Alcohol Drinking amongst Teens in Australia

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Abstract

The consumption of alcohol in Australia is turning into an issue, and due to irresponsible and callous ingesting, Australia is in need of a more mature drinking culture.

The details on this essay focus on the problems regarding irresponsible consuming amongst teens. They embody the effects of alcohol on the adolescent mind, accidents involving underage drinkers and teenagers delaying the consumption of alcohol for as long as possible.

This essay argues that as a result of underage drinking is becoming an epidemic in Australia, we as a rustic are in want of a more mature consuming culture.

Alcohol plays a significant role in Australian Society; it may be a reliever, a supplement to socialise and celebrate, a source of service, or a producer of earnings (Alcohol Working Group, 2008, p2). Alcohol plays a big role in Australia’s tradition; due to this the use of alcohol lacks discipline. This paper begins by discussing the impact of alcohol on the adolescent mind. It then talks about accidents that contain young individuals underage.

Lastly it’s going to cover teens and the way they should delay the initiation of alcohol for as long as potential. Alcohol is a powerful drug that has a toxic impact on the central nervous system and changes the way individuals feel and think. Because youngsters have not built up much physical tolerance, they’re more susceptible to the consequences of alcohol. As individuals develop, different elements of the brain develop at completely different rates, relying on whether or not they are male or feminine. The pre-frontal cortex houses the a part of the brain that controls rational considering.

This does not mature till the age of 19 and will totally mature around the age of 21 in ladies and 28 in men. Damage to this a half of the brain through the time it is being developed causes long term results together with memory, persona and behaviour (Young People and Alcohol, 2007-2011). The quick term results of alcohol include poor concentration, slow reflexes, gradual reaction time, lowered co-ordination, slower mind exercise and perceptions and sensations become much less clear (Administrative Office of the Courts, 2014).

These results are harmful for any teen, because while being intoxicated, they’re more doubtless in to indulge in dangerous behaviours corresponding to swimming, driving, unsafe or unwanted intercourse and verbal or bodily abuse (Drughouse Clearinghouse 2002). Alcohol harms your co-ordination, reflexes and your judgment, it’s linked with an estimated 5,000 deaths in individuals underneath the age of 21 every year; greater than all illegal medication combined (The Cool Spot, 2014). According to the NIAAA Motor automobile crashes are the leading explanation for dying for individuals between the ages of 15-20.

Fatal crashes involving alcohol are twice as common in young individuals compared with those 21 years and over (National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2014). Alcohol also” accounts for 13 p.c of all deaths amongst 14-17 yr old Australians. It has been estimated that one Australia teenager dies and more than 60 are hospitalised each week from alcohol related causes” (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2011). According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, in 2005-06, female and male teenagers aged 15-19 had the highest hospital separation charges for acute intoxication from alcohol amongst all age groups (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008).

Alcohol consumption amongst teenagers is becoming a priority in Australia. According to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2007), a National Drug Strategy Household Survey was accomplished. It confirmed that over 20% of 14-19 year olds consume alcohol on a weekly basis. Among the teenagers, 29% of males aged 12-17 consumed as a lot as seven or extra drinks on one event; and 32% of females around the similar age group consumed 5 or extra drinks on one occasion (Australian Secondary Students’ Alcohol and Drug Survey, 2005).

Teenage years are an important half in ones life. Children underneath the age of 15 are on the greatest danger of harm from ingesting. “For young individuals aged 15- 17, the safest possibility is to delay the initiation of alcohol for as lengthy as attainable. ” (Australian Government-National Health and Medical Research Council, 2014). According to the NHMRC (National Health &Medical Research Coucil), younger individuals who use alcohol earlier than the age of fifteen usually tend to turn into depending on alcohol than those who wait till they are twenty one years or older.

(National Health & Medical Research Council, Guideline three, 2009) It is essential that any teen mustn’t attempt alcohol earlier than 18 because even then, the brain has not been absolutely developed. In conclusion research has proven that while alcohol does play a serious role in Australian tradition, it does lack self-discipline. What young folks neglect is that alcohol has both long term and quick term results. Both of those can wreck your life. When you get into an accident it causes a lot of harm, not solely does it affect you but others around you.

The delay of alcohol could be the safer option not only for yourself but for these round you. So is Australia in want of a extra mature drinking culture? Yes.

References

  • Alcohol Working Group (2008, September). Australia: the healthiest country by 2020. Retrieved from http://www. well being. gov. au/internet/preventativehealth/ publishing. nsf/Content/09C94C0F1B9799F5CA2574DD0081E770/$File/alcohol-jul09. pdf D. (2007-2011).
  • Young People and Alcohol. Young People and Alcohol, eight. ) Administrative Office of the Courts (2014) Only the Strong Survive. Retrieved March 24, 2014, from http://www2. courtinfo. ca. gov/stopteendui/teens/resources/substances/alcohol/short-and-long-term-effects. cfm
  • Drug Info Clearinghouse (2002) The facts about binge drinking. Retrieved March 24, 2014, http://www. drugarm. com. au/files/pdf/Fact_sheet_1%5B1%5D. 10_Binge_drinking%20DRUGINFO. pdf
  • National Health and Medical Research Council (2011) Underage Drinking. Retrieved March 25, 2014 http://www. nhmrc. gov. au/your-health/alcohol-guidelines/alcohol-and-health-australia
  • Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2008) Australian Social Trends (No. 4102. 0). Retrieved 26 March, 2014 www. abs. gov. au/AUSSTATS/[email protected] nsf/Lookup/4102.
  • Chapters002008 Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2007) National Drug Strategy. Retrieved March 26, 2014/ Australian Government; Department of Health (n. d. )
  • Young Australians and Alcohol. Retrieved March 27, 2014 http://www. drinkingnightmare. gov. au/internet/drinkingnightmare/publishing. nsf/Content/B2D387C687D03FC9CA2574FD007CA91C/$File/Young%20people%20research. pdf.

Alcohol – Should The U.S. Lower the Drinking Age to 18?

In recent instances, the minimum age for ingesting within the United States has come under debate. Currently, in the United States, all 50 states bar individuals under the age of 21 from consuming alcohol. Because of the National Minimum, Drinking Age Act handed in 1984, every state had raised the minimum authorized consuming age (or MLDA) to 21 years of age by 1988.

Although many have argued that the minimal consuming age in the United States must be lowered to 18 years of age, research has now demonstrated that maintaining the age at 21, isn’t only beneficial from the perspective of reducing alcohol-related freeway fatalities but in addition non-transportation related sicknesses and accidents.

In the summer of 2008, greater than one hundred faculty presidents and different higher education officers signed the “Amethyst Initiative”. This initiative requires a reexamination of the minimal authorized ingesting age within the United States. One of the primary arguments of this initiative is that MLDA leads to extra dangerous ingesting which may be prevented if the age limit have been to be lowered.

Another initiative referred to as “Choose Responsibility” proposes “a collection of changes that will allow 18–20 year-olds to purchase, possess and devour alcoholic beverages” (http://www.choose duty.org/proposal/.) Supporters of this initiative propose that “supervised drinking” will end in fewer situations of dangerous teen drinking which can, in flip, cut back the number of drinking-related accidents and fatalities.

Several states, together with Kentucky, Wisconsin, South Carolina, Missouri, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Vermont, have put forth various legislative proposals to lower their state’s drinking age from 21 to 18, though no state has adopted a decrease minimum authorized drinking age yet.

However, many studies have identified the risks of doing so. Consumption of alcohol contributes to a big public health downside. Researchers Hingson et al. (2003) conducted a survey of over 14 thousand students from 119 faculties and found that students exposed to alcohol beneath the age of 19 had been extra more likely to turn into frequent and heavy drinkers. Many reported driving after 5 or more drinks. Carpenter and Dobkin (2011) reported that consuming over 5 drinks resulted in a blood alcohol level of zero.1, while the legal limit in the U.S is .08. This constituted “binge” drinking which finally ends up in moderate to extreme impairments in coordination, focus, reflexes, peripheral vision, and depth notion. In the 18 – 25 age group, 80% of deaths were a results of motor accidents caused due to impaired abilities. Hingson (2003) additionally found that “Respondents who consumed alcohol at younger ages believed they may eat extra drinks and still drive safely and legally; this contributed to their higher probability of driving after drinking and driving with high or drunk drivers.” If the ingesting age is lowered, the incidence of bars and pubs selling to patrons younger than 21 is mind-boggling. Not solely would it not lead to a larger number of dangerous behaviors but also an elevated number of violent, aggressive acts in particular person neighborhoods (Stewart 2012).

Much of the eye has mainly been concentrated round ingesting and driving. However, reiterating the hazards of teenage alcohol consumption, the U.S Federal Trade Commission (2010) included different unfavorable outcomes such as altered mind growth, poor tutorial grades, and reduced workforce productiveness.

Researchers Birckmayer & Hemenway (1999) analyzing knowledge from 1970 – 1990 found that teen suicide was larger when the teenagers had been exposed and consumed alcohol at ages youthful than 21 years. Their examine estimated that reducing the ingesting age from 21 to 18 would enhance the variety of suicides within the 18 – to 20-year-old inhabitants across the country. Alcohol consumption also interferes with brain development amongst teenagers, making them vulnerable to reminiscence loss, depression, violence, and habit and reducing decision-making capability.

Arguments have normally been made comparing the legal consumption age in countries across Europe, lots of which are below the age of 21. However, critics level to the fact that many studies show that when the consumption age is lowered a greater proportion of teenagers between the ages of 15 – 16 consume alcohol (38%) as in comparison with 20% of teens in the U.S in the identical age group.

Mark Rosenker, chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board in 2007 also maintains that “when teens drink and drive they are highly unlikely to use seat belts. These are the information, and it would be a critical mistake and a nationwide tragedy to weaken current ingesting age legal guidelines.

But perhaps one of many greatest reasons as to why the drinking age should not be lowered is as a outcome of alcohol consumption is seen as a pathway to other medication. Calling it the “gateway theory”, Kandel et al (1992) showed that the age and frequency of use of alcohol had been predictors of the slide to stronger mind-altering or psychoactive medication in each men and women. Following people from 15 to 35 years of age, the researchers have been in a position to conclude that utilization of alcohol or cigarettes at an early age lay the groundwork for the consumption of stronger medication sooner or later.

Realizing this strong proof in opposition to decreasing the drinking age, ballot after poll shows that 87% of the American public is strongly against reducing the consuming age. Both state and nationwide surveys reveal that there’s robust support for MLDA 21.

Plain logic states that as teenagers turn into maturity, they become extra mature. They are less prone to be swayed by peer stress and may be counted on to make much less harmful choices. Time and again, teens appear to be pressured into committing foolhardy tasks after drinking. While raising the minimum age for drinking to 21 years may not utterly do away with teenagers engaging in harmful behavior, it might no less than lower the incidence of fatalities and violent acts.

Problems with Drinking and driving

Driving under the influence, driving while intoxicated, drunken driving, drunk driving, operating under the influence, drinking and driving, or impaired driving is the crime of driving a motor vehicle while impaired by alcohol or other drugs including those prescribed by physicians. In the case of alcohol, a drunk driver’s level of intoxication is typically determined by a measurement of blood alcohol content or BAC. A BAC measurement in excess of a specific threshold level, such as 0.05% or 0.08%, defines the criminal offense with no need to prove impairment.

In some jurisdictions, there is an aggravated category of the offense at a higher BAC level, such as 0.12%. In most countries, anyone who is convicted of injuring or killing someone while under the influence of alcohol or other drugs can be heavily fined in addition to being given a lengthy prison sentence. In the United States, DUI and alcohol-related crashes produce an estimated $45 billion in damages every year. In some U.S. and German studies BAC level 0.01-0.03% predicted a lower crash risk than BAC 0%, Blood alcohol content

With the advent of a scientific test for blood alcohol content, enforcement regimes moved to pinning culpability for the offense to strict liability based on driving while having more than a prescribed amount of blood alcohol, although this does not preclude the simultaneous existence of the older subjective tests. BAC is most conveniently measured as a simple percent of alcohol in the blood by weight. Research shows an exponential increase of the relative risk for a crash with a linear increase of BAC as shown in the illustration. BAC does not depend on any units of measurement. In Europe it is usually expressed as milligrams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood. However, 100 milliliters of blood weighs essentially the same as 100 milliliters of water, which weighs precisely 100 grams. Thus, for all practical purposes, this is the same as the simple dimensionless BAC measured as a percent. The per mille measurement, which is equal to ten times the percentage value, is used in Denmark, Germany, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The validity of the testing equipment/methods and mathematical relationships for the measurement of breath and blood alcohol have been criticized.

Driving while consuming alcohol may be illegal within a jurisdiction. In some it is illegal for an open container of an alcoholic beverage to be in the passenger compartment of a motor vehicle or in some specific area of that compartment. There have been cases of drivers being convicted of a DUI when they were not observed driving after being proven in court they had been driving while under the influence. In the case of an accident, insurance may be automatically declared invalid, i.e. the drunk driver is fully responsible for damages. Within the American system, citation for driving under the influence also causes a major spike in car insurance premiums—94.1% in the first year, and still 63.5% higher by the third year.

The German model serves to reduce the number of accidents by identifying unfit drivers and removing them from until their fitness to drive has been established again. The Medical Psychological Assessment works for a prognosis of the fitness for drive in future, has an interdisciplinary basic approach and offers the chance of individual rehabilitation to the offender. George Smith, a London Taxi cab driver, ended up being the first person to be convicted of driving while intoxicated, on September 10, 1897. He was fined 25 shillings, which is .

BAC and risks

Studies show that a high BAC increases the risk of accidents whereas it is not clear of a BAC of 0.01%-0.05% slightly increases or decreases the risk. One study suggests that already a BAC of 0.04-0.05% would slightly increase the risk whereas some studies suggest that a BAC of 0.01-0.04% would slightly lower the risk, possibly due to the drivers being more cautious. Both the influential study by Borkenstein et al. and the empirical German data on the 1990s demonstrated that the risk of accident is lower or the same for drivers with a BAC of 0.04% or less than for drivers with a BAC of 0%. For a BAC of 0.15% the risk is 25-fold. The 0.08% BAC limit in Germany and the limits in many other countries were set based on the study by Borkenstein et al. Wuerzburg University researchers showed that all extra accidents caused by alcohol were due to at least 0.06% BAC, 96% of them due to BAC above 0.08%, and 79% due to BAC above 0,12%.

In their study based on the 1990s German data, the effect of alcohol was higher for almost all BAC levels than in Borkenstein et al. Also in the Grand Rapids study by Alsop, 0.01-0.03% BAC lead to a mere 80%-96% crash risk, possibly due to extra caution. Many employers or occupations have their own rules and BAC limits; for example, the United States Federal Railroad Administration has a 0.04% limit for train crew. Certain large corporations have their own rules; for example, Union Pacific Railroad has their own BAC limit of 0.02% that, if violated during a random test or a for-cause test—for example, after a traffic accident—can result in termination of employment with no chance of future re-hire. Some jurisdictions have multiple levels of BAC for different categories of drivers; for example, the state of California has a general 0.08% BAC limit, a lower limit of 0.04% for commercial operators, and a limit of 0.01% for drivers who are under 21 or on probation for previous DUI offenses.

Many states in the U.S. and the Federal government of Canada have adopted truth in sentencing laws that enforce strict guidelines on sentencing, differing from previous practice where prison time was reduced or suspended after sentencing had been issued. Some jurisdictions have judicial guidelines requiring a mandatory minimum sentence. DUI convictions can result in multi-year jail terms and other penalties ranging from expensive fees to forfeiture of one’s license plates and vehicle. Some jurisdictions require that drivers convicted of DUI offenses use special license plates that are easily distinguishable from regular plates. These plates are known in popular parlance as “party plates” or “whiskey plates”. The specific criminal offense may be called, depending on the jurisdiction, driving under the influence, driving under the influence of intoxicants, driving while intoxicated, “operating vehicle under the influence of alcohol or other drugs”, operating under the influence operating while intoxicated, operating a motor vehicle while intoxicated, driving under the combined influence of alcohol and/or other drugs, driving under the influence per se or drunk in charge .

Many such laws apply also to motorcycling, boating, piloting aircraft, use of motile farm equipment such as tractors and combines, riding horses or driving a horse-drawn vehicle, or bicycling, possibly with different BAC level than driving. In some jurisdictions there are separate charges depending on the vehicle used, such as BWI, which may carry a lighter sentence. In the United States, local law enforcement agencies made 1,467,300 arrests nationwide for driving under the influence of alcohol in 1996, compared to 1.9 million such arrests during the peak year in 1983. In 1997 an estimated 513,200 DWI offenders were in prison or jail, down from 593,000 in 1990 and up from 270,100 in 1986. Drunk in charge In British law it is a criminal offence to be drunk in charge of a motor vehicle. The definition depends on such things being in or near the vehicle, and having access to a means of starting the vehicle’s engine and driving it away.

Health care, working, and prescription drugs

If a worker who drives has a health condition which can be treated with opioids, then that person’s doctor should be told that driving is a part of the worker’s duties and the employer should be told that the worker could be treated with opioids. Workers should not use impairing substances while driving or operating heavy machinery like forklift trucks or cranes. If the worker is to drive, then the health care provider should not give them opioids. If the worker is to take opioids, then their employer should assign them work which is appropriate for their impaired state and not encourage them to use safety sensitive equipment.

Keeping the Drinking Age at 21

Keeping the Drinking at 21
In the world today, the majority of countries has a legal drinking age of eighteen or lower. Unlike many other countries, the United States has a minimum legal drinking age of twenty-one. Although our laws acknowledge that at age eighteen one is an adult who possess sufficient maturity and judgment to operate a motor vehicle, serve in the military, perform jury duty, sign a contract or even get married, those same laws deny that same adult the right to purchase, possess or consume alcohol.

And, while this is true, alcohol is already an easy accessible drug that can facilitate not only several detrimental health effects, but it can also create deadly or harmful events for the individual and others which is why the legal drinking age should remain at twenty-one. In the United States many ague that is ridiculous that the legal age to get married, to vote, fight in a war is legally eighteen, but drinking is still set at twenty-one. However, there are laws such as adopting a child or gambling is set at twenty-one and renting a car is set at the age of twenty five (“Drinking Age”). However, even if the law for drinking was the only law that was set at twenty-one, many of the laws that are set at eighteen are not harmful to one’s or others well-being or health. While some say that there are many health benefits to drinking such as having a glass of wine to improve one’s heart or reduce the risk of diabetes if drinking is minimal, that complete opposite effect can happen if one where to consistently over drink alcohol (“Nutrition and healthy eating”). In addition to the health risk, a person’s can suffer long term health effects, that can range from problems with cardiovascular problems, liver diseases, cancers risk, as well psychological and social problems as well. And though many might say that these effects can happen to anyone, that is true, and that but those who start drinking at younger ages are more statically likely to become chronic users of alcohol, and chronic users are more likely to develop problems in these areas.

Many might say that a beer or two is a great way to relax after a long day; however when one does the commonly especially at a young age it can have many permanent effect to the brain. For instances, a typical human brain is not fully developed until a woman is about twenty-three and a man about twenty-five (“Fact Sheets- Alcohol Use and Health”). The primary area that is still growing when an adult is eighteen is the prefrontal cortex which is initially responsible for decision-making, emotional regulation, memory formation, planning and organization (“Mouse Party “). When people drink alcohol, the chemicals that come from alcohol are going straight to a person’s brain. Once those chemical arrive to the brain they basically stop the transfer key chemicals, glutamate and GABA, which makes the brain slow down because they are not getting the chemicals they need. The primary area of the brain where alcohol stops they processes of both glutamate and GABA are found in the prefrontal cortex (“Mouse Party “). This process can explain why people often lose memory of their wild night of fun, or they are more likely to participate in more high risk and irresponsible behavior. When a underage person drinks, their brain could very well suffer irreparable damage that can result in greater vulnerability to addiction and alcoholism, dangerous risk-taking behavior, reduced decision-making ability, memory loss, depression, violence and suicide(“Drinking Age”), (“Mouse Party”).

Many argue that there are many countries with a lower drinking age than the United States. For example many European countries have their ages at eighteen some as a low as sixteen. While this is true, it doesn’t mean that European countries do have problem that have steamed from under aged drinking. For instance, many European countries have worse problems with underage drunkenness, injury, rape, and school problems due to alcohol (“Drinking Age”). l. Not to mention that they have a higher proportion of kids and young adults drinking than the United States. In addition it was should that many more alcohol related health concerns in places with a higher access to alcohol. In fact, studies have shown that when an age group has access to something such as alcohol, the young age group will have easier access to alcohol, so if the drinking age was legally lowered it mean easier access to high school and middle children (“Fact Sheets- Alcohol Use and Health”). Even though there are many laws that prevent underage drinking there are many who still have access to it. In fact statistics have shown that over eighty percent of high school students said that alcohol was either “very easy” or “fairly easy” to obtain (“Fact Sheets- Alcohol Use and Health”). In addition, reports have shown that over forty percent of high school seniors have admitted to drinking in the last thirty days, not to mention over eighty-seven percent have admitted to at least having one drink in their life time (Fell).

In addition many senior also admitted to gaining access to alcohol through fake identification cards. Also stating that they were also fairly easy to make or gain access to. So, question is does the drinking age need to be lower. If so many underage people have least tried alcohol, where is the real debate? In addition, many states actually have loop holes around the federal mandate that prohibits drinking to those who are underage (“Drinking Age”). For example, there are over twenty-five states that allow underage drinking in instance where religion plays a factor (“Drinking Age”). In addition there are exceptions for education and as well as if alcohol is consumed on private residents where in the supervision of an adult. Therefore, with fake-id and the option in many states to drinking the drinking age really does not need to be lower. Some may point out there are still drunk drivers out there and that are even more drunk driver arrest today than before they act of 1984 which set an age limit to drinking (Fell). While this is very true, many fail to point out that there is more support and police involvement to prevent drunk driving.

For instance, many organizations such as MADD (mothers against drunk driving) have become key players in gaining support and encouraging more regulation of under the influence to driving. Many states have also lowered the alcohol intake that a person can consume before they are considered unsafe to drive (“Drinking Age”). For example, in California the real drunk driving limit is .08 blood toxicity levels, but even if a person is below a .08, but they are still above .01 then that individual is still considered under the influence and they are still given a ticket (Fell). In addition to the dangers of the roads for that are associated with drinking and driving. In reality with the laws that have been instilled car accidents related to drinking and driving have been reduced. For example, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimated that MLDA 21decreased the number of fatal traffic accidents for 18- to 20-year-olds by 13% and saved approximately 27,052 lives from 1975-2008. On a related note, 76% of bars have sold alcohol to obviously intoxicated patrons, and about half of drivers arrested for driving while intoxicated (DWI) or killed as alcohol-involved drivers in traffic crashes did their drinking at licensed establishments (“Drinking Age”).

Therefore, while some may argue that people might have easy access and the minimum drinking age should be lowered it is necessary to look at the statistics and observe that the drinking age being at twenty-one is important to maintain as it helps save lives. In conclusion, while there are pros to consuming alcohol such as improving one’s heart or risk for serious diseases as well the right of passage to one’s mark of adulthood. Alcohol still possesses a great risk to the underage person who is drinking and others. There are not only serious long term health effects that are significantly correlated with one starting to drink before the age of twenty-one, but the legal drinking is a law that has substantially prevent the loss of live since it was enacted. Furthermore, while there are other laws that allowed at eighteen it is important to understand that many of those liberties are not at the risk of one’s health, and there are many other liberties as well that are not granted until the age of twenty-one and in some cases twenty-five. Therefore legal alcohol consumption should remain at the age of twenty-one for it can be not only detrimental to one’s health, but the rest of society.

Works Cited
Fell, James. “An Examination of the Criticisms of the Minimum Legal Drinking Age 21 Laws in the United States from a Traffic-safety Perspective.”www.udetc.org. Nonpartisan charity , 23 09 2012. Web. 9 Sep 2013. .

“Fact Sheets- Alcohol Use and Health.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC , 30` 08 2013. Web. 9 Sep 2013. .

“Drinking Age.” Procon.org. Nonpartisan charity , 06 08 2013. Web. 9 Sep 2013. .

“Mouse Party .” Genetic Science Learning Center. University of Utah, n.d. Web. 9 Sep 2013. .

“Nutrition and healthy eating.” http://www.mayoclinic.com/. Nonpartisan charity , 11 03 2011. Web. 9 Sep 2013. .

Drinking Age Should Be At Age 21

Many American adults assume that drinking age must be age 21, because starting to drink alcohol early would have a lot of negative consequences such as having more car accidents, risks of lungs cancers, and so on. On the other hand, some American teenagers also believe if the law allowed the underage drinking, we would have several car accidents, which happens every day. In the article “Heavy Drinking on College Campuses: No Reason to Change Minimum Legal Drinking Age of 21,” Drew K. Saylor shows what bad if you drink alcohol underage is, and Saylor says, “There was also evidence of a “trickle-down” effect on alcohol-related crashes among drivers, with the ratio of the alcohol-related crash rate before and after the policy change 14% larger for 15- to 17-year-old males and 24% larger for females in the same age range” (332).

But I do not deny drinking alcohol helps some people to cope with stress, and helps people to become more open in contrast to when they are sober and proper; alcohol can bring people together to share stories as well. At the same time I believe that the drinking age should not lower than 21, because I believe most of car accidents often occur by drunk drivers. I agree with Drew K. Saylor that the law must not change about the drinking age, and those teenagers should stop using alcohol underage rather than arguing and debating about lowering the drinking age.

Drinking alcohol immature is the common the importance issue in the United States, and it is often said that drinking alcohol affects the moral behaviors, especially when you are drunk. At the underage, it will be terrible because at that age, these teenagers have more influences from the outside environment such as learning those terrible things from friends. In one hand, I agree with Marisa M. Silveri that those teenagers drink alcohol because they might be influenced by the history of the alcohol dipsomania family, who always use alcohol like use water, because either they want to relax or they have mental disturbance. On the other hand, I still insist that drinking alcohol is not healthy, especially when more damages happen for those underage people. In addition, you always see most of the alcohol drinkers who are often violent to other people because those drinkers cannot control their behaviors and their actions when they are drunk.

Therefore, in the article “Alcohol-Related Brain Damage In Humans,” Amaia M. Erdozain and other authors believe that using alcohol damages the cells, the tissues, the organs, and other systems in the brains, and they explain, “H & E staining and light microscopy of prefrontal cortex tissue revealed a reduction in the levels of cytoskeleton surrounding the nuclei of cortical and subcortical neurons, and a disruption of subcortical neuron patterning in alcoholic subjects.” In short, I will briefly note, drinking alcohol will not be great like those American teenagers think, because alcohol will damage their brains’ tissues and will influence to their moral behaviors. To today, people still forget that drinking alcohol would have several benefits and several harms. Some American people believe that drinking alcohol decreases the risk of the cardiovascular disease, prevents us to get sick from the cold, increases our memories, and prevents us from the gallstones and the diabetes.

However, people should know how to drink alcohol moderately instead of unlimitedly consuming it. What I am trying to say here is that drinking alcohol not only brings some disadvantages but also brings some advantages, and people may not blame any awful things to alcohol because the evidence shows that drinking booze moderately will help you prevent from several diseases, which you may not know before. Although not all Americans think alike, some of them will probably dispute my claims that some American people cannot moderate their behaviors when they are drunk or not drunk. In fact, all of those evidences I say do not mean that the law should allow the underage to drink alcohol.

In the article “Will Increasing Alcohol Availability By Lowering the Minimum Legal Drinking Age Decrease Drinking and Related Consequences Among Youths?”, Henry Wechsler and Nelson F. Toben compare and describe to prove that the law has no reasons to change the drinking age to 21 like they says, “Evidence supporting the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is strong and growing. A wide range of empirically supported interventions is available to reduce underage drinking.” At first glance, teenagers might say that alcohol is still a natural medicine to help them prevents from several diseases. But on closer inspection, drinking alcohol can destroy the lungs and the livers, can damage the brain which lead us to not have any control of our behaviors when we are drunk. According to these evidences, I would like to repeat again that teenagers have to moderate when they use alcohol.

You would think that the advertisements cannot affect the underage drinking alcohol to American teenagers, but you are completely wrong because those advertisements are very interested in. I believe that teenagers are still young, and they also want to explore about their lives. In the article “Do Time Restrictions On Alcohol Advertising Reduce Youth Exposure?,” Craig S. Ross, Avalon Bruijn, and David Jernigan show people know how to buy and drink alcohol because of the influencing advertisements from the television and the radio. In the other words, Ross, Bruijn, and David believe that people are too easy to be fooled, so those advertisement can abuse the weakness to convince people to buy their products, alcohol as the authors say, “This study uses simulation analysis and comprehensive database of television alcohol advertising to demonstrate that time restrictions are likely to reduce advertising exposure to the youngest viewers while increasing exposure for the high-risk teenage population.” Yet, is it necessarily true that American teenagers will not use alcohol if those advertisements did not appear? Is making those advertisements disappear would be possible?

Ultimately, what is at stake here is that teenagers must be aware of alcohol advertisements from the radio and the television. However, I’ve always believed that American teenagers can buy every kind of alcohol at every where easily; some of them might go to ask for help from friends and parents. In the article “Assessing the Predictive Ability of The Transtheoretical Model’s Heavy Episodic Drinking Constructs Among a Population of Underage Students,” Rose Marie Ward and Hugo Josef Schielke says that some teenagers can buy alcohol at any stores because some sellers are not careful enough about asking to show the teenagers’ ID cards. For instance, Paul Willner and Gavin Rowe emphasize, “However, a comparison of the present data with earlier data on actual alcohol sales . . . photographs were used in the present study, suggests that only around half of underage alcohol sales can be accounted for by misperceptions of age.” I encourage that the law should be more restricted for buying alcohol underage .Of course, many American teenagers will disagree on the grounds of drinking underage. After all, I recommend that the law must be more restricted in selling alcohol for teenagers.

Although I grant that drinking alcohol is horrible, I still maintain that drinking alcohol below than age 21 has many negatives effects, and it is the only way to lead those teenagers to the social issues such as using drugs, and risky sexual practices. Michael T. McKay, C. Cole Jon, and Harry Sumnall believes that most of American teenagers would like to negotiate about drinking alcohol with their parents, but in fact the percentage of those most teenagers, who negotiate with their parents, is really small. Michael T. McKay, C. Cole Jon, and Harry Sumnall say that those teenagers would have taught by their parents instead of forcing or saying bad things about drinking alcohol even though the benefits of drinking alcohol are still having in today’s world. In the article “Teenage thinking on teenage drinking: 15- to 16-year olds’ experiences of alcohol in Northern Ireland,” Michael T. McKay, C. Cole Jon, and Harry Sumnall says, “First, they believed that asking questions or being open about their behavior would result in negative consequences” (328). At the same time, I believe that those teenagers will receive several negative consequences from their parents if those teenagers ask for drinking alcohol underage.

My view, however, contrary to what Michael T. McKay, C. Cole Jon, and Harry Sumnall have argued, is that the minimum of alcohol drinking age must be at age 21. These findings have important implications for the broader domain of the next generation’s future because those next generations might learn what they see from the old generation do. But is my proposal evidence enough to prove? Christopher A. Swann, Sheran Michelle, and Phelps Diana apparently observe the students from Harvard College, New York, and they prove that the proportion of underage drinking of having parents is less than not having parents. The evidence show how important the parents will affect to their children in their lifetime. In the article “Underage alcohol policies across 50 California cities: an assessment of best practices,” Sue Thomas talks about the underage drinking at every state in the United State. Therefore, Thomas did a study about drinking age.

In this study, Thomas sees that the improvement of controlling limitation for the underage is better, but it still is not great enough. In the other hand, Thomas and I believe that the law has to be more restricted in the underage drinking. In the article “Factors associated with reductions in alcohol use between high school and college: an analysis of data from the College Alcohol Study,” Christopher A. Swann, Sheran Michelle, and Phelps Diana say, “A number of characteristics were related to reductions in drinking. Students whose fathers did not attend college were more likely to reduce alcohol consumption (odds ratio [OR] =1.28; 95% . . . .” To sum up, what is at stake here is the history of the family and the social outside environment are the most common which caused in increasing the underage drinking.

So far we have been talking about the disadvantages and advantages of the underage drinking. But isn’t it the real issue here for the solution of the underage drinking? At the same time I believe families play a big role in preventing the underage drinking, simply because they’re the closest and the most influential factor, I also believe that parents can talk with their children about drinking alcohol regarding their expectations, limits and its dangerous effect. In the article “Talking with Kids Deters Underage Drinking,” USA Today Magazine states, “There are also many things that parents can do in their communities to help reduce underage drinking. . . . Parents can also help eliminate alcohol advertising in their neighborhoods, and make sure that adult siblings don’t provide alcohol for their younger brothers and sisters.” In addition, Jessica Malanjum and Robert Di Nicolantonio explain that parents can have a better understanding in conversations with their children to know more about whom their children spend time with during their free time; the pressure the peers are putting on their children are very important. Hence, what you talk does not have as many impacts as what you do. The families themselves have to be the role model for their children. They have to pledge not to give alcohol to the underage teenagers.

As a result, the drinking age should not be lower than age 18 because underage drinking has several negative consequences such as having more car accidents and risks of lungs cancers. Drew K. Saylor says that these teenagers should stop using alcohol underage instead of arguing and debating to lower the drinking age. At first glance, teenagers might say that alcohol is still a natural medicine to help them prevents from several diseases. But on closer inspection that drinking alcohol can destroy the lungs and liver, damage the brain, and has no control the behavior when you are drunk. Moreover, Amaia M. Erdozain and other authors believe that drinking alcohol will damages the brain tissues and influences to the moral behaviors. At the same time I believe families play a big role in preventing the underage drinking, simply because they’re the closest and the most influential factor, I also believe that parents can talk with their children about drinking alcohol regarding your expectation, limits and its dangerous effect.

Works cited
Erdozain, Amaia M., et al. “Alcohol-Related Brain Damage In Humans.” Plos ONE 9.4 (2014): 1-12. Web. 8 May 2014.
Jones, Sandra C., Lance Barrie, and Nina Berry. “Why (Not) Alcohol Energy Drinks? A Qualitative Study with Australian University Students.” Drug & Alcohol Review 31.3 (2012): 281-287. Web. 8 May 2014. Malanjum, Jessica, and Robert Di Nicolantonio. “Absence Of Correlation Between The Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat’s Exaggerated Preference For Sweet And Alcohol Drinking Solutions.” Clinical & Experimental Hypertension 31.4 (2009): 287-297. Web. 9 May 2014. McKay, Michael T., Jon C. Cole, and Harry Sumnall. “Teenage Thinking On Teenage Drinking: 15- To 16-Year Olds’ Experiences Of Alcohol In Northern Ireland.” Drugs: Education, Prevention & Policy 18.5 (2011): 323-332.Web. 8 May 2014. Ross, Craig S., Avalon Bruijn, and David Jernigan. “Do Time Restrictions On Alcohol Advertising Reduce Youth Exposure?”. Journal of Public Affairs (14723891) 13.1 (2013): 123-129. Web. 8 May 2014.

Saylor, Drew K. “Heavy Drinking On College Campuses: No Reason to Change Minimum Legal Drinking Age of 21.” Journal of American College Health 59.4 (2011): 330-333. Web. 8 May 2014.
Siciliano, Valeria, et al. “Evaluation of Drinking Patterns and Their Impact on Alcohol-Related Aggression: A National Survey of Adolescent Behaviours.” BMC Public Health 13.1 (2013): 13-30. Web. 8 May 2014.

Silveri, Marisa M. “Adolescent Brain Development and Underage Drinking In the United States: Identifying Risks of Alcohol Use in College Populations.” Harvard Review Of Psychiatry (Taylor & Francis Ltd) 20.4 (2012): 189-200. Web. 8 May 2014. Swann, Christopher A., Michelle Sheran, and Diana Phelps. “Factors Associated With Reductions In Alcohol Use
Between High School And College: An Analysis Of Data From The College Alcohol Study.” Substance Abuse & Rehabilitation 5. (2014): 13-23. Web. 8 May 2014. “Talking with Kids Deters Underage Drinking.” USA Today Magazine 129, no. 2667 (December 2000): 5, EBSCOhost (accessed May 9, 2014).

Thomas, Sue, et al. “Underage Alcohol Policies across 50 California Cities: An Assessment Of Best Practices.” Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention & Policy 7.(2012): 26-39. Web. 8 May 2014. Ward, Rose Marie, and Hugo Josef Schielke. “Assessing the Predictive Ability Of The Transtheoretical Model’s Heavy Episodic Drinking Constructs Among a Population Of Underage Students.” Substance Use & Misuse 46.9 (2011): 1179-1189. Web. 8 May 2014.

Wechsler, Henry, and Toben F. Nelson. “Will Increasing Alcohol Availability by Lowering The Minimum Legal Drinking Age Decrease Drinking and Related Consequences amongWillner, Paul, and Gavin Rowe. “Alcohol Servers’ Estimates of Young People’s Ages.” Drugs: Education, Prevention & Policy 8.4 (2001): 375-383. Web. 8 May 2014.

Drinking water

Question 2

2.1 How to ensure food safety: Food safety depends on sanitation

1. Personnel and especially food handlers – must meet health standards and take great care to maintain a high level of personal health. – Hands should be washed thoroughly before handling food. – Injuries on hands covered with waterproof plasters.

– Use gloves and hair nets.
2. Safe food handling techniques should be practised.
3. Keep kitchen and kitchen equipment clean and sanitised.
4. Food service area should be kept clean and sanitised.
5. Tables should be washed and disinfected before and after meals. 6. Traffic through the kitchen should be minimised to reduce the amount of dirt and bacteria that are brought in. 7. Dishes: – should be washed with hot water and detergent

– Rinse dishes in hot ,clear, water
– Sanitise dishes with chlorine bleach solution
– Air dry
8. Food that has been on the tables should not be saved.
9. In fridge, store raw meat in covered containers away from veggies, fruit, milk, etc. 10. Milk fridge for baby foods and bottles.
11. All raw produce should be inspected for spoilage upon delivery and should be thoroughly washed before use. 12. Sanitise spills from raw meats, fish and poultry and wipe all spills immediately. 13. Dry foods stored in rodent-proof covered containers (cereals, flour, sugar, etc.) 14. Food items stored separately from non-food items.

15. Tops of cans should be washed before opening.
16. Can opener should also be washed daily.
17. All dairy products must be pasteurised.
18. Kitchen sink and faucet handles should be kept clean and sanitised frequently. 19. Safe water supply.
20. Frozen foods should only be thawed – in the refrigerator – in cold water
– in microwave oven
– while cooking
– (never at room temperature)
21. Once thawed, food should be used and never refrozen.
22. Food should be covered or wrapped during transport.
23. When serving foods, each serving bowl, dish, or pan should have a spoon; spoons should not be used to serve more than one food. 24. Caution should also be used not to touch serving spoons to a person’s plate to prevent contamination from saliva. 25. Serve and eat foods as soon as possible after preparation 26. Dustbins regularly emptied, foot-opening regularly sanitized, well fitting lids.

2.2 Advice for parents for

-sunburn (pg 21 tutorial 501)

Important information to remember regarding sun – protection:

-UV rays penetrate clouds so protection is still necessary during cloudy weather

-certain UV rays penetrate glass therefore children playing indoors close to a sunny window are not exempt from sunburn

-UV rays penetrate water up to one meter sun protection is important during swimming

-Sun protection should be a regular habit established from babyhood

-sun protection should be throughout the year not only during summer months

-persons with fair skin, red hair and freckles are especially at risk of sun damage

-a person living at the high veldt receives 20% more radiation

Role of guardian regarding sun protection:

-Limit the time which children spend playing outside the hottest part of the day (11hoo to 15hoo) as there is a 50% drop in the intensity of radiation by 15hoo and a 75% drop by 16hoo

-Outdoor play areas should be adequate shaded. If there are no shade trees in the playground the shade-netting or large umbrellas should be considered

-all children should use sun creams with a protection of at least spf15. Normal sun screen preparations should not be used on babies younger than 6 months of age.

-the teacher must ensure that children wear adequate protective clothing when exposed to the sun. wearing a wide brimmed hats should be mandatory for both guardian and children.

-dental decay (Pg 20 prescribed book)

Proper dental care should be practiced from birth, with special attention given to:

-Following a correct diet an adequate intake of protein, and minerals, particularly calcium and fluoride. Most devastating influence on diet is the common intake of sticky carbohydrates

-hygienic practices-e.g. tooth, brushing flossing. Food particles can be removed from an infant gums by wiping them with a small wet washcloth

-dental examination scheduled at recommended intervals

-prompt treatment of dental problems

Additional steps that can be taken to increase a child’s interest in brushing their teeth include:

-purchase a small soft toothbrush in the child’s favorite color.

-store the toothbrush where the child can reach it.

-provide a footstool or chair where the child can reach the sink

-demonstrate the toothbrush procedure so that the child knows what to expect.

-help the child to at least brush twice daily once in the morning and once before they go to bed

-put up a chart where can check each time they brushed

Question 3

3.1 Explain what you would include when planning an emergency evacuation plan: (12) (pg 36 tut501, pg 54 tut502)

Specific factors to be considered:

1. The plan should be simple, yet effective, to prevent undue confusion and to achieve the intended goal. When drawing up your own disaster plan, make use of the emergency services for advice.

2. Wherever possible, plan to use existing equipment and supplies in the school for emergency purposes

3. Consider how to evacuate babies and toddlers and any other persons who are not able to walk unaided

4. All staff should be familiar with the various tasks which are required during an evacuation. Staff should take turns, during practices, to control various activities so that if one staff member is absent, the plan will still work.

In addition all staff must know:

-the location of the electricity mains

-location of water mains

-the exit and evacuation routs

-predetermined assembly areas

-location and use of first aid kits

-the location and use of fire extinguishers

5. Have all emergency numbers readily available usually the the principal/ supervisor or secretary will be responsible for notifying the authorities.

6. Two different signals should be required to know when to evacuate and when to shelter

7. The school should have a hosepipe which long enough to reach all parts of the building

8. Teacher should know which children are absent in the event of an emergency

9. List with children with health conditions who require special attention

10. Contact should be made in advance with any homes or business who can help in a crisis

11. For incase children need to be kept overnight have the following ready:

-blankets and mattresses

-24 hour supply of water

-gas stove for heating food or boiling water

-household bleach for water purification

3.2 Symptoms that may indicate that a child has a hearing problem: (5)
Baby:
1. Absence of startle response to loud noise
2. Failure to stop crying (after three months) when adult talks to baby 3. Failure to turn head in direction of sound by four months 4. Absence of babbling by 6-8 months
5. No response to adult commands like “no” or “yes”

Other child:
1. Frequent mouth breathing
2. Failure to turn head in direction of sound
3. Slow language acquisition
4. Poor speech patterns
5. Difficulty in following instructions
6. Rubbing or pulling on ears
7. Mumbling
8. Shouting or talking loudly
9. Quiet and withdrawn
10. Using gestures more than words
11. Imitating play of peers
12. Inappropriate response to questions
13. Mispronouncing words
14. Unusual voice quality

The handling of a head lice outbreak at the school (8) p.133 A child with lice –
– Will experience itching of the scalp and also
– Behind the ears and at the base of the neck
Management –
– Exclude infested children from group until treated
– Wash hair with a special medicated shampoo
– And rinse with a vinegar/water solution
– Remove nits by using a fine-toothed comb
– Also dry with hair dryer (it helps to destroy eggs)
– Thoroughly clean child’s environment as well; vacuum carpets/ upholstery, wash/dry or dry clean bedding, clothing and hairbrushes. – All friends and family should be carefully checked.
– Seal non washable items in plastic bag for 2 weeks

Question 4

4.1 What advice can the teacher give parents regarding the following:

Prevention of HIV/infection in the preschool situation (10) p.21,22 – tutorial letter 502/2012

1. Keep all sores or cuts on you and the children’s hands covered with a waterproof plaster.

2. Do not share items which may become contaminated with blood (such as tootbrushes or razors)

3. Disinfect all spills of blood or blood-stained body fluids with a solution of 1:10 ordinary household bleach (one part of bleach into nine parts of water) which is freshly mixed every day.

4. Take universal precautions when treating any bleeding wound or dealing with any blood-contaminated body fluids or articles

5. Only handle any blood-contaminated clothes and cloths with gloves and soak these items in the bleach (hypochlorite) solution before washing them with hot water and soap.

6. Always put up a notice warning parents and staff about any chickenpox (or other communicable disease) outbreaks in the ECD centre or school as
people with a low immunity are particularly sensitive to some infections.

7. However this precaution protects all children from unnecessary infection (HIV-infected or not)!

8. All blood, blood products and blood-stained body fluids must be regarded as potentially infectious.

9. (This does not apply to faeces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine and vomitus unless they contain visible blood!)

10. Any person must use every possible method to prevent direct contact with blood or blood-contaminated fluids, for example using waterproof gloves or plastic bags to protect hands.

11. Nonporous gloves should also be worn during the cleanup of blood spills.

12. Thorough hand washing must be done after the gloves are removed or after any accidental blood contact.

4.2 How would you handle a child with respiratory distress: (pg 230 –prescribe book)

1. Summon emergency medical help if the child shows signs of: – Anxiety,
– wheezing,
– Restlessness,
-loss of consciousness,
-or bleu discoloration of the nail beds or lips,
-Fatigue
-inability to recognize teacher
-loss of consciousness
-signs of impending respiratory failure and cardiac arrest

2. Reassure the child

3. Administer any medication (such as inhaler) prescribed for the child’s acute asthmatic symptoms immediately

4. Encourage the child to relax and breathe slowly and deeply (Anxiety makes breathing more difficult

5.Have the child assume a position that is most comfortable. Breathing is usually easier when sitting or standing up.

6. Notify the child’s family

4.3 What type of information will be recorded when a child is injured at an ECD centre: (pg 44 tut502)

-name of child
-date of incident
-description of injury
-where it occurred
-when it occurred
-what injuries resulted
-was blood present
-how much blood
-where was the blood
-what was done for the child
-when was the parent notified
-who was in charge when the incident occurred
-what measures are necessary to prevent such incident again

-If your child has a febrile seizure, stay calm and:

• 1. Make sure your child is in a safe place and cannot fall down or hit something hard.

• 2. Lay your child on his or her side to prevent choking.

• 3. Watch for signs of breathing difficulty, including any color change in your child’s face.

• 4. If the seizure lasts more than several minutes, or your child turns blue, it may be a more serious type of seizure — call 911 right away.

It’s also important to know what you should not do during a febrile seizure:

• 5. Do not try to hold or restrain your child.

• 6. Do not put anything in your child’s mouth.

• 7. Do not try to give your child fever-reducing medicine.

• 8 .Do not try to put your child into cool or lukewarm water to cool off.

If your child is vomiting or has a lot of saliva coming from the mouth turn their head to the side to prevent choking.

When the seizure is over, call your doctor for an evaluation to determine the cause of the fever. The doctor will examine your child and ask you to describe the seizure. In most cases, no additional treatment is necessary. The doctor may recommend the standard treatment for fevers, which is acetaminophen or ibuprofen. But if your child is under 1 year old, looks very ill, or has other symptoms such as diarrhea or vomiting, the doctor may recommend some testing.

Get help right away from a health care provider if:

• the seizure lasts more than several minutes
• your child is having trouble breathing or is changing color • your child looks ill
• your child looks lethargic and is not responding normally • your child looks dehydrated

Febrile seizures can be scary to witness but remember that they’re fairly common, are not usually a symptom of serious illness, and in most cases don’t lead to other health problems. If you have any questions or concerns, talk with your doctor.

October/November 2010

Question 1

1. b

2. c

3. b

4. c

5. c

6. c

7. e

8. c

9. d

10. c

11. b

12. b

13. a

14. a

15. b

16. a

17. a

18. a

19. e

20. d

21. b

22. e

23. e

24. c

25. b

26. d

27. e

28. a

29. e

30. b

Question 2

2.1 Discuss how you will maintain the general health of children: ( Pg36 prescribe book)

Promoting children s health:

1.contribute by onsite health care,

2.educational programs- health education

3.safe learning environments,

4.and nutritious meals.

5. including teachers observations

6. daily health checks

7. continually monitoring children’s health

8. identifying potential health needs

9. teachers must be alert to changes in children during the day

10. Family involvement

2.2 How to handle a baby with febrile convulsions:

• 1. Make sure your child is in a safe place and cannot fall down or hit something hard.

• 2. Lay your child on his or her side to prevent choking.

• 3. Watch for signs of breathing difficulty, including any color change in your child’s face.

• 4. If the seizure lasts more than several minutes, or your child turns blue, it may be a more serious type of seizure — call 911 right away.

It’s also important to know what you should not do during a febrile seizure:

• 5. Do not try to hold or restrain your child.

• 6. Do not put anything in your child’s mouth.

• 7. Do not try to give your child fever-reducing medicine.

• 8 .Do not try to put your child into cool or lukewarm water to cool off.

If your child is vomiting or has a lot of saliva coming from the mouth turn their head to the side to prevent choking.

When the seizure is over, call your doctor for an evaluation to determine the cause of the fever. The doctor will examine your child and ask you to describe the seizure. In most cases, no additional treatment is necessary. The doctor may recommend the standard treatment for fevers, which is acetaminophen or ibuprofen. But if your child is under 1 year old, looks very ill, or has other symptoms such as diarrhea or vomiting, the doctor may recommend some testing.

Get help right away from a health care provider if:

• the seizure lasts more than several minutes
• your child is having trouble breathing or is changing color • your child looks ill
• your child looks lethargic and is not responding normally • your child looks dehydrated

Febrile seizures can be scary to witness but remember that they’re fairly common, are not usually a symptom of serious illness, and in most cases
don’t lead to other health problems. If you have any questions or concerns, talk with your doctor.

2.3 Achild with sand in his eyes wil:

-constanly rube eyes

-eyes will be tearry

Treat by washing eyes with water.

The handling of a head lice outbreak at the school (8) p.133

– Will experience itching of the scalp and also
– Behind the ears and at the base of the neck
Management –
– Exclude infested children from group until treated
– Wash hair with a special medicated shampoo
– And rinse with a vinegar/water solution
– Remove nits by using a fine-toothed comb
– Also dry with hair dryer (it helps to destroy eggs)
– Thoroughly clean child’s environment as well; vacuum carpets/ upholstery, wash/dry or dry clean bedding, clothing and hairbrushes. – All friends and family should be carefully checked.
– Seal non washable items in plastic bag for 2 weeks

Question 3

3.1

2. Feeding concerns during a child’s preschool years:

The child’s refusal to eat (5) p.441 (7th)

– Children may occasionally refuse food either because they are not
hungry or because they are asserting newly found independence. – Whatever the cause, the best response is to ignore it. – Active growing children will not let themselves starve; they will get hungry and eat. – If nutritious food is provided for meals and snacks and if families and teachers do not give in to substituting the less nutritious foods that the child requests, hunger will eventually win over the challenge of refusal.

Dawdling and messiness p393 (8th )

-cannot be avoided but can be controlled
-various reasons: -they have eaten enough, rather eats something else, or learned they will get attention -establishing and enforcing rules will usually end dawdling -decide on a time for eating

-understandable messiness can be ignored but if a child try to gain attention remove from table

However, it is important that the teacher does not “try too hard” or attempt to coax or convince children to eat, because this can lead to unpleasant battles and emotion-packed feeding sessions.

3. Discuss the guidelines for the administration of medication in an ECD centre. (10) p.136 (7th) [Table 6-1]

-Be honest when giving children medication! (Use the opportunity to help children understand the relationship between taking a medication and recovering from an illness or infection.

-Offer a small sip of juice or cracker to eliminate an unpleasant taste or read a favourite story as a reward for their cooperation).

-Designate one individual to accept medication from families and administer it to children. (This step will help minimize the opportunity for errors, such as omitting a dose or giving a dose twice.)

-When medication is accepted from a family, it should – – be in the original container,
– labeled with the child’s name,
– with the name of the drug,
– include directions for the exact amount and frequency the medication is to be given.

-Never give medicine from a container that has been prescribed for another individual.

-Store all medicines in a locked cabinet.
– If it is necessary to refrigerate a medication, place it in a locked box and store it on a top shelf in the refrigerator.

-Concentrate on what you are doing and do not talk with anyone until you are finished.

-Read the label on the container or bottle three times – – when removing it from the locked cabinet
– before pouring it from the container
– after pouring it from the container

-Administer medication on time, and give only the amount prescribed.

-Be sure you have the correct child.

-Record and maintain a permanent record of each dose of medicine that is administered. Include the: – – date and time the medicine was given
– name of teacher administering the medication
– dose of medication given
– any unusual physical changes or behaviours observed after the medicine was administered.

-Inform the child’s family of the dosage(s) and time medication was given, as well as any unusual reactions that may have occurred.

-Adults should never take any medication in front of children.

Question 4

4.1 School policy on HIV /Aids

1. Keep all sores or cuts on you and the children’s hands covered with a waterproof plaster. 2. Do not share items which may become contaminated with blood (such as tootbrushes or razors) 3. Disinfect all spills of blood or blood-stained body fluids with a solution of 1:10 ordinary household bleach (one part of bleach into nine parts of water) which is freshly mixed every day. 4. Take universal precautions when treating any bleeding wound or dealing with any blood-contaminated body fluids or articles. 5. Only handle any blood-contaminated clothes and cloths with gloves and soak these items in the bleach (hypochlorite) solution before washing them with hot water and soap. 6. Always put up a notice warning parents and staff about any chickenpox (or other communicable disease) outbreaks in the ECD centre or school as people with a low immunity are particularly sensitive to some infections. 7. However this precaution protects all children from unnecessary infection (HIV-infected or not)! 8. All blood, blood products and blood-stained body fluids must be regarded as potentially infectious. 9. (This does not apply to faeces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine and vomitus unless they contain visible blood!) 10. Any person must use every possible method to prevent direct contact with blood or blood-contaminated fluids, for example using waterproof gloves or plastic bags to protect hands. 11. Nonporous gloves should also be worn during the cleanup of blood spills. 12. Thorough hand washing must be done after the gloves are removed or after any accidental blood contact

4.2 During woodwork a 5 year old has a serious laceration how will you handle this:

-follow universal infection control precautions, including the use of latex/
vinyl gloves

-apply direct pressure to the wound, using a clean cloth or sterile pad to stop any bleeding

-wash the wound under running water for at least 5 minutes or until all foreign particles have been removed

-cover the wound with a sterile bandage. A thin layer of antibiotic ointment can be applied to superficial abrasions if permitted

-apply a cold pack, wrapped in disposable paper towel or plastic bag to the area this can help to slow the bleeding and reduce swelling

-inform the child’s family of the injury. Have them check to be sure the child’s tetanus immunization is current

-watch for signs of infection such is warmth redness, swelling or drainage

-puncture typed cuts that are deep or ragged require medical attention because of the increased risk of infection. Stitches may be needed to close a gash greater than 1.2 cm especially located on child’s face, chest or back

4.3 Information given to parents on:

Nutritious packed lunches: pg 464 (7th)

• A wide variety of raw fruits and vegetables are excellent sources of vitamin C, vitamin A and fiber. • Fruits and vegetables should be sectioned, sliced or diced into small pieces to prevent choking and make it easier for children to chew. • Whole grains or enriched breads and grain products are also good high-fiber snack foods. (the variety of flavors of whole grains also add interest to children’s diets) (Enriched breads and cereals are refined products to which iron, thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, and folic acid are added in amounts equal to the original whole grain product)
• Unsweetened beverages such as full-strength fruit and vegetable juices also make good choices for snacks. (Juices made from oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tomatoes are rich in vitamin C. • Carbonated beverages, fruit drinks, fruit ades, and fruit punches are unacceptable options. (These beverages contain large amounts of sugar, water and no other nutrients, except perhaps some added vitamin C) • Water is essential for good health (Children should drinks six to eight small glasses of water a day.

Important information to remember regarding sun – protection:

-UV rays penetrate clouds so protection is still necessary during cloudy weather

-certain UV rays penetrate glass therefore children playing indoors close to a sunny window are not exempt from sunburn

-UV rays penetrate water up to one meter sun protection is important during swimming

-Sun protection should be a regular habit established from babyhood

-sun protection should be throughout the year not only during summer months

-persons with fair skin, red hair and freckles are especially at risk of sun damage

-a person living at the high veldt receives 20% more radiation

Role of guardian regarding sun protection:

-Limit the time which children spend playing outside the hottest part of the day (11hoo to 15hoo) as there is a 50% drop in the intensity of radiation by 15hoo and a 75% drop by 16hoo

-Outdoor play areas should be adequate shaded. If there are no shade trees in
the playground the shade-netting or large umbrellas should be considered

-all children should use sun creams with a protection of at least spf15. Normal sun screen preparations should not be used on babies younger than 6 months of age.

-the teacher must ensure that children wear adequate protective clothing when exposed to the sun. wearing a wide brimmed hats should be mandatory for both guardian and children.

May/ June 2011

Question 1

1. 5

2. 4

3. 5

4. 2

5. 2

6. 1

7. 4

8. 4

9. 1

10. 4

11. 4

12. 4

13. 1

14. 4

15. 2

16. 2

17. 5

18. 4

19. 4

20. 3

21. 5

22. 4

23. 2

24. 2

25. 2

26. 5

27. 1

28. 5

29. 5

30. 4

Question 2

2.1 How to prevent the contamination of food in a ECD centre: (10) pg 282-284

1. The cleanliness of the kitchen and kitchen equipment is a vital factor in assuring food safety. 2. Traffic through the kitchen should be minimized to reduce the amount of dirt and bacteria that are brought in. 3. All areas of the kitchen should be cleaned on a regular basis. 4. A cleaning schedule is helpful for making sure that floors, walls, ranges, ovens, and refrigerators are routinely cleaned. 5. Equipment used in the direct handling of food must also receive extra care and attention. 6. Countertops and other surfaces on which food is prepared should be sanitized or disinfected with a chlorine bleach solution each time a different food is prepared on it. 7. A fresh solution must be mixed daily to retain its disinfecting strength. 8. Cutting boards – should be nonporous and always washed with hot, soapy water and sanitized with bleach solution after each use. – Designating separate cutting boards for different food preparations reduces the risk of cross contamination. 9. Dishes may be washed by hand or with a mechanical dishwasher. If washed by hand – was dishes with hot water and detergent, – rinse dishes in hot ,clear water

– sanitize dishes with chlorine bleach solution or scald with boiling water – air dry (not dried with a towel) all dishes, utensils, and surfaces 10. If mechanical dishwasher is used the machine must meet local health department standards.

2.2 A 5-year old child has a bleeding nose. How would you handle this situation? (10) p.243 – 8th

1. Follow universal infection control precautions, including the use of
latex/vinyl gloves. 2. Keep other children away from blood.
3. Place the child in a sitting position, with head tilted slightly forward, to prevent any swallowing of blood. 4. Reassure child
5. Have the child breath through his/her mouth.
6. Firmly grasp the child’s nostrils (lower half) and squeeze together for at least 5 minutes before releasing the pressure. 7. If bleeding continues, pinch the nostrils together for another 10 minutes. 8. Clean child up (clothes, hands, face)

9. Have the child play quietly for the hour or so afterward to prevent bleeding from resuming. 10. Remind child not to blow or pick nose.
11. Record all details
12. Inform parents
13. Encourage parents to discuss the problem with the child’s physician if nosebleeds occur repeatedly.

2.3 Preventing HIV infection:
1. Keep all sores or cuts on you and the children’s hands covered with a waterproof plaster.

2. Do not share items which may become contaminated with blood (such as tootbrushes or razors)

3. Disinfect all spills of blood or blood-stained body fluids with a solution of 1:10 ordinary household bleach (one part of bleach into nine parts of water) which is freshly mixed every day.

4. Take universal precautions when treating any bleeding wound or dealing with any blood-contaminated body fluids or articles.

5. Only handle any blood-contaminated clothes and cloths with gloves and soak these items in the bleach (hypochlorite) solution before washing them with hot water and soap.

6. Always put up a notice warning parents and staff about any chickenpox
(or other communicable disease) outbreaks in the ECD centre or school as people with a low immunity are particularly sensitive to some infections.

7. However this precaution protects all children from unnecessary infection (HIV-infected or not)!

8. All blood, blood products and blood-stained body fluids must be regarded as potentially infectious.

9. (This does not apply to faeces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine and vomitus unless they contain visible blood!) 10. Any person must use every possible method to prevent direct contact with blood or blood-contaminated fluids, for example using waterproof gloves or plastic bags to protect hands.

11. Nonporous gloves should also be worn during the cleanup of blood spills.

12. Thorough hand washing must be done after the gloves are removed or after any accidental blood contact

Question 3

3.1 Briefly discuss how you will ensure the safety of the child in the outdoor area of an ECD centre. (20) p.177 – 7th edition.

1. Important of adult-child ratio and group size.

2. Adequate and continual supervision.

3. Perimeter fence and adequate gate (children not able to open)

4. Prevent potential risks from – water
– dustbins
– poisons
– electricity
– falls
– burns
– choking
– thorns
– poisonous plants
– bees
– other stinging insects

5. Availability of first aid supplies

6. Safe storage of hazardous equipment and materials (gardening equipment, insecticides, paints, etc)

7. Evacuation procedure

8. Safety of equipment and rules for safe use of equipment.

9. Equipment choice – suitable for age
– not too high or complicated
– minimal maintenance
– fits into available space
– fits budget

10. Positioning of equipment – impact absorbing surface not too close. (12 inches in depth) – protection from sun
– climbing and high equipment securely anchored
– finishes are non-toxic and intact
– position to prevent excessive crowding

11. Maintenance – weekly checks of equipment
– wooden equipment oiled and checked for splinters
– nuts and bolts regularly tightened and checked for rust – no missing pieces or sharp edges

12. Weekly safety checks and correction of problems
13. Inaccessible parking area

14. Sufficient protection from environment hazards.

15. Play area must be located adjacent to the premises or within safe walking distance.

16. Equipment -is placed sufficiently far apart to allow a smooth flow of traffic and adequate supervision – an appropriate safety zone is provided around equipment

17. Bathroom facilities and drinking fountain are easily accessible.

18. Selection of play equipment is appropriate for children’s ages.

19. Grounds are maintained on a regular basis and are free of debris; – grass is mowed
– broken equipment is removed

20. Wading and swimming pools are always supervised. Water is drained when not in use

3.2 Identification of a child with a hearing problem:

Baby:
Absence of startle response to loud noise
Failure to stop crying (after three months) when adult talks to baby Failure to turn head in direction of sound by four months Absence of babbling by 6-8 months
No response to adult commands like “no” or “yes”

Other child:
Frequent mouth breathing
Failure to turn head in direction of sound
Slow language acquisition
Poor speech patterns
Difficulty in following instructions
Rubbing or pulling on ears
Mumbling
Shouting or talking loudly
Quiet and withdrawn
Using gestures more than words
Imitating play of peers
Inappropriate response to questions
Mispronouncing words
Unusual voice quality

Promotion of good health habits during toilet routines:

-wash hands before and after use of toilet

4. Guidelines for administration of medicine in the ECD centre:

-Be honest when giving children medication! (Use the opportunity to help children understand the relationship between taking a medication and recovering from an illness or infection.

-Offer a small sip of juice or cracker to eliminate an unpleasant taste or read a favourite story as a reward for their cooperation).

-Designate one individual to accept medication from families and administer it to children. (This step will help minimize the opportunity for errors, such as omitting a dose or giving a dose twice.)

-When medication is accepted from a family, it should – – be in the original container,
– labeled with the child’s name,
– with the name of the drug,
– include directions for the exact amount and frequency the medication is to be given.

-Never give medicine from a container that has been prescribed for another individual.

-Store all medicines in a locked cabinet.
– If it is necessary to refrigerate a medication, place it in a locked box and store it on a top shelf in the refrigerator.

-Concentrate on what you are doing and do not talk with anyone until you are finished.

-Read the label on the container or bottle three times – – when removing it from the locked cabinet
– before pouring it from the container
– after pouring it from the container

-Administer medication on time, and give only the amount prescribed.

-Be sure you have the correct child.

-Record and maintain a permanent record of each dose of medicine that is administered. Include the: – – date and time the medicine was given
– name of teacher administering the medication
– dose of medication given
– any unusual physical changes or behaviours observed after the medicine was administered.

-Inform the child’s family of the dosage(s) and time medication was given, as well as any unusual reactions that may have occurred.

-Adults should never take any medication in front of children.

Question 4

4.1 Discuss the principles which you will take into consideration when
planning the preschool menu. (10)[Chapter 18 8th]

1. Meeting children’s nutritional needs.
2. Addressing any existing funding or licensing requirements. 3. Providing sensory appeal (taste, texture and visual interest) 4. Making children comfortable by including familiar foods.
5. Encouraging healthy food habits by introducing familiar foods. 6. Providing safe food and serving it in clean surroundings. 7. Staying within budgetary limits.
8. Fresh, edible garnishes may be used if time and budget permit. 9. Providing alternatives for children who have food allergies, eating problems, and special nutritional needs. 10. You can ensure that all food groups from the Pyramid are included. – grains

– vegetables
– fruits
– milk
– meat and beans
– (it helps you to balance meals)
11. Add variety and try different ethnic cuisines.
12. Offer foods prepared in different ways.

4.2 A toddler is choking on a piece of apple. How will you handle it: (pg 228 8th)

If the object cannot be easily removed easily and the child is conscious, quickly: -summon emergency medical assistance
-administer the Heimlich maneuver. Stand or kneel behind the child with your arms around the child’s waist -make a fist with one hand, thumbs tucked in
– Place the fisted hand against the child’s abdomen, midway between the base of the rib cage and the navel -press your fisted hand into the child’s abdomen, with a quick inwards and upwards thrust -continue to repeat abdominal thrusts until the object is dislodged or the child regains consciousness -if the child loses consciousness and is still breathing, lower him or her to the floor and continue abdominal thrusts until the
object is dislodged -if the child loses consciousness and stops breathing lower him to the floor and start with CPR check and make sure the air goes in otherwise reposition the child – look in mouth for foreign objects each time before new breathing cycle -if child starts to breathe stop CPR and roll child into recovering position -make sure the child receives follow up medical attention

4.3 How to handle a child with:

Diarrhea

1. Observe for dehydration –
– dry mouth
– listlessness
– sunken eyes
– lack of tears
– reduced urinary output
– rapid and weak pulse
– skin loses elasticity

2. Give rehydration solution to drink –as much as will take – 1L water
– 8 teaspoons sugar
– half teaspoon salt

3. Keep written record of –
– Number, amount, appearance, smell, colour and consistency of stool – (keep last one for parent/health professional)

4. Check for fever

5. Watch for vomiting

6. Strict hygiene – hand washing, etc.

7. Universal precautions

8. Contact parents to collect child

9. Have copy of full details available for parents to take to health professional

Ear Ache
– will tug or rub the affected ear,
– may refuse to eat or swallow,
– may show difficulty hearing,
– may have difficulty sleeping
– may cry when placed in a reclining position
Management –
– Have the child lie down with the affected ear on a soft blanket; the warmth helps soothe discomfort. A small, dry cotton ball placed in the outer ear may also help reduce pain by keeping air out of the ear canal.

October/ November 2011

QUESTION 1

1) 4 p.16 (8th edition)
2) 1 (ass 1 -2012)
3) 2 (ass 1 -2012)
4) 2 p.440 (7th edition)
5) 1
6) 3 p. 4 (8th edition)
7) 3 (ass 1 – 2012)
8) 4 p.53 (7th edition)
9) 4 p. 9,10 (8th)
10) 2 p.308,309 (7th)
11) 4 p.59 (7th edition)
12) 3 p.23 (7th edition)
13) 5 p.243 (8th edition)
14) 5 (ass 1 -2012)
15) 1 p.59 (8th edition)
16) 4 p.110 (8th edition)
17) 2 p.141 (7th edition)
18) 4 (ass 1 -2012)
19) 4 (ass 1 – 2012)
20) 2 p.144 (8th edition)
21) 3 p.82 (7th edition), p.64 (8th edition)
22) 5 p.34 (7th edition)
23) 3 p.79 (8th edition)
24) 5 p.157 (7th edition), p.131 (8th edition)
25) 1 p.34 (7th edition), p.13 (8th edition)
26) 1 p.90 (8th edition)
27) 4 p.100 (7th edition), p.80 (8th edition)
28) 4 (ass 1 – 2012)
29) 5 p.162 (7th edition), p.131 8th edition)
30) 3 p.233 (8th edition)

SECTION B:
QUESTION 2.1Briefly discuss three environmental factors which have a negative or positive effect on the health of your own community. (6) p.7 (8th version) Tutorial 501 p.9

1) (Positive effect) = Adequate health care facilities helps prevent serious illness. Also the children will therefore be immunized regularly. People are treated promptly and fair. 2) (Positive effect) = We live in an urban area far from factories or pollution which is positive for a child’s health. 3) (Positive effect) = We live in an area which provides a healthy school environment with programs to improve children’s eating and physical activity as well.

Question 2.2 Discuss the importance of kitchen hygiene and mention what precautions should be taken by staff to ensure this. (10) p.282-284 (7th edition)

11. The cleanliness of the kitchen and kitchen equipment is a vital factor
in assuring food safety. 12. Traffic through the kitchen should be minimized to reduce the amount of dirt and bacteria that are brought in. 13. All areas of the kitchen should be cleaned on a regular basis. 14. A cleaning schedule is helpful for making sure that floors, walls, ranges, ovens, and refrigerators are routinely cleaned. 15. Equipment used in the direct handling of food must also receive extra care and attention. 16. Countertops and other surfaces on which food is prepared should be sanitized or disinfected with a chlorine bleach solution each time a different food is prepared on it. 17. A fresh solution must be mixed daily to retain its disinfecting strength. 18. Cutting boards – should be nonporous and always washed with hot, soapy water and sanitized with bleach solution after each use. – Designating separate cutting boards for different food preparations reduces the risk of cross contamination. 19. Dishes may be washed by hand or with a mechanical dishwasher. If washed by hand – was dishes with hot water and detergent, – rinse dishes in hot ,clear water

– sanitize dishes with chlorine bleach solution or scald with boiling water – air dry (not dried with a towel) all dishes, utensils, and surfaces 20. If mechanical dishwasher is used the machine must meet local health department standards.

Question 2.3 How would you recognise and manage the following conditions:

1. A child who is complaining of an earache (5) p.170 (7th edition) 2.
A child with earache –
– will tug or rub the affected ear,
– may refuse to eat or swallow,
– may show difficulty hearing,
– may have difficulty sleeping
– may cry when placed in a reclining position
Management –
– Have the child lie down with the affected ear on a soft blanket; the warmth helps soothe discomfort. – A small, dry cotton ball placed in the outer ear may also help reduce pain by keeping air out of the ear canal.

3. A child with a second degree burn on his hand (7) p.158 (7th edition) Recognise – The surface skin is red and blistered
Management –
– Use caution to protect yourself from the heat source
– Quickly submerge the burned areas in cool water,
– Hold under running water,
– Or cover with a cool, wet towel for 10-15 minutes.
– (cool water temperatures lessen the depth of burn as well as decrease swelling and pain) – Cover the burn with a sterile gauze dressing and
– tape in place. (Do not use greasy ointments or creams as it can increase the risk of infection) – Elevate the burned body part to relieve discomfort.
– Advise parents to contact the child’s health care provider immediately

4. A child with lice in his/her hair (7) p.133 (7th edition) A child with lice –
– Will experience itching of the scalp and also
– Behind the ears and at the base of the neck
Management –
– Exclude infested children from group until treated
– Wash hair with a special medicated shampoo
– And rinse with a vinegar/water solution
– Remove nits by using a fine-toothed comb
– Also dry with hair dryer (it helps to destroy eggs)
– Thoroughly clean child’s environment as well; vacuum carpets/ upholstery, wash/dry or dry clean bedding, clothing and hairbrushes. – All friends and family should be carefully checked.
– Seal non washable items in plastic bag for 2 weeks

Question 3.1 Briefly discuss how you will ensure the safety of babies and toddlers in an Early Childhood Development (ECD) centre. (10) p.198, 199, 201, 202, 206, 227, 233 7th edition)

1. Care-takers must have knowledge of developmental skills (is essential
for protecting children’s safety) 2. Maintaining quality supervision (never leave children unattended. If a teacher must leave an area, it should be supervised by another adult.) 3. Play spaces for infants and toddlers should be separated from those of older children (to avoid injuries and confrontations) 4. Large, open space, free of obstacles (also encourages very young children to move about and explore without hesitation) 5. Adequate space (infants = 33 square per feet per child; toddlers = 50 square feet per child.) 6. Adequate bathroom facilities (are also essential for convenience and health concerns) 7. Having locked cabinets available for storing medicines and other potentially poisonous substances, (such as cleaning products and paint). 8. Toys, labels and art materials must be nontoxic

9. Toys and equipment must be developmentally appropriate 10. Safety measures, such as locking outside doors and gates, (installing key pads, or issuing card keys), are effective for controlling unauthorised access.

Question 3.2 Briefly discuss the following common feeding concerns during the early childhood years: 1. The child’s refusal to eat (5) p.441 (7th)
– Children may occasionally refuse food either because they are not hungry or because they are asserting newly found independence. – Whatever the cause, the best response is to ignore it. – Active growing children will not let themselves starve; they will get hungry and eat. – If nutritious food is provided for meals and snacks and if families and teachers do not give in to substituting the less nutritious foods that the child requests, hunger will eventually win over the challenge of refusal. – However, it is important that the teacher does not “try too hard” or attempt to coax or convince children to eat, because this can lead to unpleasant battles and emotion-packed feeding sessions.

1. The effects of TV on food preferences and food choices (5) p.442 (7th) – Television advertising exerts a major effect on children’s attitudes toward food. – Many children spend more time watching television than they spend in school. – It is estimated that a child is exposed to three hours of commercials per week and to 19,000-22,000 commercials each year.
– Over one-half of these commercials are for food.

– (Cereals, cookies, candy, sweetened beverages, and fast-food offerings are the most frequently advertised foods) – Many of these foods are high in sugar or fat and are too calorie-dense to be healthful choices for young children. – (An additional concern is the extent to which adult food choices are influenced by the child’s food preferences that were learned from television food commercials.)

2. The prevention of obesity in babies (5) p.438-439 (7th) – Prevention of obesity should start with infant feeding. – Look for the infant’s signals of satiety and stop feeding when they occur. – (The toddler and preschooler will usually signal or stop eating when they have had enough food, unless eating or not eating is their best way to get attention.) – Forcing children to continue eating interferes with their ability to recognize when they are full and can contribute to obesity. – Children with one or two obese parents should be helped during early childhood years to make wise choices of nutrient-dense foods. – Serving children nutritious foods, involving them in physical activity and limiting their sedentary activities, such as television viewing and computer/video games is critical for maintaining normal body weight and reducing the risk of short- and long-term health problems. – [A child should never be asked to present a “clean plate” before receiving their dessert. – (This is one sure way to start the child on a road to obesity or eating disorders.) – Rewards should not be offered for trying a new food.

– (Also, foods should never be used as a reward for any type of behaviour.)]

Question 3.3 Discuss the guidelines for the administration of medication in an ECD centre. (10) p.136 (7th) [Table 6-1] 1. Be honest when giving children medication! (Use the opportunity to help children understand the relationship between taking a medication and recovering from an illness or infection. 2. Offer a small sip of juice or cracker to eliminate an unpleasant taste or read a favourite story as a reward for their
cooperation). 3. Designate one individual to accept medication from families and administer it to children. (This step will help minimize the opportunity for errors, such as omitting a dose or giving a dose twice.) 4. When medication is accepted from a family, it should – – be in the original container,

– labeled with the child’s name,
– with the name of the drug,
– include directions for the exact amount and frequency the medication is to be given. 5. Never give medicine from a container that has been prescribed for another individual. 6. Store all medicines in a locked cabinet.

– If it is necessary to refrigerate a medication, place it in a locked box and store it on a top shelf in the refrigerator. 7. Concentrate on what you are doing and do not talk with anyone until you are finished. 8. Read the label on the container or bottle three times – – when removing it from the locked cabinet

– before pouring it from the container
– after pouring it from the container
9. Administer medication on time, and give only the amount prescribed. 10. Be sure you have the correct child.
11. Record and maintain a permanent record of each dose of medicine that is administered. Include the: – – date and time the medicine was given
– name of teacher administering the medication
– dose of medication given
– any unusual physical changes or behaviours observed after the medicine was administered. 12. Inform the child’s family of the dosage(s) and time medication was given, as well as any unusual reactions that may have occurred. 13. Adults should never take any medication in front of children.

Question 4.1 Explain your understanding of the term “universal precautions in the ECD centre” (10) p.139, 255 1. Universal precautions are special infection-control guidelines 2. that have been developed to
prevent the spread of diseases transmitted via blood and other body fluids. 3. These guidelines address several areas of precaution – 4. – Barrier protection (including the use of latex/vinyl gloves and handwashing) 5. – Environmental disinfection

6. – Proper disposal of contaminated materials (and must be followed carefully whenever caring for children’s injuries) 7. Procedures should be – written up
8. – Posted where they are visible, and
9. – Reviewed periodically with all employees
10. Teachers must also take precautions, such as careful handwashing, to protect themselves from unnecessary exposure.

Question 4.2 During a sporting activity an 8 year old child sprains her ankle. How would you handle this situation? (8) p. 278 (7th) & p.244 (8th) 1. Splint the injury
2. And treat it as if it were broken
3. Elevate the injured part
4. And apply ice packs
5. Intermittently for 15 to 20 minutes at a time
6. For several hours.
7. Notify the child’s parents
8. And encourage them to have the child checked by a physician.

Question 4.3 What advice can the teacher give parents regarding the following: 1. Nutritious packed lunches for foundation phase learners at break (5) p.464 (7th) • A wide variety of raw fruits and vegetables are excellent sources of vitamin C, vitamin A and fiber. • Fruits and vegetables should be sectioned, sliced or diced into small pieces to prevent choking and make it easier for children to chew. • Whole grains or enriched breads and grain products are also good high-fiber snack foods. (the variety of flavors of whole grains also add interest to children’s diets) (Enriched breads and cereals are refined products to which iron, thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, and folic acid are added in amounts equal to the original whole grain product) • Unsweetened beverages such as
full-strength fruit and vegetable juices also make good choices for snacks. (Juices made from oranges, grapefruit, tangerines, and tomatoes are rich in vitamin C. • Carbonated beverages, fruit drinks, fruit ades, and fruit punches are unacceptable options. (These beverages contain large amounts of sugar, water and no other nutrients, except perhaps some added vitamin C) • Water is essential for good health (Children should drinks six to eight small glasses of water a day.

2. Prevention of nappy rash (4) p.129 (8th)
• Prompt changing of wet and/or soiled diapers
• Followed by a thorough cleansing of the skin (is often sufficient to prevent and treat diaper rash.) • Baby products, such as powders and lotions, should be avoided (because they can encourage bacterial growth when combined with urine and feces) • A thin layer of petroleum jelly or zinc oxide ointment can be applied to irritated areas to protect the skin.

Question 4.4 Explain what safety precautions should be taken when planning an outing for Grade R children in your ECD centre. (8) p.212 (8th) 1. (Most importantly) Programs should have written policies outlining procedures that must be followed when taking children on field trips. 2. Families should be informed in advance of an outing and their written permission obtained for each excursion. 3. On the day of the trip, a notice should be posted on the classroom door to remind families and staff of the children’s destination and when they will be leaving and returning to the building. 4. At least one adult accompanying the group should have first aid and CPR training. 5. A first aid kit and cell phone should also be taken along. 6. Tags can be pinned on children with the center’s name and phone number. (Do not include the children’s names; this enables strangers to call children by their name and makes it easier to lure them away from the group.) 7. A complete list of the children’s emergency contact information,(including families’ telephone numbers, child’s physician, and emergency service numbers) should also be taken along. 8. Procedures and safety policies should be carefully reviewed with the staff and children prior to the outing. 9. Vehicles owned and operated by a program are usually required to carry liability insurance and are therefore preferable.
(However, neighborhood walks and public bus rides are always safe alternatives)

May/ June 2012

Question 1

31. 5

32. 4

33. 5

34. 2

35. 2

36. 1

37. 4

38. 4

39. 1

40. 4

41. 4

42. 4

43. 1

44. 4

45. 2

46. 2

47. 5

48. 4

49. 4

50. 3

51. 5

52. 4

53. 2

54. 2

55. 2

56. 5

57. 1

58. 5

59. 5

60. 4

Question 2

2.1 How to prevent the contamination of food in a ECD centre: (10) pg 282-284

21. The cleanliness of the kitchen and kitchen equipment is a vital factor in assuring food safety. 22. Traffic through the kitchen should be minimized to reduce the amount of dirt and bacteria that are brought in. 23. All areas of the kitchen should be cleaned on a regular basis. 24. A cleaning schedule is helpful for making sure that floors, walls, ranges, ovens, and refrigerators are routinely cleaned. 25. Equipment used in the direct handling of food must also receive extra care and attention. 26. Countertops and other surfaces on which food is prepared should be sanitized or disinfected with a chlorine bleach solution each time a different food is prepared on it. 27. A fresh solution must be mixed daily to retain its disinfecting strength. 28. Cutting boards – should be nonporous and always washed with hot, soapy water and sanitized with bleach solution after each use. – Designating separate cutting boards for different food preparations reduces the risk of cross contamination. 29. Dishes may be washed by hand or with a mechanical dishwasher. If washed by hand – was dishes with hot water and detergent, – rinse dishes in hot ,clear water

– sanitize dishes with chlorine bleach solution or scald with boiling water – air dry (not dried with a towel) all dishes, utensils, and surfaces 30. If mechanical dishwasher is used the machine must meet local health department standards.

2.2 A 5-year old child has a bleeding nose. How would you handle this situation? (10) p.243 – 8th

14. Follow universal infection control precautions, including the use of latex/vinyl gloves. 15. Keep other children away from blood.
16. Place the child in a sitting position, with head tilted slightly forward, to prevent any swallowing of blood. 17. Reassure child
18. Have the child breath through his/her mouth.
19. Firmly grasp the child’s nostrils (lower half) and squeeze together for at least 5 minutes before releasing the pressure. 20. If bleeding continues, pinch the nostrils together for another 10 minutes. 21. Clean child up
(clothes, hands, face)

22. Have the child play quietly for the hour or so afterward to prevent bleeding from resuming. 23. Remind child not to blow or pick nose.
24. Record all details
25. Inform parents
26. Encourage parents to discuss the problem with the child’s physician if nosebleeds occur repeatedly.

2.3 Preventing HIV infection:
13. Keep all sores or cuts on you and the children’s hands covered with a waterproof plaster.

14. Do not share items which may become contaminated with blood (such as tootbrushes or razors)

15. Disinfect all spills of blood or blood-stained body fluids with a solution of 1:10 ordinary household bleach (one part of bleach into nine parts of water) which is freshly mixed every day.

16. Take universal precautions when treating any bleeding wound or dealing with any blood-contaminated body fluids or articles.

17. Only handle any blood-contaminated clothes and cloths with gloves and soak these items in the bleach (hypochlorite) solution before washing them with hot water and soap.

18. Always put up a notice warning parents and staff about any chickenpox (or other communicable disease) outbreaks in the ECD centre or school as people with a low immunity are particularly sensitive to some infections.

19. However this precaution protects all children from unnecessary infection (HIV-infected or not)!

20. All blood, blood products and blood-stained body fluids must be
regarded as potentially infectious.

21. (This does not apply to faeces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine and vomitus unless they contain visible blood!) 22. Any person must use every possible method to prevent direct contact with blood or blood-contaminated fluids, for example using waterproof gloves or plastic bags to protect hands.

23. Nonporous gloves should also be worn during the cleanup of blood spills.

24. Thorough hand washing must be done after the gloves are removed or after any accidental blood contact

Question 3

3.1 Briefly discuss how you will ensure the safety of the child in the outdoor area of an ECD centre. (20) p.177 – 7th edition.

21. Important of adult-child ratio and group size.

22. Adequate and continual supervision.

23. Perimeter fence and adequate gate (children not able to open)

24. Prevent potential risks from – water
– dustbins
– poisons
– electricity
– falls
– burns
– choking
– thorns
– poisonous plants
– bees
– other stinging insects

25. Availability of first aid supplies

26. Safe storage of hazardous equipment and materials (gardening equipment, insecticides, paints, etc)

27. Evacuation procedure

28. Safety of equipment and rules for safe use of equipment.

29. Equipment choice – suitable for age
– not too high or complicated
– minimal maintenance
– fits into available space
– fits budget

30. Positioning of equipment – impact absorbing surface not too close. (12 inches in depth) – protection from sun
– climbing and high equipment securely anchored
– finishes are non-toxic and intact
– position to prevent excessive crowding

31. Maintenance – weekly checks of equipment
– wooden equipment oiled and checked for splinters
– nuts and bolts regularly tightened and checked for rust – no missing pieces or sharp edges

32. Weekly safety checks and correction of problems
33. Inaccessible parking area

34. Sufficient protection from environment hazards.

35. Play area must be located adjacent to the premises or within safe walking distance.

36. Equipment -is placed sufficiently far apart to allow a smooth flow of traffic and adequate supervision – an appropriate safety zone is provided around equipment

37. Bathroom facilities and drinking fountain are easily accessible.

38. Selection of play equipment is appropriate for children’s ages.

39. Grounds are maintained on a regular basis and are free of debris; – grass is mowed
– broken equipment is removed

40. Wading and swimming pools are always supervised. Water is drained when not in use

3.2 Identification of a child with a hearing problem:

Baby:
Absence of startle response to loud noise
Failure to stop crying (after three months) when adult talks to baby Failure to turn head in direction of sound by four months Absence of babbling by 6-8 months
No response to adult commands like “no” or “yes”

Other child:
Frequent mouth breathing
Failure to turn head in direction of sound
Slow language acquisition
Poor speech patterns
Difficulty in following instructions
Rubbing or pulling on ears
Mumbling
Shouting or talking loudly
Quiet and withdrawn
Using gestures more than words
Imitating play of peers
Inappropriate response to questions
Mispronouncing words
Unusual voice quality

Promotion of good health habits during toilet routines:

-wash hands before and after use of toilet

5. Guidelines for administration of medicine in the ECD centre:

-Be honest when giving children medication! (Use the opportunity to help children understand the relationship between taking a medication and recovering from an illness or infection.

-Offer a small sip of juice or cracker to eliminate an unpleasant taste or read a favourite story as a reward for their cooperation).

-Designate one individual to accept medication from families and administer it to children. (This step will help minimize the opportunity for errors, such as omitting a dose or giving a dose twice.)

-When medication is accepted from a family, it should – – be in the original container,
– labeled with the child’s name,
– with the name of the drug,
– include directions for the exact amount and frequency the medication is to be given.

-Never give medicine from a container that has been prescribed for another individual.

-Store all medicines in a locked cabinet.
– If it is necessary to refrigerate a medication, place it in a locked box and store it on a top shelf in the refrigerator.

-Concentrate on what you are doing and do not talk with anyone until you are finished.

-Read the label on the container or bottle three times – – when removing it from the locked cabinet
– before pouring it from the container
– after pouring it from the container

-Administer medication on time, and give only the amount prescribed.

-Be sure you have the correct child.

-Record and maintain a permanent record of each dose of medicine that is administered. Include the: – – date and time the medicine was given
– name of teacher administering the medication
– dose of medication given
– any unusual physical changes or behaviours observed after the medicine was administered.

-Inform the child’s family of the dosage(s) and time medication was given, as well as any unusual reactions that may have occurred.

-Adults should never take any medication in front of children.

Question 4

4.1 Discuss the principles which you will take into consideration when planning the preschool menu. (10)[Chapter 18 8th]

13. Meeting children’s nutritional needs.
14. Addressing any existing funding or licensing requirements. 15. Providing sensory appeal (taste, texture and visual interest) 16. Making children comfortable by including familiar foods. 17. Encouraging healthy food habits by introducing familiar foods. 18. Providing safe food and serving it in
clean surroundings. 19. Staying within budgetary limits.

20. Fresh, edible garnishes may be used if time and budget permit. 21. Providing alternatives for children who have food allergies, eating problems, and special nutritional needs. 22. You can ensure that all food groups from the Pyramid are included. – grains

– vegetables
– fruits
– milk
– meat and beans
– (it helps you to balance meals)
23. Add variety and try different ethnic cuisines.
24. Offer foods prepared in different ways.

4.2 A toddler is choking on a piece of apple. How will you handle it: (pg 228 8th)

If the object cannot be easily removed easily and the child is conscious, quickly: -summon emergency medical assistance
-administer the Heimlich maneuver. Stand or kneel behind the child with your arms around the child’s waist -make a fist with one hand, thumbs tucked in
– Place the fisted hand against the child’s abdomen, midway between the base of the rib cage and the navel -press your fisted hand into the child’s abdomen, with a quick inwards and upwards thrust -continue to repeat abdominal thrusts until the object is dislodged or the child regains consciousness -if the child loses consciousness and is still breathing, lower him or her to the floor and continue abdominal thrusts until the object is dislodged -if the child loses consciousness and stops breathing lower him to the floor and start with CPR check and make sure the air goes in otherwise reposition the child – look in mouth for foreign objects each time before new breathing cycle -if child starts to breathe stop CPR and roll child into recovering position -make sure the child receives follow up medical attention

4.3 How to handle a child with:

Diarrhea

9. Observe for dehydration –
– dry mouth
– listlessness
– sunken eyes
– lack of tears
– reduced urinary output
– rapid and weak pulse
– skin loses elasticity

10. Give rehydration solution to drink –as much as will take – 1L water
– 8 teaspoons sugar
– half teaspoon salt

11. Keep written record of –
– Number, amount, appearance, smell, colour and consistency of stool – (keep last one for parent/health professional)

12. Check for fever

13. Watch for vomiting

14. Strict hygiene – hand washing, etc.

15. Universal precautions

16. Contact parents to collect child

9. Have copy of full details available for parents to take to health professional

Ear Ache
– will tug or rub the affected ear,
– may refuse to eat or swallow,
– may show difficulty hearing,
– may have difficulty sleeping
– may cry when placed in a reclining position
Management –
– Have the child lie down with the affected ear on a soft blanket; the warmth helps soothe discomfort. A small, dry cotton ball placed in the outer ear may also help reduce pain by keeping air out of the ear canal.

[pic][pic][pic]

Teenage Drinking

For the past decade, there has been a major problem with underage drinking in this world. Many of teenagers have been able to buy consumed drinking without the appearance of their parents. Today, many teenagers experience different things in the world. Whether it is their first date or first day in high school, teens are always eager to try something different or new. One of the things that teenagers try is drinking alcohol. Unfortunately, underage drinkers often abuse alcohol.

Many reasons why underage teens are consuming alcohol because there were alcoholics in the family, peer pressure, stress and family problems. When growing up with an alcoholic, the kids mind thinks that it is normal to drink non-stop. The emotional and psychological scars that children can develop in alcoholic homes can be so deep that they can last well into adulthood. “If you were raised in a home with alcoholism or addiction, you may find that some of the following characteristics are very familiar”(Dr. Jan Woititz).

People tend to become isolated, fear people and authority figures become approval seekers, be frightened of angry people, be terrified of personal criticism, become alcoholics, marry them or both view life as a victim have an overwhelming sense of responsibility, be concerned more with others than themselves, feel guilty when they stand up for themselves, become addicted to excitement, confuse love and pity love’ people who need rescuing, stuff their feelings lose the ability to feel, have low self-esteem, and judge themselves harshly. Those are just few of the effects of alcoholic problems in the family.

Studies state that people look to alcohol because of economic, job stress or marital discord. “In humans between certain types of alcoholism and adverse early childhood experiences. High levels of stress may influence drinking frequency and quantity. This relationship between stress and drinking even is stronger when alternative coping mechanisms and social supports are lacking. Finally, when individuals believe that alcohol will help to reduce the stress in their lives, alcohol is most likely to be used in response to stress. Drinking appears to follow stress but some evidence also links excessive drinking to the anticipation of a major stress or even during times of stress” (BRESSERT).

Stress can lead to being a alcoholic because the person is so tired of being in a state of stress so they look for something that can calm them down so they turn to either weed or alcohol. They drink as much as they could until it goes away but in reality the stress does not go away. So if it do not work then that means they going to keep looking towards liquor to get rid of it. This drinking can make their way of thinking change. “Over time, heavy drinking interferes with the neurotransmitters in the brain that are needed for good mental health. So while alcohol may help deal with stress in the short term, in the long run it can contribute to feeling of depression and anxiety and make stress harder to deal with” (Eva Cyhlarov).

Joseph A. Califano, Jr says “The media focuses on illegal drugs [ such as ] heroin, but that’s the tail. The dog is alcohol and the dog is really biting our kids” (69). This can cause you to hurt others, get you into illegal trouble, and damage your relationships. Alcohol can damage the young brain, interferes with mental and social development, and interrupts academic progress. Alcohol is attracts teenagers easily and leads to the three leading causes of teen death: accidents, homicide and suicide. You can also harm your body now and when you grow up and also get you addicted. When drunk people tend to not notice anything so they start fights, unprotected sex, driving drunk and heavy hangovers. People have died from drinking on the beach and like to go swimming which leads to death. It is said from Anthony that “people don’t die from smoking weed, they die from drinking alcohol”(70). It seems to be true because you cannot die from a plant but you can die from something that is mix with many chemicals. They can die from intense alcohol intoxication.

Why do teens drink? Teens seem to look towards drinking as a pleasure but what they do not notice is messing up their body. Even though they know it’s bad for them, they insist that alcohol isn’t really a drug, however kids know that beer, wine, and liquor can you into big trouble. It is said by CASA that 8th graders used 47.0% of alcohol, 10th graders used 66.9% and 12th Graders used 78.4%. Used in past year, 8th graders are 38.7%, 10th graders are 60.0%, and 12th graders are 71.5%. Used in the past months, 8ths graders are 19.6%, 10th graders are 60.0% and 12th graders are 48.6%. Seventy-two percent of college students report that they used alcohol at least once within the 30 days prior to completing the Core survey.

Within the last year, 84 percent of students report they drank alcohol (Alcohol and College Students Drinking Fact Sheet, 1). 82% of students under age 21, using alcohol within the past year. “Student athletes are more often the heaviest drinkers in the overall student population. Half of college athletes (57 percent of men and 48 percent of women) are binge drinkers and experience a greater number of alcohol related harms than other students. College athletes are also more likely than other students to say that getting drunk is an important reason for drinking”(Dying to Drink by Henry Wechsler, Ph.D.). Seventy-eight percent of college athletes report that they used alcohol on at least one occasion in the past 30 days prior to completing the Core survey. Within the past year, 88 percent of student athletes report using alcohol. One in five athletes believe others students drinking adversely affects their involvement on an athletic team or in other organized groups.

“Some athletes do not think of the repercussions while they are out with fellow teammates, drinking a limitless amount of alcohol. They are caught up in the moment and want to be cool with friends and associates. They don’t think how this is going to affect their upcoming game or practice. Some athletes believe they can handle excessive drinking and performing well in games. There thought pattern is party hard right now and worry about practice or the game later. This is a poor thought pattern that will always harm their performance. Athletes know alcohol affects their system in a negative way, yet they still consume large amounts”(Nelson and Wechsler1 2001). Colleges and pro-football leagues look at this kind of things. They have a wide-range programs that can track and also test 100% if someone is under the influence of alcohol and drugs.

Today, as you may have read many teenagers are under the influence of alcohol in the stages of high school and college. There were many studies that were conduction that gave us information about the average student alcoholics or up and coming alcoholics. There were many effects of alcoholic that people did not understand. These kids do not understand what it can do to your life and physical-self in the future. They won’t understand the outcomes until it hits them clearly in the head.

Research Paper on Drinking & Driving

Course Project_Final Draft
A real-world problem that I have conducted my research on was drinking and driving in teens. Every day, almost 30 people in the United States die in motor vehicle crashes that involve an alcohol-impaired driver (cdc.gov). Each year there are thousands of deaths because teens seem to believe they are invincible even to drinking, they get behind the wheel, and well you can imagine the consequences to that, they don’t know they don’t only put their lives at risk but those on the road as well. This amounts to one death every 48 minutes. The annual cost of alcohol-related crashes totals more than $51 billion.

Conducting research can lead you to so many gateways of knowledge you never could have imaged, this especially includes statistics. You never really know about anything until you are able to see numbers, information, charts or even professional speakers giving presentations based on information that is proven to be true do to these real world problems. Statistics is a math that can give you world-wide range of numbers. Statistical methods that have helped me see my research into a bigger picture were the statistical graphics, such as dot plots, bar graphs, pie graphs, etc. A little bit of describing, exploring and comparing data came in handy as well.

Data collection is the best way to be able to see or show an audience your statistics, I couldn’t have looked up a better resource than what I did, I used www.cdc.gov (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). I liked this resource not only because I know it’s a reliable website since it’s a government based website but also because its gives you clear numbers, years, percentages but also visual statistical graphs that display their data. In 2010, 10,228 people were killed in alcohol-impaired driving crashes, accounting for nearly one-third (31%) of all traffic-related deaths in the United States. In that same year, over 1.4 million drivers were arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol or narcotics, that’s one of the 112 million self-reported assurances of alcohol-impaired driving each year. With all this information it makes you think who is all at risk? The main top categories of people who are at most risk of getting behind the wheel under the influence are young people, motorcyclists as well as drivers with prior driving while impaired convictions such as a DUI.

Young people are at risk because the levels of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is at greater risk than those of older people. Drivers with levels of 0.08% or higher involved in fatal crashes in 2010 were one of every 3 were between the ages of 21-24 which is 34%. The next two largest groups were the ages of 25-34 and then 35-44 and from 25-44 age group there is a lower percent tile of accidents, which can tell you teens are at great risk. Motorcyclists are at great risk because 28% of fatal crashes in 2010 were alcohol impaired motorcyclists between the ages of 40 or older. For those drivers that have had a prior driving impaired conviction are four times more like to have a BAC of 0.08% or higher of involvement in fatal crashes due to the same fact that they have done the action in their life before.

Undergoing such scary and cruel information many of us think what is happening to the world?! What can we do about it?! There are many laws and actions trying to be done but all I can do is to think a little more and see what else can be done besides just increasing the legal drinking age, or taking away driver licenses of those driving while intoxicated. We have the option of parents or friends to not allow your friend to drive their car if they know they will be drinking or if you know you won’t be driving you can indicate yourself as the DD (designated driver). Other options that I believe can really help is have the media promoting more on the NO DRINKING AND DRIVING, instead of just promoting the alcoholic beverages on TV, radio etc.

The biggest things that I believe that can make a difference is to come up with some kind of technology that can be installed in the car that can help detect or see if the driver is ok to drive the vehicle. Sprint has this new sort of technology that goes along with the NO TEXTING AND DRIVING, this happens by when the driver getting into the car, the cellphone shuts down automatically and it won’t come on until the car is in a complete none motion and engine off, pretty neat huh? We as Americans need to think about the box and realize there are bigger things out there causing great effects and so we then must build bigger and better.

Quantitative Determination of Total Hardness In Drinking Water

Abstract

This experiment is about the determination of water hardness through the use of complexometric EDTA titration. Determination of water hardness is important to find out the most suitable water hardness under particular circumstances. This was conducted for the purpose of applying the concept of complexometric titration using an efficient chelating agent, EDTA. Sample mineral water was analyzed using standard EDTA with EBT as indicator, and calcium ions present in the solution were calculated to determine the hardness of the water sample. At the end of the experiment, the results indicated that the mineral sample water has large amounts of calcium and magnesium ions—an implication of a hard water sample.

INTRODUCTION

Water hardness is a measure of the amount of calcium and magnesium present in sample water. These calcium and magnesium ions have the capacity to replace sodium or potassium ions and form sparingly soluble products or precipitates. Water hardness is involved in various aspects of industrial and biochemical processes. Large amounts of ppm CaCO3 in water can form precipitates when interacted with soap and form rings known as “scum” in several utensils and appliances. The formation of these “scum” in electrical appliances degrades its efficiency and will eventually reduce its life span. In addition, these can cause impairments on fabric as well, and damage water treatment plants and piping systems at a water hardness of 300 ppm CaCO3.

Calcium is necessary for aquatic animals such as fish. It serves an important role in bone formation, blood clotting, and metabolic processes of the fish and prevents the loss of important salts in the body which helps in the functioning of its vital organs such as the heart. Small amounts of calcium in water can be life-threatening to aquatic organisms like the fish. Thus, determination of water hardness is important. One method of determining water hardness is through complexometric titration. In this process, a ligand is involved in the said titration.

Metal ion reacts with a particular ligand forming a complex and the equivalence point is determined by an indicator. The ligand used in the experiment is Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA) with Eriochrome Black T indicator. EDTA is an efficient chelating agent and has an ability to bind with metal ions. Because of this, EDTA is also used in food preservation, an anti-coagulant in blood, and, when EDTA is combined with Fe(II), can even be used as an effective absorbent of harmful NO (nitric oxide). The purpose of this experiment is to determine the hardness of water through complexometric titration.

METHODOLOGY

Before the actual experiment, solutions of 500 mL of 0.1000 M stock EDTA solution, 250 mL of 0.0100 M standard EDTA solution, 250 mL of 0.050 M standard CaCO3 solution, 50 mL of 0.0050 M working standard CaCO3 solution, and 250 mL of 1.0 M NH3-NH4+ buffer solution were prepared quantitatively. In this experiment, the titrant used was Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA), a polydentate with six bonding sites. Polydentates aid in obtaining sharper endpoints since they react more completely with cations. Likewise, reaction with polydentates only involves a single step process compared to using monodentates as titrants which involves at least two intermediate species. Among polydentates, EDTA was chosen as the titrant since it is versatile and forms most sufficiently stable chelates because of its several complexing sites which gives rise to a cage-like structure isolating the cations from solvent molecules.

For the preparation of 500 mL of 0.1000 M stock EDTA solution, 18.6 g of Na2H2EDTA2H2O was weighed to the nearest 0.1 mg and was transferred into a 400 mL beaker. 200 mL of distilled water and 1.0 g MgCl26H2O crystals were added into the beaker and mixed until the crystals were dissolved. MgCl26H2O was added to obtain a sharper endpoint since CaIn- complex ion is less stable and endpoint will come earlier than actual. The solution was heated for faster dissolution and NaOH pellets were added to the turbid solution to produce salt EDTA making the pH of the solution higher and increasing the solubility of the EDTA. Into a 500 mL volumetric flask, the solution was transferred and was diluted to mark with distilled water. The solution was stored in a dry and clean reagent bottle. The 250 mL of 0.0100 M standard EDTA solution was prepared by getting 25 mL from 0.1000 M stock EDTA solution and diluting it to mark with distilled water in a 250 mL volumetric flask. For the preparation of 250 mL of 0.050 M standard CaCO3 solution, 1.2510 g of pure CaCO3 was weighed to the nearest 0.1mg into a 250 mL beaker and 20 mL distilled water was added.

Drops of 6 M HCl were added until the CaCO3 was completely dissolved. The beaker was covered using a watch glass and was put over a hot plate. The solution was evaporated until an amount of 10 mL was left. After cooling the solution, the washings were collected by rinsing the watch glass into the beaker using distilled water. 20 mL more distilled water was added into the solution and it was transferred into a 250-mL volumetric flask. The solution was diluted to mark and was stored in a plastic polyethylene bottle since glass bottle can leach and ions from it will contaminate the solution. The 50 mL of 0.0050 M working standard CaCO3 solution was prepared by dilution of 5 mL 0.050 M standard CaCO3 into a 50-mL volumetric flask. For NH3-NH4+ buffer solution of pH 10, 2.06 g of NH4Cl was dissolved in 14.3 mL of concentrated ammonia and was diluted to mark in a 250-mL volumetric flask. Buffer solution was used since buffers are resistant to pH changes[13].

Maintaining the pH is important in preventing interference of other species during titration since different chelates form at a particular pH.[14] For the standardization of 0.01 M EDTA Solution, 10 mL each of 0.0050 M working standard CaCO3 solution was transferred into each of the three 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask using a pipette. Then, into each flask, 75 mL of distilled water was added followed by 3 mL of the NH3-NH4+ buffer solution and 2-3 drops of Eriochrome Black T (EBT) indicator. Although use of EBT indicator is unsatisfactory in calcium, it is ideal to use in magnesium titration[15], and since MgCl2 was put earlier, the number of calcium ions can be determine using EBT indicator[16]. One at a time, the solutions were titrated with the 0.010 M standard EDTA solution. Water sample was analyzed by measuring 50 mL of commercial mineral water Viva into each of the three 250-mL Erlenmeyer flask. Then, into each flask, 75 mL of distilled water was added followed by 3 mL of the NH3-NH4+ buffer solution and 2-3 drops of EBT indicator. One at a time, the solutions were titrated with the 0.010 M standard EDTA solution. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Complexometric titration was used in the experiment since the reaction between the aqueous solutions of the analyte (CaCO3 solution, water sample) and titrant (EDTA) forms a complex. Which involves a coordination center composed of Ca2+ and Mg2+ and the chelating agent EDTA. EDTA, a weak acid, commonly forms 1:1 stochiometric ratio when it reacts to form soluble complexes with metal ions, this means that a single endpoint would be observed. Most of the time EDTA reacts with metals regardless of their charges. These would all correlate to a sharp endpoint in titration and a smooth calculation in stoichiometry. Titration with EDTA is affected by several factors such as the existence of complex forming ions and of organic solvents that affects the stability of the complex, the metal ion components, and the pH wherein the titration was performed. The pH range for optimal indications using EBT indicator and for better results in titration using EDTA method is from 8-10.

Lower pH would form a colorless complex with EDTA while a high pH makes it hard to distinguish using the metal indicator In the experiment the pH was kept constant at 10, this was possible with the presence of the buffer solution of NH3 –NH4Cl. It has a buffer capacity that satisfies the optimal pH range. Buffer solutions resist pH change that might be caused by other cations and the weak acid titrant, EDTA. Also, the indicator EBT would behave as it should be if there are no fluctuations in the pH. The specific pH was essential because at the pH of 10 EDTA would deprotonate just enough to bind with the metals involved. If too much buffer was added to the solution, the titration would yield defective endpoints. For example the pH was at 12, the solution would be too basic that it might form precipitates with magnesium and calcium which in turn would cause different results. The endpoint of the solution in the first trial was blue so we opt not to put KCN in the solution. KCN bonds with iron so that iron would not affect the color change of the indicator. If iron is present in the sample it would affect the color endpoint and turn to violet instead of blue. Chemical equations that express the reaction in the titration can be shown in figure 1.

Figure 1. Chemical equations involved in the titration.
In the sample analysis of Viva mineral water, it contained 54mgCa/L and 14mgMg/L. After computing for the total hardness of the sample using ppm CaCO3 it was found out that the claimed total hardness was 192.6 ppm CaCO3 while the computed average ppm CaCO3 from the experiment was 139.5 ppm CaCO3this means that the calculated value from the experiment is less than the calculated total hardness of Viva mineral water according to the indicated value in the label but still in the range of hard according to the water hardness scale in table 1. Table 1 Water Hardness Scale

The unit ppm CaCO3 was used because water is mostly composed of calcium and magnesium ions. Both of these ions can be expressed in terms of CaCO3 One possible source of error is the human error from differentiating color change of the indicator EBT. The solution might have turned violet but not observed making the titrant endpoint wrong because of the presence of iron. Other possible sources of error are excess buffer solution that will increase pH, calibration error of pH meter, wrong volume reading, and over titration.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

The Complex solutions were formed by titration with the chelating agent EDTA. With the use of complexometric titration the total hardness of water sample was determined. It was found out that the water hardness of Viva mineral water is classified as “hard” in terms of calcium and magnesium ions content that was expressed in terms of ppm CaCO3. The claimed total hardness of Viva Company is larger than the experimental value meaning it has less metal ion content than expected. The results of the experiment can be improved with the addition of KCN. It might not be visible that the endpoint was violet but it would be safer to eliminate iron discrepancies in the results.

REFERENCES

[1] Carillo, K.J.D., Ballesteros, J.I., et al. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Manual, 2009 edition, UP Chemistry Alumni Foundation, 2009, p. 67

[2] Skoog, D.A., West, D.M., et al., Introduction to Analytical Chemistry, 8th edition, Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd., 2012, p. 403

[3]Hardwater,http://water.me.vccs.edu/concepts/hardwater.html

[4] Wurts, W.A., Understanding Water Hardness, http://www.ca.uky.edu/wkrec/Hardness.htm

[5] Skoog, D.A., West, D.M., et al., Introduction to Analytical Chemistry, 8th edition, Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd., 2012, p. 372

[6] Skoog, D.A., West, D.M., et al., Introduction to Analytical Chemistry, 8th edition, Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd., 2012, p. 386

[7] Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt dehydrate,http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/etc/medialib/docs/Sigma/Product_Information_Sheet/e5134pis.Par.0001.File.tmp/e5134pis.pdf

[8] Liu, N. et. al., Evaluation of Nitric Oxide Removal from Simulated Flue Gas by Fe(II)EDTA/Fe(II)citrate Mixed Absorbents, http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ef300538x?prevSearch=Uses%2Bof%2BEDTA&searchHistoryKey=

[9] Skoog, D.A., West, D.M., et al., Introduction to Analytical Chemistry, 8th edition, Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd., 2012, p. 372

[10] Skoog, D.A., West, D.M., et al., Introduction to Analytical Chemistry, 8th edition, Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd., 2012, p. 384

[11] Carillo, K.J.D., Ballesteros, J.I., et al. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Manual, 2009 edition, UP Chemistry Alumni Foundation, 2009, p. 69

[12] Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt dehydrate,http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/etc/medialib/docs/Sigma/Product_Information_Sheet/e5134pis.Par.0001.File.tmp/e5134pis.pdf

[13] Whitten, K.[et. Al.], Chemistry.8th ed., Thomas Higher Education. USA. 2007, p. 742

[14] Skoog, D.A., West, D.M., et al., Introduction to Analytical Chemistry, 8th edition, Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd., 2012, p. 401

[15] Skoog, D.A., West, D.M., et al., Introduction to Analytical Chemistry, 8th edition, Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd., 2012, p. 399

[16] Skoog, D.A., West, D.M., et al., Introduction to Analytical Chemistry, 8th edition, Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd., 2012, p. 400

Drinking and driving

On Jan.8, 2002, President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) that became the education-reform bill. The No Child Left Behind is most sweeping education-reform bill since 1965 that made changes to the the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. The No Child Left Behind plays a big part in the life’s of students, parents, teachers, and the future of the educational system. “No longer content to provide access to education for traditionally extended students populations, we are now demanding that these students receive equally good educations.” In other words, administrations are now demanding equality of quality. President Bush thinks that all students are title to high quality education, treated equal, fair, and to be safe while at school.

The No Child Left Behind places significant responsibilities on state educational agencies, school districts, principals, and the teachers. “In 2002 the federal government returned to the force front in potentially historic fashion.” With the passage of No Child Left Behind, supported by bipartism majorities in Congress, the nation committed itself to the achievement of every student in America. The No Child Left Behind in the federal system the United States for every education state and school districts fail to meet the requirements of No Child Left Behind Act that will be held accountable, with the opportunity to improve their down fall. Each state makes their own standards for what a child should know and learn for grades, for math and reading the standards should be developed first. Every student should be tested by the standards.

All school districts should make adequate yearly progress toward meeting their state standards. Schools that fail need all the support they can get to improve their progress. The school or District shall come up with an idea that’s going to meet all necessary to make higher goals. The No Child Left Behind has a standardize by making sure that all teachers were high. The No CLB Act has

In the article (Teacher’s Views on No child left behind) teachers was the no child left behind law “The federal legislation provides considerable discretion to states that can develop their own academic content standards, choose the tests they will administer, and specify the minimum scores students must obtain to be declared “proficient”. The no child left behind law increased the attention to many schools that pay to academic achievement and to disadvantage children that make it better. “As a result, the skills, and knowledge of the subgroups of children that historically have not increased as rapidly under many state tests would suggest. Second, no child left behind has increased the efforts of schools scores, third, adequate yearly progress rules; some states increased the migration of experienced teachers out of school serving high concentrations of low – performing students.

No child left behind represents that parents of students who are attending title I schools are given the option to transfer their students to another school in the district for improvement status, If a student requested to be transferred shall be allowed to transfer. The No Child Left Behind, has two new educational options, -supplemental educational services and school choice for title I schools for restricting, improvement, and corrective action by the options depends on parental decisions. Parents will know their student assessments. If the school needs improvement the parent will be informed. Conclusion:

The No Child Left Behind Act is great. Every child should have the right to receive an education, and be safe while in school. There so many jobs and opportunities will be required to have a college degree in order for a student to have success in life they need an education. The No Child Left Behind Act helps and gives students the impossible they did not have. The No Child Left Behind made school districts accountability achievement. ON January 8, 2002 President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind (NCLB), Act the reform bill improves student’s goals on the state- wide testing, and The No Child Left Behind has admirable goal of improvement in the educational system. President Bush thinks that no child should be left behind and that all children are entitled to education, treated fair and to be safe. No matter what the student is, their race, where they live, they should be entitled to an equal education.

References’
Abernathy, S. (2007). No child left behind and the public schools {electronic resource} / Scott Franklin Abernathy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, c2007. Michigan Press. In 2001 the author researcher at Ann Arbor: University of President George W. Bush’s education reform legislation, the no child left behind act (H.R. 1). Testing and accotability provisions Chubb, J.E. (2009). Learning from no child left behind {electronic resource}: how and why the nation’s most important but The Author research stand ford, California. : hoover institution Murnane, R., Papay, J. (2010). Teacher’s views on no child left behind: support for the principles, concerns about the practices. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(3), 151- 166 Programs, all other Miscellaneous Schools Believes that the school should not be accountable for teaching all children well.

The No child left behind is to improve all students’ performance. Put students’ performance in data gives the parents opportunity to see the child’s performance. Students that attend low-performing schools start to develop discipline issues, their want to be transferred to a better – performing school. School that doesn’t need their goals will offer including free tutoring, and after school instruction. Randolph, K., & Wilson – Younger, D. (2012). ”Is No Child Left Behind Effective For All Students?” Parents don’t think so. Online submission. The author’s researchers Database: ERIC. Since the No child left behind is to discuss the advantage of the core requirements for its implementation. Parents have concerns whether the children are really learning. Zimmer, R., Gill, B., Raquin, Booker, K., Lockwood, J., & Department of education, w.c (2007). State and Local Implementation of the “No Child Left Behind” (Nls-“nclb”). The author researchers us department of education. The key component the no child left behind for the parent children that were attending title I school options for corrective action, improvement, failure achieve toward meeting state standards.

Is Texting and Driving as bad as Drinking and Driving

There are many dangers when both drinking while driving and texting while driving. In this essay the two will be compared and contrasted to find why people do them even with the dangerous consequences. Drivers think they can text while driving and also drink while driving because they think they can get away with it because nothing has affected them in the past while doing it. Michael Austin states, “Texting, also known as SMS (for short message service), is on the rise, up from 9.8 billion messages a month in December ’05 to 110.4 billion in December ’08”. What does it mean to all drivers to text and drive, or even drink and drive? Why would somebody text and drive? Why would somebody drink and drive? Are the consequences great enough to make a change? Driving is already dangerous when the driver isn’t impaired, so when they add the risk of being impaired it increases their chances of getting hurt or damaging their car. Not only could they kill themselves, but they could also kill somebody else and that’s not fair to the other people that are doing nothing wrong if it isn’t their fault. Drivers may want to pay close attention when they have their children because if they are texting while driving or drinking while drive when their children are in the car, the children will pick up the habits that are being influenced and think that it is okay. Larry Copeland states in USA today, although they’re otherwise protective of their young children, the survey finds, 78% of mothers with children under age 2 acknowledge talking on the phone while driving with their babies; 26% say they text or check their e-mail (Larry Copeland, 2013).

What it means to text while driving is that the driver is on their phone emailing, texting, or searching the web while their attention should be on the road aware of their surroundings. All drivers should constantly be focused on the road and other cars instead of their phones. But is texting while driving as bad as drinking while driving? What it means to drink while driving is that the driver has possession and is consuming alcohol while operating a motor vehicle at the same time. Although they are both different they have one thing in common, they both impair the driver. Micheal Austin states, “Intern Brown’s baseline reaction time at 35 mph of 0.45 second worsened to 0.57 while reading a text, improved to 0.52 while writing a text, and returned almost to the baseline while impaired by alcohol, at 0.46. At 70 mph, his baseline reaction was 0.39 second, while the reading (0.50), texting (0.48), and drinking (0.50) numbers were similar”. A huge difference between the two is that when a driver drinks they are constantly impaired as they are driving. But when a driver is texting and driving there are usually impaired for less than a minute. According to The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, “five seconds is the average time your eyes are off the road while texting. When traveling at 55mph, that’s enough time to cover the length of a football field. Also a texting driver is 23 times more likely to get into an accident than a non-texting driver.” (NHTSA, n.d). Even though texting and driving and drinking while driving are very dangerous one can be more harmful than the other at times.

Everybody has received a phone call, email or text while driving one time or another. As soon as the driver gets the notification that somebody is trying to reach them they feel the urge to check their phone. Our phones have become a major addiction and people cannot resist the temptation to check their phones every minute they get. A driver feels like it won’t matter if they just happen to look down at their phone for a moment as they take their attention off of the road. Nothing has happened before as they’ve done it many times, so why would something happen now? But little do they know it could impact their lives in many ways. According to drivesafely.net, only 60% or more have admitted to texting and driving when the results are closer to 80% in reality (drive-safely.net, 2011). There may be more than one reason why people feel like it is okay to drink in drive. One of those reasons may be that they are so impaired that they aren’t aware of the dangers of getting behind the wheel. In some situations a driver could get pulled over by a police officer and he would give a breathalyzer test that the driver would most likely fail. Then the driver would be taken away to jail in hand cuffs and treated like a criminal.

Another reason is that the driver feels as if they can drink as much as they would like and still be able to drive because they have done it in the past. Also drivers don’t want to feel intimidated by the alcohol in their system; they believe they are still capable of doing the same things they did when they weren’t under the influence. After you’re put in jail you will have to face a judge or jury and depending on your alcohol level you’ll be sentenced. If it’s okay to drink and drive, is it okay to text and drive? Neither option is okay. But people feel as if texting and driving is a lot more minor then drinking in driving. Drivers look at driving as a dangerous thing already and most think adding alcohol to the equation makes it more dangerous. But is it worse than drinking and driving? Teenagers and adults don’t think so. Drivers feel as if they can hide their phone when they are texting or talking on it and the police officer will not see them or take the time to pull them over. Especially since the consequences aren’t that great. The current texting fine is around $150, if you bump that up to about $300 I’m sure people would be more careful. Also having insurance nowadays is a MUST. If insurance companies decided to stop covering these crashes I’m sure they would decrease. In both situations drivers feel they have the ability to drive while taking these actions even though they are wrong and a danger to all other drivers.

Regardless of these situations a responsible driver should never drive impaired in any way. Texting while driving and drinking while driving both have their down falls. And no responsible driver should ever take part in either action. Drivers think they can get away with a quick text or a little alcohol while driving because it may have not affected them in the past. They aren’t aware of the true danger and consequences of these actions when things go horribly wrong. In my essay I hit three main points; what it means to do these things, followed by the reasons people do it, and also the consequences of doing it. In the end the roads are only as safe as we make them.

WORK CITED PAGE
http://www.caranddriver.com/features/texting-while-driving-how-dangerous-is-it-the-results-page-2

Be able to prepare to provide support for eating and drinking

Identify the level and type of support an individual requires when eating and drinking

I should always check the individuals care plan to establish the level of support required by the individual when eating and drinking. I should also ask colleagues, the individual’s family, friends and the individual if they would like help and how they would like me to help. I must ensure I’m not imposing a level of support which suits me or my organisation rather than the individual. I should provide the minimum of support possible in order for the task to be accomplished regardless of how long this will take or the mess the individual may make.

I may need to support individuals to prepare for meal time with things such as protective clothing. I should check if they need support with positioning to ensure they are comfortable whilst eating and drinking. It may be that the individual is able to feed themselves, if provided with the correct equipment to do so. By providing the individual with the correct equipment I’m providing active support and ensuring that I’m supporting them in a way that helps the individual maintain their independence There is specially adapted cutlery available for individuals who may have arthritic fingers, where they are not able to grip conventional cutlery. An individual suffering with dementia may need to be prompted to eat at regular intervals. The individual may be sight impaired making it difficult to eat independently. An individual suffering with dysphagia and have difficulty swallowing. They would require their food to be pureed or may need to be fed via P.E.G. tube. Some individuals may need to be fed if they do not have the use of their hands. There are many different levels and types of support depending on the individuals circumstances.

Demonstrate effective hand-washing and use of protective clothing when handling food and drink

Support the individual to prepare to eat and drink, in a way that meets their personal needs and preferences

The individual may require protective coverings such as an apron to protect their clothing from stains from dropped food or drink and napkins to wipe themselves if necessary.I should provide individuals with the opportunity to use the toilet and wash their hands prior to their meal. An important aid to eating is an individual’s dentures. They should be available and also well fitting. They may have religious activities they wish to carry out prior to their meal such as praying, washing themselves or giving thanks.

Provide suitable utensils to assist the individual to eat and drink.

Ordinary cutlery can be too heavy to hold or too difficult to grip for some individuals and particularly those with arthritic hands. There is a wide range of specialist cutlery available to allow individuals to remain as independent as possible and manage eating and drinking with minimal assistance. Some of which is listed below:

Types of utensil
Purpose

Angled cutlery
For some people who finds it difficult to bring a fork or spoon at right angles to the mouth

Easy grip handled spoon and fork
For an individual who finds it difficult to grip cutlery.

Plate guard
If an individual is likely to shuffle food off the plate, the plate guard would stop food from escaping

Melamine cups, plates and bowls, two handled drinking cups with a flexible plastic straw To avoid breakages if an individual is prone to dropping things

For people with hand tremors
Cups with a spout
Very efficient if I need to avoid spillages

Special plates with hot water compartment at the base

Feeding cup

Non slip tray with handle

Gadget to remove lids from jars/bottles
To keep food warm while individuals eat their food, useful if they normally take long to eat. This will reduce the rate at which the food gets cold.

Avoids spills – liquid at the bottom is drank first so ensure no tea leaves.

For those with use of only one arm, to carry several items at once

Aids individuals with weak hands

Texting and Driving vs. Drinking and Driving

Did you know that 27 people in America die each day due to drunk driving fatalities and another 15 due to fatalities linked to distracted driving? According to Johnston and Wiggins, 2012 Every year there are thousands of fatal car crashes due to distracted drivers. Distracted driving is not only caused from texting & drinking, but from other distractions as well. These distractions include eating, music, children or other passengers in the car, & even putting on makeup or fixing their hair. There are many laws out there that ban texting and drinking while driving to keep people from harm’s way but there are so few people who actually obey the laws.

Research shows that drinking while driving & texting while driving are equally harmful because they both impair the driver’s vision, the driver’s reaction time, & the driver’s concentration & vigilance, all skills needed to prevent millions of accidents, deaths, & injuries every year. There’s ample evidence that shows drunk driving fatalities have definitely decreased in the last 40 yrs. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration provides us with some interesting information, which I have converted into a line graph. My visual aid shows the fast decrease in drunk driving fatalities between 1970 & 2012. They document that there was a significant decrease after 40 yrs due to stricter driving laws & punishment. Now, for the next part of my presentation will explain how alcohol & texting affect a person’s ability to think & see clearly.

The driver’s vision and speed of the car becomes impaired when they look anywhere else but the road, when drunk their eyes are glazed over & bloodshot. Just 1 or 2 drinks in a person’s body affects their nervous system & motor skills. Alcohol slows reaction time & clouds depth perception, vision, sense of touch, coordination, & judgment even when they are not considered legally drunk (Kedjidjian, 1994). Drinking while driving makes people become drowsy which causes people to fall asleep at the wheel or close their eyes for a few seconds every few minutes. All it takes is 1 second of your eyes to be off the road, and there will be an accident (Kolman, 2008). 3 years ago, scientists used a national database to collect detailed demographics and crash information on every accident that had happened in the US between 1999 & 2008. They were studying trends in distracted driving accidents and their relation to cell phone use whether it’s talking, texting, or using the internet. The results showed us that after declining rates of distracted driving fatalities from 1999 to 2005, the rates increased 28% after 2005 when cell phones & texting started getting popular. Distracted driving is becoming a growing hazard for the public, especially teenagers.

2ndly the driver’s reaction time is impaired in several different ways when they are occupied with texting or drinking. Alcohol impairs drivers which causes the driver to speed, not wear a seat belt, not turning on the turn signal, swerve, & have short attention spans (Corte & Sommers, 2005). Corte & Sommers research how alcohol leads to risky behaviors such as drunk & reckless driving and how they can create intervention programs to prevent risky behaviors. People that have been drinking before or during their drive may have bloodshot eyes, blurred, or double vision.

Noting that more than 10,000 Americans die per year due to drunk driving fatalities, government officials promoted technologies, such as an ignition interlock. The driver’s concentration & vigilance are both impaired even if they think they can multi-task. The results of several surveys on distracted driving show that drivers fail to recognize the dangers in distracted driving which include more than just texting on the phone (Hoff, ET. Al, 2013). The results of this study show that 3/4 of adults experience distractions while driving but they believe they can safely operate any motor vehicles while being distracted. This documentation and research has showed that drinking and texting while driving are equally dangerous but texting while driving is becoming the main equivalence of fatalities. While driving & texting both impair a person’s vision, reaction time, & concentration & vigilance, there are some other important aspects to consider in fatalities. The main focus of a driver should be on the road at all times.

Reference List
Corte, C., & Sommers, M. (2005). Alcohol and risky behaviors. Annual Review Of Nursing Research, 23327-360. Driving while texting six times more dangerous than driving while drunk. Retrieved from

Drinking Age

The drinking age was moved from 18 to 21 for a reason. The higher drinking age of 21 has saved many lives, helped reduce the amount of underage drinking, and therefore should not be lowered. Many studies from a large variety of sources have proven higher drinking ages have a positive effect on society. Alcohol is harmful to the development of younger people. Research has shown that an adult is less likely to binge drink (have five or more drinks in a row). According to statistics from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, teens become intoxicated twice as fast as adults. Because the teens get drunk faster they are less likely to know when to stop and to go past their limit, causing harm to themselves and others. The Human brain continues to develop after adolescence and into our 20’s. According to a study on the neurocognitive effects of alcohol on adolescents and college students, drinking is harmful to the brain. Since the brains of all people under 21 are still developing, and most are in college, alcohol can prove very detrimental to the development of their brain and can harm their studies, and thus their futures. Underage drinking also largely contributes to many social problems include those such as: impaired driving, fighting, sexual activity, and smoking (Pediatrics 2006; 119:76-85). People have proposed that a 40 hour educational course should entitle people under 21 to drink.

Research shows that educating youth drivers does not prevent youth crashes, however restrictions such as a limitation on the amount of passengers a youth driver can have, and curfews do help restrict the amount of youth crashes. The same philosophy applies to drinking. Educating young people about drinking responsibly, and the damage that drinking can do will not prevent alcohol related incidents, or underage “binge” drinking, but restrictions like the current laws will help prevent these (National Institutes of Health , “Fact Sheet: Underage Drinking”). Alcohol has a direct effect on the amount of car crashes and crime levels around the world. Studies show that since the legal age was change from 18 to 21 the number of vehicle related accidents has dropped 16 percent (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). Other studies have shown that since the legal drinking age was raised over 25,000 live were saved (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs).

Many European countries have lower drinking ages, and many people say that their system is better. Since alcohol is more readily available in these nations there are more underage drinkers than other countries where alcohol is more limited. Studies have also shown that alcohol cause more problems in Europe than America (DiClemente, Ralph J.:Pediatrics 107). These issues include underage drunkenness, injury, rape, and school problems. “The concept that a person becomes a full adult at age 21 dates back centuries in English common law; 21 was the age at which a person could, among other things, vote and become a knight. Since a person was an official adult at age 21, it seemed to make sense that they could drink then, too” (Ethan Trex: http://www.mentalfloss.com /article/19437/why-drinking-age-21). Certain European nations and states allow drinking with a parent’s consent or drinking in the privacy of the home. Many people claim that this helps reduce underage binge drinking by introducing youths to alcohol at an earlier age in a controlled environment.

Research has shown that this is not true (Fell, James: Debating Reform), because the youths feel they have their parent’s permission to drink they are more likely to believe it is okay for them to drink in situations outside the home, which can lead to intoxicated driving, and other harmful acts. Some argument for lowering the drinking age claim that alcohol is more enticing to youths when they can’t have it, and if the legal age was lowered there would be less underage drinking problems. Studies and history have proven this wrong (Fell, James: Debating Reform). Before the drinking age was raised in the U.S. there was a larger underage drinking problem, and over twice as many fatal alcohol related accidents as today.

Sources:
European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. DiClemente, Ralph J. et al “Parental Monitoring: Association With
Adolescents’ Risk Behaviors” Pediatrics 107: 6 June 2001, 1363-1368 Fell, James. From “Chapter 2: Federalism: Resolved, the Federal Government should restore each State’s freedom to set its drinking age.” in Ellis, Richard and Nelson, Michael (eds.) Debating Reform. CQPress Publishers, Fall 2009. Fell, J.; “Minimum Legal Drinking Age Policy Knowledge Asset,” website created by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Substance Abuse Policy Research Program; March 2009. Fell, James C. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Oct. 2008 “An Examination of the Criticisms of the Minimum Legal Drinking Age 21 Laws in the United States from a Traffic-Safety Perspective” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, National Center for Statistics and Analysis “Lives Saved in 2007 by Restraint Use and Minimum Drinking Age Laws” DOT HS 811 049 A Brief Statistical Summary November 2008. National Institutes of Health, “Fact Sheet: Underage Drinking” National Institutes of Health, “Fact Sheet: Alcohol-related Traffic Deaths” National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Statistics on Underage Drinking National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, “Research Findings on Underage Drinking and the Minimum Legal Drinking Age” National Institutes of Health, Alcohol Policy Information System “The 1984 National Minimum Drinking Age Act” Shults, Ruth A., Elder, Randy W., Sleet, David A., Nichols, James L., Alao, Mary O. Carande-Kulis, Vilma G., Zaza, Stephanie, Sosin, Daniel M., Thompson, Robert S., and the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. “Reviews of Evidence Regarding Interventions to Reduce Alcohol-Impaired Driving.” Am J Prev Med 2001;21(4S). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking 2007. Zeigler DW, Wang CC, Yoast RA, Dickinson BD, Mccaffree MA, Robinowitz CB, et al. The Neurocognitive Effects of Alcohol on Adolescents and College Students. Prev Med 2005 Jan;40(1):23-32. http://www.indiana.edu/~engs/articles/cqoped.html

Lower Drinking Age to 18

According to the Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, in 2010 underage drinkers from ages 15-20 were responsible for 48.8% of alcohol purchases. The minimum legal drinking age(MLDA) in the United States was 18 years old until 1984, when all fifty states raised their legal drinking age to 21 or older. The drinking age should be lowered from 21 years old to 18 years old because at that age one legally becomes an adult, it would reduce the amount of unsafe drinking activity, and there are fewer drunk driving car accidents in many other countries with a drinking age of 18. In the United States at the age of eighteen you receive the rights and responsibilities of adulthood. As an adult you should be able to make your own decisions on drinking alcohol.

You can vote, smoke cigarettes, serve on juries, get married, sign contracts, be prosecuted as adults, and join the military. It is known that alcohol consumption can interfere with development of the young adult brain’s frontal lobes. The frontal lobes are essential for functions such as emotional regulation, planning, and organization. However, the decisions you can make as an adult include risking one’s life. Among these decisions should be alcohol consumption because as an adult you have the right to participate in actions that affect your health. Former Middlebury College president John McCardell wrote a New York Times op-ed that called the current drinking age “bad social policy and a terrible law.” It is a bad social policy because college is where you start making new relationships that could potentially last your entire life and to create such bonds it would be nice to just be able to talk over some beers. Allowing eighteen year olds to legally drink in regulated environments would decrease the amount of unsafe drinking activity. Bars and clubs are potentially unsafe environments, but they are supervised by employees. Prohibiting 18-20 year olds from drinking in such places causes them to choose to drink in unsupervised places such as house parties or fraternity parties. The rate of underage drinking arrests would go down if drinking were legal making crime rates decrease as well.

According to Boston University, “Allowing alcohol consumption legally might help cut down alcohol related deaths in colleges.” College students over drink and tend to have accidents because they are unsure when they will be able to have alcohol again. In 2006 according to the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse, 76.6% of twelfth graders admitted to drinking at some point in their lives. Lowering the drinking age would diminish the thrill of breaking the law. There would no longer be the exciting aspect of being rebellious. The United States increased the drinking to 21 in 1984, but its rate of traffic accidents and fatalities in the 1980s decreased less than that of European countries whose legal drinking ages are lower than 21. In the United Kingdom, only 15.88% of car accidents are related to drunk driving. In stating this, you can’t really say that having a drinking age of 18 reduces the amount of drunk driving accidents. Plus, deaths from drunk driving as a percentage of total driving fatalities have gradually decreased since 1982, two years before MLDA 21 went into effect. Since this decline came across all age groups, it cannot be because of the introduction of MLDA 21. In a 2002 meta-study of the legal drinking age and health and social problems, 72% of the studies found no statistics that related to an increase in suicide and criminal activities by adolescents if the drinking age were to be lowered to eighteen.

Raising the drinking age has been ineffective thus far. If the drinking age were to be lowered to eighteen it would have more benefits than consequences. Underage drinking enforcement is not even a priority for many law enforcement agencies. An estimated two of every 1,000 occasions of illegal drinking by youth under 21 results in an arrest. By raising the drinking age and making consumption only available for older people our laws have made drinking even more attractive. And drinking in excess has become a standard way of rebelling against what is seen as an unjust and immoral law.

Underage Drinking

Alcohol is the most common and popular drug in many cultures. There are several problems caused by underage drinking; furthermore, this is a serious disease. Most teenagers have a greater record of underage drinking compared to young people 20 years ago. There are more accidents and deaths now as a result of underage alcohol consumption. Subsequently, we are for the banning of underage drinking.

First of all, alcohol causes many problems for society nowadays. Alcohol has been used throughout history for various reasons. According to the medical Encyclopedia, alcoholism is an illness marked by drinking alcoholic beverages to excess. As long as alcohol consumption is not at a level that interferes with physical health, it is not a problem. There are two types of alcoholism: dependence and abuse; however, both of them could cause many problems in society. Alcoholism has a large effect in youth; there are more than 10.4 million young people between ages 12 and 20 who suffer from it.

Second, the difference between social drinking and alcohol has changed a lot over time. Now alcohol abuse has become teenagers’ focus. In addition, they don’t have control over how much they drink. They might want to attend social events that only involve alcohol, or they can’t enjoy themselves. Going to a bar or making a drink after coming home from work becomes more important than connecting with friends or family. These days, alcohol might be the way to avoid painful feelings or troubled relationships. As a result, teenagers might resort to dangerous behavior, like driving while drunk, or they may even exhibit violent behavior.

Third, there are more accidents and deaths as a result of underage alcohol consumption. When people ask teenagers how easy it is to get alcohol, they mostly say it is very easy. As alcohol is easier to obtain, it produces more problems. Around 4,300 deaths are caused by teenagers who drink alcohol because they are more likely to have car accidents or fights. For example, according to the daily mail online, ”Joseph Salah, 19, lost control of his car while he was driving drunk, crashing and killing David Powel, 20 years old, instantly and injuring two other passengers.” Imagine a teen driving drunk without thinking about consequences, or messing around with someone who cannot control his or her behavior; it often results in a catastrophe.

Finally, we disagree with underage alcohol consumption. Nevertheless, this issue causes a lot of arguments around the world. Society is affected by alcohol, but governments still allow it to be sold while banning other drugs. Alcohol companies produce millions of dollars annually in revenues and taxes; that’s why governments won’t do more to prevent underage alcohol consumption.

Coffee drinking enhances the analgesic effect of cigarette smoking

         Addiction is defined as a state whereby one becomes one cannot do without a certain stimuli which one has compulsive engagement often getting a reward but the end results are adverse. An individual is not able to control the various aspects which form part of their addiction and they often compelled to repeat the same behavior or have the same substance over and over again. A habit may also become an addiction if one engages in the same habit often. Furthermore, the addiction of an individual to a certain substance or even an activity often leads to very serious problems which can be experienced at school, home and even within the social network that an individual has. There are several types of addictions and some of whi9ch will be analyzed and discussed in this essay include coffee addiction, internet addiction as well as cigarette or nicotine addiction.

Internet addiction

        Internet addiction, as the name suggests results from the constant and continued browsing through the internet and being online for longer hours without having any specific objective that one wants to achieve (Christakis, 61). The daily routine browsing and surfing ion the internet for longer hours whereby any interruptions of such activity causes one to become irritated often can be considered as internet addiction. The constant and unstoppable yet obsessive browsing of the internet started with the introduction and the use of internet. Over the years, this has grown a lot as a result of the developments and the ease of access to the internet which has been experienced (Christakis, 61). Internet addiction is experienced through the effect that online materials such as pornography, gaming, blogging, gambling and even networking have on individuals in the society. Internet addiction will manifest itself when one is seen to be pre-occupied with thoughts about the internet on the various activities they carry out on the internet.

          Furthermore, the increased use of internet, depression, seemingly to be moody as well as restless when one attempt to stop using the internet also form signs of internet addiction (Christakis, 61). When one uses the internet to avoid real life situations, often tells lies about their involvement with the internet are also signs one may be addicted to the internet. The effects are that one becomes withdrawn from real life relationships, physical discomfort, anxiety and depression. Furthermore, it has negative effects on family, occupations, financial status as well as academic work and performance. To address this issue, one has to recognize and accept they have a problem (Christakis, 61). After determining and accepting there is a problem, one should seek a “Certified Addictions Counselor” who is trained on handling and treating internet addiction.

Cigarette/Nicotine Addiction

         The second type of addiction that is addressed in this paper is cigarette or nicotine addiction. This kind of addiction started long time ago and for many centuries people have been addicted to cigarette. The use of cigarette was in the past viewed as a way of showing prestige since people that were wealthy were the ones often seen smoking cigarettes (Balfour, et al., 438-45). It tobacco has been used for a long time across the world. However, it is to be noted that tobacco contains nicotine, an addictive substance and quite poisonous. Furthermore, when nicotine is taking in small doses, it can act as a stimulant to the central nervous system of the body which makes one become more active. The large part of nicotine is often metabolized in the liver after which it is excreted from the kidney. Nicotine is known to remain in the blood system for up to eight hours after one has stopped smoking. Smoking is a habit that one adopts and regular smoking makes the body tolerant to nicotine which then means one has to smoke more cigarettes to satisfy the craving that is developed (Balfour, et al., 438-45). As one continues to use cigarettes, the symptoms of withdr5awal are experienced which becomes an indication that one has developed dependency on cigarettes and cannot do without it hence addiction.

         The signs of cigarette addiction can be seen when one starts smoking “few” sticks of cigarette after which one starts smoking a whole pack of cigarettes in a day. This is a clear indication that the individual has developed tolerance to the nicotine contained in the cigarettes hence needs large amounts of the same to satisfy the urge. The other sign of dependency on cigarette is withdrawal. This refers to the physical symptoms which can be observed in an individual when they stop of fail to use the cigarette which may include restlessness, anxiety as well as drowsiness among others (Balfour, et al., 438-45). Furthermore, a tobacco addict will also be seen to select to engage and be around people who smoke, take on jobs that will allow them to smoke as well as hiding or even sneaking cigarettes in areas where it is prohibited. For parents who are addicted, they will be seen to smoke even around their children despite knowing that it is harmful to the health of their children.

         The side effects of this addiction include lung cancer, emphysema, as well as heart disease.  The continued use of nicotine often results in high blood pressure, contraction of blood vessels hence inhibiting flow of blood (Balfour, et al., 438-45). The carbon monoxide from the cigarette smoke often results in insufficient oxygen in the blood. Furthermore, cigarette addiction results in one becoming nervous, always feeling shaky and even anxious for no good reason if they fail to use the cigarette. To address this type of addiction, one is required to seek professional help from “Certified Addictions Counselor” who will be able to provide professional help (Balfour, et al., 438-45). The support from family members as well as friends is also important in overcoming this addiction.

Coffee Addiction

        Coffee addiction is also another type of addiction which is seen to have affected the society quite a lot. Coffee addiction results from the intake of caffeine which is a stimulant (Nastase, Anca, et al., 921-24). Caffeine when taken often stimulates the nervous system and the continued use of coffee often results in physical dependence although quite mild. However, it is to be noted that caffeine is not as addictive as the other types of stimulants which people often use and it does not have the same threats to social, physical as well as economic health of an individual (Nastase, Anca, et al., 921-24).

         Coffee has been in use for many centuries as a household drink most often taken in the morning or anytime that one feels they need to have coffee. It has been noted that when one takes two or even more cups of coffee in a day, and then stops abruptly the use of coffee, there are several symptoms which will be experienced. One is likely to experience symptoms of withdrawal such as headaches, anxiety, fatigue, depressed moods, irritability as well as difficulty in concentrating on one issue (Nastase, Anca, et al., 921-24). Caffeine use and dependency can be stopped, gradually by talking coffee in small quantities until that time when one completely stops using coffee. It is also advisable to seek professional help from a “Certified Addictions Counselor” who is in a better position to help out with the dependency.

References

Balfour, D., et al. “Diagnosis and treatment of nicotine dependence with emphasis on nicotine replacement therapy. A status report.” European Heart Journal 21.6 (2000): 438-445.

Christakis, Dimitri A. “Internet addiction: a 21st century epidemic?.” BMC medicine 8.1 (2010): 61.

Nastase, Anca, et al. “Coffee drinking enhances the analgesic effect of cigarette smoking.” Neuroreport 18.9 (2007): 921-924.

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Bring Safe Drinking Water to the World

Lack of clean water for drinking affect many people in every continent. Around one-fifth of the population in the world stays in areas of physical scarcity while five hundred million people are said to be approaching this situation. This problem is more serious in Africa than in any other continent.

Lack of safe water for drinking is explored in the accompanying paper. In this paper, results of lack of clean drinking water in Africa is assessed more so in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper also explores the impact of water scarcity on stability of Africa and the World. It further evaluates how United Nations have helped solve the problem and ways in which developing countries can ensure they have adequate clean water.

Lack of safe water for drinking is a one of the leading problem in the world. It has an impact on over 1.1 billion people all over the world. Safe drinking water is defined by World health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund and Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation as water that has microbial, physical and chemical characteristics that meet the guidelines of National standard on quality of drinking water (Campbell, Caldwell, Hopkins, Heaney, Wing, Wilson, et al. 2013).

Lack of safe drinking water is looked through a population to water equation treated by hydrologists as 7,700 cubic meters per person. This is the threshold for meeting water requirement for every industrial, agricultural production and the environment. It is said that a threshold of less than 1,000 cubic meters of water represent water scarcity and below 500 cubic meters of water represent a state of absolute scarcity.

Inadequate safe drinking water is a major challenge to many countries. It is a major problem for developing countries that are racing forward towards physical limits of expansion of fresh water, expanding urban settlement, commercialization of agriculture and industrial sectors. Fresh water is a crucial resource in development of Africa. It is said that Africa continent has a population of 800 million people. 405 of the total population in Africa lack access to safe drinking water. It is argued that half of people living in rural areas of safe drinking water. It is reported that Sub-Saharan Africa has more water stress than other parts of the world.

Sub-Saharan Africa has a population of over 320 million people have no access to quality water. It is said to be the only region in the world that will not be able to meet the 2015 millennium development goal. In 2012, a Conference on ‘’Water Scarcity in Africa: issues and Challenges” was presented with information that by 2030, 255 million to 760 millions in Africa will be staying in areas with high water stress (Barone, 2008).

Scarcity of safe drinking water has lead to poor heal in Sub-Saharan Africa. People in water deprived areas use unsafe water that causes spread of waterborne diseases such as cholera, diarrhea, typhoid fever, malaria, trachoma, typhus and plague. Scarcity of safe water forces people to respond by storing water in their households. This further increases chances of water contamination and spread of malaria due to mosquitoes.

Infected people with waterborne diseases reduce chances of community development and productivity due to lack of strength. Government resources are used to buy medicine for these people. This takes away funds meant for food supply, school fees and other development projects. It is estimated by Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council that treatment of diarrhea caused by water contamination in Sub-Saharan Africa takes away 12% of countries’ health budget. Government in the areas channels their energy and part of fund allocated for other expenditures to helping people affected by lack of water at the expense of other essential services like maintaining peace and security in the region.

Human Development report suggests that use of water by human is mainly on agriculture and irrigation. In Sub-Saharan Africa, agricultural activities account from over 80% of the total water consumption. Majority of people in this region depend on agriculture. In rural areas, 90% of families rely on producing their own food hence water scarcity leads to loss of food security.

Conflict arises in this region due to political interferences in irrigated land due to land tenure and ownership problems. Governments in this part of the world lack funds and skilled human resources that can support technology and infrastructure needed for good water management and crop irrigation. Scarcity of safe water makes people use waste water for irrigation. This makes a lot of people to eat food with disease causing organisms.

Women in this part of the world are burdened by lack of clean water for drinking. They are the collectors, managers as well as guardian of water in domestic spheres which include household chores such as washing, child rearing and cooking. They spend a considerable amount of time fetching water (Dreibelbis, Winch, Leontsini, Hulland, Ram, Unicomb, et al., 2013). This causes a decrease in the time available for education. Their health is also at risk of skeletal damage caused by carrying heavy loads of water every day over long distances. Loss of potential school days and education prevents the next generation of women from holding professional employments.

Access to safe water for drinking will make women in Sub-Saharan Africa increase time allocated to education which will make them take leadership positions. Scarcity of water makes many children in this region drop out of school to help in household chores which are made more intense by lack of water. Increase in population in Africa and lack of safe water for drinking has caused a lot of strain and conflict on relations between communities and between countries.It has been argued that Nile River is a source of conflict in nine countries. Water fro Nile River is the only source of sustaining life in both Sudan and Egypt. Egyptians use military force to make sure they retain control over Nile River because she has no other source of water. This conflict runs from the colonial era when England textile factories depended on Sudan and Egypt agricultural activities.

After the colonial era, Egypt continued to create political instability in Ethiopia. It blocked international financing agencies from giving loans to Ethiopia in order to finance projects on the river. The conflict is now real because Ethiopia has now managed to carry out water projects on her own like building hydro-power dams and irrigation programs. Egypt has been reported to issue threats of war to Tanzania and Ethiopia. In 1970s, Egypt armed Somalia separatist rebels in Ethiopia in the Somali invasion. The nine involved states have had agreements and treaties in a bid to control conflict.

However, treaties and agreements have resulted to inequitable rights of using water from Nile River between countries. An example is a treaty between Great Britain and Ethiopia, Emperor Menelik II, king of kings of Ethiopia. He agreed with the government of His Britannic Majesty not to construct or permit construction projects across Blue Nile, the Sobat and Lake Tana in 1902. In 1906, an agreement between Britain and Government of Independent state of Congo would not construct or permit any construction of projects over or near Semliki or Isango rivet that would reduce the amount of water entering Lake Albert. In 1925, conflict between Egypt and Ethiopia escalated because Ethiopia opposed earlier agreements (Dreibelbis et al., 2013).

The League of Nations demanded Italy and British government give an explanation on sovereignty of Ethiopia on Lake Tana. The League of Nations did not help resolve the conflict because there was no self enforcing and reliable mechanism to protect the property rights of stakeholders which is necessary for international water development to be applied. Due to failure of United Nations to help solve the Nile basin conflict, nine riparian states formed a partnership called Nile Basin Initiative. Its mandate is to develop Nile River in a cooperative way, sharing social-economic benefits that promote regional security and peace. World Bank agreed to support the work of Nile Basin Initiative as a development partner as well as an administrator of multi donor Nile Basin Trust Fund.

Disputes have also erupted in Niger River Basin. Disagreements and disputes in this basin are caused by limited access to safe drinking water. The disputes are between communities in Mali, Nigeria, and Niger. River flows and rainfall have reduced from 1970s leading to tension between two communities that live in the basin. The two communities are pastoralists and farmers. Pastoralists are forced by lack of water to travel farther with their herds. On the other hand, farmers expand their cropland to take care of increasing population. This reduces pathways that are available to herder and their livestock. Tension increased due to poor policy decisions. In Lokoga in Nigeria, government started dredging Niger River in early 2009 to increase commercial shipping (Huang, Jacangelo & Schwab, 2011).

The government of Nigeria argued that dredging would help reduce flooding but late farmer suffered from floods in 2010. Farmers resulted to building homes and cultivating land away from the river leading to reduction in land available for grazing. This has facilitated conflict between the two communities greatly. New dams rose built by the government of Nigeria raised ecological issues that provoked hard negotiations over sharing of resources equitably in Niger Basin (Loftus, 2009). It was reported that Mali and Niger did not support construction of dams across the river. Navigation of the river was also constrained by the availability of large boats when water is deep enough. Climate change in Niger Basin has caused a high degree of variability in river flows, rainfall and temperature. The international community is doing little in helping the conflicting countries in the Niger Basin resolve the conflict.

Scarcity of safe drinking water has also led to a lot of competition in Volta River basin. Volter River basin is said to be one of the poorest part in Africa continent and is shared by six West African states. People in the basin depend on agriculture as their means of livelihood. The population in West Africa is growing at the rate of 3% thus putting pressure on water resources and land. Burkina Faso is increasing agricultural development upstream using surface resources such as water (Okun, 1991). Water development in Burkina Faso has had a negative impact on Akosombo Dam which Ghana depends on for its energy supply. In 1998, low water level caused energy crisis in Ghana which ended up blaming Burkina Faso water project. Low water levels could have been caused by other factors such as unreliable rainfall variability. Peaceful conflict resolutions could be hindered in the future by insufficient communication between Ghana and Burkina Faso (Ram, Kelsey, Miarintsoa, Rakotomalala, Dunston, & Quick, 2007).

Ghana wants to create dams for power generation while Burkina Faso plans to use water for irrigation hence causing conflicts of interest. This conflict received international community recognition which formed a major inter-governmental program to enhance regional cooperation. Green cross water for peace project was put in place to ensure full and also active involvement of representatives of civil societies across the region in generation of basin’s agreement, management policies and principles.

Developing countries can learn form developed countries on how to have adequate water supply and sanitation facilities, management of floods, pollution, management of rivers and large dams. Ram et al. (2007) argues that good governance can help address the lack of safe drinking water. He further argues that good governance is essential in procuring loans and aid for water projects form international organizations like world bank, International Monetary Fund, Africa Development bank and from developed countries like Britain, Germany, china, France, united Sates of America and Russia (Rosenberg, 2010).

An example of a country that applied good governance to address water problem is South Africa. After Apartheid, the government of South Africa inherited huge problems of access to safe drinking water. It had a population of over 15 million people lacked access to clean water. The government managed to commit itself to high standards and investment subsidies to achieve its goal. From that time South Africa has made good progress to a point where it reached the universal access to improved water source in its urban centers. Similarly, the percentage of people in rural areas with access to clean water increased from sixty six percent to seventy nine percent from 1991 to 2010 (Loftus, 2009).

Good governance will help government in developing countries partner with institutions that will help turn all underperforming utilities into good service providers. They would also benefit from the expertise in local, national and international sectors. Research has shown that it is difficult to change processes in water sectors. There has been friction between stakeholder and partners in determining priorities. This led to ambiguities in the role and responsibilities allocation resulting to the high cost of transaction. Just like in developed countries, good governance in developing countries will enable providers and policymakers are accountable to water users. This assists in improving services and enhancing consumer understanding the need for changes and the possible contribution of public private partnership (Ram et al., 2007).

Great relationship with international financial institutions will enable developed countries have an adequate supply of safe water. World Bank is known to finance building of infrastructure such as funds to dig boreholes. It usually subsidizes the cost of infrastructure through inter-governmental transfers, donor projects and social development funds (Okun, 1991).

Developing countries should consider the use of use Decentralized Mebran Filtration system. This technology provides safe drinking water that is clean. This system employs effective ways of removing surrogate bacteria and parasites from drinking water hat is responsible for contamination of water. This method is affordable to low income countries. Decentralized Mebran Filtration system is appropriate where central municipal water treatment is not possible. It aims to apply integrated bench scale and field scale approach in evaluating sustainability of Decentralized Mebran Filtration system in providing safe drinking water (Huang et al., 2011).

Another possible solution is applying desalinization technology. This technology is said to filter salty water through membranes and removing salt through a process of electro dialysis and the reverse osmosis. The technology has worked in over one hundred and thirty countries in Middle East and in North Africa. With this technology, countries that are currently using it produce over six billion gallons of safe drinking water a day. Recycling and filtration should also be encouraged because the two methods are easy and cheap. Conserving water can also be achieved on a smaller scale beginning with improvement in homes (EMD, 2009).

Developed countries should explore and exploit underground water. A country like Kenya and Namibia has discovered a 10,000 year old supply of water in underground aquifers. This underground water can satisfy the needs of Namibia for over four hundred years. Researchers argue that throughout Africa, there is twenty times more underground water than volume of surface water. The population of Africa is expected to increase to over two billion in 2050. This implies that countries need to explore other sources of water since traditional sources of fresh water are affected by changes in climate, lack of rainfall and rises in temperature that evaporate lakes and rivers.

Other methods that developing countries should encourage their citizens to use include boiling water. It is an efficient method of water sterilization though boiling is costly in terms of fuel use. Another method is solar disinfection by use of ultraviolet radiation. This method is cheap and less damaging. It involves putting water in transparent plastic bottles and exposing it to sunlight for about forty eight hours. This technology cost people nothing by only plastic bottles full of water on corrugated metal roof.

Low income countries should also start water projects like water dams and rain catchment systems. These methods are simple and inexpensive. A well close to a village or in a village ensures people do not walk long distances in search of water. It saves time hence making sure there is enough time allocated for other things like learning (Barone, 2008).

Campbell et al. (2013) argues that integrated research can help countries achieve adequate supply of safe water for drinking. He attributes the lack of water to fear and inadequate reorganization by communities. He points out that global research can help solve the problem of water scarcity and proper sanitation. This implies that United Nations should put more effort in bringing solutions to water problems. African countries can achieve adequate supply of clean water if they invest in integrated research and funding. They should also put in place policies and infrastructures that attract foreign investments from developed countries such as United States of America, France, China and Russia.

Lack of safe water for drinking is a global problem. It affects both developed countries as well as developing countries. United Nations should look for ways to deal with water scarcity and amicable ways of resolving political instabilities resulting from water stress. Developing countries should learn from developed countries on the most appropriate ways of providing clean water. They should maintain good governance and a good environment that can attract foreign investors as well as donors. Through collective effort from all stakeholders, the problem of water can be solved.

References

Barone, J. (2008). Better Water. Discovery, 29(5), 31-32.

Campbell, R. L., Caldwell, D., Hopkins, B., Heaney, C. D., Wing, S., Wilson, S. M., et al. (2013). Integrating Research and Community Organizing to Address Water and Sanitation Concerns in a Community Bordering a Landfill. Journal of Environmental Health, 75(10), 48-50.

Dreibelbis, R., Winch, P. J., Leontsini, E., Hulland, K. R., Ram, P. K., Unicomb, L., et al. (2013). The Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: a systematic review of behavioural models and a framework for designing and evaluating behaviour change interventions in infrastructure-restricted settings. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 1015.

EMD Millipore (2013, September 23). EMD Millipore Donates $30,000 to Charity: Water in Recognition of World Water Week. Pharma Business Week, p. 22.

Huang, H., Jacangelo, J. G., & Schwab, K. J. (2011). Decentralized Membrane Filtration System for Sustainable and Safe Drinking Water Supply in Low-Income Countries: Baseline Study. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 137(11), 981-989.

Loftus, A. (2009). Rethinking Political Ecologies of Water. Third World Quarterly, 30(5), 953-968.

Okun, D. A. (1991). A Water and Sanitation Strategy for the Developing World. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, 33(8), 16-43.

Ram, P. K., Kelsey, E., Miarintsoa, R. R., Rakotomalala, O., Dunston, C., & Quick, R. E. (2007). Bringing Safe Water to Remote Populations: An Evaluation of a Portable Point-of-Use Intervention in Rural Madagascar. American Journal of Public Health, 97(3), 398-400.

Rosenberg, T. (2010). The burden of thirst. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Magazine.

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