones you are able to produce, faces, love hearts, animals etc. In texts and through all digital media ‘: )’ this ‘face’ means happy and this face ‘: (‘means sad. By adding emoticons to the end of your text or Facebook message the person receiving it knows how you are feeling or how the message was intended. Although this can also lead to misjudgement and problems. Symbols arranged like this ‘

Digital Bangladesh

Introduction: digital Bangladesh is a new world, a new concept, a new dream. Bangladesh is now resounding with the aim of achieving digital Bangladesh. Our present prime minister, Sheikh Hasina, in their election manifesto of 2008 declared to build up Bangladesh as a digital one by 2021. Since then this concept has become almost a lip-word with the people of Bangladesh. Meaning of digital Bangladesh: our life today is governed by the offshoots of science. Science has ushered in new era in the history of human civilization. Computer invention is the most determining factor in the respect. It has brought about a revolutionary change on the face of the global world. This change has been possible through the information technology (it) based on computer-internet system. The micro-electronic system through which all sorts of information are collected. Assimilated, preserved, processed and transmitted is known as “information technology”. This information technology or computer & internet based Bangladesh is called a digital Bangladesh. Necessity in Bangladesh: ours is a developing country. We a achieved independence in 1971 after a bloody liberation war.

Science then began the campaign of building up the war-shattered Bangladesh as a Bangla of gold. But it is a matter of great sorrow that we have not been able to cross just the stage of a developing country even after the lapse of a long period of 38 years of liberation. No expected development has yet been achieved. The main causes are: laziness, lack of morality, tendency to make more talks than work, lack of tendency to go ahead with the advanced technology etc. The gradual connection of the digital system in all the activities of Bangladesh, if possible, may give birth to a digital Bangladesh. This perspective plan can be brought into reality only when the important places of the country can be brought under control by setting us CCTV camera based on the computer-election campaign through video conferences as a part of her dream of building up digital Bangladesh. We can apply digital system in the following sectors of our national life. Educational sector: education is the backbone of a nation. So we must put our first priority on education sector with a view to establishing a digital Bangladesh. We can make video of teacher’s lectures of speeches and display them on the white screens before the learner.

A learner can receive education sitting in his house. Medical sector: medical facilities are one of the basic needs of human beings. Modern science has given birth to a new world in the field of medical treatment. If the internet connection can be spread widely, a patient can receive prescription of medicine without appearing before a physician by paying offers through online banking system. Agricultural sector: ours is an ago-based country. More than 80% of the people of our country are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. But they are ignorant of the more method of cultivation whereas the developed countries of the world have championed in this fields by using the boons of mechanized method of cultivation. Administrative sector: most of the offices of our country are extremely sluggish in work and life in wait for taking bribes by holding up work days after days. We can make the administration dynamic, work-oriented and free from corruption by setting up CCTV camera through computer-internet system. Security sector: security is a must in every sphere of our national life. No national can expect to advance without having a well-founded security system. It can be made possible by setting up CCTV camera through computer internet system.

This system will help us detect the miscreant event after ling period of their occurrence of mischief’s. Buying and selling sector: buying and selling are our every-days matter. Everyday we go to markets or shopping malls to make purchase of different essential things of our daily life. If the computer network can be spread widely, we shall be able to make our necessary purchases by staying in our house. Not only in the native land, can it be extended even to the foreign countries by making payments through credit cards. Communication sector: “transport is civilization” –goes a wise saying. It is not possible to make all round development without having a good and dynamic communication system in the country. At present, many a thing of communication affairs is Bering controlled through computer-internet system. We can also bring the whole country within the reach of our hands through this system. Publication sector: we cannot think of publication books today without the help of computer network. The computer system has already been introduced in our publication industry.

Earlier, the booed which took at least two months to be published, now that blood can be published within two days. Newspaper sector: computer network is now being used in publishing newspapers on a large scale. Now a newspaper is being published in different regions of the country simultaneously. So newspapers are no more sent to Chittagong, khulna, Rajshahi or sleet from Dhaka by transport. Especially tins system is being followed in case of first call news papers. Recreation sector: recreation sources are badly needed for the modern mechanized hard-field of recreation. We can enjoy different sorts of amusements including different games and film shows. We can now know the results of the games which are going on overseas within a moment through internet. Banking sector: computer network has given a new impetus in the banking sector. It has made banking sector mere dynamic than ever before. Online system has already been introduced in many banking institutions. Now we no more need carry cash money with us to the remotest regions of the country.

If this system can be introduced in all banking institutions in our country, Bangladesh will be able to step into a digital one. Setting up online information center: the information services of different public and private sector can be made reach to the door-step of the people by setting up online information centers. Then people will be able to collect different data or information from this information center. Not only that they will be able to know about the final institutional conditions and position. Conclusion: it is said “hope springs eternal in the human breast” we also hope that we shall be able to turn our war-shattered country into a digital Bangladesh by bringing about an all round development through all-out efforts of people of a all walks of life. We are very hopeful to learn that the daily Jougantor and the Cambrian college have jointly taken a gigantic to set up digital campus all over the country with the Sklogan.

Role of Technology in Electronic and Digital Media

The world we live in is every changing around us, it is a wonder we can even keep up with the technical advances that are happening. Everywhere we look there are cell phones, computers, tablets, smart phones, hand-held video games players, and much more. In the 21st century many people do not know how it was a hundred or more years ago. Over the years media has grown in a tremendous way, but one thing has remained the same; the way it can influence many people all over the world. Technology in society such as newspapers, television, movies, photography, and others, play a role in society by binding large audiences culturally but also reinforces cultural fragmentation (Vivian, ch.13, p. 1). Media in society can influence thoughts and beliefs in the viewers. It can also influence the way people act and learn. Vivian says in chapter 13, “Mass messages are significant in helping children learn society’s expectations.” Before television was invented the primary way a toddler would learn was through the parents teaching them in the home. With the advance of technology, the primary way a child learns has changed. Many children learn through television and interactions on a computer. Vivian also said in chapter 13 that a child’s way of learning expands to include the mass media such as Sesame Street. These types of shows instill beliefs, values, and have more influence on a child then what the parents or teachers at school can have (Vivian, ch.13, p.4). Mass media not only can have an impact on a child’s learning, but it also influences adults in the way they think and act. When a political campaign is in motion the mass media will post photographs that depict what they want one to see and believe. Catchy slogans will accompany these photos to instill the thought of a great leader. Mass media will focus on only one side of a potential leader, trying to make the public believe that if the votes are for this candidate only good will come, or the opposite; bad will follow. Other ways the media uses technology is through advertising on television, radio, and sending out flyers. All of these tactics influence what a person thinks about the candidate, whether or not it is all true.

They do the same tactics with much of the news from around the world. People believe what they see and hear through the media, without ever thinking that it most likely not the whole story. Digital technology in the electronic media also influences the thoughts of the viewers. Movies, music, video games, and even books are all rated based on the content. Movies have a rating of either NC-17 for no one 17 and under admitted, R for restricted. Children under 17 require accompanying parent or adult guardian, PG-13 for parents strongly cautioned, PG for parental guidance suggested, or G for general audiences (MPAOA, 2013). All of these ratings influence what people think the content of the movie will be, even before they see the movie or hear any reviews. These ratings influence parents on their decisions on whether or not their children will be allowed to see the movie. Similar ratings are set for music and video games too. If a rating of R or NC-17 is on a movie or music album the sale of such item is prohibited to a minor. From when television first came into many homes in the early 1950’s to the 21st century, one thing has not changed; mass media can influence people al l over the world. Media has grown in a way that many did not expect. In the late 1920’s the mass media would use the radio to get messages across to many people. That was the way to inform the public of the news from around the world and keep them informed. Because this was one of the primary ways to reach many in a short time span, this was what many people listened to and believed what news they heard. Television came out in the late 1950’s and many people turned to it to receive their news updates; again the media could reach a large audience in a short time span. The views again took the word of the television programing and shows and believed what they were watching and seeing. In the 21st century there are many ways to hear, see, and read the news. One can know instantly through the use of their cell phone what news is happening, what movies are being released, what new music is being released, and just about anything one could want to know. Even through the use of all these technological advances one thing stands firm and will forever be unchanged; the mass media will use technology to reach many people and influence their daily thoughts, beliefs, plans, and life.

Motion Picture Association of America, Inc. (MPAOA) (2013)
Retrieved from:

Vivian, J. (2011). The media of mass communication (10th Ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Ch.13. Retrieved from: University Of Phoenix Library

View as multi-pages

Describe how you developed your skills in the use of digital technology

Describe how you developed your skills in the use of digital technology for media production contributed to your creative decision making. Refer to a range of examples and show how these skills developed over time.

Digital technologies were a crucial part of both of my productions; using digital technologies has also extremely developed over time and you can see a significant change in the A2 music video production as the piece was greatly developed in terms of technology and creativity.

In the production stage of our AS piece we have used a Cannon DSLR camera in filming of our entire production. It was extremely helpful as it was easy to use, portable but also a major advantage of it was that it allowed us to an instant playback to aid our creative decision making. We did not use this feature enough in AS. However once we returned to produce our A2 music video, I have made sure that we checked all the footage at the location so we could immediately reshoot the scenes that weren’t good enough at the location, which also saved us time in going back into the location to redo it all.

In our A2 production we have used the same camera (Cannon DSLR) due to a convenience of the camera and the high quality footage it was producing, it was portable, easy to use and easy to set up. Considering our filming had to take place in six different location it was very convenient to use that camera. However, we wanted to enhance our A2 production with other filming technologies in other to enhance our creative decision making, so therefore we decided to use JVC HDV 720p studio camera for our performance part. However we decided not to use it at the end due to the quality difference between the DSLR and the studio camera. That way we only used a footage from the DSLR, however the use of JVC HDV 720p gave us some practice using the high quality studio camera and also gave us an opportunity to explore different filming equipment, which also has played a part on our creative decision making.

Our skills in audio technology we not well utilized at A2 as we were required to create a music video for a contemporary artist. However, the use of Final Cut Pro allowed us to change the volume levels throughout the music video where needed (e.g. the volume levels were used at the start of the music video were we decided to fade the music in to slowly and nicely flow into the music video, and we have also used it at the end to fade out the audio.) Our competence with Final Cut Pro this year has enabled us to be more ambitious in terms of editing and as a result end up with more creative and individual piece.

According to Goodwin, each genre of music has certain conventions that their associated videos should comply to. We have noticed, whilst studying and researching into our genre and the artists a common trend of cutting to the beat. We employed use of excessive jump cuts within the narrative in order to underline the feelings of the protagonist, which was also another example of complying with theorist’s ideology using digital technology in order to develop our creative decision making.

Although out skills in Garage Band were not as fully utilized at A2 as they were at AS, were we used Garage Band to create a score. However, in most recent production of our music video I was required to use Photoshop in order to create a digipak and a poster. In order to be more creative instead of using the screenshots taken out of the video, I have decided to organize a separate photo-shoot, were I went out and took photographs myself using DLSR camera again, in order to get the high quality pictures. The fact that I also do Photography as one of my A-levels gave me an advantage of organizing a photo-shoot and also using Photoshop as my editing tool. Photoshop was definitely a software, which played a big part in using a digital technologies and the skills used in that department have definitely enhanced the creative decision making.

Technology and social inclusion: Rethinking the digital divide

Technology is the process of adjusting systems, methods and tools to resolve a certain challenge. However, technology has established itself into a sort of virus that has found its way into our daily lives. The current world is mostly relying on technology in various ways and its advancement has made many people to be dependent on it. There are those who believe that technology has taken over our daily lives, others think that it only stands to benefit our lives and some do not think of or care about how technology is affecting our lives (Misa et. al, 2003). Technology have shaped our world in different many ways such as through transportation, communication, social media and lifestyle. It has the ability to be the advancement of the current society but at the same time it has the capability to be its downfall and this creates the basis of argument on the topic of technology on how it has influenced our daily lives. To comprehend the concepts about technology, this essay consist the arguments and views on how technology has influenced the current society through internet, communication and social media and influence on teenagers.


          Internet is one of the major advancements which have made this world a global village such that one is informed on everything which is happening across the globe. According to Diwi (2007), technology is more of a backbone for humans and not brain thus internet has made written documents and printed textbooks outdated. Internet is a wonderful resource and has currently improved the lives of many people, though it is misused by some people in wicked ways. It gives us the capability to pay bills, search various things, and buy items which are not accessible at the local store. Teachers and students in all corners of the world are relying on this resource on research essays and papers. Abundant of information is available in the internet and students find it easy to complete their research papers without much struggles. In early days, it took a long period to access the necessary information but currently it only takes some minutes to access the same information due to the mediums on the internet which consist a mass of information. The current society is almost switching from traditional books, pens and papers to completely digital era of electronic books and forwarding papers through emails. If applied for the right purpose, internet has been the most valuable tool in various backgrounds of a person’s life.

Nevertheless, rather than being the significant advancement of technology, internet has completely modified the mentality of human being. It has brought some kind of addiction because many people cannot do anything without relying on it. Basically, internet has made people to become indolent in all fields in term of thinking and in term of doing things (Woodford, 2006). For example, numerous students do not pay attention in class due to distraction of the internet by use of their phones and laptops thus weakening their power of thinking. Moreover, internet has demoralized the society through the access of abusive and naughty information such as phonography videos thus leading to immoral activities.

Communication and social media

          Another huge advancement of technology in the society is communication and social media. For instance, take the invention of the phone. The phone has transformed the way we communicate with others in the world. Think of it, not long time ago when we were sending letters that would take months for one just to receive but now one is able to call someone in Europe and wait no longer than thirty seconds. In addition, the application of electronic mail is making communication easier across the globe whereby one can communicate with a person who is many miles away. Social networks such as twitter, google+, Facebook, WhatsApp and yahoo have all contributed to the revolution of technological advancement. (Warschauer, 2003) argues that the distribution of ideas and news is very fast because it only takes a few minutes to reach a wider audience.

The current research show that almost 85 percent of the American population own phones. Introduction of smartphones and iPad has led to development of short message service and new texting language thus contaminating the official language. This modification of communicating language has resulted to alteration of the culture in terms of communication and lifestyle.

Influence on children

          Young generation is one of the category which has been greatly influenced by technology in various ways. Research has shown that approximately 95 percent of teenagers in America apply technology in their daily activities. This include completion of their homework with the support of internet search, through social networking, downloading music or movies and playing online games. However, Diwi (2007) has stated that technology is taking away the ability of teenagers to think for themselves in ways such as being imaginative and creative. Moreover, technology is demoralizing teenagers through available immoral information in the internet such as phonography. But in contrary, Kumar (2007) suggest that technology is shaping the future of teenagers in many ways. For example, internet provides good youth studies in form of articles and reports which are relevant to their studies as well their homework and assignments. Kumar (2007) adds that technology gives teenagers opportunity to act together with each other and discuss relevant matters concerning their lives.


          Generally, the current world has accepted all technologies in one form or another. Everybody in this globe applies technology at the moment in one way or the other. Irrespective of whether technology is taking us over or helping the world radically, either positively or negatively, we require technology in our daily lives. The demand for technology is too much and too necessary for it to ever fade and with constant advancements around each corner it becomes more challenging. We live alongside technology now and whether we control it or it controls us, it originated from us, therefore we should accept any outcome technology bring.


Diwi. “Are We Relying Too Much on Technology?” InfoTech and Public Policy. (2007). Web. 24 November. 2013.

Kumar S., Ragav S. Does Modern Technology Affect Teens? Posted: Oct 23rd, 2007,

Misa, T. J., Brey, P., & Feenberg, A. (2003). Modernity and Technology. Cambridge (Mass.: MIT press.

Warschauer, M. (2003). Technology and social inclusion: Rethinking the digital divide. Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.: MIT Press.

Woodford, C. (2006). Digital technology. London: Evans.

Source document

Ethical issues on media and the relationship to the consumption of digital media

Ethical issues on media and the relationship to the consumption of digital media


       The past two decades came with inconceivably rapid redevelopments and transformations of the place taken by traditional media. The media moved from the traditionally secluded place it used to occupy, towards the occupation of newly developed media forms, including those that are used for the computerization of communication and the linkage of different people and entire communities. The change in the work and the place taken by the media came with unprecedented discussions over the adverse effects of the adoption of the new technologies. The developments of the field of media communication to span the newly developed digital media also came with an increase in the necessity of areas that were not necessary before, including information control, the ethical nature of communication and also the unprecedented influence of media firms and platforms. In particular, ethics and the accountability of the parties using the new media forms has become a major area of change and control, where the effectiveness of management evidenced the effectiveness of the entire system.

       The increasing attention offered to ethics and the ethical duty of the people using these media has come with a wide array of controls and limitations in the freedoms enjoyed by the users of the media. More specifically, there is a lot of attention channeled towards the relationship found between the new platforms of media communication and sharing. One of the problems created by the huge leaps in the usability of the new media has been sexting. Sexting has traditionally been defined as the transmission of snaps/ pictures to friends and members of other networks, especially when the messages transmitted showed nudity or semi-nude people. The platform can be linked to other mobile communication numbers, or send the information to the wider-reaching internet network, which has become increasingly possible. This report explores the ethical issues that come up with the use and the working of the new media platforms. In particular, it will explore people’s or society’s use and consumption of digital media (sexting) among the young generation, as an area that violates ethical standards, due to the negligence of society – from the context of California. The information developed will be valuable for authorities like educational regulators and policy makers, as an area that is sensitive among the younger generation, and one calling for cautious control.

Literature review (background) on the problem under exploration

       The definitions of sexting are wide reaching, but the overarching areas of coverage include that it entails the capturing of nude or close to nude images of the users, and then transmitting it over a phone network or the wider-spanning internet framework (Chalfen, 2009). More recently, the phenomena of sexting has been featured as a critical young generation’s problem-area, and one that has attracted a lot of media attention (Mitchell et al. 2012). The phenomenon of sexting has also found its way into the spheres of legal forums, policy formulation and educational research, as a problem that has violated all the ethical standards that were regarded solemn before now. More recent studies have highlighted that the problem is a common phenomenon among adults, as it was manifested through the sexting scandals that affected public figures during the 2010s. The common scandals included those of Anthony Weiner, which was heavily publicized in 2011. The expansion of the problem area to encompass the adult population has increased its presence in the literature intended for the adult population, and it is not necessarily communicated as a risky phenomenon (Sweet, 2012). However, following the publication of the legal tussles related to the young-generation’s subjection to criminal prosecution for the transmission of child-pornography, it has become an ethics hot spot. The ethical value of controlling and addressing the new problem area includes that it has become a new platform where the behavior of users can be highly criminal, especially due to the problem of exploitation.

       By putting the problem into the social context of developed societies, like the US, it became apparent that there has been little or no discourse on the engagement of the young generation in developing the solutions. In particular, the voice of the young generation has remained absent in the discourse made and maintained about the problems that affect them directly, despite the apparent necessity of seeking their side on such issues. In particular, the literature related to similar problem areas have little to do with its integration into the day-to-day media use of different groups. The problem area and the ethics related to it have also been impaired by its treatment in educational and media-use debates, because it has been branded like an aspect of cyber bullying (Cox Communications, 2009). Through the study of the problem area of sexting, and more importantly, the ethical concerns that arise from it, it is hoped that new knowledge will be created about the phenomena in the US. The area has received little attention in the past, because it has been secluded from the sensitive areas that are classified as forms of victimization, personal abuse and harassment. More importantly, it has not received a lot of attention because it is an every-day activity that has been closely compared to the use of mobile telephony as a communication platform.

       The major problem leading to the sensitivity of the ethical issues surrounding it revolve around its centrality as a day-to-day cultural practice performed by the members of society and adjusted to suit the cultural needs of different groups. The solution to the ethical problems arising from the phenomenon of sexting is one that can be addressed through a reliable partnership between the young generations, which is heavily affected by the problem. It is important to engage other authorities in society (Tallon eta al., 2012). Through adopting the outlook of exploring the problem from the cultural lens of the media, it is hoped that this study will develop information that can be used to contain the ethical crisis. In particular, by focusing on the information that will be gathered about the media utilization of the young generation, newer ways of estimating the problem and controlling it will be found and tried in the future (Chalfen, 2009).

Research Methodology

Context of study from published information

       Prior to the study, the researchers catalogued available information on Sexting in America, during the late 2000s. In particular, the attention of study was after the field became a major publicly debated area. During the comparative exploration, the investigators took account of important themes from new media. After compiling the information, a comparison was developed, using the information that has been published in the past, about the study area of sexting. The study of the phenomenon was done across a variety of settings, including bouncing the discussion off, a focus group panel of youths aged between 15 and 18. The second framework for the study took the form of a practice-based workshop that gathered information from the adult groups that are ordinarily involved in discussions on the social phenomenon (Albury & Crawford, 2012). The groups featured included the panels involved in policy formulation and the influence and place of sexting in educational spheres.

Focus group-based data collection

       The views and the attitudes of the youths covered by the study were collected from three groups hosted at the Generation Z Institute for media studies. The informants covered by the study were selected using the arms-length model. The prequalification was done over SMS and email notifications after collecting the contacts from professional networks and peers. The notification about the study was also communicated across a variety of Facebook pages, including those belonging to the area’s youth groups and entertainment centers. The investigators received consent for incorporating participant studied, as participants and from their parents.

       The focus group discussions featured were administered through two semi-structured groups. During the discussions, the participants were supplied with a leaflet showing the definition of sexting, and a list of the items they considered as sexting. During the discussions, the researchers showed the participants five videos, including a sexting TV programming episode, social work film, and other videos that showed the behaviors classified under sexting.

Professional workshops

       The workshops were held on 2nd of December 2014. The workshop meetings took place inside the public hall of the New Castle Institute. The team was comprised of 15 professional stakeholders from various departments and organizations. All the groups represented were those that encountered sexting or dealt with it in their circles of work. The groups in attendance included youth affairs workers, law enforcement, youth advocates, criminology experts, educational experts and law makers. The involvement of different panel members was done after they consented to the participation, and all of them participated willingly.

       Apart from the experts in attendance, the participants of the focus groups studied were invited, and more were sourced through professional networks and from the networks of other organizations. Prior to the workshop, the participants recruited were supplied with a working paper that guided them on the areas that needed to be explored in the area of study. During the discussions, the participants were clustered into four groups for the discussions on sexting and ethics and the possible effects on education.

Findings from the study

       The study only engaged the young people that can give their consent, despite still being considered children under the law. Despite the reliance of the study on a small sample, it raised questions on various aspects, including the assumptions incorporated into sexting education (Crawford 2011).

Focus groups

       The participants defined sexting as the transmission of images or other media showing partially-clothed or nude people, in a manner that was suggestive. The members consented to doing it, but in almost all cases unknowingly. The participants did not refer to the sexting behaviors as sexting, but used terms like “sending pictures”. The participants, considered the practice as highly negative, although some emphasized that ethical issues come up when the images sent are offensive to the recipient. The participants expressed discontentment about the adult view that the transmission of all images showing partially-naked or nude people was unethical (Mitchell et al., 2012). Many classified the images of semi-naked people, especially those showing males as embarrassing and not shameful. The issue of consent often came up as a major aspect of sexting; many regarded offensiveness as the main determinant of whether the exchange amounted to sexting. Others viewed that sexting was only present in the cases where the communicating parties were doing it consciously. The participants expressed surprise over the legal penalties, especially the position sexting could attract a legal penalty; they regarded legal redress overdoing it.

Stakeholder workshop

       The findings gathered from the expert teams included that, sexual consent laws were not necessarily relevant, but that it was ethical to consider the cultural context surrounding the exchange of images. The teams viewed that adults were equally lacking the necessary knowledge needed to safely navigate themselves and their children around the problematic area of sexting. The experts considered the communication of sexting information an area of paramount importance, especially when delivered at schools, where the young learned the behaviors. The experts recommended that education as well as policy options need to take into account, young people’s ages and contentiousness.


       The experts as well as the youths pointed out the gendered view on sexting and the education delivered to counter the social problem. The two groups pointed out that the problem of sexting was one ingrained in the social framework and culture, and the evidence included the publication of shameful images like those of Kate Middleton. The case demonstrated adult participation in the behavior. The issue of the social networks, relations and the reference culture came up, and the teams agreed that the ethics surrounding nudity should be highlighted further, because the problem was manifest in different forms (Attwood & Smith, 2011). The teams pointed out that the non-consensual sharing and transmission of the images was negative, and one that appealed to the ethics of society. The findings and comments gathered from the youth focus groups showed that they did not have knowledge about the laws governing the ethical issue of sexting. The indication of the ignorance of the group on the laws indicated the importance of educating them in the area, so that they could know the boundaries of sexting, and where they could seek redress for violations. The education would need to explore their responsibilities, with regards to the use of consent and nature of content, so as to act legally and ethically.

       The general exclusion of the youths in talks related to sexting was demonstrably one area that needed to be corrected, because they expressed consensus in relation to the use of content. For example, some emphasized that self-portraits and selfies sent to a consenting partner was not an ethical concern. However, they highlighted the importance of checking the nature and the content of public selfies, because the audience was wider and breaching ethical values was easier. They addressed one aspect of photos and content that was not explored by the experts, and it was the emphasis of the necessity of the context of content creation. For example, the youths highlighted that a half-naked photo taken at the beach was not as private as one taken in the bedroom. The group also emphasized that some content would be offensive, but would not breach the ethical values of society. The examples they highlighted as requiring the understanding of the adult population included flirtatious content transmitted between consenting parties. In exploring the issue of consent, they highlighted the necessity of the social circle intended to receive the pictures. One example highlighted was that of an image intended for a daughter aged 17, but found by the father who is 42 years old (Mitchell et al., 2012).

       In light of the ethical issues communicated and agreed upon during the moderated talk between the experts and a wider participant group, it became evident that ethical failures demonstrated the negligence of educators, parents and also policy makers. The seclusion of the young in talks related to the ethical issues of sexting and the whole issue was pointed out as a recipe for disaster, because the solutions developed were unable to address the problem. The talks emphasized that stopping sexting was almost impossible, but the young were very willing to work on harm reduction, following knowledge of law and ethical duties. For example, the education to be delivered to the young needed to be one focused on fostering the respectful exchange of content (Attwood & Smith, 2011). The new outlook on the problem highlighted the importance of reforming the laws in force, so as to offer more appropriate redress and guidance for the behavior of the youths.


       The past few decades saw major changes in digital media usage and transformations in the social relations of young people, as well as those of adults. However, the developments corresponded with a new variety of ethical issues, and there was little information available to the youths as well as the adults. Due to the scarcity of well-though-out information, there was little consensus on the behaviors that amounted to the breach of ethical responsibilities and legal offenses. The same problem was highlighted in the literature studied before the study started, and the issues highlighted included that the young generation was excluded from talks on sexting and the ethics it covered. For that reason, their vulnerability to ethical and legal violations increased; many victims did not know that they were making such violations. The information gathered from the literature review was supported by the findings collected through focus-group discussions with the young, and the experts exploring the issues. In light of the new knowledge developed, this study presented a wide range of recommendations, through the context of sexting and the nature of ethical violations that could come up.


Albury, K., & Crawford, K. (2012). Sexting, consent and young people’s ethics: Beyond Megan’s Story. Continuum, 26(3), 463-473.

Attwood, F., & Smith, C. (2011). Investigating young people’s sexual cultures: an introduction. Sex Education, 11(3), 235-242.

Chalfen, R. (2009). It’s only a picture’: sexting, ‘smutty’ snapshots and felony charges. Visual Studies, 24(3), 258-268.

Cox Communications. (2009). Teen Online and Wireless Safety survey: Cyber bullying, sexting, and parental controls. May 2009. Cox Communications with the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children (NCMEC).Mitchell, K.J., Finkelhor, D., Jones, L.M. & Wolak, J. (2012). Prevalence and Characteristics of Youth Sexting: A National Study. Pediatrics, 129(1), 13-20.

Sweet, L. (2012). Dirty Talking & Texting Tips…!! London: Carlton Books.

Tallon, K., Choi, A., Keeley, M., Elliott, J. & Maher, D. (2012). New Voices / New Laws: School-age young people in New South Wales speak out about the criminal laws that apply to their online behavior. November 2012. Sydney: National Children’s and Youth Law Centre and Legal Aid NSW.

Source document

Why digital marketing is imperative?

Digital Marketing


       Marketing has become of the vital aspects in business running. This is the method of communicating the worth of a service or a product to the customer by a producer or the seller with the main intention being selling the product or services. There are numerous types and forms of marketing. Digital marketing is one of them; this is marketing which makes use of electronic devices (computers). Digital marketing applies expertise’s or platforms such as websites, e-mail and social networks. Many organizations have resulted to combination of tradition and digital marketing channels. Digital marketing is the advertising of products or brands using different forms of electronic media. One of the major differences between the traditional marketing and the digital marketing is that, digital marketing uses methods or channels that allow a business to scrutinize marketing movements and comprehend what is functional and what is not (Ryan & Jones, 2012).

Why digital marketing is imperative?

       Digital marketing an all encompassing aspect that all customers have access to information at anytime and anyplace they want it. Past are the times when messages that people got about a product or service comes from the company and entailed only what the company wanted the customers to know (Wind &Mahajan, 2001). The world of digital world is an ever-rowing source of leisure, news, social interaction as well as consumers are now uncovered not just to what the business says about their product, but what the media, relatives, friends, etc., are saying as well. In addition, the customers are further probable to trust them than you are. People want products they can trust, companies that know them, personalized communications and relevant offers modified to their needs and preferences (Bird, 2007).

       With the world rapidly shifting from analogue to the digital world, the digital marketing world is as well becoming one of the vital aspects in the business industry. People are becoming more and more consumers of the digital world through devices such as mobiles, computers, and laptops and in turn, the marketing sector is adapting fast. Digital marketing is becoming infinitely more affordable than the traditional offline marketing strategies or methods. For example, the social media can transmit a marketing message to a wide range of audience or consumers within a very short period and at an affordable cost (Fenwick & Wertime, 2013). In addition, another main benefit of conducting marketing digitally, us the fact that, one can be able to track and monitor the marketing results. This can be done through review of consumers response rates and in turn enable to measure the success of a marketing campaign in real time. Perhaps the strongest case for incorporating a digital element in ones marketing intelligence campaign is that, there are numerous digital forms of media that are fast overtaking the traditional forms of information consumption. The bottom line is, the digital age is here, and those businesses that fail to adapt to the new marketing climate are at great risk of going extinct sooner rather than later (Ryan & Jones, 2011).

Digital Marketing Methods Already In Use in the Company ABC

       Despite the growing list of available digital marketing methods, ABC has already put in use some of the methods. Despite the need to deployment the new marketing channels, ABC Company had already deployed different and varying marketing channels. One of the major and key digital marketing that is already in use by the Pepsi Company is the use of Company Official Website. The company website is the chief gateway to the company’s products or services. Numerous businesses start with an eye-catching website as the primary step to advertising their business or the products and services and so does the Pepsi Company (Hemman, 2013). It does not look like the websites use technology is not departing away anytime soon. They are still the most effectual advertising channel, even though many business proprietors attribute the achievement of a sale to their website rather than the advertising actions that got public there in the first place (Rowan, 2001). This is a general dilemma that can only be determined through analytics and education. A website on its own will fail to produce activity unless there is a dynamic program or advertising in place to welcome visitors to the website. A great looking website is a good start but very few websites can get results without many months of social media, search marketing, or advertising (Ryan & Jones, 2012).

       The major merit associated with use of website marketing also known as online marketing is that, the company can reach to a large volume of customers globally. The internet is a powerful tool in connecting people. It’s also inexpensive when compared to other traditional methods if marketing, brings results quickly, invites consumers and clients to research for specific product of their interests (Rowley, 2008). Moreover, business growth statistics can be measured very easily. On the other hand, this method has limitations. One is the consumers are denied to feel, smell, taste or to try on the tangible goods before marketing or purchasing. For the method to be effective, customers and clients must be handy with the use of ‘Email Marketing Efficiently’ (Carter, 2011).

       In addition to the company website, the company also has implemented email marketing method. This is whereby, the company captures the emails addresses of their website visitors when they subscribe to the website. In return, they use send emails to the customers with the desired messages about a product or a service. This can be done from the official company website or from the affiliate’s websites. The benefits of this method include low cost of conducting and running the marketing campaign, it’s also easy to create and also track. Moreover, it can be used to cover a large geographical area within a short period of time (Carter, 2012).

       However, on the other hand the marketing method is incurred by shortcomings. One is that the method needs engagement as it calls for constant tweaking so as to keep the subscribers engaged. Spam is another demerit of the method. People’s inboxes are filled with emails and in order to cut down the amount of unwanted emails, servers have filters to lessen the number of spam emails to the customers and in return the information may fail to reach to the intended people in time (Friedlein, 2014).

Digital marketing channels

       In the ever growing digital marketing world, there are numerous and continues channels that can be deployed in digital marketing. The channel (s) used by any given business depends or varies from one business to the other as the business the most effective method depending on the target or objectives of the marketing campaign. Choosing the right channels to use for what purposes in the ABC, critical elements of business strategy is vital in choosing the most effective channels (Hendrix, 2014). Get it right and you can reap the rewards of reaching and retaining your customers. In the process of choosing marketing channels there are three keys to a successful digital marketing. (I). the channel should be able to manage complex customer relations with the company, products and services offered across a variety of other channels both digital and traditional. (II) The channel should respond and at the same time initiate dynamic customer relations. (III) Finally, the channel should extract value from big data to make better decisions faster (Winterberg, 2013). As a marketing consultant the best digital channels that can be deployed by Pepsi Company include:

Social Media Marketing

       Social media marketing refers to the practice of gaining website traffic or awareness through social media sites. It is a form of Internet marketing which utilizes networking websites as a marketing tool. The main objective of this method is to produce content that users will share with their social network to help a company increase brand exposure and broaden customer reach. The social media phenomenon is gaining steam in recent times as the young and digital generations are frequently relying on for information (Farrar, 2010). One advantage of deploying social media is the fact that it’s free to use for the customers and the company so able to get the feedback from the customer instantly. Social media is the various activities which integrate technology, social interaction, and construction of pictures, words, videos and audio. This marketing channel creates connectedness between the company and the customer, maintains openness and promotes participation of the customers in company activities. However, this digital marketing method requires the company to keep updating the social media accounts. This process takes time and effort. In addition, a person with knowledge about the company and its products should be deployed to manage the accounts (Ryan & Jones, 2012).

Affiliate Digital Marketing

       Another digital channel that would be of great help to ABC is through affiliate digital marketing. This is whereby a website owner places adverts on behalf of ABC (online merchant). The benefits from this affiliate marketing are through three ways. These are: pay per click policy. Pay per sale and pay per lead. Advantages of using this digital marketing channel are that, the merchant company only incurs a cost when the agreed action occurs. In addition, the company would get mass coverage at no additional cost and lastly, the more websites the ABC Company would be affiliated wit, the more exposure of its products and services it gets. Despite the scams and schemes in the trade, affiliate marketing is still one of the best ways to generate income on the Internet. It is especially beneficial for those wanting to earn without having to spend too much time and effort monitoring sales or client response (Bird, 2007).

       For the success of the new digital campaign the information provided is vital for the customers and the company at large. The kind of information sent through the channels in marketing should relevant o the company, the product and the customer. One of the vital information exchanged through the marketing channels is the different types of products offered or produced by the company. This helps to identify a company in terms of goods or services produced. In addition, the geographical location of the business is also provided. This helps the customers to know the nearest location to find the company or their products. In other words, the channels provide information about the company and its business aspects. Moreover, the information passed or sent through the marketing methods includes promotions, payments methods and delivery of goods and services as well as all the information deemed vital to help the company increase the amount of sales or revenue gained (Bird, 2007).

       In order for the digital marketing to be successful, there are numerous factors that must be met or observed by the new digital campaign, for the company. Objective attainability, this is the fact that, the new marketing campaign and the channels deployed should be applicable in achieving the company objectives and missions. Secondly, the new digital campaign should be dynamic and consumer engaging. Other key success factors include the engaging aspects of the marketing channels. The new designed marketing channels are customer engaging as it helps in determining the performance of the company through the number of positive responses from the customers. Finally, market information is sent through the channels (Bird, 2007).


       Over the recent times, there has been a dramatic increase in the intensity with which people business entities and companies use digital devices and platforms. Market analyst believes that worldwide mobile transaction volumes and value will see an average 42% yearly increase between 2011 and 2016. As customers shift online, it will become essential that businesses adopt the clear-cut rules of online and mobile targeting, personalization, engagement, conversion, and retention (Bird, 2007). Digital marketing represents about 25% of all marketing spending today. By 2020, it is believed that, it will dictate 50% of all marketing budgets. Businesses that prepare for and hone their digital marketing abilities now will begin to see instantaneous benefits and are likely to stay ahead of the curve. Interactive media will modernize business. It allows consumer companies to deliver real-time and personalized services and content with highly engaging immersive experiences (Bird, 2007).


Ryan, D., & Jones, C. (2012). Understanding digital marketing: Marketing strategies for

engaging the digital generation. Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page.

Wind, Y., & Mahajan, V. (2001). Digital marketing global strategies from the world’s

leading experts. New York, J. Wiley.

Bird, D. (2007). Commonsense direct & digital marketing. London [u.a.], Kogan Page.

Fenwick, I., & Wertime, K. (2013). Digimarketing the essential guide to new media and

digital marketing. Hoboken, N.J., Wiley.

Ryan, D., & Jones, C. (2011). The best digital marketing campaigns in the world: Mastering the art of customer engagement. London: Kogan Page.

Hemann, C. (2013). Digital marketing analytics: Making sense of consumer data in a digital

world. by Chuck Hemann, Ken Burbary. Indianapolis, Indiana: Que.

Rowan, W. (2001). Digital marketing: Using the new technologies to get closer to your customers. London: Kogan Page.

Carter, B. (2011). Digital marketing for dummies. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Järvinen, J., Tollinen, A., Karjaluoto, H., & Jayawardhena, C. (2012). Digital And Social Media

Marketing Usage In B2b Industrial Section. Marketing Management Journal, 22(2), 102-117.Rowley, J. (2008). Understanding digital content marketing. Journal Of Marketing

Management, 24(5/6), 517-540.

Ryan, D., & Jones, C. (2009). Understanding Digital Marketing : Marketing Strategies for Engaging the Digital Generation. London: Kogan Page.

Carter, E., & Parameswaran, R. (2012). THE DIGITAL MARKET-SPHERE (DMS):

MODELING VIRTUAL TRANSACTONS AND TRANSVECTONS. Marketing Management Journal, 22(1), 122-158.Friedlein, A. (2014). The many ‘deaths’ of digital marketing. Marketing Week (01419285), 5.Hendrix, P. E. (2014). How Digital Technologies Are Enabling Consumers and Transforming the

Practice of Marketing. Journal Of Marketing Theory & Practice, 22(2), 149-150. doi:10.2753/MTP1069-6679220209

Winterberg, B. (2013). Tools for Digital Age Marketing. Journal Of Financial Planning, 26(1), 32-33.

Farrar, M. (2010). Understanding Digital Marketing. Manager: British Journal Of Administrative Management, (71), 12-14.

Source document

Digital humanities, scholarly communication and communication science

Objectives of this research proposal is to identify a problem n work place and propose a solution to the management on the problem facing the company.


        Communication is very essential for the progress of a company. In today’s world, companies are striving to have good communication in places of work. However, good communication is hard to achieve because communication is increasingly becoming complex because complex work activities and multicultural environment in the places of work. Lack of communication increases job dissatisfaction and kills morale of workers. This research will evaluate the causes of poor communication. It will also come up with solutions on what needs to bedone.

WorkcompletedI have managed to calculate the total cost for research and written a breakdown of all expenses to be incurred in this research. I have also written a schedule of all activities that I will carry on eve day. Interview was one of research methodology used in the proposal. I intended to interview five people from Youth Health Partnership Organization. The proposed persons to be interviewed are Mr. Phillip Hardy, Human Resources Manager, Mr. Charles Chah, Senior Accountant, two casual workers and Ms. Agnes Ashley, Finance officer. I have managed to interview two casual workers and Ms. Agnes. I have also managed to gather and reviewed all the journals and books that I needed for the purpose of this research

Work remaining

        The remaining work is to secure an appointment with Mr. Philip and Mr. Charles and to interview them. I have not completed collecting data using questionnaires.

Obstacle encountered

        Mr. Philip and Mr. Chah have been canceling our scheduled meeting at the last minute. Another challenge is that workers are refusing to fill in the questionnaire due to fear of victimization from supervisors.


Klyukanov, I. (2013). Digital humanities, scholarly communication and communication science. Modern communication studies, 2(1), 43-53.

Rayudu, C. S. (2010). Communication (Rev. ed.). Mumbai [India: Himalaya Pub. House.Zaremba, A. J. (2010). Organizational communication (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

Carrière, J., & Bourque, C. (2009). The effects of organizational communication on job satisfaction and organizational commitment in a land ambulance service and the mediating role of communication satisfaction. Career Development International, 14(1), 29-49.

Ryabova, I. (2013). Communication components of management and organizational culture of the company. Modern communication studies, 2(2), 13-40.

Source document

Can digital art be considered fine art

The debate between traditional art and digital art has been going on for some time. People argue that art is art so long as it involves universal expression of imagination creativity and storytelling. Whether it is through painting, music, painting or sculpting so long as it delivers the intended purpose. These people suggest that the medium does not matter and all that matters is the content. Some people argue that Digital art is not art, it is basically a collection of photo shops for people who don’t know how to draw. Digital art does not involve talent emotion and insight. Anyone who can take a photo can do this. Digital painters simply bash together real painters works and other various photos to form images. These people argue that digital art is computer generated therefore not real as there are infinite copies since there is no original. This notion and perception is entirely right. Digital art is not real art because it contains less aspects of creativity of art and design. Unlike like the traditional art and paintings digital works show less emotions and creativity of the artist.

Before camera invention artist had the main role off depicting the real world. Art has been changing in the subject it shows though every time it’s a window to real world. The invention of camera and other digital machines has redefined art. The digital artists are not really talented artists because they simply rely on the computers to produce their work. Without the computers, such artists are rendered useless. The digitalized art is not as deep and moving as the traditional art. It does not show much emotion like the one done using paint and brush (Horowitz, Hill & Hayes, 2009).

Traditional painting depicts more originality and authenticity. It brings out the artists true ability of creativity and imagination. On the contrary, digital art does not reveal the true capacity of the artist. The artists have just taken shortcuts. They do not cover greater depth of creating and forming the images. Digital art does not show imagination or real creativity. Anyone with the knowledge of a computer and the camera can merge the pictures and painting on a computer to come up with digital art. One does not really have to be talented to make digital art but with traditional painting it is only for the talented who are able to reach out to the audience in a more natural way.

Traditional art is more effective in conveying the artist’s message. The fact that the audience can see and even feel the piece of art gives traditional painting an upper hand than the digitalized art. No printer or computer can paint in impasto. For fine art, thick and textured paint is what makes the painting unique and special. The digital print is less unique because of the uniform surface. Traditional art is more is more involving than the digital one, the artist has to pay attention to details in order to bring out the message or reach out to the audience. This gives traditional art more value. Traditional art has a special unique effect to the audience it feels more real and easy to relate to. Research shows that people have a better understanding and connection to things they can see touch and smell than things, which they just see.

Digital art is not an artist’s inventiveness but rather it is it is modification and merging of different pictures. Digital art like music, is a computerized copy mere fabrication and modification of true art programs and numerical cord. It has less to do with creativity. Traditional art is rarely replicated but digital art is replicated in many ways. This dilutes the aspect of art since fine art is supposed to be original.

In digital art, a person has anonymity from construction and immunity to error. Clicking ‘print’ and ‘undo’ cannot be considered equal to brush work. Digital art is a mere manipulation of the real and traditional art. It is just meant for convenience in terms of accessibility and ease . An artist is able to create many pieces of art in a shorter time using the digital medium. People prefer accessing the arts through the digitalized devices but a person who appreciates real arts goes to the galleries and exhibition stores just to feel and acknowledge the real thrill. Digital art is meant for people who have less interest in fine art. The interested people and artist who value art prefer the traditional art as they can relate and derive better meaning from it compared to the digital art (Quora, 2014).


As much as art is art, detail and degree of authenticity matters. Art is all about originality and creativity and digital art depict less of these qualities. This makes digital art to be considered irrelevant when compared to traditional art. Traditional art involves pure talent while digital art is merely the duplication and merging of different arts that already existed. Traditional art is easier to connect and relate to because they can be touched and seen at the same time.


Horowitz, P., Hill, W., & Hayes, T. C. (2009). The art of electronics (Vol. 2, p. 658). Cambridge: Cambridge university press.

Quora. Is digital really art?:- December 2014. 10 Dec.2014

Source document

Blogging Digital Media And Society Series

Jill Walker Rettberg new edition “Blogging: digital media and society series” can be described as a key book in an emerging field. Blogging has come to be associated as a landmark in the current social cyber studies and even more. Blogging is all about the way today’s popular culture has become an important element in large magnitude changes in how culture is produced. With her book, Jill digs into the deep and broad of blogging to give the reader the real meaning of what is involved in blogging as the evidence and driver of a shift in epochal culture (Rettberg, 2014).

Jill’s capability in ensuring that she reaches out to the right audience and puts the points on blogging across is enhanced by experience. Being a prolific blogger herself, Jill uses her experience as a blogger in pointing out the various issues to her audience. Jill also utilizes examination which is enhanced by use of an expert’s eye of a communications researcher with experience to reveal the historical, psychological, social and political meaning of the blogging initiative. Borrowing from various disciplines, it is evident of her good understanding on the blogging issue and its impact. The other strong point in her writing is the fact that she brings and uses various disciplines such as media studies, marketing, ethnology, literary studies, sociology and journalism into an excellent exploratory framework (Rettberg, 2014).

Jill’s book expands blogging into a wider context of the decline in print culture to the emerging trends. The updated and revised edition provides a good study of the now each and every day phenomenon placing it in a theoretical, contemporary and historical context. The use of the most recent of the researches and developments in the blogging world is taken care of with an analysis of the new tools for visual blogging and micro blogging (Rettberg, 2014).

In the book, Jill discusses the changing trends where in the current times blogs are being integrated into the mainstream social media ecology. This helps to show the reader the direction the blogging element is taking in the formation and continuation of popular culture. Jill notes that the comments and the links from social networking sites such as Twitter and Facebook have become more important than networks between blogs which was important five years ago. Jill also questions the new trend where there is a shift towards increased corporate control and commercialization of blogs (Rettberg, 2014).

The cultural shift has also seen its share of influence from blogging as Jill illustrates using examples. Jill delves into the analysis of how the current smart phones equipped with cameras together with the social media has led to the shift towards more emphasis on the visual aspects in the blogs with the use of graphics and photographs being in the foreground. Jill puts in a convincing analysis of how blogging together with related genres have come to change the world of communication and media (Rettberg, 2014).

The design of the book is in such a way that each of the chapters is a self-sufficient review of areas in blogging which makes the structure repetitive across the work. The book is more suitable for beginners or anyone with an interest in blogging as Jill puts the chapters in a loose connection to blogging. Though Jill has borrowed from many disciplines to help the reader in understanding the different aspects of blogging, there is some diversion, however when the discussion shifts from blogging as a phenomenon into the related and convergent forms like the social networking sites. There are lengthy discussions of the various sites such as MySpace and Facebook which though put with the right intention in mind, they do not achieve this as there is no clear elaboration to the reader how this relates to the overall topics (Rettberg, 2014).

Walker’s work begins by tackling the question of what a blog is. She starts with an introduction to the history of online text based communication. She then moves on to the development of blogging tools such as Blogger. Walker develops a shred understanding of material aspects in blogging. An interesting section also discusses blogs as genre and medium which is a distinction that is not addressed directly most of the time. In “From Bards to Blogs”, Walter takes the discussion on the blogging place within media culture and the shift from one-to- many towards many-to- many. Walter positions the internet as a counterpoint to Plato’s complaint of a written text being unresponsive. Walker shares the view that there is potential for interactivity between authors of blog posts, the blog post itself and the reader in blog comments (Rettberg, 2014).

Also of particular interest is the chapter “Citizen Journalist?’ where Walker puts her focus on the three ways in which blogging intersects with traditional journalism. There are bloggers acting as journalists, the bloggers who report on mainstream media and the bloggers giving first-hand reports on ongoing events. Walker goes ahead to discuss bloggers as the chance to witness big historical events. Her example of Kaye D. Trammell account on Hurricane Katrina is meant to show how blogs can be used as sources of information by both the public and mass media however understudied. This is an avenue that can be used for future works in blogging (Rettberg, 2014).

Walker also discusses how blogs have expanded to various forms of narratives in “Blogs as narratives” She gives an account of the three forms of narratives namely the goal-oriented narrative, ongoing narration and fragmented narratives. In the same chapter she evaluates the ways in which blogs can be used as a means of self exploration with one discovering their strengths and what they can do best to contribute to the society (Rettberg, 2014).

Walker finishes the book off with a review of the future of blogs and the future of social media. In the chapter, Walker also touches on the use of language, privacy government access and control each of which one gets the feeling that they could be well covered in a different book each on its own. An addition of some scholarly works using quantitative methods would have added some balance to the various discussions such as the one on protypical blog and blogger. Another limitation in Walker’s book is that there is a small number of scholarly works cited on bloggers and blogging (Rettberg, 2014).

In general Walker provides a popular view on blogging culture and blogs and steers away from in-depth analysis and critical discussion. The text however is a good introductory resource for both non-academic and academic audiences (Rettberg, 2014).


Rettberg, J. W. (2014). Blogging.

Source document