Autism Spectrum Disorder – ASD

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a situation related to brain development that impacts how a person perceives and socializes with others, causing problems in social interplay and communication. The disorder also includes restricted and repetitive patterns of habits. In 2020 the CDC determined that roughly 1 in fifty four kids is identified with an autism spectrum dysfunction. Boys are extra doubtless to be recognized with autism spectrum than women. ASD could be diagnosed by the age of two, however can still be recognized by the age of 4.

Some signs of ASD is obsessive movement, which implies that somebody that has the disorder shakes things continuously or would rock forwards and backwards in place.

A day to day life for an individual with ASD encompass any other regular day for a person with out ASD. People with the disorder learn slower than the common particular person. Was of a child being born with ASD are from older dad and mom having a child, a fragile X syndrome, low start weight, genetic mutations, and having one other family member with autism.

There is not any recognized supply of treatment for ASD, however when the kid with ASD is family centered, social interplay skills superior. (Impact of Family-Centered Early Intervention in Infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Single-Subject Design, retrieved 3/03/2020).

There has been lots of analysis about autism spectrum dysfunction. The research is from the Department of Occupational Therapy, Seoul Metropolitan Children’s Hospital, and Republic of Korea and Department of Occupational Therapy, Yonsei University, Republic of Korea. The analysis began on January 7, 2018 and ended 14 weeks in a while April 15, 2018.

The research occurred on the three totally different properties of the participants. The research was used to discover what occurs with the children with ASD undergo and to see what occurs when the child socially interacts. (Impact of Family-Centered Early Intervention in Infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Single-Subject Design, retrieved 3/03/2020).

The researchers posted an commercial on an internet neighborhood website for applicants to take part within the research. The researchers appeared for kids beneath the age of two to be individuals in the research. There had been three participants within the research who all have ASD. The participants where three infants and their ages are 29 months, 25 months, and 24 months. All three participants are male and have no other diagnoses in addition to ASD. (Impact of Family-Centered Early Intervention in Infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Single-Subject Design, retrieved 3/03/2020). The research had completely different levels and phases.

The first section was the recruitment, where they would select which candidates could be part of the examine. The subsequent part for the study is called the baseline phase. This phase happened three times per week where one of many researchers would go to the participants’ house and watch the toddler play with their care giver. While the infant would play, the researcher video report for ten minutes. The researcher would report in order that they may discover a useful means for the infant to play to assist with the ASD. After the baseline section, the following part is intervention section.

The intervention section occurred 12 instances over a six week period. This phase consisted of suggestions from the researcher to the parent/ care giver. The researcher would give the parent/ care giver methods of playing that would assist with the infants social interaction skills. The final phase is the observe up part the place follow up checks can be performed using the checks free play, M-CHATR/F, and ESI. The M-CHATR/F test was used to judge the infants with ASD and ESI is an epidural steroid injection. The researcher would recommend modifications in the infant’s daily life to accommodate the toddler having ASD. (Impact of Family-Centered Early Intervention in Infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Single-Subject Design, retrieved 3/03/2020).

The results present that kids with the autism spectrum disorder are inclined to turn into higher at social interplay when working towards social interplay. Since this study the individuals improved on speech and social interplay. Participant three did present probably the most enchancment, but the other two participants showed improvement as nicely since the beginning. Since the study started the ASD in the three individuals was less then what it was at the beginning of the examine.

Autism as a developmental disorder


Artificial Neural networks assist us to diagnose ASD and AI-assisted intervention applied sciences such as contemporary computer-aided techniques (CAS), laptop vision assisted technologies (CVAT), and digital actuality (VR) helps autistic people to speak and learn as it is troublesome for them to make communication with different human beings. To diagnose ASD in people, ASD checks are developed under the study of ASD Diagnosis  with Artificial Neural Network. The ANN model exhibits an correct diagnosis of ASD based on the evaluation of check outcomes.

The survey of AI-assisted intervention applied sciences reveals that these applied sciences are useful as autistic folks favor machine communication over humans.

I found this subject fascinating as a end result of films like Extinction and I robotic create the impression that AI is going to change the world in a adverse way which I needed to disagree with and hence proved most optimistic side of AI by way of this paper. As nicely famous personalities like Einstein, Newton have autism, which again triggers my interest on this subject.

Milo is a humanoid robot, which is developed to treat autistic students. This robot might help students to study the mandatory communication skills. The examine for diagnosis for Autism via ANN is predicated on the test results data fed as input to the network and its analysis by way of the network. What if the data provided is misleading? Then, in that case, also will ANN diagnose autism correctly? Also, AI-assisted intervention technologies assist children be taught. They make them comfy enough to speak. So , throughout this procedure, aren’t we pushing children in a man-made world? Moreover, to what extent we can present kids on this world and the way right it is?


Centers for Disease Control present data, which states that 1 out of 59 children, has autism.

This means that autism is no longer a uncommon illness. It can affect any individual from all levels of society. Autism is a developmental disorder. This affects social skills, speech, and nonverbal communication and causes repetitive conduct (WWW1). These signs of autism can appear at the age of 2 to three. (Naseer, 2019 ).

Early diagnosis of autism in a person helps to deal with it in the later a part of his or her life. A individual identified with autism earlier shows excellent enchancment over acquiring skills than a person diagnosed later. Artificial Neural Network is a mathematical model based on synthetic intelligence that may diagnose autism in an individual. This technology proves a superb help for autistic individuals and their caregivers as properly as members of the family. After a analysis of autism, autistic people can be handled in various methods. Traditional clinical settings have been favourite in the past. Along with traditional scientific settings, now a day’s technology-based interventions are also proving useful for autistic individuals to learn varied expertise. Researches carried out over the last decade states that folks suffering from autism reveals curiosity in technology-based interventions for learning and speaking (Jaliaawala, 2019 ). These interventions can be used in scientific settings also in homes and classrooms. The study is executed by Jaliaawala (2019) about researches prior to now decade, in his article, he states that every one researches point out the constructive effect of know-how interventions on, verbal and nonverbal skills of an autistic person. Robots like Milo helps autistic kids to learn and perceive, communication, and social skills (WWW2).

Recently I came across an article which states that Albert Einstein, Amadeus Mozart, Sir Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, these famous personalities had autism. This triggered my curiosity in autism. While searching additional, I got here to know that Autistic folks have difficulties in social communication. The use difficulties may be overcome with applied sciences like Milo and QTrobot by implementing synthetic intelligence. This makes me extra fascinated by this field.

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder comes underneath Pervasive Developmental Disorder, which once more subdivided into High Functioning Autism, Low Functioning Autism, and Social interaction impairment. High functioning autistic individuals are these with IQ level 70 or above but face difficulties in emotion regulation and expression, communication, and social interplay. Low functioning autistic people are these having cognitive impairments. The signs of LFA embrace impaired social communication or interactions, problems in sleep, unusual conduct, self -injurious tendencies (Jaliaawala, 2019 ). Autism affects verbal in addition to nonverbal expertise of an individual. According to data offered by the Centers for Disease Control in 2018, 1 out of fifty nine youngsters is autistic. 1 in 37 boys and 1 in 151 girls that imply boys are 4 times extra vulnerable to this dysfunction. 31% of kids have intelligence quotient less than 70, 25% of kids are within the vary of seventy one to 85, and 44% of youngsters possess above 85 intelligence quotient level(WWW1).

Diagnosis of Autism utilizing Artificial Neural Network Model Ibrahim M. Nasser performed an experiment, during which autism analysis is carried out with the assistance of ANN mannequin. This model used sample data out of which eighty % knowledge used to train the mannequin and 20% of information used to validate the mannequin. This knowledge is collected from the ASD check app. This is a mobile screening software to detect the presence of autism.

Test: -This application is designed such that all individuals of all ages can use it. ASD behaviors are measured based mostly on 4 modules of this app. Autism Spectrum Quotient is the screening software which consists of self -observed questions. The answers to these question s can detect autistic traits in an individual. This 50 -question set is decreased to 10, to shorten the version. These questions examine autism’s cognitive strength. The answer to the question ranges from definitely conform to disagree. On the ten -question scale, a person who scores more than six is detected with autism.

Methodology: – The data from the autistic screening take a look at is collected. This dataset is used for this experiment. ANN mannequin used in this experiment is skilled and validated in opposition to this data and conclusions drawn from it. This information consists of user-specific info like name, gender, age, ethnicity, history about jaundice, autism detected in a family member, relation with a participant of the experiment, nation of residence, information about the usage of the appliance prior to now, together with ten revised questions from autism spectrum quotient. Data collected from the screening app is preprocessed earlier than forwarding to the ANN model. This is done for predictive evaluation. The precise knowledge fed to mannequin consists of answers from 10 questions, age, gender, jaundice at start or not, class/ASD attribute. Apart from the age attribute, all other information is within the form of Boolean numbers, which suggests solely 0 and one values. Out of those information, all attributes from age to jaundice are thought of as enter attributes, and the category attribute is taken into account as an output attribute, which shows ASD presence or absence.

Results: – ANN mannequin developed by ( Naseer, 2019 ) exhibits an accuracy of 100 percent. The mannequin was appropriate in the detection of autism.

Importance of Technology-Assisted Intervention within the treatment of autism autistic people lacks social and communication skills. This makes them difficult to reach for teaching and letting them understand society. Many of them keep away from social contact, so standard school settings and clinical settings make it much more difficult to teach them needed abilities like, perceive and reply to facial expressions, greet friends or do any communication with the elderly or with colleagues.

A Comprehensive Survey of AI-Assisted Intervention for Autistic People

The methodologies which are reviewed in this survey are modern computer-aided systems, laptop imaginative and prescient assisted technologies, and virtual reality or AI-assisted intervention. In this study, literature is presented associated to interventions for facial features impairments in autistic people. Interventions for facial features impairments are once more subdivided into three categories.

They are non -verbal communication abilities, verbal social skills, and digital reality. Non -verbal communication skills can be summarized as emotion recognition, affect recognition, maintaining eye contact, decision making, etc. Similarly, verbal communication expertise could be summarized as social interactions, greeting to friends, etc. Virtual actuality includes both non – verbal and verbal expertise. All the reviewed researches categorized in these three sections and conclusion is drawn. One of the primary questions, among researches, was, whether Computer-Aided Systems are more effective than traditional clinical settings for autistic people? Some ofthe researches present constructive outcomes about statistical inference. Though the effectivity of CAS over conventional scientific settings isn’t confirmed, it has benefits over conventional medical settings for people who have ASD. Advantages of CAS over Traditional Clinical Settings for Autism  Unlimited repeated therapies may be formulated with correctness. Hence improving constancy. Because of automation, access to more extensive and distant areas which in flip saves price. As human intervention is lowered, probabilities of unintentional induction of maladaptive behaviors are also reduced.

Methodology and Result: -Result of the survey are tabulated. This desk contains column heads with Author, Participant, Mean Age, Average IQ, Participants characteristics, Skill intervened, Technology used for intervention. Data from numerous researches are studied, sorted, and entered against respective columns of tables. For example, Bernard Opitz et al. (2001) performed analysis during which sixteen persons participated, eight persons, having ASD, and eight persons with TYP syndrome with a mean age of 4 years for TYP syndrome and seven years for ASD. The average IQ of these people was ninety. The characteristics of those people noted were, eight individuals have ASD out of which 2 had been females, and 6 have been males. Eight individuals have typical management out of which 3 had been females, and 5 had been males. Social expertise and resolution generation capability in conflicting conditions have been intervened through this research. The technological background consists of software – developed by the researcher, hardware – a private pc with home windows ninety five for ten periods. Results obtained from this research have been additionally entered towards the end result column. For this research, they compared the enthusiasm scale for computer and teacher. After comparison, they found that autistic people have fewer issues with habits and increased motivation in the direction of computer-aided periods.

Milo. A Robot for Autism

Robokind, a robotics firm, created a robotic known as Milo. This is 2 ft tall social robot developed to assist youngsters with autism. The mechanical inclinations of the robot make youngsters relate shortly with a humanoid robotic. Milo can engage kids 87 % of their time.

Milo, along with instructor or therapist, helps kids learn with out getting frustrated and teaches through the number of repetition s. Milo can be utilized as a group setting or an individual setting. Milo needs an teacher to facilitate between MMilo and the kid. Milo within the present moment solely accessible for faculties and therapist’s use. Unfortunately, it’s not available for residence or private use (WWW2). The only drawback of MMilo is, it needs some prerequisite abilities possessed by kids to proceed learning with Milo. Caregivers or therapists have to verify these abilities in an autistic individual to work with MMilo (WWW2).


As autism is a developmental dysfunction, there is no particular treatment or remedy to autism. Early diagnosis of autism is helpful to take care of autism. ANN can detect autism 100 % accurately based on knowledge supplied. A complete survey of all researches relating to AI intervention with autistic people reveals that the autistic person shows a eager interest in technology-based intervention and these interventions can be used to teach autistic inhabitants needed expertise relating to verbal and nonverbal communication sorts. However, although proving efficient, there isn’t any uniformity amongst pc scientists, therapists, and AI creating teams. There is no standard protocol which is adopted during researches concerning AI intervention technologies with people who have autism. Hence knowledge collected thus far cannot be effectively used (Jaliaawala, 2019 ). Robots like Milo can prove a great assist in the educational processes of the autistic inhabitants. However, there have to be management over each technology used with people who have autism. Because of this dysfunction, these people are already in disconnection with society. If not use in control method, youngsters will get obsessive about robots and can forget the human touch. If the situation gets uncontrolled, then it’s going to turn out to be difficult for conventional settings additionally to deal with children. Hence management use of any expertise could probably be the necessary thing to determine better outcomes to deal with autism with AI-assisted know-how intervention.


  1. Nasser, I. M. et al., (2019). Artificial Neural Network for Diagnose Autism Spectrum Disorder.
  2. International Journal of Academic Information Systems Research (IJAISR) ISSN: 2000 -002X Vol. three Issue 2 , Pages: 27 -32
  3. Jaliaawala, M. S. et al., (2019). Can autism be catered with synthetic intelligence -assisted intervention technology? A complete survey. Artificial Intelligen ce Review , 1 -32.
  4. WWW1. What is Autism? < -autism > Accessed 2019.
  5. WWW2. About Robokind. < >
  6. WWW3. Causes and Risk Factors < -spectrum – issues -asd/index.shtml >

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Antisocial character disorder (ASPD) is characterized by a scarcity of regard for the moral or legal standards in the local tradition. There is a marked lack of ability to get along with others or abide by societal guidelines (APA, 2000). This sample of behavior is seen in youngsters or younger adolescents and persists into adulthood. It can also be typically generally known as sociopath, psychopath or dyssocial character dysfunction. People who’re diagnosed with ASPD haven’t any conscience, transfer through society as predators and pay little attention to the consequences of their action.

They cannot perceive emotions of guilt or remorse. Their lack of empathy is usually because of their robust sense of self-worth and a superficial allure that tends to mask an inner indifference to the need or feelings of the other. They are additionally really good at manipulating conditions.

However, sociopaths with lower schooling are still actually good liars but are typically more violent and aren’t nearly as good at manipulation. (NICE, 2010) Psychopath is actually different from sociopath.

According to Professor Alan Basham from EWU’s Psychology Department, psychopath is more like an advance version of sociopath. They don’t have capacity to feel attachment, empathy or shame. They simply don’t care in regards to the others. They are even able to killing their friends or households. Sociopaths are not necessary killers. They manipulate to gain their own profit but still can feel emotional attachment to other people. The sociopath will nonetheless lack empathy and attachment for society and won’t feel guilt harming a stranger or breaking the regulation in any kind, but won’t lack empathy for those to whom he feels hooked up.

Both genetic and environmental elements affect the event of ASPD. Adopted kids have an elevated danger of creating ASPD. Children born to folks diagnosed with ASPD however adopted into other households resemble their biological more than their adoptive mother and father.

However, the surroundings of the adoptive house can also lower the child’s risk of developing ASPD. Also, each male and female may be sociopath or psychopath. (NICE, 2010) “Attachment is the method through which people develop particular, optimistic emotional bonds with others. John Bowlby proposed the notion of the attachment behavior system as an organized sample of toddler sign and adult responses that result in a protecting, trusting relationship through the very earliest stage of improvement.” (Newman & Newman, 2006) Through the attachment principle, we know that youngsters learn how to love, belief and care about each other by studying this from their mother and father in early childhood. As a baby grown up in an abusive setting, they often lack of fogeys caring and led to failure to attach. “Factors and events have been linked to developmental psychopathology and its antisocial penalties or sequelae.

These embrace abuse and neglect, publicity to interpersonal/interparental violence, intergenerational substance abuse, maladaptive attachments in early life, maltreatment such as abandonment, and neurodevelopment.” (Armstrong & Kelley, 2008) The experience of rejection or loss of love throughout early childhood appears to create a root trigger for underlying emotional ache and poor individuation that are subsequently performed out in abusive behaviors. Everyone is their enemies, they have to guard themselves and that is how they become anti-social. “Multiple interacting forces contribute to childhood maltreatment and trauma, leading to the development of psychopathology. How early interpersonal relationships are shaped could additionally be a contributory mechanism in coping strategies later in life.

These elements in turn might contribute to a lack of fundamental belief, detachment from relationships, and affective experiences inflicting maladaptive behaviors later in life.” (Armstrong & Kelley, 2008) “The therapist’s main task is to determine a relationship with the affected person, who has normally had only a few healthy relationships in his or her life and is unable to belief others. The affected person should be given the chance to establish optimistic relationships with as many individuals as attainable and be inspired to affix self-help teams or prosocial reform organizations.” (NICE, 2010) However, Antisocial Personality Disorder is extremely unresponsive to any form of remedy, usually as a result of persons with ASPD not often search therapy voluntarily. They don’t suppose there could be something wrong with them, it’s always the others. If they do seek help, it’s normally in an try to find relief from despair or other forms of emotional distress.

“Given that these with antisocial character disorder actively resist having to just accept help, and that coercion into treatment immediately challenges their core persona construction, it’s clear that therapeutic interventions are also prone to be under risk in such circumstances. Hence, one would possibly anticipate a excessive drop-out rate from therapy and certainly that is what has been discovered.”(Huband, 2007) Also, many people who find themselves diagnose with ASPD use therapy classes to discover methods to flip “the system” to their benefit. Their pervasive pattern of manipulation and deceit extends to all aspects of their life, including therapy. Generally, their conduct have to be controlled in a setting the place they know they don’t have any probability of getting across the rules. Medication could only treat a few of the signs of ASPD. The solely answer would be prevention.

“Antisocial Personality Disorder usually follows a persistent and unremitting course from childhood or early adolescence into adult life. The impulsiveness of the disorder usually leads to in prison or an early dying by way of accident, murder or suicide. There is a few proof that the worst behaviors that define Antisocial Personality Disorder diminish by midlife; the more overtly aggressive signs of the disorder occur much less incessantly in older patients. This improvement is very true of criminal habits however may apply to different antisocial acts as properly. (NICE, 2010)

Therefore, to forestall delinquent character dysfunction must begin in early childhood, earlier than the youngsters are in danger for growing conduct disorder. Education for parenthood to lower the incidence of child abuse is critical. “The only long-term resolution, I imagine, is Westman’s proposal that we require potential parents to meet the identical minimal necessities that we now anticipate of couples hoping to undertake a child: a mature man and girl, sufficiently dedicated to parenthood to be married to one another, who’re self-supporting and neither felony nor actively psychotic.” (Lykken 1996)


1. APA, DSM-IV-TR, 2000. Print

2. National Institute for Health & Clinical Excellence, The British Psychological Society & The Royal College of Psychiatrists, Antisocial Personality Disorder: Treatment, Management & Prevention, 2010. Print.

3. Huband, N., McMurran, M., Evans, C., et al. Social problem solving plus psychoeducation for adults with character dysfunction: pragmatic randomized managed trial, The British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 307-313, 2007. Print.

4. Professor Alan Basham, Eastern Washington University’s
Psychology Department (Interview)

5. Newman, Barbara M. & Newman, Philip R., Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach. Ninth Edition, 2006.

6. Armstrong, Greg J., LMHC, CAP, CCJAS, Kelley, Susan D. M., PhD, Early Trauma and Subsequent Antisocial Behavior in Adults, 2008. Print.

7. Lykken, David T., Psychopathy, Sociopathy, and Crime, 1996. Print.

Antisocial Personality Disorder- Ted Bundy

Ted Bundy is known to be the worst serial killer in U.S. History. In the 1970’s, Ted raped and murdered ladies in a minimal of 5 different states. Bundy ultimately confessed to thirty murders, although the precise complete remains unknown. Theodore Robert Bundy was born on November 24th, 1946 in Burlington, Vermont to Eleanor Louise Cowell, a 22 year old single girl. Ted’s mother never informed him a lot about his father apart from that he was in the armed forces and that they never have been actually collectively.

Bundy had a troublesome childhood and was pretty much an wished by his mother. After being left in foster care for 2 months, Eleanor determined to have her parents increase Ted and make him and everybody believe that they had been his adopted mother and father and that Eleanor was his sister. At the age of five, Ted took the name of his new step-father, Johnnie Bundy. (Thesis) Although Bundy was academically successful as a younger adult, he grew up into being one of many worst serial killers identified to ever step foot in the United States of America.

Some might argue that Ted’s upbringing is what turned him into the man that he had later turn into. Although Bundy liked his grandfather, he was often identified as an ill-tempered bully. He expected everyone to do what he said and meet his calls for and if not he could be verbally and bodily abusive. He additionally bodily mistreated animals including their household pet. All of this made Ted’s grandmother endure from extreme melancholy and agoraphobia and she or he by no means actually left the home.

This was the only potential known trauma in Ted’s life. As he obtained older and extra aware of his surroundings his parents his mom took him along with her to Washington together with her new husband John. Ted and his step-father have been by no means notably shut but no abuse was ever evident and Eleanor was dedicated to her son, although he remained confused about their relationship. Ted’s teenage years went by peaceful, other than a couple incidents of being a suspect in a housebreaking which he was never charged for. Bundy graduated from Woodrow Wilson High School in 1965. By this time it was evident that Bundy was socially retarded and was stealing on the regular. Bundy was a reasonably intelligent man and attended the University of Washington where he met a woman named Stephanie Brooks. Stephanie was known as a wonderful, young, Caucasian girl with lengthy, dark hair. She got here from a wealthy family in California and she was every thing that Ted might have ever dreamed of being with. Bundy couldn’t consider that somebody as attractive as her may ever be interested in somebody like him.

Bundy had a weak spot for being shy and having a lack of confidence in himself. Bundy fell for Stephanie and grew to love her rapidly. Although Stephanie was by no means known for loving Ted or as a lot as he liked her, they appeared like a pretty pleased couple. They each beloved to ski, which is one thing that they did on the regular to take pleasure in with each other. Stephanie was Ted’s old flame and first individual to have interaction with sexually. Ted’s psychological and sexual disabilities took over and got the higher of him and couldn’t settle for the sensation that Stephanie was probably to good for him. Ted was always did every little thing that he may to impress her, whether if it meant mendacity to her, which Stephanie did not like. The relationship took a halt and ended someday when Ted transferred to Stanford University within the fall of 1968. Bundy’s lack of confidence and self management ruined their relationship. Ted would quickly drop out of college heartbroken. He never may get well from the break up. He managed to stay in touch together with her after dropping out of school but she was not thinking about getting back together with him. Many believe that his break up with the love of his life is what triggered him and ended up taking it out on future ladies in his killing spree. Her resemblance to Ted’s later victims is type of chilling. In 1969, while taking a break from school Bundy drifted around his residence city of Vermont to find some answers to all of his questions growing up. There he discovered that his “sister” was in reality his delivery mom. He also found that his dad was listed on there, named Lloyd Marshall. Bundy waited till the fall to resume his research at the University of Washington where he excelled greatly than earlier than. He ended up in honors courses and have become engaged in native politics, the place he transcended in. Ted Bundy graduated from Washington with a level in psychology. In the summer season of 1973 Ted got accepted into the University of Utah Law School. Everything nonetheless going smoothly for Bundy and appeared to be headed for abundant things.

No one will ever actually know what happened to set Ted Bundy off, however around 1973 he began raping and murdering women at a surprising price. No one actually is aware of precisely when and what quantity of woman he had murdered but he was a major suspect in plenty of unsolved murders. Kathy Devine was last seen getting into a green pick-up on November 25, 1973, which was later discovered that Ted Bundy had the identical green pick-up on the time. Fifteen 12 months old Divine’s
decomposed remains have been found on December 6 along with her denims reduce open in between her legs. Her throat was minimize and the investigators concluded that she was murdered right after she disappeared and there have been no leads or evidence to convey somebody to justice for the acts they have dedicated on this poor girl. In early 1974, two girls with comparable acts of crimes in opposition to them have been dedicated in lower than a month time span. They had been reported to have been overwhelmed over the top and had a steel rod stuck up their vagina. One survived the attack with mind harm and internal organ accidents however the other was fatal. For some cause there was never any finger prints taken or testing of semen on the mattress so but once more Ted Bundy was on the strike. Bundy did whatever he may to reel in his victims. Ted would use pretend casts, splints, and crutches to get his victims attention that he was in want of assist. Six weeks after Bundy’s assault on Lynda Healy another girl went lacking. Her name was Donna Mansion and she or he was a nineteen 12 months old faculty pupil who had by no means arrived to the jazz concert she was scheduled to attend. Still to this day her physique is but to be found.

Three other lady ended up departing from the face of the earth with no signal of them. On July 14, 1974 a lady named Janice Ott was final seen speaking to a person with a forged asking her if she could assist him together with his sailboat. Generously Ott went off with him and was never seen once more. Soon after killing Ott, on the identical day he abducted an 18 year old secretary at a park. Bundy had now murdered two people in broad daylight. Another strange thing that Ted did was use his real name round folks of the crime. While Ted moved again to Utah where he had become a dormitory supervisor for the University of Utah, there he had killed a minimal of eleven ladies. Some time near the top 1974, the police started discovering the scope of the killer and pieces of our bodies from reported lacking girls have been slowly however certainly being found. Ted had his first encounter with the police since his killing spree in August of 1975. He was stopped by a cop for driving suspiciously. The police ended up checking his trunk and found a ski masks, a masks made of pantyhose, a rope, and handcuffs which all were items used in his rapes. He was then convicted of kidnapping and was despatched to prison the place his dad and mom ultimately bailed him out. Ted made his first escape in 1977 in a courthouse in Colorado when he was to stand trial for murder. A few days later, however, Ted was stopped by a police officer for reckless driving and
that’s after they discovered him but again and sent him back to jail. Miraculously, In December, 1977, ted was capable of escape for the second time and headed south east to Florida. It only took one week for another homicide to happen from the arms of Ted Bundy. The case was known as the “Chi Omega murder”, and occurred round three a.m. On January 15.

This incident occurred at Florida State University in a Chi Omega Sorority home, whereas Ted Bundy entered and killed to ladies who have been asleep on the time. Bundy bludgeoned and strangled them each to demise while using a department from an oak tree. Police found one girl with her nipple bitten off her breast and bite marks on her buttocks. Bundy then entered one other room and severely injured two more Omegas. If that wasn’t sufficient, Bundy then broke into one other house clubbing and severely injuring another student, and left her for useless. A pantyhose mask was found by detectives just like the one discovered back in Utah five months earlier, which was found with semen. However, she ended up surviving the brutal beating. Her cranium had been fractured in five places, her jaw broken, and a shoulder dislocated. She now suffers from equilibrium problems and everlasting listening to loss. Ted Bundy’s last victim to be murdered by his hands was a 12 yr old woman by the name of Kimberly Leach on Febuary 9, 1978, in Lake City, Florida. The police acquired a disturbing cellphone name from saddened dad and mom that their child has been missing. Kimberly had left one constructing of the varsity to go to another to recover her purse whereas never being seen after that. A witness close by said that she was final seen in a white van with an angry looking man who could of passed for being her father. Kimberly’s physique was found on April 12 near Suwanee River State park about thirty miles away from the varsity where she was abducted. Her explanation for dying was unknown because of decomposition and that she had been there for to lengthy to even be recognizable. A massive key into bringing Ted Bundy lastly in for good was in a state of affairs a number of days earlier than the Kimberly Leach case, Bundy approached a fourteen year old lady in a white van as she was waiting for her brother to select her up. Bundy stated that he was an area firefighter and asked her if she attended the varsity close by. She started to feel uncomfortable and she or he had learned from her father, who was the chief of Detectives for the Jacksonville Police Department, to by no means discuss to strangers. If not being so nicely educated by her father growing up, she very properly might have been another sufferer to Bundy’s long listing. While
Bundy nonetheless trying to influence her to come with him, her brother finally confirmed up and picked her up. Her brother, suspicious of the man, wrote down Bundy’s license plate number and gave it to his dad. The father of the potential victim and her brother, Detective James Parmenter looked into the case of the person who approached his daughter. He ended up discovering out that the license plate belonged to a man named Randall Ragen. Randall told the detective that his license plates had been stolen. Detective Parmenter additionally realized that the white van was a stolen vehicle. The detective had a clue that the man may need been Ted Bundy so he introduced a few mug shots to the station for his children to see who the man was. Sure enough, they each pointed at Ted Bundy and positively said that he was the man who approached them. With Bundy’s van within the palms of the legislation enforcement, Ted Bundy had no way on earth to ever laying another foot on free American soil. Forensic exams concluded that the van yielded fibers of fabric from Ted’s clothes. Tests additionally knowledgeable that Kimberly Leach’s blood sort on the carpet of the van was found along with semen from Bundy.

There was also impressions from Ted’s shoe within the space the place Kimberly’s body was found. With all of this proof, all they need to do now could be find Ted Bundy. The hero recognized for locating the United States most horrific serial killer was a man by the name of David Lee, who was an officer in Pensacola, patrolling a neighborhood on the time. Bundy had his stolen parked VW bug exterior and David Lee knew the realm very well and seen that he had never seen this car before. Being protected, he ran a quick verify on the plates and came upon that they had been stolen. He instantly turned on his lights and pursued Bundy. After trying to flee and fighting with the officer, Lee ended up over powering him and cuffed Bundy and received hi into his car. If it wasn’t for Lee doing his job and being conscious of his space, who knows what number of more lives could have been taken by the hands of Ted Bundy. After compiling all the evidence with the van and being charged in Leach’s case, Bundy would even be later charged with the Chi Omega murders. Ted would plead not responsible to the offenses and would later face the demise penalty. Later on in jail Bundy would admit to the killings of a minimal of thirty women. Bundy by no means showed any remorse or remorse in any of the acts that he had committed. He was stunned in the anger about the killings and the way sad individuals have been. He didn’t see what was the large deal of one much less person on the earth. He was truly a sick person. Bundy was recognized with Antisocial character dysfunction. Many individuals had been quite stunned about the appearance of Ted Bundy. He was fairly charming and was properly educated, incomes his diploma on the University of Washington. It all is smart although because of the truth that in case you are a stranger and able to pick up thirty ladies there has to be a charm about that individual. But Bundy chose to go a special path, he chose to be a killer and he ended up facing judgment for his acts. To this day, only one could debate why Bundy would do such horrendous acts toward women. It is obvious that he had mental disabilities and he was aware of it. Many just imagine from day one, he was a born killer. He claims that he was raised in an excellent christian house and never had any physical or sexual abuse taken on him. On his ultimate interview on a day before his execution he admitted that he’s mentally sick and far from regular. The reporter requested him what triggered his attacks and Bundy went on saying that pornography and violence is the number one factor that sparked his motives. Bundy had this addiction and simply watching and reading it wasn’t sufficient. He wanted to interact in his horrific fantasies and that’s what he ended up accomplishing. Whether if it was right or wrong, Bundy simply did no matter he had to do to fulfill his needs.

Agoraphobia as an Anxiety Disorder

Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by anxiety in conditions where the sufferer perceives sure environments as dangerous or uncomfortable, usually because of the environment’s vast openness or crowdedness. These situations embrace, however aren’t limited to, wide-open areas, as properly as uncontrollable social conditions corresponding to the potential for being met in purchasing malls, airports, and on bridges. Agoraphobia is outlined inside the DSM-IV TR as a subset of panic disorder, involving the fear of incurring a panic attack in these environments.

In the DSM-5, however, Agoraphobia s categorized as being separate to panic dysfunction. The sufferer could go to nice lengths to keep away from these conditions, in severe cases turning into unable to leave their residence or secure haven. Although largely considered a fear of public locations, it’s now believed that agoraphobia develops as a complication of panic assaults. However, there is proof that the implied one-way causal relationship between spontaneous panic attacks and agoraphobia in DSM-IV could also be incorrect.

Onset is normally between ages 20 and forty years and extra common in girls.

Approximately three. 2 million, or about 2. %, of adults in the US between the ages of 18 and 54, undergo from agoraphobia. Agoraphobia can account for roughly 60% of phobias. Studies have shown two completely different age teams at first onset: early to mid twenties, and early thirties. In response to a traumatic event, anxiousness might interrupt the formation of reminiscences and disrupt the educational processes, leading to dissociation. Depersonalization and derealisation are different dissociative strategies of withdrawing from anxiousness.

Standardized instruments corresponding to Panic and Agoraphobia Scale can be used to measure agoraphobia and panic attacks severity and monitor reatment.

Agoraphobia is a condition the place the sufferer becomes anxious in environments that are unfamiliar or the place he or she perceives that they have little management. Triggers for this anxiousness might include extensive open spaces, crowds, or touring. Agoraphobia is usually, but not at all times, compounded by a fear of social embarrassment, as the agoraphobic fears the onset of a panic attack and appearing distraught in public.

This can be typically referred to as ‘social agoraphobia’ which can be a sort of social anxiety dysfunction additionally sometimes referred to as “social phobia”. Not all agoraphobia is social n nature, nevertheless. Some agoraphobics have a fear of open areas. Agoraphobia is also outlined as “a concern, generally terrifying, by those who have skilled a quantity of panic attacks”. In these instances, the sufferer is fearful of a selected place as a end result of they’ve experienced a panic attack on the identical location in a previous time.

Fearing the onset of one other panic attack, the sufferer is fearful and even avoids the placement. Some refuse to leave their home even in medical emergencies as a outcome of the fear of being outdoors of their consolation space is simply too great. The sufferer can ometimes go to nice lengths to avoid the areas where they have skilled the onset of a panic assault. Agoraphobia, as described on this manner, is definitely a symptom professionals examine for when making a diagnosis of panic dysfunction.

Other syndromes like obsessive compulsive dysfunction or post traumatic stress disorder can outdoors can cause the syndrome. [12] It is not uncommon for agoraphobics to additionally undergo from momentary separation anxiety dysfunction when certain other individuals of the household depart from the residence quickly, similar to a father or mother or spouse, or when the agoraphobic is left residence alone. Such short-term circumstances can outcome in a rise in anxiousness or a panic assault or feel the want to separate themselves from household or maybe pals.

Another frequent associative dysfunction of agoraphobia is necrophobia, the worry of dying. The anxiousness level of agoraphobics typically will increase when dwelling upon the idea of eventually dying, which they might consciously or unconsciously affiliate with being the last word separation from their mortal emotional comfort and security zones and family members, even for those who could in any other case spiritually believe in some form of divine afterlife existence. Agoraphobia occurs about twice as generally among girls as it does in males.

The gender difference could additionally be attributable to several components: social-cultural traditions that encourage, or permit, the larger expression of avoidant coping methods by girls, ladies perhaps being more likely to seek help and therefore be diagnosed; males being extra prone to abuse alcohol in response to nervousness and be recognized as an alcoholic. Research has not yet produced a single clear explanation for the gender distinction in agoraphobia. Although the exact causes of agoraphobia are currently unknown, some clinicians ho have handled or tried to deal with agoraphobia supply plausible hypotheses.

The situation has been linked to the presence of different anxiety disorders, a annoying environment or substance abuse. Research has uncovered a linkage between agoraphobia and difficulties with spatial orientation. Individuals without agoraphobia are able to maintain balance by combining info from their vestibular system, their visual system and their proprioceptive sense. A disproportionate number of agoraphobics have weak vestibular function and consequently rely extra on visual or actile signals. They may turn out to be disoriented when visual cues are sparse (as in extensive open spaces) or overwhelming.

Likewise, they might be confused by sloping or irregular surfaces. In a virtual reality research, agoraphobics confirmed impaired processing of fixing audiovisual data as compared with non-suffering topics. Exposure therapy can present lasting reduction to nearly all of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. Disappearance of residual and subclinical agoraphobic avoidance, and never merely of panic assaults, should be the aim of publicity remedy. Similarly, Systematic desensitizationmay also be used. Many patients can take care of exposure easier if they are within the firm of a good friend they can rely on. t is significant that patients stay within the scenario till anxiety has abated as a end result of if they go away the state of affairs the phobic response won’t decrease and it could even rise. Cognitive restructuring has also proved useful in treating agoraphobia. This treatment includes teaching a participant via a dianoetic discussion, with the intent of replacing irrational, counterproductive beliefs with extra factual and helpful ones. Relaxation strategies are often useful expertise for the agoraphobic to develop, as they can be utilized to cease or prevent signs of tension and panic.

Anti-depressant medications mostly used to deal with anxiousness disorders are primarily in the SSRI class and inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants are also generally prescribed for treatment of agoraphobia. Antidepressants are necessary because some have antipanic results. Antidepressants should be used in conjunction with exposure as a type of self-help or with cognitive behaviour therapy. Some evidence shows that a ombination of medication and cognitive behaviour therapy is the best therapy for agoraphobia.

Adjustment Disorder Diagnosis and Treatment

Adjustment Disorder Diagnosis and Treatment Adjustment dysfunction is a mental disorder that outcomes from unhealthy responses to tense or psychologically distressing occasions in life. This failure to adapt then leads to the development of emotional and behavioral symptoms. All age groups are affected by this disorder; and children have the identical probability of growing the illness. While difficult to determine the causes of adjustment dysfunction, researchers recommend that genetics play a large half, in addition to chemical modifications in the brain, life experiences and mood.

Some widespread stressor contributing to the disorder ncludes; the ending of a romantic relationship, lack of a Job, career change, an accident, relocating to a model new space or loss of a liked one. (Mayo Clinic, 2010) An adjustment disorder causes feelings of despair, anxiousness, crying spells, unhappiness, desperation, lack of enjoyment, and some have reported experiencing thoughts of suicide. Additionally, the illness causes one to be unable to go about their regular routine or work and visit with friends and family.

The lengths of signs range from zero to six months (acute) and longer than six months (chronic).

In the instances of acute adjustment dysfunction, symptoms can go away eventually; nonetheless, in continual instances, symptoms start to disrupt your life whereas, professional treatment is important to stop the sickness from worsening. Lastly, this disorder carries the possibility for abuse of alcohol and medicines, and eventually could result in violent habits. According to a report issued by Tami Benton of WebMD, “the growth of emotional or behavioral symptoms in response to an identifiable stressor(s) happens inside 3 months of the onset of the stressor(s).

These symptoms or behaviors are linically vital, as evidenced by marked distress in extra of what’s expected from exposure to the stressor, or important impairment in social or occupational (academic) functioning. The stress-related disturbance does not meet criteria for an additional specific axis I disorder and isn’t merely an exacerbation of a preexisting axis I or axis II disorder. The signs don’t characterize bereavement. Once the stressor (or its consequences) has terminated, the signs don’t persist for greater than an additional 6 months”. A determination is made as as to whether the sickness is acute or chronic.

A differential prognosis issued by Benton states that, “Adjustment Disorder’s (AD) are located on a continuum between normal stress reactions and specific psychiatric issues. Symptoms aren’t probably a standard response if the symptoms are moderately severe or if day by day social or occupational functioning is impaired. If a selected stressor is concerned and/or the signs usually are not specific however are extreme, alternate diagnoses (eg, posttraumatic stress disorder, conduct disorder, depressive issues, anxiousness disorders, melancholy or anxiousness because of a general medical condition) are unlikely’.

Benton, 2009) “Clinical treatment modalities are troublesome due to lack of clinical trials; as these AD originates from a psychological response to a stressor, the stressor have to be recognized and communicated by the patient. The non-adaptive response to the stressor could also be diminished if the stress can be “eliminated, reduced or accommodated. Therefore, treatment of ADS entails psychotherapeutic counseling geared toward reducing the stressor, bettering coping capability with stressors that can not be decreased or eliminated, and formatting an emotional state and help methods to reinforce adaptation and coping.

Further, the objective of psychotherapy ought to embrace; an analysis of the stressors which might be affecting the patient, and determine whether they are often eliminated or minimized, clarification and interpretation of the that means of the stressor for the affected person, reframe the that means of the stressor, illuminate the issues and conflicts the patient experiences, identification of a method to minimize back the stressor, maximize the patient’s coping expertise, assist sufferers to gain perspective on the stressor, set up relationships, attend assist groups, and manage themselves and the stressor.

Psychotherapy, disaster intervention, family and group herapies, cognitive behavioral therapy, and interpersonal psychotherapy are effective for eliciting the expressions of impacts, anxiousness, helplessness, and hopelessness in relation to the identified stressor(s)”. (Benton, 2009) For patients with minor or main depressive issues, who haven’t responded to psychotherapy and different interventions; trials of antidepressants are recommended.

About Bipolar Disorder in Book “An Unquiet Mind” by Dr. Jamison

Dr. Jamison, in her book ‘an unquiet thoughts,’ appears into different ways to explain moods and insanity to attain an understanding of the state of affairs. The author seems into the model methods to look into bipolar dysfunction and be certain that the readers understand the primary points that the sufferers are affected by the dysfunction expertise. The utilization of relevant narratives, on this case, enhances the power of the author to supply first-person standpoints on the central points that have an effect on individuals who have bipolar dysfunction.

The software of a elementary degree of engagement with the illness and influencing the major matters to debate ensures that bipolar disorder could be seemed into from a more welcome perspective.

Primarily, the guide has a helpful insight provided the primary individual enchantment that the author uses. The creator applies the use of skilled apply within the capability of a patient to ensure the attainment of a powerful way to look into the subject. Discussion of those significant factors that have an effect on the patients and strategies to look into bipolar disorder from this angle increases the relevance that they’ve to change the perception of the community on the significant issues (Jamison 51).

The personal insight that the writer presents on the central issues associated to bipolar and the experience that she has undergone as a patient helps to make the e-book higher at tackling the topic. This perception provides a strong and relevant way to look into the deep points that have an effect on the outlay of actions in the society that looks at bipolar sufferers in another way.

The guide offers a singular perspective of narrating bipolar dysfunction and working in the path of defining the appropriate options to the problem. Provision of an inventory of solutions to tackle the issue comes together with a limited series of actions that might enhance the inspiration of a greater life for the sufferers. The writer makes use of skilled courtesy to look into progressive ways in which could indulge in a greater and worthwhile approach to handle the psychological problem in the community. Hence, the approach makes a grand assertion in analyzing the problem and making relevance for the main activities that happen in the community.

In writing about bipolar dysfunction and offering options to help in dealing with the situation, the author proposes a simple way to take care of the main issues that affect patients. The provision of an answer of love to the important gadgets that have an result on members of the group will get into the handling of the numerous negative issues that people might have (Jamison 162). Hence, the applying of the aspect of affection to resolve the principle problems affecting patients makes a correct dig into the relevance of her answer. Therefore, the e-book initiatives the author’s professional experience, affected person experience to bring to consideration a suitable and straightforward way to deal with the main concerns of bipolar disorder.

Thus, Dr. Jamison writes a proper e-book to document the relevance of dealing with bipolar disorder through understanding. The doctor provides knowledgeable authority and patient angle to look into the principle propositions of treating bipolar disorder locally. Nonetheless, the guide has relevant sections that lead the reader into wanting at the primary issues of the group on bipolar dysfunction. The application of those mentions, subsequently, makes Dr. Jamison have a correct angle of taking a glance at bipolar disorder and particular options that might assist in tackling the issue.

Work Cited

  1. Jamison, Kay Redfield. An unquiet thoughts. Vol. 4. Pan Macmillan, 2015.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: Symptoms and Effects on People

The Opening

Just how many of us has had a moment of sheer terror where we survived, but was forever changed down deep in the core of whom we are? Doctors, Clinicians, Scientists, and Physicians say that this is what has happened when a person experiences just such a moment in their life. That the person may never show a scar for what has happened, but that their identity (the core soul of them), who they are suffers from that moment forward. This effect upon a person is called, “Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder or PYSD!”(PTSD Website, 2014) Symptoms and what causes it

What causes one to re-suffer these moments of terror can be almost anything; “from the fact that if you have had an experienced severe trauma or a life-threatening event, you may develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress, commonly known as post traumatic stress disorder, PTSD, shell shock, or combat stress. Maybe you felt like your life or the lives of others were in danger, or that you had no control over what was happening. You may have witnessed people being injured or dying, or you may have been physically harmed yourself.” (PTSD Website, 2014) Things that can trigger the onset of an experience flashback can come from loud noises, depression, to even moments of extreme stress.

Once triggered, “Some of the most common symptoms of PTSD include recurring memories or nightmares of the event(s), sleeplessness, loss of interest, or feeling numb, anger, and irritability, but there are many ways PTSD can impact your everyday life. Sometimes these symptoms don’t surface for months or even years after the event or returning from deployment. They may also come and go. If these problems won’t go away or are getting worse—or you feel like they are disrupting your daily life—you may have PTSD.” (PTSD Website, 2014) Many veterans returning to civilian life after years of military service often take years or decades to even begin to start showing the ill effects of posttraumatic stress disorder, or PTSD.

“Post traumatic stress disorder treatment can help a person regain normalcy in their life after a trauma or traumatic event. PTSD is an anxiety disorder that occurs after a person experiences a traumatic event. Everyone copes differently so a traumatic event such as violence, war or a natural disaster can cause PTSD in one person and not another. Post traumatic stress disorder symptoms may also vary from one person to the next depending on the impact of the trauma. Post traumatic stress disorder treatment is effective for people at all stages of the continuum, from mild to severe. Some people have higher risk factors than others for developing PTSD. These risk factors do not impact the value and effectiveness of treatment.

At the Sylvia Brafman Mental Health Center, we work with our clients to identify their unique post traumatic stress disorder symptoms and create an individualized treatment plan to give them the best opportunity for long-term recovery and a return to normal living.”(Brafman, 2014) But I may have put the cart before the horse in this instance, because the person who is suffering from PTSD must either be told by a loved one or recognize that something is not quite right and then begins the long road to recovery and back to health.

A different View of Causes

Scientists who work for the National Institute of Mental Health took a different approach, they focused on the gene that play(s) a role in creating fear memories. “Understanding how fear memories are created may help to refine and /or find new interventions for reducing the symptoms of PTSD. For example, PTSD researchers have pinpointed genes that make: Stathmin, a protein needed to form fear memories. In one study, mice that did not make stathmin were less likely than normal mice to “freeze,” a natural, protective response to danger, after being exposed to a fearful experience.

They also showed less innate fear by exploring open spaces more willingly than normal mice. GRP (gastrin-releasing peptide), a signaling chemical in the brain released during emotional events. In mice, GRP seems to help control the fear response, and lack of GRP may lead to the creation of greater and more lasting memories of fear. Researchers have also found a version of the 5-HTTLPR gene, which controls levels of serotonin — a brain chemical related to mood-that appears to fuel the fear response. Like other mental disorders, it is likely that many genes with small effects are at work in PTSD.”(NIMH Website, 2014)

Beginnings of How to treat PTSD

Since many people suffering from PTSD function normally for many years, the discovery and diagnosis of the actual disease is difficult. For a diagnosis of Post-traumatic stress disorder, the following list of conditions have been mentioned in sources as possible alternative diagnoses to consider during the diagnostic process for Post-traumatic stress disorder: ”Adjustment disorder, Brief psychotic disorder, Clinical depression, Acute stress disorder, Obsessive-compulsive disorder, Malingering, and Epilepsy to name a few of the most used misdiagnosis of the disorder.” (Right Diagnosis Website, 2014) Other possible causes of Post-traumatic stress disorder may include, but are not limited to the following medical conditions: “Terrifying ordeal – violent attacks, war, assault, rape, torture, kidnapping, etc., Child abuse, Serious accidents; Natural disasters – e.g. earthquake, flood, hurricanes, etc., Manmade disaster – e.g. plane crash, bombing, etc.” (Right Diagnosis Website, 2014) As stated before, isolating the possible type of cause will allow Doctors, Clinicians, Scientists, and Physicians to act in a focused attempt at curing the disorder and the start of a normal life once again.

How they Do Treatment of PTST

By Doctors, Clinicians, Scientists, and Physicians trying to understanding just what factors can and/or does cause PTSD. The Doctors, Clinicians, Scientists, and Physicians are able to create individual treatment plan(s) and/or a process to assist each person whom is experiencing the disorder. Will the Doctors, Clinicians, Scientists, and Physicians be able to assist the patient in their reintegration back into society as a contributing member once again!

PTSD Website retrieved on 07 23 2014 from:

Sylvia Brafman Mental health Center Website retrieved on 07 23 2014 from:

National Institute of Mental Health Website retrieved on 07 23 2014 from:

Right Diagnosis Website retrieved on 07 23 2014 from:

Body Fat and Eating Disorder Paper

Body composition is divided into two separate types of mass. These types of masses are referred to as fat-free mass and body fat. Fat-free mass is made up of the body’s non-fat tissue. Fat-free mass is the type that is bone, water muscle, and tissue. Body fat the other type of mass is fat that is located within our body. Body fat is needed because it helps protects our internal organs. It also provides energy, and helps our hormones perform several different functions like the regulation of the body. A person that has good body composition is usually healthier than those with a not so good body composition. Having a more optimal body composition helps improve a person overall wellbeing. The risks associated with excess body fat are type 2 diabetes , heart disease and high blood pressure just to name a few. Excess body fat or obesity has always been linked as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes.

This is because the extra weight causes the body to have problems controlling blood sugar using insulin. Heart failure occurs due to hypertension, which is common in individuals that have excess body fat than that of individuals that do not. High blood pressure is another risk that is associated with having excess body fat. Individuals with high amounts of excess body fat show a increase of blood by volume and significant arterial resistance. Not being able to afford healthy foods is a factor that influences obesity. Across American there are families that do not make enough money to afford the best and healthy foods. Some of these families will eat what they can if it means eating fast foods continually because it’s cheap and they can make there dollar stretch. For our young children I believe the number one factor is TV and gaming systems. Today’s youth are so involved with the TV and game consoles they are not being active as the youth once were.

Out of a typical day the youth spends over 8 hours in front of the TV are playing games. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that people get when they have a fear of gaining weight. The health risk associated with this disease is kidney damage and heart problems. Starvation is also a risk associated with anorexia nervosa. Bulimia nervosa is a type of eating disorder as well. People that suffer from bulimia will eat large amounts of food and then purge the food out of there system. Long-term health risk associated with this disease is that if a person is vomiting to purge the acids in the vomit will cause tooth decade and gum disease. Purging can also lead to osteoporosis.

Binge eating is a disease that a person has that over eats on several occasions Binge eating is linked to hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Being obese or having excess body fat can lead to other issues in an individual’s life. It is so important to try to live a very healthy life style. In order to live a healthy lifestyle you will have to eat the proper foods, exercise regular, and get enough sleep.


Bipolar Mood Disorder

Many people ask, “Is Bipolar disorder real?” Some people believe that Bipolar Disorder is not real since having mood swings is a common factor in one’s life, especially in adolescence. They also say that all people in one point experience sadness, even the happiest people. But Bipolar Disorder is real. The illness isn’t just about being a little depressed once in a while. Bipolar Mood Disorder, or manic depression, is a serious mental disorder that causes a person to have dramatic changes in his/her mood, ability to function, and energy level. It can cause damaged relationships, risky
behaviors, and even suicidal tendencies in one’s life if left untreated. The illness consists of the changing of mood between two emotional stages; mania and depression. Although the person alternates between these two episodes, at one point he/she may experience normal moods.

Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar Disorder was first noticed in the second century, making it one of the oldest known illnesses. The first symptoms of mania and depression were recognized by Physician Arateus of Cappadocia, an ancient city in Turkey. He felt that mania and depression could be linked to each other and that they both were different types of the same disease. Mania is one of the symptoms of bipolar disorder. It divides into two categories; hypomania and mania. Hypomania is a less severe form of mania. During hypomania, one may feel extremely good, excited, and excessively happy. One feels like they can accomplish anything. “At first when I’m high, it’s tremendous … ideas are fast … like shooting stars you follow until brighter ones appear…

All shyness disappears, the right words and gestures are suddenly there … uninteresting people, things become intensely interesting. Sensuality is pervasive, the desire to seduce and be seduced is irresistible. Your marrow is infused with unbelievable feelings of ease, power, well-being, omnipotence, euphoria … you can do anything … but somewhere this changes.” This phase does not last forever. For someone who is bipolar, hypomania can evolve into actual mania, or depression. During Mania, one can go from being happy to feeling furious, irritable, and aggressive. Some symptoms of mania include increased reckless behaviors, talkativeness, sudden shifts from being happy and joyful to being hostile, restlessness, racing thoughts, and excessive energy. Aside from mania, the other symptom of bipolar disorder is depression. During depression, one may feel sad, guilty, anxious, hopeless and/or worthless. Other symptoms of depression include loss of energy, loss of interest in things one used to enjoy doing, difficulty concentrating, feeling restless and agitated, insomnia, changes in appetite, and thoughts of death and attempting suicide.

Types of Bipolar Disorder
There are many types of Bipolar Disorder; Bipolar I, Bipolar II, Cyclothymic
disorder, and rapid-cycling bipolar disorder. In Bipolar I, one goes through severe mood shifts from mania to depression. Bipolar II is a milder form of Bipolar II, containing milder episodes of hypomania that then can evolve into severe depression. Cyclothymic disorder consists of brief periods of depression that last shorter and less extensive than full episodes of depression. Last is rapid-cycling bipolar disorder. The illness is described as rapid-cycling when one has more than 4 episodes in less than a 1-year period. The shift of polarity from mania to depression in rapid-cycling can be in one week, or even as short as in a day. The rapid-cycling pattern can increase severe depression and suicidal thoughts.

Causes of Bipolar
Like any other psychological disorder, there is no exact cause of Bipolar Disorder. It can contribute from many different factors, the main ones being biological, genetic, and environmental. Scientists believe that primarily it is caused from biological factors. This is because in people who are bipolar, some of their brain’s neurotransmitters, which are the chemical transmitters of the brain, don’t function properly. Another factor that contributes to Bipolar Disorder is genetics. Bipolar Mood Disorder tends to run in families, so if one’s parent has bipolar disorder, he/she is 15-25% more likely to inherit the illness. The last factor that causes bipolar is environmental influence. Factors in life such as major stress or a life-changing event can trigger a biological reaction, thus making one develop Bipolar Disorder.

Treatment is available to anyone who suffers from Bipolar Mood Disorder. The illness is often treated with medications. When prescribed medications, the patient is required to take daily medications such as mood-stabilizers. They are the most effective solutions for Bipolar Disorder, along with Lithium. Psychotherapy also plays an important part in treating the illness. If considering counseling, you can consult your family doctor. They may recommend psychotherapy, and prescribe medications for the disease. Other professionals one can visit are psychologists, psychiatrists, and therapists with a professional degree in the field of the brain.

Mood Stabilizers
Mood Stabilizers have the ability to decrease the severity of depression and mania, and also decreases the frequency in which they happen. The most common type of mood stabilizer is Lithium, which has been known for helping people who deal with mood swings for years.

Bipolar Mood Disorder is actually a serious mental disorder which causes one’s mood to shift dramatically in a period of time. The symptoms of bipolar include mania, which is the high, and depression, which is the low. The illness can affect one’s mood, behavior, and way of living, and can also make concentrating difficult. Depending on the type of the disease, one can change mood in months, weeks, or in days. Bipolar Disorder can be caused from many factors, including genetic, biological, and environmental. Many people suffer from this illness, but luckily there is a solution to improving it. With medications and psychotherapy, one can regulate their mood swings and their severity, making Bipolar Disorder easier to deal with.

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder has been mentioned in the news quite often recently. It has been seen on entertainment gossip magazines with rumors that celebrities such as Catherine Zeta Jones and Lindsay Lohan have it. It has also been seen as a rumored diagnosis of many individuals responsible for recent public shootings such as the 2012 Aurora movie theater shooting and the 2012 shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School. Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is defined as a mood disorder or a condition in which people experience intermittent abnormally elevated (manic or hypo manic) and, in many cases, abnormally depressed states for periods of time in a way that interferes with functioning.

According to the National Institute for Mental health, Bipolar disorder affects more than 2.5 million Americans and is the sixth leading cause of disability in the world. The illness can start as early as childhood or as late as 40’s and 50’s. 90% of cases start before the age of 20. Research shows that there is not a specific cause to bipolar disorder, but most likely is hereditary. Most adolescents will have Bipolar disorder if one or both parents have the illness. There are four basic types of Bipolar disorders. Bipolar I Disorder, Bipolar II Disorder, Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (BP-NOS) and Cyclothymic Disorder, or Cyclothymia. There is also Rapid-cycling Bipolar Disorder which is the most severe.

Many people have a narrowed, stereotypical understanding of bi-polar disorder which tends to be that of the Rapid-Cycling disorder where mood fluctuates very severely and rapidly. However, like many diseases and illnesses, there is a broad spectrum and there are many signs and symptoms to Bipolar disorder. One with this illness experiences things such as extreme mood changes or behavioral changes. The person’s mood usually swings between overly “high” or irritable to sad and hopeless, and then back again, with periods of normal mood in between.

Other symptoms include extreme irritability and distractibility, excessive “high” or euphoric feelings, increased energy, activity, restlessness, racing thoughts, rapid speech, decreased need for sleep, unrealistic beliefs in one’s abilities and powers, increased sexual drive, abuse of drugs or alcohol, reckless behavior such as spending sprees, rash business decisions, or erratic driving and, in severe cases, hallucinations and loss of reason. All of these symptoms vary depending on the type of bipolar disorder diagnosed. To determine if one has Bipolar disorder, a Doctor or health provider conducts and interview, does a physical examination and runs lab tests to get a proper diagnosis. Bipolar disorder cannot be determined through blood work or brain scan. Doctors or health care providers may conduct a mental health evaluation or provide a referral to a trained mental health professional, such as a psychiatrist, who is experienced in diagnosing and treating bipolar disorder.

To identify exactly what’s going on; your doctor may have you keep a daily record of your moods, sleep patterns or other factors that could help with diagnosis and finding the right treatment. A licensed professional will ask medical history questions to determine the illness is Bipolar disorder verses severe depression. When diagnosed with Bipolar disorder, the illness never goes away, so it requires ongoing lifelong treatment. Even if the patient feels much better then when started, treatment cannot be stopped. Depending on the severity, there are different ways to treating Bipolar disorder. The primary treatments for bipolar disorder include medications; individual, group or family psychological counseling (psychotherapy); or education and support groups. Most cases the patient is put on Anti- depressants, Anti- anxiety pills, and mood stabilizers (to prevent highs and lows). Psychotherapy is very important for treatment, such as family and group sessions because this helps others learn and understand Bipolar disorder. There is no known cure for Bipolar disorder.

So there are no current promising breakthroughs. However if all treatments have been attempted with no success, another options used is called Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a procedure in which a brief application of electric stimulus is used to produce a generalized seizure. Electroconvulsive therapy ECT can only be used as a last resort because permanent memory loss can occur. It is not known how or why ECT works or what the electrically stimulated seizure does to the brain, but the numbers are extremely favorable, citing 80 percent improvement in severely depressed patients, after ECT. According to the Medical Journal of Australia, the medicine Lithium E1 used for treatment has been reported to reduce suicide rates independently of its prophylactic capacity. The mechanism of this action is unknown. There has also been much interest in the potential clinical ramifications of laboratory studies indicating that lithium has neuroprotective properties. Ignoring signs and symptoms of Bipolar disorder could be extremely dangerous.

Especially if ones symptoms are so severe they’re attempting suicide or having suicidal thoughts. Symptoms and mood episodes could get much worse and more frequent if untreated. If properly diagnosed, treatment will help people with bipolar disorder lead better healthy and productive lives. Consistency in treatment is key in improving the overall lives of people with Bipolar disorder. Even though Bipolar disorder is incurable, and the patient will most likely be treated throughout their whole life, there are so many options for one with this illness to seek help, support and treatment. I chose to focus my paper on Bipolar Disorder because of my own personal experience with it. My sister Jeannie has been treated for Bipolar Disorder II for 4 years. Jeannie has struggled with mental illness since she was an adolescent.

She was treated for depression after she was nearly hospitalized for anorexia. She thinks that she was perhaps misdiagnosed and only treated for depression because it was only in her depressive states that she got help. In her support groups she has learned that this is not uncommon because people in mania are many times very happy and only seek treatment when mania becomes out of hand or when they start to break the law. When I asked my sister for her input on what she thought was important for people to know about Bipolar Disorder she said: “I wish there were more of a mainstream way of educating people about Bipolar Disorder. There are so many people in my support groups that are ashamed of having this mental illness and ashamed that they have to take medicine everyday and so they go off of it and bad things happen to them, they hurt themselves or other people.

I make it a point to not be ashamed of it and to educate people that it is ok that we have to take medicine because it keeps us from letting the disease make us do things that are not really us. It makes me so sad that some of my own close family members do not believe that I have a problem or that I might be faking an ailment, that there is nothing wrong with me, when what I need most is medicine and support. I think it is so funny when I tell people that I have this illness and they look at me very surprised and tell me that I am so normal though. Well yeah, that is what the medicine does! I hope that through being vocal and not being ashamed I can change how people think about mental illness in general and that it can be very well managed.”


“Bipolar Disorder Statistics,” Statistic Brain, 2012 Statistic Brain Research Institute, publishing as Statistic Brain, <>, 8 Jun 2013 “Screening for Mental Health,” Bipolar disorder, N.p.,

, 8 Jun 2013
“National Institute of Mental Health,” Bipolar Disorder, N.p., , 8 Jun 2013 “Bipolar disorder,” Mayo Clinic, N.p., , 8 Jun 2013
“Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) ,” Mental Health America, N.p., , 8 Jun 2013 Mitchell , Phillip, “Major advances in Bipolar disorder,” The medical Journal of Austraila, N.p., n.d., , 8 Jun 2013 Monico, Jeannie, Personal statement from interview, 12 Jun 2013

Works Cited
“National Institute of Mental health.” Bipolar disorder. N.p.. Web. 8 Jun 2013. . “Screening for Mental Health.” Bipolar disorder. N.p.. Web. 8 Jun 2013. . Web. 8 Jun 2013.

Mental Disorder Research Paper

Mental stability or mental health is the way humans react to, think about, and feel about what goes on in their everyday lives. It is a psychosomatic and emotional state of being. Throughout history, people with odd or dangerous behaviors were seen as witches or ones possessed by evil spirits. These people were thrown in prisons or institutions to isolate them from others. Not too long ago, in the 1950’s with a great deal of research and much more highly developed technology many people with mental disorders have been treated. In America, more than 45 million adults suffer from a mental disorder (MENTAL ILLNESS AND THE FAMILY: RECOGNIZING WARNING SIGNS AND HOW TO COPE). That’s about 25 percent of people over the age of 18. Many of these people fail to realize that they have a mental illness or succeed in hiding it from others. When these disorders remain ignored they lead to harmful stages in ones life such as, drug abuse, suicide, violence, or conflicts with family and friends. When ones behavior is labeled as a mental disorder it influences the way that person and the others around that person perceives them. Education about mental disorders is necessary (What is mental illness?). In society today, how people distinguish one with a mental disorder and one without a mental disorder is by judging them as “normal” or “abnormal.” Today’s normal is considered as the acceptance in society. Abnormal labels people who are not considered “socially normal.” People use the term “mental illness” as if it is something abnormal and weird. A mental disorder is known as unhealthy (Susin, Janet). But when we think of an illness, the first thing that comes to mind is a physical sickness. If a young child is physically abused throughout his life, his different personality is a way to deal with the disturbance in his life. If the child doesn’t find a way to deal with this, he or she will want to find different ways to deal with it such as suicide. Their behavior or what is known as the “disorder,” is healthier than not going through the process of healing with that behavior (Talking To Kids About Mental Illnesses).

Stigma, judgment and separation of people are the product of misunderstandings about mental disorders (Corrigan, Patrick W., and Amy C.
Watson). Mental illnesses are not due to any variety of brain damages. Although they are like physical illnesses such as lung cancer, diabetes, and heart disease, people with mental disorders are not treated the same as those with a physical illness. A variety of mental disorders such as bipolar disorder have the ability to run in families. But, most victims develop one without any signs of family history. When one is found to have a mental disorder, the factor that set off their disorder is an event that took place in their life. Factors such as a death of a loved one, financial suffering, unemployment, physical abuse, and sexual abuse can contribute to the start of a mental disorder. This makes every single human susceptible to one (Corrigan, Patrick W., and Amy C. Watson). People with mental disorders are rarely dangerous. Even those with the most serious illness are not dangerous when receiving support. Just like physical illnesses, a mental disorder is treatable. It is possible for one to completely recover if treated early on and properly. It is also possible that the mental disorder can reappear and necessitate constant treatment (What is mental illness?). The largest struggle for someone with a mental illness or someone recovering from one is the confrontation of unnecessary manners of the people around him or her. This is why it is necessary to provide support for those who are suffering. Encouragement and the optimistic behaviors of family, friends, and members of the community are essential to providing those who cope with mental disorders with the support that they need (SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH). Encouraging them to continue with a medication or with therapy will help them believe that that they can achieve mental stability. Altering yourself and working with them will help solve the problems that they are faced with. Increasing your own ability to understand what this person is dealing with will help you talk to and counsel them. Although people with mental disorders are rarely dangerous, talk to them about why they should go see a therapist or go seek help instead of telling them or debating with them (What is mental illness?).

The conditions in which a person is born, grows up in, lives, and works are significant factors when it comes to having a mental disorder. Also factors such as sexual orientation, ethnicity, race, gender, and one’s socioeconomic status has to do with someone’s disorder (SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH). These factors are known as the social determinants of health. The social determinants of health provide a more complete interpretation of what the initial reason of illness is and what it will take to restore their health. Addressing the social determinants of health will reach out to state government and make them direct a population in a better way regarding the influence of social determinants. As children, around thirty percent of lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transgender have been physically abused by members of their family because of their sexual orientation. These individuals have a 1.5 times higher risk for depression and anxiety disorders throughout their life than heterosexuals. Thirty percent of African Americans are more likely to have a severe psychological distress than Non- Hispanic Whites. The infant death rate of American Indians and Alaska Natives is forty percent higher than the infant death rate of Caucasians (SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH). Raising awareness of the social determinants of health will have a significant impact on the mental health of individuals and their communities. Adolescents need to know about mental disorders just as much as anyone over the age of 18. Kids are naturally questionable about mental illnesses. The importance of learning the warning signs of mental disorders and how to fight the stigma that surrounds mental illness can affect the futures of children. Many kids often make fun of other kids because they seem weird. If children are taught that these problems are not the fault of the others who have them, they will less likely make other students feel ashamed (Talking To Kids About Mental Illnesses). This should be taught as a part of a health class and if not taught in school, must be taught by the parents of a child. Children in pre-school will have questions about what they can see and focus on. They will mostly notice other kids who are screaming and crying.

Children as young as this will need less information because of their limited ability to understand. As children go into elementary school they will question the specifics and their questions will be straightforward. Their concerns will be towards the safety of their friends or family if they see something unusual. Teenagers are able to understand just as much as an adult and they will ask more complicated questions. They will ask their friends about anything that they’re curious about. This results in false or misunderstood information (Susin, Janet). Parents need to provide correct information to their children with support and advice. Everyday people with serious mental disorders are challenged. While they are facing with the challenges that come from their disorder, they are also confronted by the misconceptions and prejudice towards their illness. Public stigma is the common reaction given towards people with mental disorders by the public. Self-stigma is the intolerance people with mental disorders give themselves (Corrigan, Patrick W., and Amy C. Watson). There are a few views on which people have about mental illness. There are thoughts that people with mental disorders should be feared and be kept out of their communities. Some people feel that people with mental disorders are not capable of making their own decisions and need to have their life decisions made by others because they are irresponsible. This is known as authoritarianism. Benevolence is the idea that people with mental illness are not able to take care of themselves and need to be taken care of (Corrigan, Patrick W., and Amy C. Watson). Learning about mental disorders will show the way to early recognition and treatment. Educating children at an early age will help them prevent a mental disorder in their own life. By learning about mental disorders, one’s recognition of their mental disorder becomes easier. This gives them the ability to act fast and treat their disorder (MENTAL ILLNESS AND THE FAMILY: RECOGNIZING WARNING SIGNS AND HOW TO COPE). One without a mental disorder can also notice that someone has one and will fight the stigma that surrounds the disorder. There have been cases in which teenagers with mental disorders realized that if they had a lesson on mental illnesses it would have made a big difference in their lives. The only way to change the view of people towards those with mental disorders is to educate them on why some of these people have their illness (Susin, Janet).

Bipolar Disorder

Nearly 2 million people suffer or are diagnosed with bipolar disorder; many of these people go untreated or suffer in silence due to fear of the unknown of what the disorder brings. Bipolar disorder is a disease that comes with a negative stigma; this has to do with the earlier link to schizophrenia. Many psychologists had linked the ‘manic-depressive’ disorder with schizophrenia, this according to the article from Burton (2012). In his article, he explains how from the early 1800 the “mania” disorder evolved to ‘manic-depressive’ disorder to what it is now called bipolar disorder. This disorder is not only a stigma but it is reality for many, it is due to a chemical imbalance or genetic link that evolves into a chronic mental illness (Bressert, 2007). Treatments for bipolar patients vary depending on the symptoms of the patient and their psychotic episodes, but there is hope for people who suffer with bipolar disorder. Literature Review

History of Bipolar Disorder
Burton (2012) in his book, states that melancholia and mania are linked to as early as Ancient Greece, philosopher Aretaeus was able identify some type of disorder in which a person could go on with their day as a normal person; happy, feeling victorious but with a blink of an eye their mood will change into a dull, saddened mood. Even though he had noted these behaviors, his ideas did not take popularity until modern day. Bipolar disorder was previously known as ‘manic-depressive disorder’ and it was more known to be part of schizophrenia. In the early 1960’s a well-known German psychologist named Emil Kraeplin studied the disorder in more detail. With his studies, Kraeplin separated Bipolar disorder from schizophrenia and related it more with being part of ‘manic-depressive disorder’ (Burton, 2012) What is Bipolar Disorder?

According to J. Proudfoot & G. Parker (2009), they define Bipolar disorder as a chronic condition that is characterized by periods mania, depression and hypomania. These are defined as; mania, are episodes of frenzy, and rage opposite of depression. Hypomania is defined as a feeling of euphoria or irritable mood. The mood changes that come with this disorder can last from one day up to months (Grohl, 2014). For example, an episode can contain extreme highs that include tremendous levels of happiness, hyperactivity with the need to sleep. These manic episodes are followed with episodes of depression or vice versa, severe sadness, no interest in things or desire, feelings of hopelessness. These feelings can affect the lives of the person who suffers from this mental disease.

Living with Bipolar disease can be difficult; it can derail any future plans or just maintain a normal daily routine. If not treated, bipolar disorder can be detrimental for the person; manic episodes can cause conflicts within the family. These episodes can also result in hallucinations, hearing voices and even paranoia (Bressert, 2007). Bipolar disorder can be treated properly with medication if diagnosed early, if left untreated it can cause risky behaviors and or difficulty to survive in the outside world. Links to Bipolar Disorder

The know-abouts of what causes bipolar disorder has not been exactly identified, but what psychologists do know is that the disorder is genetically linked, neurochemical imbalance or hormone imbalance in the brain. According to the article of Bressert (2007), the genetic links in families that member with bipolar disorder have a history link of depression, identical twins have a higher risk of having bipolar disorder than a non-identical twin, a person with a parent diagnosed with bipolar disorder has a higher risk of developing the disorder.

The neurochemical factors that may cause or may be top factors in the cause of bipolar disorder can be environmental or an imbalance in chemicals in the brain. The imbalance that occurs in the brain is caused by a dysfunction in the chemical messengers or neurotransmitters; norepinephrine, serotonin and others chemicals. Some of these factors can be triggered by psychological stress or social factors or stay dormant without any episodes. The environmental factors that can affect or trigger the disorder can vary from alcohol and drug abuse, to a major life event. Drug infused episodes can also happen, these are called medication-triggered mania; over-the-counter drugs, appetite suppressants, ecstasy, amphetamines, excessive to moderate levels of caffeine. If a person has a family history of bipolar disorder than stress, alcohol, drug abuse, and lack of sleep may speed up the disorder or an episode (Bressert, 2007) Treatments

During a study, (Lejeune, 2011), there was an evaluation of about 10,000 university students; as students are usually the ones that have more difficulty coping with this chronic disease. College can be very difficult time due to the fact that it contains many of the triggers it associated with the mania episodes; stress, lack of sleep, drugs and alcohol abuse. Some of the treatments used in this study include psychotherapy and psychoeducation. Psychotherapy is when an outside person, observer, will keep track of the activities of the students life’s. The observer would need to write critical details but also be non-judgmental or invasive. This would help point out patterns or triggers that can point out stressors. Psychoeducation is part of the psychotherapy; the observer helps analyze the data collected and sits with the student to see what changes need to be assessed to avoid an episode.

Medication can be an alternative for people with bipolar disorder; the risks and side effects are great when taking medications. Many undergraduate students decided not to take medication due to the effects it might have on their mood and school performance, graduate students decided to take the medication. Many mood stabilizers have severe side effects; for women they have concerns future pregnancies. If the student is taking a secondary medication, medications might have an adverse reaction with each other. Overall patients need to pay attention to medications and treatments; adjust to what better suits them and what treatment they feel more comfortable with (Lejeune, 2011) Conclusion

In conclusion, bipolar disorder is a chronic mental illness that can be assessed and controlled with medication, psychotherapy and group therapy. Many people who are diagnosed with this disorder can live normal, productive
lives; depending if the person can control their episodes by living a healthy and responsible lifestyle. Also, by avoiding stress triggers the mania or depressive episodes could be avoided. Maybe with constant therapy or group consultation, a person with this chronic disease can find support and understanding. But how do we diagnose people with bipolar disorder earlier? How can scientist study the brain to figure out if the disorder is linked to some type of deformity in the brain structure while in the developing phase in the mother’s womb?


Bressert, S. (2007). An Introduction to Bipolar Disorder. Psych Central. Retrieved from Burton, N. (2012, June), Hide and Seek: The Concept of Bipolar Disorder is surprisingly modern. Psychology Today. Retrieved from Grohl, J. M. (2014, Feb). Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depression): Coping with Bipolar Disorder, PsychCentral, Retrieved from Lejuene, S. W. (2011). Special Consideration in the Treatment of College Students with Bipolar Disorder. Journal of American College Health. 59(7), 666-669. Proudfoot, J.G., Parker, G.B., Benoit, M., Manicavasagar, V., Smith, M., & Gayed, A. (2009). What happens after diagnosis? Understanding the experiences of patients with newly-diagnosed bipolar disorder, Health Expectation, 12(2), 120-129

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Often people are traumatized by traumatic events that take place their lives. We seldom expect these events to happen so we often do not know how to react when it does happen, this can lead to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In this assignment is the definition of PTSD, the reason why South Africa has such a high prevalence of PTSD and also the methods of prevention of PTSD will be discussed. DEFINITION OF POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be defined as a response people have to traumatic events in life and can arise as an immediate, delayed and/or protracted response (Seedat, 2011). These events can be natural disasters, such as a tsunami or earthquake, or it can be ‘human-made’ like a hijacking or an assault, and even things like apartheid and xenophobia (Austin, et. al. , 2011:111) (Seedat, 2011). PTSD can lead to a person feeling helpless and having an intense fear (Austin, et. al. , 2011:111). To diagnose a person with PTSD, three main criteria of symptoms must be visible in the person namely the person must be re-experiencing the traumatic event, the person must have an avoidance associated stimilu, and the person must have a hypervigilance and chronic arousal (like having anger issues or not being able to sleep) (Austin, et. al. , 2011:111) (Seedat, 2011). These three symptoms can be in a minimum state, but all three need to be visible before a person can be diagnosed with PTSD (Austin, et. al. , 2011:111). All symptoms must be shown for a month or more and cause signifcant distress or impairment in social or occupational areas of functioning and if these symptoms carry on for more than three months it can be seen as chronic PTSD (Seedat, 2011). Different psychological factors can play a role in the development and maintanence of PTSD. These factors were identified by Edwards (2005c) as emotionally distressing and problematic processes of guilt, shame, grief, anxiety, dysfunctional and/or distorted cognitions, and various cognitive, affective, and behavioural avoidance mechanisms (Austin, et. al. , 2011:111).

PTSD is fairly common as approximately eight out of 100 people will develop PTSD (Seedat, 2011). Women are twice as likely as men to develop PTSD
(Seedat, 2011). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is very common in South Africa because of various reasons (Seedat, 2011). In 1997, the World Health Organization issued a study on the Global Burden of Disease. They found that mental disorders are second in burden to infectious diseases (Burke, Unknown). There have not been much studies of trauma disorders in SA, but the existing research suggests that South Africans, especially black South Africans, are still struggling with SA’s past, this being the apartheid which started in 1948 and lasted until 1994 (Burke, Unknown). In 1997, Market Research Africa and the Community Agency for Social Equality issued a study of face-to-face interviews with 3,870 adults who grew up during this time and the results were that 17% of people who had been exposed to trauma described their mental health as poor. There were 2 % of people who were exposed to violent events and 78 % of this 23% had one or more symptoms of PTSD (Burke, Unknown). Most people who lived through apartheid do not suffer any symptoms of PTSD, but there are those people who are still so undone by the atrocities of the apartheid era that they still suffer the symptoms of PTSD. The symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder have many different consequences for different people. PTSD can sometimes lead to drug and alcohol abuse. According to a report from the Health Department released recently, South Africa has the highest rates of alcoholism in the world (Burke, Unknown). METHODS OF PREVENTION OF PTSD

Some evidence suggests that intervening with medications or psychotherapy within a short time after the traumatic event may prevent PTSD to develop (Seedat, 2011). One possible method for the prevention of PTSD is the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI). The purpose of this method is to prevent the development of PTSD within a 30 day range after experiencing a potentially traumatic event. In a study, a number of 7 to 17 year old children were randomly assigned to the intervention or to a four-session supportive Comparison condition. The results were that the children part of the CFTSI had less and less symptoms of PTSD which suggests that a caregiver-youth and early intervention for children exposed to a potentially traumatic event is a promising method to prevent chronic PTSD (Berkowitz, Stover, and Marans, 2010). Another possible method for the prevention of PTSD is memory structuring intervention (MSI). Studies have
been made on how trauma is processed which lead to the creating of MSI. In a randomised-controlled study, traffic accident victims who were at risk for PTSD were assigned to two MSI or two supportive-listening control sessions and the MSI patients reported a significantly less frequent arousal and PTSD symptoms than the controls (Gersons, Carlier, Lamberts & Kolk, 2001). CONCLUSION

PTSD can come forth when people are exposed to a traumatic event, and it can become a chronic disorder if it lasts for longer than 3months. In South Africa we have a high prevalence for PTSD. We think that there are more people who were part of the apartheid era, that have PTSD than what studies have shown. Not every person understands the severity of PTSD or knows the symptoms of PTSD so they don’t realize that they have it. PTSD is not only treatable but possibly preventable too. There is no definite prevention method as different people handle different situations in different ways. Thus it would be good if people were more aware of the symptoms more could be done to prevent PTSD.


Austin, TL., et al., (2011). Schizophrenia. In TL. Austin, et. Al. Abnormal Psychology: A South African Perspective (pp. 160-193). Cape Town: Oxford University Press South Africa.

Burke, L. (Unknown). The consequences of truth: Post-traumatic stress in new South Africa (continued). Retrieved April 20, 2012, from South Africa in Transition:

Gersons, Carlier, Lamberts & Kolk. (2001). Translating Research Findings to PTSD Preventionl: Results of a Randomized-Controlled Pilot Study. Retrieved April 21, 2012, from Spingerlink:

Seedat, S. (2011, 03 01). Depression – Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
Retrieved April 20, 2012, from Health 24:,11960.asp

Physiological disorder

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects the movement. It develops gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. But while a tremor may be the most well-known sign of Parkinson’s disease, the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or slowing of movement. Parkinson’s disease become worst as your condition progress over time, at the early stage of the disorder your face may show no expression, the way you walk changes and the most recognisable is your speech it become slurred and soft. The muscles of a person with Parkinson’s become weaker and the individual may assume an unusual posture. Parkinson’s disease belongs to a group of conditions called movement disorders. Movement disorders describe a variety of abnormal body movements that have a neurological basis, and include such conditions as cerebral palsy, ataxia, and Tourette syndrome. A male has a 50% higher risk of developing Parkinson’s disease than a female.

In the majority of cases, symptoms start to appear after the age of 50. However, in about 4% to 5% of cases the sufferer is younger than 40 years. When signs and symptoms develop in an individual aged between 21 and 40 years, it is known as Young-onset Parkinson’s disease.

Apart from tremor and slow movements, the patient may also have a fixed, inexpressive face – this is because of poorer control over facial muscle coordination and movement.

As a significant number of elderly patients with early Parkinson’s disease symptoms assume that their traits may form part of normal aging and do not seek medical help, obtaining accurate statistics is probably impossible. There are also several different conditions which sometimes have comparable signs and symptoms to Parkinson’s, such as drug-induced Parkinsonism, head trauma, encephalitis, stroke, Lewy body dementia, corticobasal degeneration, multiple system atrophy, and progressive supranuclear pasly`. Parkinson’s can affect the way you carry out a broad range of everyday activities, from working and driving, to simply eating and brushing your teeth. But by making some small changes in your lifestyle and also in your approach to activities, you can maintain independence and continue many of your usual routines. It is possible to maintain a good quality of life, simply by embracing change.

Bipolar Disorder

What is Bipolar Disorder? A Brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in moods Also known as manic-depressive disorder
It consists of manic episodes, depressive episodes, and/or hypomanic episodes People with bipolar disorder are also usually diagnosed with anxiety, attention deficit disorder, substance abuse, or physical health problems There are three types of bipolar disorder:

Bipolar I Disorder – diagnostic criteria
At least one manic episode
May or may not have had a depressive episode
There are more specific subcategories because it varies from person to person Bipolar II Disorder – criteria
At least one hypomanic episode (not fully manic)
At least one major depressive episode
There are also more specific subcategories
Cyclothymic Disorder – criteria
Numerous hypomanic episodes
Periods of depression
Never have a full manic or major depressive episode
Symptoms must last 2 yrs. or more and they can’t go away for more than 2 months

What is a manic episode?
A manic episode is a period of abnormally and persistently elevated, irritable, or expansive moods that last at least one week. To be considered a manic episode the mood disturbance must be severe enough to cause noticeable difficulty at work, school, or social activities Symptoms are not due to the direct effects of other things like drug use, other medications, or having a medical condition

What is a hypomanic episode?
A hypomanic episode is a distinct period of elevated, expansive, or irritable mood that lasts at least 4 days. The mood disturbance must be severe enough
to cause a noticeable change in functioning The episode is not severe enough to cause significant difficulty at work, school, or in social activities Symptoms are not due to the effects of something else such as drug use or other medications

What is a depressive episode?
A depressive episode is a period of major depression not caused by grieving Major depressive episode usually occurs directly after the manic episode ends

Bipolar Disorder requires lifelong treatment – even during times when there are no symptoms Treatment is typically guided by a psychiatrist
Primary treatment includes medications, individual counseling, and support groups

Risk Factors
Blood relative with Bipolar Disorder
Periods of high stress
Teens through mid-20s
Drug and alcohol use
Major life changes

Statistics on Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar Disorder affects about 5.7 millions adults in America (about 2.6% of the U.S. population) Median age of onset is 25 years old
It is seen almost equally in men and women
More than 2/3 of people with Bipolar Disorder have at least one close relative with the disorder Bipolar is the 6th leading cause of disability in the world
1 in 5 patients with Bipolar Disorder commits suicide
9.2 year reduction in expected life span

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Analyzed, Interpreted, and Theorized

Obsession is defined by preoccupying or filling the mind of (someone) continually, intrusively, and to a troubling extent ( A compulsion is defined as to force or drive, especially to a course of action. All of this grouped together with a psychological irregularity can describe someone going through Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Those suffering from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder have recurring thoughts, feelings, and ideas to feel driven to accomplish a certain task, usually cleaning, counting, fixing, etc. These people feel anxiety because of their reoccurring compulsions and can only be rid of it by acting on the thought which is called thought-action fusion. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder effects maybe 1 out of 100 children in the US and a total 3% of people in the general population due to recent research completed by the WHO ). I think the prevalence of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in children is so low because Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is a generalized biological vulnerability, meaning the child has a heritable contribution to negative effects. This means that the child has learned from outside sources; parents, teachers, friends; that a certain stimuli will bring about a certain set of feelings and therefore actions (thought action fusion).

Some research studies done by the National Institute of Health have shown that Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is caused by an uncommon mutation of the human serotonin transporter gene ( Another theory explained in an article in the JAMA Network Journal by Ben J. Harrison; PHD states that those who have Obsessive Compulsive Disorder have an altered corticostriatal function in the brain. This corticostriatal function means the networks of nerves in the brain. It was shown in their research that those with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder have even higher functionality than those without Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. This does not mean a higher IQ or brain function; it only means altered networks create abnormal and reoccurring thoughts and actions. I believe Obsessive Compulsive Disorder to be a learned or conditioned response to events taught by those responsible for early development.

This hypothesis comes from an article in Psychiatry research by Francesco Catapano that shows the relationship between levels of melatonin and cortisol, the stress hormone, in those with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder compared to those who do not have Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Their findings showed that those with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder had lower melatonin levels giving them irregular sleep patterns and abnormal circadian rhythms. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder patients were also found to have higher doses of cortisol in their blood in comparison to the healthy control group.

More research was done on the subject by Xinhua Zhang; MD who claims that aft6er treating a patient with a brain tumor, the patient began to have compulsive thoughts about her children and husband living longer than her. She realized these thoughts were unnecessary and went back to the hospital. Xinhua Zhang concluded that since the tumor excavation took place in the right frontal lobe that this is where obsessions originate and the surgery caused her to behave abnormally. Upon further research I’ve found that the right frontal lobe is the perfect place for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder to spawn from because the frontal lobe is said to control our emotions and cause us to be different in personality ( ).

There has been a lot of research on the treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and it almost always leads to medication. The treatment that has gotten the most recognition and funding is a drug called Clomipramine ( Compulsive Disorder ). Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is a chronic disorder that doesn’t really go away because of the serotonin levels in the brain of those affected. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder causes serotonin to be absorbed at an abnormal speed which accounts for constant urge to seek relief from stress. Clomipramine allows serotonin to bind to the drug and be free flowing in the synapses of the brain instead of being absorbed and shoveled off as waste.

Considering Barlow’s Integrated Model of mental health. I would categorize Obsessive Compulsive Disorder as both generalized biological vulnerability and generalized psychological vulnerability. It could be a biological abnormality because, as previously stated, there could be something wrong with the right frontal lobe causing obsession and compulsive thoughts. To me, psychological vulnerability just means a learned thought process either from parents, teachers, siblings, or other outside sources. According to a study done by J. Griffiths, a Bristol Doctorate graduate in Clinical Psychology, the data taken from those who live with parents or close relatives with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder has a serious indication on the prevalence of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder within the children of the family. The children reported feeling embarrassed by their parent and a feeling of loss of control considering boundaries and the happiness of said “sick” relative.

Children who suffer from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder usually have fears of getting dirty, getting hurt, or have a feeling of need for exactness and/or symmetry. They’re both linked because of the integrative model of psychological disorders. Having a parent with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, or any other type of mental disorder for that matter will have an effect on those in close proximity of them due to classical conditioning and learned response from an abnormal or neurotic pattern of behavior according to Etelä-Savon Sairaanhoitopiiri, the writer of the article “Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in childhood” in the Duodecim journal.

Many studies show that Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is more common in people who don’t follow pre- and perinatal health advice. Since prenatal childcare is the most crucial due to the formation of the brain and the natural chemicals combining in the amniotic sack, those who do not exercise greater caution in certain respects may cause their children to inherit Obsessive Compulsive Disorder later on in life. Data showed that excessive weight gain and edema of the hands, feet, and face during pregnancy lead to higher rates of people born with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Another huge contributor to predisposed Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is whether or not the mother took or mixed medications during the beginning stages of the pregnancy. A counter point made in “The Structure of Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Dimensional Representations of DSM-5 Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders” in JAMA Psychiatry shows that there is a strong correlation between environmental factors and the onset of mental disorders.

Their conclusion was that it is much more possible to get Obsessive Compulsive Disorder from traumatic experiences or living arrangements than biologically inherited. Those who suffer because of life events rather than genetics suffer to a higher degree than those of their biologically inherited symptom counterparts. This usually accounts for a higher drug dosage and a lesser ability to control and manage the symptoms of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (Benedetta Monzani, PhD). This is supported by the lecture we did on experiential avoidance and the conditioned responses we acquire due to stress. If someone lives in such a way that any thought they encounter causes them stress, then they might pick up some behaviors that stop them from stressing out due to thinking; which is exactly what victims of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder encounter on a daily basis. It starts out as either biologically inherited or psychologically learned Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Once they experience a stressful thought or action, they revert to their learned stress relief which is usually compulsive behavioral rituals to suppress said thoughts. In “Adverse childhood experiences and gender influence treatment seeking behaviors in obsessive–compulsive disorder”, an article in Comprehensive Psychology, it states that adverse childhood experiences (ACE) leads to higher activity in the frontal lobe of the brain; which we have deduced is where compulsive behavior originates.

Different outcomes according to sex were also examined in this study and it was shown that males do a better job at rebounding after adverse or traumatic experiences than females which accounts for the higher rate of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in females than in males. During my studies, while distinguishing adverse health outcomes due to prenatal care is easy and logical, I think that more research states that Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is more psychologically conditioned than inherited. The number of patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder who had traumatic or rough living environments vastly outnumber those who did not have such circumstances. I think this also shows the degree to which they are affected. Someone who is predisposed to have Obsessive Compulsive Disorder would not be as strongly influenced by their thoughts in comparison to someone who has a physical real life correlation with a traumatic experience.

This is supported by the fact that the pharmaceutical treatment for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is the same as treatment for PTSD. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are both used to slow the absorption of serotonin in the brain so it is free floating in a higher dosage which leads to less stress and less abnormal behavior. The rate at which the serotonin is released and absorbed is equivalent to the time spent in less stress. Antidepressants work in these types of situations because of the high impact that Obsessive Compulsive Disorder has on the emotional state of the mind. The frontal lobe, as previously discussed, is the anatomical site for emotion and personality, so an abnormality in chemical processing or a physical abnormality not only spawns Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in subjects, but also alters their emotional state and how their outlook on life. Studies show that patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder who have a better outlook on their treatment and acceptance of it, have a better treatment outcome than those who don’t take SSRI’s. In conclusion, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is a rare abnormality originating in the frontal lobe.

The absorption rate of serotonin in the brain strongly correlates with onset of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Although there are many medications to take, the most widely used is Clomipramine and SSRI’s so the emotional and physical stress can be tolerated. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder can be contracted at any time but due to recent studies, I have more confidence in the theory that traumatic life experiences and negative living arrangements have a higher rate of setting on OCD than a predisposed genetic availability to contract it because of the physical testimonies from those in that situation. Although I’m sure that prenatal care and genetics play a viable roll in mental health, I would still say that those who have a physical association with stress or trauma are more affected by it in the mind. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder affects only 3% of people in the general population, but given the fact that mental health takes a toll on family members, coworkers, and friends; it can be conjectured that it is affecting more than that by a “contact mental illness”. The problems people face every day should be taken into softer hearts because you never know who has been affected by this rare disorder.

Works Cited
Benedtti, F. (2014). Comprehensive psychiatry. Adverse childhood experiences
and gender influence treatment seeking behaviors in obsessive–compulsive disorder, 55(2), 298-301. Retrieved from Flament, M. (1988). Journal of the american academy of child & adolescent psychiatry. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Adolescence: An Epidemiological Study, 27(6), 764-771. Retrieved from Monzani, B. (2014). The Structure of Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Dimensional Representations of DSM-5 Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders, 71(2), Retrieved from Ocd education station. (2014). Retrieved from Traumatic brain injury. (2014). Retrieved from

Eating Disorder

A few years ago, Britney Spears and her entourage swept through my boss’s office. As she sashayed past, I blushed and stammered and leaned over my desk to shake her hand. She looked right into my eyes and smiled her pageant smile, and I confess, I felt dizzy. I immediately rang up friends to report my celebrity encounter, saying: “She had on a gorgeous, floor-length white fur coat! Her skin was blotchy!” I’ve never been much of a Britney fan, so why the contact high? Why should I care? For that matter, why should any of us? Celebrities are fascinating because they live in a parallel universe—one that looks and feels just like ours yet is light-years beyond our reach. Stars cry to Diane Sawyer about their problems—failed marriages, hardscrabble upbringings, bad career decisions—and we can relate. The paparazzi catch them in wet hair and a stained T-shirt, and we’re thrilled. They’re ordinary folks, just like us. And yet… Stars live in another world entirely, one that makes our lives seem woefully dull by comparison. The teary chat with Diane quickly turns to the subject of a recent $10 million film fee and honorary United Nations ambassadorship. The magazines that specialize in gotcha snapshots of schleppy-looking celebs also feature Cameron Diaz wrapped in a $15,000 couture gown and glowing with youth, money and star power.

We’re left hanging—and we want more. It’s easy to blame the media for this cognitive whiplash. But the real celebrity spinmeister is our own mind, which tricks us into believing the stars are our lovers and our social intimates. Celebrity culture plays to all of our innate tendencies: We’re built to view anyone we recognize as an acquaintance ripe for gossip or for romance, hence our powerful interest in Anna Kournikova’s sex life. Since catching sight of a beautiful face bathes the brain in pleasing chemicals, George Clooney’s killer smile is impossible to ignore. But when celebrities are both our intimate daily companions and as distant as the heavens above, it’s hard to know just how to think of them. Reality TV further confuses the picture by transforming ordinary folk into bold-faced names without warning.

Even celebrities themselves are not immune to celebrity watching: Magazines print pictures of Demi Moore and “Bachelorette” Trista Rehn reading the very same gossip magazines that stalk them. “Most pushers are users, don’t you think?” says top Hollywood publicist Michael Levine. “And, by the way, it’s not the worst thing in the world to do.” Celebrities tap into powerful motivational systems designed to foster romantic love and to urge us to find a mate. Stars summon our most human yearnings: to love, admire, copy and, of course, to gossip and to jeer. It’s only natural that we get pulled into their gravitational field. Exclusive: Fan’s brain transformed by celebrity power!

John Lennon infuriated the faithful when he said the Beatles were more popular than Jesus, but he wasn’t the first to suggest that celebrity culture was taking the place of religion. With its myths, its rituals (the red carpet walk, the Super Bowl ring, the handprints outside Grauman’s Chinese Theater) and its ability to immortalize, it fills a similar cultural niche. In a secular society our need for ritualized idol worship can be displaced onto stars, speculates psychologist James Houran, formerly of the Southern Illinois University School of Medicine and now director of psychological studies for True Beginnings dating service. Nonreligious people tend to be more interested in celebrity culture, he’s found, and Houran speculates that for them, celebrity fills some of the same roles the church fills for believers, like the desire to admire the powerful and the drive to fit into a community of people with shared values. Leo Braudy, author of The Frenzy of Renown: Fame and its History, suggests that celebrities are more like Christian calendar saints than like spiritual authorities (Tiger Woods, patron saint of arriviste golfers; or Jimmy Carter, protector of down-home liberal farmers?). “Celebrities have their aura—a debased version of charisma” that stems from their all-powerful captivating presence, Braudy says.

Much like spiritual guidance, celebrity-watching can be inspiring, or at least help us muster the will to tackle our own problems. “Celebrities motivate us to make it,” says Helen Fisher, an anthropologist at Rutgers University in New Jersey. Oprah Winfrey suffered through poverty, sexual abuse and racial discrimination to become the wealthiest woman in media. Lance Armstrong survived advanced testicular cancer and went on to win the Tour de France five times. Star-watching can also simply point the way to a grander, more dramatic way of living, publicist Levine says. “We live lives more dedicated to safety or quiet desperation, and we transcend this by connecting with bigger lives—those of the stars,” he says. “We’re afraid to eat that fatty muffin, but Ozzy Osborne isn’t.” Don’t I know you?! Celebrities are also common currency in our socially fractured world.

Depressed college coeds and laid-off factory workers both spend hours watching Anna Nicole Smith on late night television; Mexican villagers trade theories with hometown friends about who killed rapper Tupac Shakur; and Liberian and German businessmen critique David Beckham’s plays before hammering out deals. My friend Britney Spears was, in fact, the top international Internet search of 2003. In our global village, the best targets for gossip are the faces we all know. We are born to dish dirt, evolutionary psychologists agree; it’s the most efficient way to navigate society and to determine who is trustworthy. They also point out that when our brains evolved, anybody with a familiar face was an “in-group” member, a person whose alliances and enmities were important to keep track of.

Bipolar Disorder

Over the years there have been many misconceptions about what bipolar disorder is, what the symptoms are, and how it is treated. Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. A person who has “mood swings” does not automatically qualify them for a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. The characteristics of bipolar disorder are significant shifts in mood that go from manic episodes to deep depressive episodes in waves and valleys that never end. Nearly 2% of Americans have been diagnosed with bipolar disorder, more commonly known as manic depression. Scientists are constantly studying the possible causes of bipolar disorder. Most scientists agree that there is not one single cause, but is caused by a combination of biological and environmental factors.

Even though it has not been proven that bipolar disorder is hereditary, it does tend to run in families. Children with a parent or sibling who has bipolar disorder are much more likely to develop the illness, compared with children who do not have a family history. Bipolar patients are more likely to use mind altering drugs to try and self-medicate therefore making diagnosis a harder process. “Doctors diagnose bipolar disorder using guidelines from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). To be diagnosed with bipolar disorder, the symptoms must be a major change from your normal mood or behavior” (Youngstrom, E., 2012, October 23). Below is a chart demonstrating the different mood changes and behavioral changes between a manic and depressive episode.

It was once thought that there were only two types of bipolar disorder, but now the disease has been broken down even further into several different disorders. Bipolar I disorder is the most severe form of the illness with extreme manic or mixed episodes that last at least a week. “Bipolar I disorder is characterized by at least one manic episode during your lifetime. Usually there are depressive episodes as well that last two weeks, however you do not need to have a history of depression to be diagnosed with bipolar I disorder. Bipolar II disorder is defined by experiencing both a hypo-manic and a depressive episode. To meet the criteria for bipolar II, a previous episode of depression is necessary, along with symptoms of less intense mania lasting at least four days” (Caponigro, J., Lee, E., Johnson, S., & Kring, A., 2012). Cyclothymia is defined by a pattern of chronic and frequent mood changes. These mood changes are not as extreme as those experienced in manic episodes. The diagnosis is based off of how much of the time some type of changed move is present.

Most people diagnosed with Cyclothymia tend to feel very “up” or very “down” at least half of the time. This diagnosis is not considered until those mood fluctuations have continued for a very long time: generally one year for adolescents and over two years for adults. These episodes must last for at least two years without more than two months of a stable mood during that time to qualify for this diagnosis. Bipolar NOS or not otherwise specified is the diagnosis that covers forms of bipolar that don’t fall into any of the other categories. The mood episodes are extreme enough to be classified as manic, hypomanic, or depressive but do not meet the duration requirements for bipolar I, bipolar II, or cyclothymic diagnosis. Bipolar disorder cannot be cured, but it can be treated effectively long-term. Because it is a lifelong illness, long-term treatment is essential to control symptoms. It is essential to receive the correct diagnosis to receive the most effective treatment. Medication is the most effective treatment for managing symptoms of bipolar disorder and extending periods of mental and physical wellness.

Most often, the first medicines used are called mood stabilizers. “Since the early 1960’s, lithium has been the most commonly used mood stabilizer” (Fink, C., & Kraynak, J., 2013). Some other medications that are prescribed for the treatment of bipolar are Trileptal, Topamax, and Neurontin. Because it is believed by some that bipolar disorder is caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain, these medications have been effective in treating bipolar disorder, but they are not considered effective treatments for bipolar symptoms. Antipsychotics medications are used to reduce psychotic symptoms and lowering irritability, and they can be the fastest way to treat an acute manic episode. Antipsychotic medications are usually stated during an acute manic phase while the patient is in the hospital, and used as a maintenance treatment after the patient is released. The biggest hurdle in treatment of bipolar disorder is ongoing treatment. When patients are diagnosed correctly and started on the correct medications it is vital for those medications to be continued by the patient. Many bipolar patients feel that once their mood has stabilized that they are “cured” therefore they stop taking the medication.

In conclusion, receiving a bipolar diagnosis does not have to be the end of the world. Many brilliant and upstanding people have been diagnosed and effectively treated for bipolar disorder. It is important to have regular visits with a psychiatrists to discuss your medications and side effects. Blood tests are sometimes ordered to check the levels of your medications and the response of your body to these medications. It is important to stay on the prescribed medications and to try and keep a normal daily routine. A support group and supportive friends and family are vital in maintaining a good balance between the highs and lows. Even though there is not a cure, it is possible to live a happy and productive life.

Caponigro, J., Lee, E., Johnson, S., & Kring, A., (2012). Bipolar Disorder: A Guide for the Newly Diagnosed. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc. Fink, C., & Kraynak, J., (2013). Bipolar Disorder for Dummies 2nd Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Youngstrom, E., (2012, October 23). Myths and Realities about Bipolar Disorders. Retrieved from

Antisocial Personality Disorder: An Overview

In this paper, my aim was to give a general overview of antisocial personality disorder so that I could broaden my understanding of this mental illness. I used textbook material, information from the DSM-5, and several outside sources to try to create a complete picture of the main points of the disorder, such as the causes development, symptoms, prognosis, prevalence, and treatment options for this disorder. I also looked into possible sociocultural influences on the development of the disorder, and consider whether or not it is a legitimate disorder that should be acknowledged by the mental health community. I conclude this work with a personal critique of what I have taken away from my research.

Antisocial Personality Disorder: An Overview
In order to be successful in any society, it is important to be able to abide by the rules that the society puts forth. While there are a lot of cultural differences about what is normal and what is not, one could venture to pick out some universal moral guidelines—harming someone, stealing, conning, and lying are generally rejected. Breaking the law and disregarding the safety of oneself or others would also fall on the societal “don’t” list. While most people find it fairly easy to live within the bounds that society sets (or at least feel guilty when they don’t), people with an antisocial personality disorder find it significantly more difficult. This disorder, also commonly known as psychopathy or sociopathy, is rather difficult to deal with—and rather fascinating to study. In my experience, there is a serious social stigma attached to antisocial personality disorder. When I think of this disorder, or of the term “psychopath,” there is a learned connection that immediately goes to danger and fear. In the media and Hollywood, people with this disorder are connected with many of the most heinous crimes—serial murders, rape, highly successful scam operations. Although the traits associated with antisocial personality disorder make sense with these types of crimes, it is not nearly as common as television and movies make it seem.

This general misconception is one reason that I was interested in studying this disorder. The second reason that I was so interested in studying this disorder was a thought that I had one day while discussing the high levels of criminal behavior within the population of people with antisocial personality disorder. Although they often participate in criminal activity, there is something wrong with their mind that does not allow them to process their actions the same way I am able to process my actions. The thought struck me that if I could lie to get ahead and I did not feel an ounce of guilt (because I had no capacity for guilt), even though I knew it was wrong, would I do it? I know that there is a still a choice—but I think that the disorder these people have necessitates a shift in our perspective of their actions. It was this thought that really led me to want to have a much more full understanding of this disorder.

Historical and Diagnostic Features

The causes of antisocial personality disorder, like many other personality disorders, are difficult to pinpoint. One reason for this is because many people with these disorders do not seek help until they have had the problem for years, and they still may not recognize that anything is wrong—often, it is the distress of other people in their lives that eventually causes them to seek help. Because of this delay in treatment, it is not easy to study people with personality disorders from the onset of their problem (Durand & Barlow, 2013). However, there is definitely some sort of biological connection. The American Psychiatric Press Review of Psychology: Volume 11 states, “There is little doubt that there exists a genetic predisposition to antisocial personality disorder, as indicated by a variety of adoption, family history, and twin studies.” (Tasman, 1992, p. 67). There are also significant ties to sociocultural factors, which was researched in the Cambridge Study of Delinquent Development. This study showed several factors such as a convicted parent, large family size, low intelligence, a young mother, and a disrupted family which correlated with later antisocial personalities. (Farrington, 2000).

Although it is hard to pinpoint a cause of this disorder, we are fairly sure that it originates in childhood and follows a chronic course through adulthood. Despite the fact that it probably originates in childhood, antisocial personality disorder cannot be diagnosed until a person is 18. For children who tend to violate societal norms, there is the diagnosis of conduct disorder; many adults who are diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder were diagnosed with conduct disorder as a child (Durand & Barlow, 2013). Although antisocial personality disorder is chronic, it does seem to wane as a person gets older, especially around the age of forty. While this remission is most evident in the lessening of criminal behavior, it is also likely that the full spectrum of antisocial behaviors as well as substance abuse will go down. (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). The DSM-5 outlines the main symptoms that are prevalent in antisocial personality disorder and says, “The essential feature of antisocial personality disorder is pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood” (APA, 2013). Symptoms of this disorder include frequent breaching of law, deceitfulness (lying to and conning others for personal gain), impulsiveness, irritability, aggressiveness, recklessness, and irresponsibility. Furthermore, there is an apparent lack of remorse for having caused harm to another person (APA, 2013). This set of symptoms found within someone who is at least 18 years of age and shown signs of conduct disorder from the age of 15 merits a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder.

However, a mental health professional should always exhaust all of their options when diagnosing. In the case of antisocial personality disorder, it is also possible that the involved symptoms only show up within the course of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder; if this is the case it should not be diagnosed as a personality disorder. Substance abuse can also be associated with these symptoms. If this is the case, a clinician should examine whether or not antisocial behavior was exhibited in childhood and have continued into adulthood. If not, it is more likely a substance abuse disorder. If so, and the substance abuse also began in childhood, there may be a double diagnosis necessitated. When diagnosing any personality disorder, it is important to look closely at the distinguishing features, because several personality disorders can share very similar traits. If all the features are met for two or more disorders, all can be diagnosed as comorbid disorders. Finally, because antisocial personality is closely correlated to criminal activity, it is necessary to see that antisocial personality features accompany the criminal act—otherwise, it is simply criminal behavior (APA, 2013).

It is often this criminal behavior aspect of this disorder that brings it into the public eye. Jack Pemment (2012) speaking about psychopaths in our culture wrote, “Despite inflicting terror into our hearts with the idea of a remorseless killer who is ‘programmed’ to kill, they are also heralded as intrinsically fascinating” (p. 1). While these people may be fascinating, it is important to remember that antisocial personalities often are associated with low economic status and urban settings. Those who exhibit antisocial behavior are often coming from a rough environment, and it is important that clinicians consider the social and economic background when assessing these individuals and making decisions about their diagnosis (APA, 2013). Based on criteria from former DSM manuals, the prevalence of antisocial personality disorder is between 0.2% and 3.3%. This prevalence is higher in samples of people who come from hard socioeconomic or challenging sociocultural background. The prevalence among populations such as males who abuse alcohol, patients at substance abuse clinics, and prisons is disproportionately high, sometimes greater than 70% (APA, 2013).

For those who have this disorder, prognosis is not particularly positive. This is a chronic disorder, and to date there are no cures like we have for other psychological disorders, and there have been very few success stories treating antisocial adults with behavioral therapy (Durand & Barlow, 2013). However, the level of dysfunction involved seems to go down significantly after a long period of time—Robins and Regier (1991) found in their study that on average, from first to last symptom, the disorder lasts 19 years. This general pattern of remission over time is the most positive prognostic factor for this disorder. Part of the reason that prognosis is so low is that treatment for adults with antisocial personality disorder is particularly difficult. Firstly, people with disorder almost never identify themselves as in need of treatment, and therefore they do not ever go; Meloy (n.d.) states that only one in seven will ever discuss their disorder with a doctor.

For those who do go to treatment, it is still difficult to achieve results. Beyond that, seemingly positive results seen may even be faulty—a characteristic of people with this disorder is lying and exhibiting manipulative behavior, so it is hard to tell whether or not therapy is working. In fact, one study has shown that those who were showing the most
signs of success in therapy were the ones who were actually relapsing in undesirable behavior the most—they had just learned what they needed to say to the therapist to get good remarks, and they were able to simulate it well (Bennett, 2011). While there has been no “miracle drug” for the treatment of antisocial personality disorder, there has been some slight pharmacological treatment success. The successes in this realm have been primarily with the symptoms of aggression and impulsiveness. Lithium (a medication often used for bipolar disorder) has been shown to reduce aggressive impulsive episodes.

A drug called Divalproex has seen some success in measurements of irritability, verbal assault, and assault against objects. While these may help, it is still not a treatment that leads to significant recovery and long-term success in treating this disorder (Bennett, 2011). Nothing has been a tried and true treatment for this disorder, but it has been shown that early intervention can help prevent full-blown symptoms later on. Early intervention seems to be the key in the success of these treatment plans—it seems as though once a person is an adult, it is hard to treat the symptoms of their personality disorder (Durand & Barlow, 2013). Psychological interventions like family and cognitive behavioral therapy have seen significant success. Family therapy gives participants skills to cope with their family and other issues, and helps to improve parenting,skills, often by encouraging support of the child and reducing stress within the home. Cognitive behavioral interventions are aimed at teaching problem-solving and social skills which helps affected individuals maintain a more normal level of function later on (Bennett, 2011).

Personal Critique

In doing this research, I learned that this disorder is similar to, but not nearly as drastic as, the idea that I had of it before. I had always thought that this was an extremely rare disorder (still not incredibly common, but more so than I thought), and that those that did have it were bound to exhibit some sort of cold, calculated, criminal behavior. Although many are caught up in criminal activity and do things that hurt those around them (for example, lying to and stealing from people that love them), they are not often doing things like committing serial murders. I also learned from one article I read that there are definite, biological differences in the brains of people with antisocial personalities and the brains of normal, healthy people. I think this is very interesting because in my opinion this further validates the disorder. If people have legitimate differences in the structure of their brain, they are truly suffering from an illness that there may be nothing that they can do about. It may also explain why treatment that works on many other psychological disorders does not work as well for people with this disorder.

The biggest challenge that mental health experts have with diagnosing this disorder is that people who have it do not believe that they have anything wrong with them, and therefore they do not come in for treatment. It is impossible to diagnose if the mental health expert doesn’t get the chance. Second to this, the biggest challenge would be that the disorder itself is characterized by manipulation and lying, so a client may not be honest with a therapist about what is going on psychologically, and they may be very good at the front that they put up. Antisocial personality disorder is most definitely a justifiable disorder. I think that there have been enough cases (particularly the few drastic ones) in which this disorder has clearly represented itself. Although this disorder may not cause percieved distress to the individual, it still limits them from having a healthy human experience, and it often causes significant distress in the lives of those who love the individual with the disorder.

Finally, as I said before, I think that the brain research that has been conducted solidifies the existence of the disorder, and it most definitely should be included in the DSM-5 as well as future versions. It saddens me that there are not currently any viable treatment options for this disorder. As someone wanting to pursue a career in mental health, I would hate to have a client that I was absolutely unable to help. I hope that in the near future we will either find a form of therapy that will work for those already affected, or that we will be able to more successfully catch and curb these behaviors at a young age so that these individuals have a chance to lead successful, healthy lives.

American Psychiatric Assosiciation. (2013). Diagnositc and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing. Bennett, P. (2011). Abnormal and Clinical Psychology: An Introductory
Textbook. Maidenhead, Berkshire, England: McGraw Hill, Open University Press. Durand, V.M., & Barlow, D. H. (2013). Essentials of Abnormal Psychology, Sixth Edition. Australia, et al: Wadworth Cengage Learning. Farrington, D.P. (2000). Psychosocial predictors of adult antisocial personality and adult convictions, Behavioral Science and the Law, 18, 605. Pemment, J. (2012, Oct. 16). The neurobiology of antisocial personality disorder: The quest for rehabitation and treatment. Aggression and Violent Behavior. Retrieved from Robins L, & Regier, D. (1991). Psychiatric Disorders in America. New York, NY: Free Press. Tasman, A. & Riba, M. B. (Ed). (1992). American Psychiatric Press Review of Psychology

(Vol. 11). American Psychiatric Publishing.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms

I. Importance of Study

Found in the Journal of Advanced Nursing, a group of Norwegian psychologists conducted an observational longitudinal study to discover whether or not there is a relationship because Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms (PTSD). Mette Senneseth, Kjersti Alsaker & Gerd Karin Natvig, conducted this study. According to the journal, the aim of the study was to examine HRQoL and PTSD symptoms in the people that attend Accident and Emergency departments (A&E), due to the fact that they suffer from some type of psychosocial crisis (Alasker et al. 2011, 403). Hereafter, this is referred to as Research 1. The study done in Research 1 revealed that there has been an interest in researching one’s quality of life, and how it correlates with one’s health. The term HRQoL refers to the “effects of health, illness and treatment on QoL” (Alasker et al. 2011, 403). There have been a number of studies that suggest that traumatic life events, including, but not limited to, sexual assault and military combat, have a negative effect on HRQoL. Additionally, poor HRQoL is not only associated with PTSD symptoms, but they are related to differences and modification in HRQoL, and there is a negative correlation between the two (Alasker et al. 2011, 403). The researchers hypothesized that people who seek help at A&E, suffering from such psychosocial calamites, have lower HRQoL than the general population of Norway at the time of the study, and that the participants will have improved HRQoL after two months (Alasker et al. 2011, 403). In addition, a second hypothesis predicts that participants who have high levels of PTSD symptoms at the time of the study will have reduced symptoms after the conclusion of the study at two months.

Lastly, the third hypothesis wraps the study up by predicating that high levels of PTSD symptoms are associated to low HRQoL scores in a follow-up experiment (Alasker et al., 2011, 403). Found in the Cyber-psychology, Behavior and Social Networking Journal, a group of researchers conducted a study to compare the effects of VR-graded exposure therapy (VR-GET) versus treatment as usual (TAU) on people suffering from combat related PTSD (McLay et al. 2011, 223). Robert Mclay, Dennis Wood, Jennifer Webb-Murphy, James Spira, Mark Miederholf, Jeffery Pyne and Brenda Wiederhold conducted this study. Hereafter, this is referred to as Research 2. The doctors responsible for conducting this study found that there has only been one “randomized, controlled proof-of-concept” study that was specifically designed for Active Duty Service Members suffering from PTSD (McLay et al. 2011, 223). Also, the doctors wanted to extend the “already found research gathered” from victims of PTSD, and take the study one step further. The researchers of Research 2 hypothesized that “patients with combat-related PTSD would be more likely to experience clinically significant improvements in VR-GET than treatment as usual” (McLay et al. 2011, 224). VR-GET is a virtual reality stimulation that combines graded virtual reality exposure with “physiologic monitoring and skills training” (McLay et al. 2011, 224). Also, VR-GET promotes engagement with, rather than escaping the events and experiences that prompt a traumatic episode.


In regards to Research 1, the participants in the study had to meet three criteria before they were able to participate. During the recruitment period, the researchers found participants who were attending the A&E due to a “psychosocial crisis and who consulted a psychiatric nurse,” were 18 years of age or older, and those who were able to both read and understand Norwegian (Alasker et al. 2011, 404). A total of 113 were asked to participate in the study. Of those 113 people selected, 99 of the people participated in the baseline study, and 41 participated in both the baseline study, and the follow-up study. Aforementioned, this was an observational longitudinal study, where participants were observed repeatedly over a long period of time.

There were two types of instruments that were used for the research in Research 1. The first instrument that was used was a SF-36 Health Survey, which is a “36 item self-report questionnaire that assesses eight domains of physical and MH ranging from 1-100” (Alasker et al. 2011, 404). In this survey, the higher score reveals the best HRQoL, and the lower score reveals the poorest HRQoL (Alasker et al. 2011, 404). The second instrument that was used for this study was the Post-traumatic Symptom Scale (PTSS-10), which is a ten item self-report questionnaire that “assesses the presence and intensity of symptoms” (Alasker et al. 2011, 404). On the PTSS-10, scores range from 10 to 70, and a score of 35 or greater results in a PTSD diagnosis (Alasker et al. 2011, 404). In addition to the two questionnaires, participants were encouraged to go to consolations at the A&E. The number of consultations that each participant attended varies throughout the study.

In regards to Research 2, “participants for the study were all Active Duty Service Members who had been diagnosed by a military mental health professional as having PTSD” related to military combat (McLay et al. 2011, 224). At the end of the baseline assessment, those who were qualified to participate in he study were asked to draw a piece of paper out of an envelop, making the selection of treatment completely random, and giving the participants an equal chance of choosing either treatment. There were a total of twenty people that participated in this study; ten assigned to the VR-GET and another ten assigned to TAU (McLay et al. 2011, 225).

The two methods of Research 2 consisted of the VR-GET and the TAU. The participants that were assigned for the VR-GET had a sequence of sessions that consisted of different activities. First, the therapist would meet with the participant and discuss their trauma history. In the second session, participants were asked to reveal their more traumatic stories of their military combat and tours. In later sessions, the participant used the virtual reality helmet to relive their most traumatic events, based off of the information that was gathered about them in the earlier sessions. In each session, the participants were observed on their ability to face their fears and anxieties (McLay et al. 2011, 225). “Participants assigned to TAU could receive any of the regular services available to them at the NMCSD and NHCP. These two facilities offer full spectrum of PTSD treatment, including, but not limited to, cognitive processing therapy, prolonged exposure, and group therapy” (McLay et al. 2011, 225).


The researchers for Research 1 used the two self-report questionnaires to gather their data. In addition, the researchers processed the data using statistical analysis with the help of SPSS16 Processor for Windows (Oslo, Norway). The researcher for this study wants to compare the results of the two surveys with the general population of Norway, and to succeed with that, they used SF-36 data through the Norwegian Coordinated Living Conditions Survey from 2002, consisting of 5131 people (Alasker et al. 2011, 405).

In Research 2, it was found that participants in the baseline study had lower norm-based scores in all eight HRQoL domains in comparison to the general population of Norway. In the follow-up study, two months later, the “participants still had lower norm-based scores than the general population of Norway, but participants had improved their HRQoL in five of the eight domains from the baseline study to the follow-up study” (Alasker et al. 2011, 406).

In regard to the PTSS-10 questionnaire in Research 1, among the participants in the baseline study, 79% of them had a PTSS-10 score that was 35, expressing high levels of PTSD symptoms (Alasker et al. 2011, 406). At the follow-up, “59% of the participants had a PTSS-10 score that was 35, which shows high levels of PTSD symptoms, which can indicate a risk of developing PTSD” (Alasker et al. 2011, 406).

The researchers for Research 2 aimed to identify which of the VR-GET or TAU would yield a greater percentage of participants with a “clinically meaningful reduction in PTSD” (McLay et al. 2011, 225). The researcher succeeded in deepening their research by investigating the “difference in CAPS scores at an initial assessment and then at the post-treatment assessment in VR-GET versus TAU” (McLay et al. 2011, 226). The CAPS is a “rating scale for PTSD that corresponds with the 17 symptoms of PTSD” (McLay et al. 2011, 226). Participants were classified according to whether or not they had a 30% of larger reduction of their PTSD based on the results of their CAPS. ii. Analysis Results

Taking a look at Research 1, and the question concerning whether or not there is a link between PTSD symptoms and HRQoL, researchers looked at the differences in SF-36 scores between PTSS-10 subgroups in a follow-up study
(Alasker et al. 2011, 406). “The PTSS-10 high scoring and low scoring subgroups at the 2-month follow-up differed in all eight of the HRQoL domains in the follow up study” (Alasker et al. 2011, 406). In addition, the PTSS-10 low scoring participants had improved HRQoL in six out of the eight domains (Alasker et al. 2011, 407).

In regards to Research 2, all ten of the participants assigned to the VR-GET were assessed with the CAPS at the post-assessment. Seven out of the ten participants showed an improvement of 30% or more on the CAPS. On the other hand, out of the ten participants that were assigned to the TAU, one did not complete a CAPS assessment. Nevertheless, one out of the nine returning participants receiving the TAU revealed more than a 30% improvements on the CAPS (McLay et al. 2011, 226). “There was no significant difference between VR-GET and TAU average CAPS scores both before and after the treatments, but there was indeed a significant difference in the average CAPS score over the course of the entire treatment” (McLay et al. 2011, 226).


Results Summary
Concerning Research 1’s first hypothesis, participants of the study reported lower HRQoL compared to the general population of Norway in all eight HRQoL domains (Alasker et al. 2011, 408). In regards to the second hypothesis, participants in Research 1 reported high levels of PTSD symptoms at the time of the baseline experiment. Furthermore, PTSS-10 scores did improve from the time of the baseline experiment to the follow-up. The results show that PTSD symptoms decrease for people suffering from a psychosocial crisis in the 2 months after attending the A&E (Alasker et al. 2011, 408). Lastly, concerning the questions if there is a link between the level of PTSD symptoms and HRQoL in the follow-up study, the researchers found that a “high level of PTSD symptoms after a two month period were linked to lower HRQoL” (Alasker et al. 2011, 408).

Results for Research 2
Strengths and Weaknesses
In regards to Research 1, there are many strengths and lurking variables that should be pointed out. One strength of the study was that they progress of the study was completely up to the participant. The participant had the option as to how may consultations they wanted to attend, and the varied decisions led to different results. Another strength of the study was that they used instruments that were both appropriate to the study, and reliable. On the contrary, there were several confounding variables in Research 1 that must be acknowledged. First, there is no evidence that anyone in this trial was on any sort of anti-depressant or medication that would affect his or her scores on the SF-36 and the PTSS-10. Also, there are so many different traumatic events that would cause someone to show symptoms of PTSD. The study should limit its participants to those who experienced similar types of trauma.

As for Research 2, there were also strengths and weaknesses to the study. As for its strengths, the doctors did a good job through their selections process to select a small group of people who were highly qualified for this study. Also, the exam that was used to measure the severity of the participants PTSD was based off of seventeen symptoms of PTSD, whereas the instrument used in Research 1 (PTSS-10) only focused on ten symptoms of PTSD. Lastly, the ten-week span of the study was appropriate in yielding results. Just like any other study, there are confounding variables that need to be identified for Research 2. Although the goal was to get the participants in for a reassessment at the conclusion of the study (ten weeks), reassessment for some did not occur until as far as 36 weeks. With that being said, participants have plenty of time to have a relapse, or more time in combat that can result in more severe PTSD. iii. Future Directions

The researchers of Research 1 suggest that a “randomized control trial with a control group is needed to investigate the effect of the psychosocial interactions that are given to this group” (Alasker et al. 2011, 407). In addition, they suggest that it is crucial to get more, information about the long term effects of acute crisis intervention on PTSD symptoms and HRQoL “given by psychiatric nurses to participants” (Alasker et al. 2011, 410).

The researchers of Research 2 also have some suggestions for further directions of this research. It was stated that other studies on the topic of virtual reality therapy on PTSD victims, improvements in symptoms aren’t visible until sometimes three months after treatment. For future studies there needs to be a longer wait time for the follow-ups so that there can be the most accurate results. In addition, the journal states that careful monitoring of the participants is also something that needs to be done more thorough in the future because a participants overall health, aside from PTSD, must be taken into consideration when the researchers are making observations and conclusions about the participants (McLay et al. 2011, 226).

Works Cited

Mette Senneseth, Kjersti Alsaker, Gerd Karin Natvig. (2011). Health-related Quality of Life and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Accident and Emergency Attenders Suffering From Psychosocial Crises: a Longitudinal Study, Journal of Advanced Nursing 68(2), 402-414. Retrieved from

Robert N. Mclay, Dennis P. Wood, Jennifer A. Webb-Murphy, James L. Spira, Mark D. Wiederhold, Jeffery M. Pyne, Brenda K. Wiederhold. (2011). A Randomized, Control Trial of Virtual Reality-Graded Exposure Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Active Duty Service Members with Combat-Related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking Volume 14, Issue 4. Retrieved from

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Following a traumatic event, the mind sometimes stores and hides away the details and memories of the event and then sends them back at unexpected times and places, sometimes years later. It does so in a way that makes the recall just as disturbing as the original event and sometimes more. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is the name for the mental condition acquired following a psychologically distressing event outside normal human experience. There are five things that determine that someone has this disorder and there are no cures for this disorder, only therapy which lessens the burden of the symptoms. The root of the disorder is a traumatic event which places itself so firmly in the mind that the person may be attached by the pain and distress of the event indefinitely, experiencing it again and again as the mind stays in the past rather than the present. The disorder is quite common, damaging the lives of approximately 8% of the American population (5% of men and 10% of women). Any person is a potential candidate for developing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder if subject to enough stress. There is no definite way to determine who will get Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

Even though all people who suffer from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder have experienced a traumatic event, not all people who experience a traumatic event will develop the disorder. Each person’s individual ability to deal with traumatic events determines their risk of acquiring Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and not everyone will experience the same symptoms. Some people may suffer from only a few mild symptoms for a short period of time and other people may be subjected to symptoms for longer periods of time, maybe even years. However there are also people who experience great traumatic events that may never develop any symptoms at all. The symptoms are a reaction to an overwhelming traumatic event, or series of events. There are many situations that may lead to developing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, including: serious threats to a person’s life, to their children, to their spouse, close friends, or to relatives. Sudden destruction of home or community and witnessing the accidental or violent death or injury of another can also lead to the development of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

Characteristic symptoms include nightmares, re-experiencing the event, avoidance of any images, sounds, or smells associated with the event or a lack of general responsiveness to a person’s surroundings, increased arousal that previously wasn’t there, and duration of the disturbance for at least one month. When a bomb exploded in the Oklahoma Federal building in 1996, hundreds of lives were affected. Not only are the people who were in the explosion in danger of re-experiencing it over and over, but so are the people who witnessed the aftermath, from bystanders to the rescue workers on scene. The surviving employees not only were physically injured in the blast, but saw the deaths of their coworkers and children. For the rescue workers who arrived, many saw death and people who they could not help and their feelings of helplessness and guilt could turn into painful memory recall and nightmares. The first way to determine a person has the disorder is that the person was at one time exposed to a traumatic event involving actual or threatened death or injury, where the response was marked by intense fear, horror or helplessness.

This event may have taken place only weeks ago, or as far back in memory as forty years. The disorder is most commonly found among survivors of war, abuse and rape. It also occurs after assorted crime and car accidents, as well as after community disasters such as hurricanes and floods. Workers of rescue missions are subjected to situations of severe stress frequently. Many emergency response workers like police officers and EMS drivers may become overwhelmed by the trauma they see and end up with painful recollections themselves. Second, the trauma is re-experienced in the form of nightmares, flashbacks, painful memories, or unrest in situations that are similar to the traumatic experience. Sights, sounds, and smells can evoke panic, terror, dread, grief or despair in individuals. Commonly, in the case of war veterans, the patient may be mentally sent back to the time and place of the original traumatic experience.

A veteran who hears a startling noise like a car backfiring may hear gunfire, which will trigger flashbacks. These flashbacks can last a few seconds, minutes, or up to days where the person behaves and reacts to everything as if they are in the original setting. Third, there is a lack of emotions and reduced interests in others and the outside world. The person is attempting to reduce the likelihood that they will expose themselves to traumatic sounds, images, and smells. Because of this it is extremely difficult for people with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder to participate in meaningful relationships.

Fourth, there are random symptoms including insomnia, irritability, nightmares, fatigue, and outbursts of rage. Last, symptoms of each category must show a big effect on the person’s social abilities or other important areas of life and all of these symptoms must persist for at least one month. Since the Iraq War, 5% of U.S. soldiers have been diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome. Those with the most combat experiences are the most likely victims of the disorder. Also, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder develops mostly in soldiers who were don’t have very stress resistant personalities and have low levels of social support. To recover from any stressful event is the victim has to know that he or she isn’t alone and that others care about his or her recovery. The soldiers who return from war with no one to share their experiences with are likely to re-experience warfare through nightmares and flashbacks. After witnessing the deaths of enemies and friends, soldiers without social support are likely push their pain inwards which then has a good chance of escaping out of the body through symptoms. PTSD can become a chronic disorder that can stay for decades and sometimes a lifetime.

Chronic patients go through periods of relapse like many diseases. Some people suffering from the disorder may turn to other ways of dealing with their stress if untreated. Depression and addictions, such as alcoholism, drug abuse, and compulsive gambling are a common way for victims of the disorder to self-medicate. Therapy is the only known method of treatment, but there have not been substantial gains in this field for recovery of patients. After four months of treatment, Vietnam veterans showed no long term effects from their therapy in a study conducted by the National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in New Haven. The men received individual and group psychotherapy and behavior therapy, as well as family therapy and vocational guidance. Even though they left reporting increased hope and self-esteem, a year and a half later their symptoms were actually worse. They had made more suicide attempts and their drug abuse had increased. Healing can only take place when the person can get rid of the memories at will, instead of suffering from the memories being recalled involuntarily.

The Diagnosis and Treatment of Antisocial Personality Disorder

The Diagnosis and Treatment of Antisocial Personality Disorder


       Antisocial (dissocial) personality disorder is a person-oriented disorder which is majorly characterized by a universal pattern of violating other people’s rights.

       It is a mental health condition in which a person has a long-term pattern of altering, exploiting, or violating the rights of others (Franz, 1993, p.4).

       It is said to begin in childhood or early adolescence and continues all the way into the adulthood stage. A person suffering from antisocial personality disorder can be identified after noting a gross disparity between the person’s behavior and the prevailing social norms.

       Symptoms of antisocial personality disorder:

       Persistent attitude of irresponsibility and failure to regard the social norms, policies and duties. Marked readiness to blame other people for the behavior that is responsible for the person being into conflict with the society. Extremely low level of tolerance to frustration and a low threshold for discharge of aggression, with violence included. Conspicuous lack of concerns for the feelings of other people in the society. Lack of adequate capacity to gain positively from experience, more specific punishment.

       Generally, the treatment and diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder can be viewed from several different perspectives; depending on the major factor associated with the disorder.

       Despite the fact that, conduct disorder is different from antisocial personality disorder, the presence of conduct disorder in either the childhood or the adolescence stage may in one way support the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder. The diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder is majorly based on behavioral patterns and personality traits of the person (.Frownfelter, Donna, & Elizabeth 2006, p.61).

       The diagnosis is somehow faced with a critically complex situation that inhibits its success; it is very difficult to obtain a reliable measure of personality traits. The diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder can be effective after a few conditions have been met; the person must be at least 18 years old before the diagnosis. There should also be evidence of conduct disorder in the person as a child, whether or not it was ever formally diagnosed by a professional. In the general population, antisocial personality disorder is found to be more prevalent in males than in female with a ratio of 3:1, thus careful investigation should be made to the male population as it is more vulnerable to the disorder. Similar to most personality disorders, antisocial personality disorder will generally decrease in intensity with age; with the people in the 40s and 50s experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms of the disorder. The diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder is specifically done by a trained mental health professional, for instance, a psychologist or psychiatrist. This type of psychological diagnosis is beyond the level that can be addressed by family physicians and general practitioners due to inadequate skills to perform the operation.

There are no; genetic, laboratory, or blood tests that are used in the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorders. Most of the people suffering from antisocial personality disorder, generally, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder significantly starts to interfere or in other words impact a person’s life. This in most cases happens when the coping resources of a person are stretched too thin to take care of stress and other life events. In the diagnosis process, the mental health professional compares the person’s symptoms and life history with the majorly known symptoms of antisocial personality disorder. The conclusion from the comparison will make a determination of whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for an antisocial personality disorder diagnosis.

       The major causes of antisocial personality disorder are most likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (for instance, how a person interacts in his or her early development with family and friends and also other children), and psychological factors (the individual’s personality and temperament, modified by their environment and acquired coping skills to cope up with stress. If a person is suffering from antisocial personality disorder, from analytical researches, there is a slightly high chance of “passing down” the disorder to his or her siblings (Barron & Frank, 1963, p.87).


       The treatment of antisocial personality disorder majorly involves the employment of long-term psychotherapy with a therapist equipped with enough experience in the field of this disorder.

       The population that is suffering from antisocial personality disorder experiences a state of lacking connections between feelings and behaviors. The practice of helping the subject population on how to draw the lines between feelings and behaviors is of great benefit to the people suffering from antisocial personality disorder. In the treatment of antisocial personality disorder, threats are never an appropriate motivating method; by threatening to report their noncompliance with therapy to the courts or warden. However, it is appropriate to put more efforts to assist the people suffering from this disorder find better reasons that may be needed to work on this problem; for instance, submitting themselves to additional psychological examinations. The effective psychotherapy treatment for antisocial personality disorder is limited. Psychoanalytic approaches that reinforce appropriate behaviors and trying to make connections between the person’s actions and feelings may be of greater assistance.

       Emotions usually form a key element of treatment of antisocial personality disorder.

       Patients often have had little or no significant emotionally-rewarding relationships in their lives.

       In the treatment of antisocial personality disorder, a very close therapeutic relationship can only occur when a good and solid rapport has been established with the client and he or she can trust the therapist implicitly.

       The issue of confidentiality is highly preserved in the treatment of antisocial personality disorder.

       Since the clinician has to occasionally report on the patient’s progress in therapy, this should be done in a way that does not reveal the significant details of the therapy. The limitations of therapy should be discussed with the patient up-front, in a clear manner, to avoid later misunderstanding. The patient’s emotions form the basic platform of consideration from which various emotional states, like depression, are experienced. This calls for the clinician to be supportive and empathetic to the patient during this time (Gazzaniga, & Heatherton, 2006, p.38).

       Dealing with “safe issues” and discussing more real-life concerns, (one way of treating this disorder), is rather less effective in long term behavioral change as compared with an approach emphasizing the discovery and labeling of appropriate emotional states. The therapist should usually take a neutral stance in the matter of interacting with the authority figures. Often people suffering from antisocial disorder find themselves in a group setting, simply because they are not given any choices of treatment. This inhibits treatment, since in most of the groups the individual can remain emotionally-closed and has little reason to share with others. Family therapy is of great assistance in boosting education and understanding amongst the family members (.Frownfelter, Donna, & Elizabeth 2006, p.84).

       Philip W. Long, M.D. adds, ”This confusion, guilt, the temptation to make restitution for the patient’s criminal acts, and the frustrations of working with someone who is seen to be quite ill but who will not be treated should all be discussed openly with family members.”


       Antisocial personality disorder can also be treated through hospitalization even though, inpatient care is rarely appropriate. With this type of disorder, loss of freedom is one of the major characteristics and it may be more of a motivating factor than in other personality disorders; thus some specialized treatment facilities have commenced to treat people suffering from this disorder. This method utilizes a strict behavioral approach of placing patients on a token economy mainly considering their treatment progress. Little research has been conducted to confirm the long-term effectiveness of this method. As with other treatments of personality disorders, this method focuses on feelings and connecting antisocial behavior to appropriate feeling states. Since inpatient programs are found to be intensive and expensive, the treatment gains are maintained by the community follow up and support, either by the hospital or professionals, or with the use of self-help support groups. Medication; no research has suggested the effectiveness of medication in the treatment of this disorder.

       Medication should only be used to treat clear, acute and serious Axis concurrent diagnoses (Kirk, 2005, p.101).

Self-help strategies

       Another method for the treatment of antisocial personality disorder is self-help strategies.

       This method involves very few professionals hence it is often overlooked by the medical profession. Groups tailored specifically for antisocial personality disorder can facilitate the implementation of this method especially for the people with this disorder.

       Individuals suffering from this disorder feel more at ease to discuss their feelings and behaviors in front of their peers in this type of supportive modality. Usually a group is of great help and beneficial to most people suffering from this disorder, only when they overcome their initial fears and hesitation to join such a group. There are several support groups existing in different parts of the world to help those who are affected by this disorder and share common experience and feelings. In a general field of view, antisocial personality disorder can be best managed if the affected are in a good rank to interact amongst them bravely (Barron & Frank, 1963, p.98).

Outpatient Therapy

       Outpatient therapy is another method in the treatment of antisocial personality disorder even though it is found not to be very successful in the treatment.

       This method is commonly executed with the children with the following specifications:-Have experienced serious injuries with them, are undergoing learning difficulties, arte experiencing some problems in the execution of their daily living obligations, have chronic as well as acute conditions that in one way or another inhibit their development (Zarit, 1980, p.76).

       The treatment of antisocial personality disorders by the method of outpatient therapy involves a team of specialists conducts the exercise of evaluating each and every affected child after which a personalized treatment plan is formulated. The formulated team may comprise of highly skilled personnel such as; Language pathologists; whose main task is to evaluate the children’s communication with the world. Occupational therapists, who evaluate self care skills in the children with several types of diagnoses, and various levels of disabilities. Recreational therapists, whose main duty is to enhance and encourage high level of functional independence, leisure activities, and recreation via various techniques such as; group recreation and field trips, adaptive equipment specialists, who work in conjunction with the other therapists to establish a better way to assist the children in achieving their set of realistic goals. This is majorly achieved via the exercise of designing and fabricating special equipment or improving the status of existing equipment. Physical therapists also form a major component of the formulated team since they aim at enhancing the children’s flexibility and mobility via play and exercise (Mann, 1989, p.56).

Schema Therapy

       In addition to the so far discussed methods of treating antisocial personality disorder, schema therapy is another effective method to serve the same purpose.

       Schema therapy is an integrative approach to treatment that unites the best aspects of cognitive behavioral, interpersonal and psychoanalytic therapies into a single compact model.

       It is best remarked to help people to change negative patterns with which they have long-lived.

       The deeper patterns that are mainly targeted by this method in the treatment of antisocial personality disorder are enduring and self-defeating schemas which are said to begin early in life.

       These patterns majorly comprise of dysfunctional thoughts and feelings; which pose obstacles for accomplishing one’s target goals as well as satisfying one’s needs. These patterns are worsened by enduring in most of the schema beliefs which in turn lead to enhancement of the antisocial personality disorder. This method (schema therapy) of treatment aims at assisting the affected person to disintegrate these negative schemas of thinking, behaving and feeling; (which are known to be very tenacious), to develop healthier alternatives to substitute them (Wade, & Tavris, 2000, p.49).

Stages of schema therapy

       Firstly, the assessment phase; in this stage, schemas are identified during the initial sessions. Questionnaires can also be used to get a clear picture of the constituent schemas involved.

       Secondly, the emotional awareness and experiential phase; in this stage, patients get in touch with the respective schemas and acquire some knowledge on how to deal with the schemas when they are carrying out their obligations in their day-to-day life (Vreeswijk, & Broersen, 2012, p.128).

       Thirdly and lastly, the behavioral change stage; this is the focus stage during which the affected person is actively involved in substituting negative, behaviors and habitual thoughts with new and healthy behavioral patterns.

       On a broad base, the goal of schema therapy is to assist patients to have their core emotional needs met. This is achieved by learning how to carry out the following practices:-

       Heal schemas and vulnerable modes by having the needs met in and outside of the therapeutic relationship. Establish healthy behavioral patterns and modes. Abandon the usage of maladaptive coping styles and modes that pose an obstacle to contact with feelings. Adopt reasonable limits for angry, overcompensating or impulsive behavioral patterns and modes.

       In schema therapy, an imagery dialogue between the “schema side” and the “healthy side”.

       Schema therapy interventions are more experiential as well as emotion focused.

       They can also be behavioral. Limited Re-parenting is one of the most distinctive and central areas in schema therapy.

       According to Myers, 2004, p39, it is known to be the heart of treatment in schema therapy. Research has been conducted and it is clearly evident from the outcomes that; a relatively large percentage of those affected by this personality disorder can achieve full recovery across the complete range of symptoms.

       The patients engaged in these studies attributed a great concern of the effectiveness of the treatment and the relatively low dropout rate to limited re-parenting. Limited re-parenting comprises of the establishment of a secure attachment via the therapist. A broadly conducted research supports that secure attachment is at the root of adaptive functioning, well-being as well as flourishing. Most of the maladaptive schemas are found to mainly relate to the state of generally unmet needs in the childhood as well as lack of appropriate relationships (Barlow, & David 2001, p.28).

       They are generally considered as a pattern of established unstable behaviors to the daily life situations. Maladaptive schemas can as well be bodily sensations associated with traumas.

       They have an overall negative result, that is; a person may view him or herself in collaboration with difficulties thus establishing one’s true identity. The antisocial behaviors may also comprise of schema modes; which are found to be emotional states as well as ways of coping which every person must experience in one moment or another. Conducted researches have outcome that; those people who are suffering from antisocial personality disorders in most cases tend to be hypersensitive and may be greatly affected by a simple image or a word of offense (Gelfer, 1996, p.59).

       This calls for a special and soft procedure to be developed so as to sort out the issue of antisocial disorders in a non-harassing manner thus more effective methods were adopted to deal with the antisocial disorders. The focus of limited re-parenting extends over a broad range of needs such as early connection, sufficient limits and autonomy. The schema therapy group of treatment resulted in significant reductions in the disorder’s symptoms and global improvement in functioning. A collaborative randomly controlled trial with 14 sites in six countries is further in progress to explore the productive interaction between groups and schema therapy.

       Schema therapy is generally cost effective and is much more accurate as far as treatment of antisocial personality disorder is concerned. To conclude, the ultimate goal of schema therapy is to assist patients to have their core needs met.

Multisystem Therapy

       Furthermore, antisocial personality disorder can be treated using a method called Multisystem Therapy (MST); which is one of the most successful methods for the treatment.

       This is an intensive, family-focused and community-based treatment technique for chronic as well as violent youth. This method is goal oriented with its objective being; to help caregivers manage and nurture their challenging adolescents in a much better manner (.Andrews, 1961, p.38).

       Juvenile justice is one of the major forms of multisystem therapy; it deals with the problems of adolescents who have significant histories of committing crime. There are other systems whose task is to sort out the situations in other serious behavioral issues; for instance, drug abuse, abuse and neglect, as well as psychiatric disorders. The target goal for this method of treatment is to drastically reduce the antisocial behaviors as well as criminal activity amongst the youth. This is achieved at a relatively lower cost by reducing the rates of incarceration. Multisystem therapy empowers both the youth and the parents with the required skills as well as resources to facilitate independency and establish a way to deal with the complex environment as well as social problems. The method of multisystem therapy was specifically innovated to deal with adolescents’ antisocial behaviors. It typically aims at chronic as well as substance-abusing juvenile offenders aged between 12 and 17 years. This bracket of population is much more vulnerable to out-of-home placement.

       Unlike other several methods of treatment where the affected person sees a therapist at a clinic; in multisystem therapy, the therapists go to the subject’s home and community (Levine, & Gallogly, 1985, p.39).

       This clearly explains why this method is preferred in the treatment to other methods (it has direct exposure to the environment of the affected person hence effective decisions can be made to address the problem. In the process of designing a treatment plan, the multisystem therapists collaborate with parents, caregivers and family members. The plan builds on the strengths of in the family members’ lives; which creates success environment during and after treatment.

       Generally, the major obligations of multisystem therapy include:- Enhance family relations, Assist the affected person develop a vocation, Expose the youth to friends who deviate from the antisocial behaviors, Create a support network which in turn assist the caregivers maintain the changes, and advance on the caregivers’ parenting skills.

       Conducted research has shown that, multisystem therapy is more effective as compared to other standard treatments. This has been supported by the follow-up studies made with the youth and families. This guarantees the long-term effectiveness of the multisystem therapy. This method of treating antisocial personality disorder has been found to be cost effective as noted from a broadly conducted research over a great extent of the world (.Paris, 1996, p.98).


Andrews, M. F. (1961). Creativity and psychological health;. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press.

Barlow, David H.. (2001). Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: a step-by-step treatment manual. 3rd ed. New York: Guilford Press, Print.

Barron, Frank. (1963) Creativity and psychological health; origins of personal vitality and creative freedom.. New York: Van Nostrand, Print.

Co-occurring conditions toolkit: mild traumatic brain injury and psychological health : concussion, posttraumatic stress, depression, chronic pain, headache, substance use disorder.. (2010). Washington, D.C.?: Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health & Traumatic Brain Injury.

Franz, M. (1993). Psychotherapy. Boston: Shambhala.

Frownfelter, Donna L., and Elizabeth Dean. (2006). Cardiovascular and pulmonary physical therapy: evidence and practice. 4th ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Mosby/Elsevier, Print.

Gazzaniga, M.S., & Heatherton, T.F. (2006). Psychological Science. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.[

Gelfer, M. P. (1996). Survey of communication disorders: a social and behavioral perspective.

Gray, P. (1999). Psychology (3rd ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.

Kirk, S. A. (2005). Mental disorders in the social environment: critical perspectives. New York: Columbia University Press.

Levine, B., & Gallogly, V. (1985). Group therapy with alcoholics: outpatient and inpatient approaches. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Mann, J. John.(1989). Models of depressive disorders: psychological, biological, and genetic perspectives. New York: Plenum Press, Print.

Myers, D. G. (2004). Psychology (7th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.

Paris, J. (1996). Social factors in the personality disorders: a biopsychosocial approach to etiology and treatment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Vreeswijk, M. v., & Broersen, J. (2012). The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Schema Therapy Theory, Research and Practice.. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

Wade, C., & Tavris, C. (2000). Psychology (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Zarit, Steven H.. (1980) Aging and mental disorders: psychological approaches to assessment and treatment. New York: Free Press, Print.

Source document